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Sample records for prepositional phrase pp

  1. Locative prepositional phrases in severe aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Shoosmith, L; Thomas, K; Katzenberger, K; Weber, C

    1993-07-01

    Six severely aphasic patients were trained on C-VIC, a computerized alternative communication system. Patients with both global and Broca's aphasia were able to produce and comprehend locative prepositions using C-VIC. The Broca's aphasic patients were able to produce and interpret symbol order correctly in C-VIC locative prepositional phrases, despite their difficulties in performing the same tasks using English. One patient's verbal production of locative prepositional phrases improved markedly after C-VIC training. These results suggest that the "mapping" impairment suffered by some Broca's aphasics may be ameliorated by use of alternative communication system, such as C-VIC.

  2. A Rule-Based Approach To Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, E; Brill, Eric; Resnik, Philip

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  3. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  4. Prepositional Phrase Attachment through a Backed-Off Model

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, M; Collins, Michael; Brooks, James

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has considered corpus-based or statistical approaches to the problem of prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity. Typically, ambiguous verb phrases of the form {v np1 p np2} are resolved through a model which considers values of the four head words (v, n1, p and n2). This paper shows that the problem is analogous to n-gram language models in speech recognition, and that one of the most common methods for language modeling, the backed-off estimate, is applicable. Results on Wall Street Journal data of 84.5% accuracy are obtained using this method. A surprising result is the importance of low-count events - ignoring events which occur less than 5 times in training data reduces performance to 81.6%.

  5. A Developmental Study of Prepositional Phrases in Hebrew Written Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Gilad; Ravid, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    Prepositional phrases (PPs) are considered an important feature of mature written expression. However, little is known about the development of PPs during the school years. The study examined the use of PPs in 160 narrative and expository texts, written by Hebrew-users in grades 4, 7, and 11, and adults. PPs were identified, counted, and…

  6. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

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    Minna Lehtonen

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem. Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  7. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  8. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  9. Persian Preposition Classes

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    Marina Pantcheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the prepositional system in Persian. I show that Persian prepositions can be divided into three classes (Class 1, Class 2a and Class 2b which exhibit distinct syntactic behavior. Then I examine the question of the categorial status of Class 2 prepositions and demonstrate that they are not to be regarded as nouns. Finally I present the extended PP projection of Persian spatial prepositions and argue for a feature-based analysis of the properties they manifest.

  10. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

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    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence.

  11. Phrase Length and Prosody in On-Line Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webman-Shafran, Ronit; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the processing of ambiguous double-PP constructions in Hebrew. Selection restrictions forced the first prepositional phrase (PP1) to attach low, but PP2 could attach maximally high to VP or maximally low to the NP inside PP1. A length contrast in PP2 was also examined. This construction affords more potential locations for prosodic boundaries, and has a sharper structural contrast between the two attachment sites, than the single-PP construction which has yielded mixed results in previous work. A combined production-comprehension task showed more productions of pre-PP2 prosodic boundaries for long-PP2 than short-PP2. In comprehension, high PP2-attachment was favored by a prosodic boundary before PP2, regardless of PP2 length. This study provides performance data supporting the interplay of phrase lengths with structure-sensitivity as posited in the linguistics literature on the syntax-prosody interface, and supports the claim that readers are sensitive to the structural implications of the prosody they project onto sentences.

  12. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence. ____________________ В статье обсуждается статистическая корреляция между препозицией притяжательных местоимений и наличием предлога. Данные средневековых русских, чешских и хорватских памятников оцениваются по стандартным статистическим процедурам (критерий X2 и φ-коэффициент. В статье предложено несколько различных объяснений для этой корреляции; самое естественное и простое объяснение связывает эту синтаксическую особенность с фонетической: предлог со смежным притяжательным местоимением образуют единое фонетическое слово, причем это единство усиливается частым повторением этой пары в текстах.

  13. Semantic Multisense Features and Translation of English Preposition OF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张招霞

    2009-01-01

    The linguist often claims,"English is a language of the preposition".It is a difficult point to understand and translate it though the preposition is simple in form.The preposition OF is such a simple preposition.On the surface,it seems very simple,indeed insufficient for talk,to OF which belongs to the simple preposition and prepositional phrases formed by it,but there are many kinds of its usages.This article help readers further understanding of semantic multisense features and translation of English prepositions and offer a kind of research for the fact that the English-Chinese machine translation system choose for its model.

  14. Javanese Phrase Construction in Classical Books Translation

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    Moh. Masrukhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When the system or structure of language is used and influenced by other languages, it is called interference, and it may ruin the concept of structures.   This research is about Arabic phrase construction that influenced Javanese phrase construction in classical books translation (TKK. This involvement appears when the concept of Arabic’s construction is translated literally into Javanese.   The research was carried out by applying theories of interference and translation. It’s analysis approach with contrastive analysis which is allegedly enabled errors to be predicted from a comparison between Arabic’s and Javanese’s phrase construction. The data were found and collected from several classical books in Arabic language (KKbA translated by different writers. The results show that Javanese phrase construction (as the target language, particularly, with noun phrases,  with adjectival phrases, with numeral phrases, and with prepositional phrases was influenced by Arabic’s murakkab or Arabic phrase construction (as the source language. Arabic has its own concept of phrase construction.  The phrase construction cannot be translated into Javanese directly through word-for-word translation or literal translation. Thus, Javanese in TKK became inconvenient and ungrammatical. Arabic phrase construction is flipped around (with noun phrases and adjectival phrases and prepositions are used and translated improperly or in the wrong position (with prepositional phrases. This research has many implications for further use, such as: for the identification and description of the deviation of  Javanese phrase construction which has been affected by direct translation from the Arabic language,  and furthermore, to increase the knowledge of those who are learning by increasing the realization and awareness in writing and translating (especially from Arabic to Javanese about the fact that  Arabic and Javanese  have their own regulations or

  15. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

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    AlQbailat, Naji Masned; Al-Momani, Islam M.; Almahameed, Yazan Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting…

  16. Conjunctive and prepositional comparatives in Slovenian

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    Sašo Živanović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the distribution of conjunctive and prepositional comparative structures in Slovenian. They are introduced by the complementiser kot and the preposition od, respectively. Comparative structures are categorised along three dimensions: (i the morphological environment of the comparative morpheme (yielding amount and quality comparatives; (ii the syntactic environment of the comparative morpheme (eight syntactic environments are discussed: (nominative subject, (accusative direct object, (dative indirect object, prepositional object, locative adverbial, temporal adverbial, some other adverbial, and predicate; (iii the syntactic environment (the same environments as above are discussed of the associate (the non-elided phrase in the comparative complement is the remnant; its counterpart with the same grammatical function in the matrix clause is the associate. The comparison of conjunctive and prepositional comparatives shows that the distribution of the latter is more restricted and also exhibits more inter-speaker variation than the former. Conjunctive comparatives are acceptable in virtually all combinations of the above-mentioned parameters, the only exception being quality comparatives withan adverbial or predicate associate where the comparative morpheme is embedded in the associate. The only absolute generalisation that can be made about prepositional comparatives is that the associate must be either a subject or a direct object; all other generalisations are merely tendencies.

  17. The Ability of Hearing Impaired Children to Comprehend the Semantics of English Prepositions.

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    Kluwin, Thomas N.

    Hearing impaired adolescents were administered one of four tests of syntax in preposition usage. Results indicated a clear developmental sequence: generally prepositions are first acquired in locative phrases, then as temporals, and then as manner relationships. The acquisition process is detailed. The author concludes that the complexity and…

  18. Prepositions in Krio

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    Marleen van de Vate

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of Peter Svenonius’ Adposition Seminar at the University of Tromsø which was taught in 2005-2006. The main focus was the distinction between locative path and locative place constructions. The aim of this paper is descriptive in nature and focuses on the complete prepositional system of Krio, an English-based Creole language spoken in Sierra Leone. The paper starts with a general introduction to prepositions in Krio. Three different categories are distinguished. This is followed by a description of each preposition individually and a discussion of intransitive prepositions and verb-particle constructions.

  19. Prepositions: Meaning and Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a new approach to teaching prepositions and directional adverbs based on work by Brugman (1981) and Lakoff (1987). The article aims to familiarize readers with the gist of prototype semantics as applied to prepositions, and to suggest pedagogical applications and benefits, with particular reference to the word "on." (15 references)…

  20. On the Content of Prepositions in Prepositional Collocations

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    Eva Sicherl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to shed some light on the problems faced by non-native speakers in the formation of so-called prepositional collocations (i.e. typical, recurrent combinations of verbal, nominal or adjectival bases with prepositional collocators. The reasons for frequent mistakes mainly lie in the meaning of the preposition used as part of collocation, which tends to be even more dispersed, abstract and difficult to define than that of the preposition used in a free combination. However, the preposition when used as a collocator seems to act, at least to some extent, as a carrier of some content; this can be proven by valency patterns: meaning-related content words (collocational bases tend to regularly combine with identical prepositions. The fact that prepositions used in collocations also have their semantic part to contribute to the whole unit should also be considered in the classification of collocations into grammatical and lexical ones.

  1. *En-phrases and Their Morphosyntactic and Semantic Particulars

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    Olga Thomason

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions constitute a problematic category because they tend to have complex semantic and syntagmatic properties, vary in case governance and are frequently in variation with each other. Reflexes of the Indo-European *en are well attested and remain productive in Greek, Classical Armenian, Gothic and Old Church Slavic among other languages. Correspondences of Greek en/eis with Gothic in, Armenian i and Old Church Slavic vŭ occur in many instances in the canonical gospels of the New Testament. However, Greek en/eis is frequently translated with other constructions in these languages that range from prepositional phrases that contain prepositions non-cognate with *en and nominal constructions to clausal structures. This investigation examines such correlations and points out morphological, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic factors that promote these correspondences. Case syncretism and changes in the prepositional governance are among leading reasons that prompt translators to look for translational means other than the cognate constructions. As expected, differences in the inventory of prepositions available in the languages being examined and diversity in division of semantic space by the prepositional phrases also add to the variety of possible renditions of Greek en/eis. Among pragmatic factors that influence the translation are a compositional marking of a certain concept, complexity of an event/situation being marked, and pragmatic appropriateness of a certain formation.

  2. Zum Problem der Differenzierung von praepositionalem Objekt und praepositionaler Adverbailbestimmung in der deutschen Gegenwartssprache (On the Problem of Distinguishing Prepositional Object from Prepositional Adverbial in Contemporary German)

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    Hambarzumjan, Rusanna

    1974-01-01

    Making this distinction is difficult because German here deals in prepositional phrases. More precise criteria for distinguishing may be expected from dependence grammar, and from application of the concepts of governance ("Rektion") and valence. Reference is made to experiments by J. D. Apresjan. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  3. Uncovering Prepositional Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tine

    This dissertation is concerned with the semantics of Danish prepositions in an ontology-based information retrieval framework. In such a framework, conceptual indexing of texts is needed and, for us, the goal of this indexing process is to index texts based on the conceptual content of larger text...... of these data stem from a small pre-defined set of relations, and the ontological type information stems from the SIMPLE ontology. The resulting data set was used as input to a machine-learning algorithm, and the result was a set of rules that predict the semantic relation of a preposition based...... chunks – ideally based on the conceptual content of sentences. The conceptual content of text chunks is mapped into a so-called generative ontology, which is to be understood as a non-finite set of concepts. Basically, a generative ontology consists of a given finite ontology ordered by the ISA relation...

  4. An event-related potential observation of preposition processing in Chinese Is N280 a specific component for Chinese prepositions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongping Zhang; Huanhai Fang; Qifeng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that closed-class words, such as preposititions and conjunctions, induce a left anterior negativity (N280), indicating that N280 should be a specific component of the word category. OBJECTIVE: To observe if Chinese prepositions and verbs exhibit different linguistic functions, to determine whether they are processed by different neural systems, and to verify that N280 is a specific component. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The observed neurolinguistics experiment was performed at Xuzhou Normal University between November and December 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen undergraduate students, comprising 8 females and 8 males, with no mental or neuropathological history, were selected. METHODS: A total of 15 verbs and prepositions were used as linguistic stimuli, and each verb and preposition was combined to produce four correct phrase collocations and four incorrect ones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Event-related potentials were recorded in the subjects while they read correct or incorrect phases flashed upon a video screen. RESULTS: Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the frontal site in a 230-330 ms window, as well as at the fronto-temporal and central sites in a 350-500 ms window. Neither exhibited significant differences in peak [F(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101 and latency IF(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101. Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the left and right hemisphere in a 270-400 ms window. CONCLUSION: There was no significant diffence between Chinese prepositions and verbs in the neural system process and N280 was not the specific component for closed-class words.

  5. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the le

  6. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the

  7. Domain minimization and beyond: Modeling prepositional phrase ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiechmann, D.; Lohmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    An important account of linear ordering in syntax is John A. Hawkins' (2004) theory of cognitive efficiency and the principles of domain minimization formulated therein. In its latest formulation, the theory postulates syntactic and semantic minimization principles. With regard to the relative stren

  8. Neural correlates of locative prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Ramsey, Nick F; Postma, Albert

    2008-04-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as "to the left of" and "to the right of" were reliably associated with cerebral activity in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) located in the left inferior parietal lobe. The higher activity associated with spatial as compared to non-spatial sentences in this region was not dependent on the context (verbal or visual-spatial) in which the sentence was read. Therefore, the function of this activity appears to be to create a general, amodal representation of locative prepositions that allow for flexible comparisons to either verbal or visual-spatial material.

  9. Neuroanatomical correlates of locative prepositions.

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    Tranel, Daniel; Kemmerer, David

    2004-10-01

    Very little research has explored which neural systems may be important for retrieving the meanings of locative prepositions (e.g., in, on, around). To begin to address this knowledge gap, we conducted a lesion study in which we tested the hypothesis that processing the meanings of locative prepositions depends on neural structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex. Seventy-eight subjects with focal, stable lesions to various parts of the telencephalon and a comparison group of 60 normal participants were studied with tasks that require production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of locative prepositions. In support of our hypothesis, we found that in subjects with impaired knowledge of locative prepositions, the highest region of lesion overlap was in the left frontal operculum and the left supramarginal gyrus, and in the white matter subjacent to these two areas. In a second study, focused on six subjects who had pervasive defects for locative preposition knowledge, we confirmed that such defects were associated specifically with damage to the posterior left frontal operculum, white matter subjacent to this region, and white matter underneath the inferior parietal operculum. These subjects did not have basic impairments in spatial processing or working memory, and they had relatively well-preserved processing of conceptual knowledge for actions and various categories of concrete entities (e.g., persons, animals, tools). All six subjects, however, had defects in naming actions, and some of them also had defective naming of some categories of concrete entities. Overall, the findings converge nicely with recent results from functional imaging approaches, and with classic studies from the aphasia-based literature, and suggest that the left inferior prefrontal and left inferior parietal regions have crucial-albeit not exclusive-roles in processing knowledge associated with locative prepositions.

  10. On the Distinction between Preposition Stranding and Orphan Prepositions

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    Roberge, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Poplack, Zentz and Dion (PZD; Poplack, Zentz & Dion, 2011, this issue) examine the often unquestioned assumption that the existence of preposition stranding (PS) in Canadian French is linked to the presence of a contact situation with English in the North American context. Although this issue has been the topic of previous research from a…

  11. Translation of Rhetoric in Arabic Preposition in The Text of Al-Qur’an

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    Azman Che Mat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Preposition was a word that completes the meaning of the verb and noun in the sentence structure of Arabic. The use of prepositions in Arabic was truly significant in understanding the Arabic text, especially holy texts. The question was why prepositions were used in sentences such, whereas the other joints could also give the same meaning? Article presented an analysis of syntax-semantics of prepositions في Fi and علىcAla in al-Quran al-Karim across science of Arabic rhetoric (Balagha. Data were restricted to partial phrase في الضلال and على الهدى ever discussed by Ibn Athir. There are 29 places in the Quran that mention في الضلال and 6 points for على الهدى. Critical analysis based on the discipline of linguistics is expected to expose the use of prepositions in Arabic from the precision and beauty of the Arabic language itself. Summary of the study suggest that research on elements of the rhetoric says that other reasonable tasks highlighted in subsequent studies. 

  12. LA TRADUCTION DES PREPOSITIONS

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    Samira MOUTAKIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’idée de cet article nous est venue d’un cours qu’on assure pour les futurs guides touristiques en Jordanie. En traduisant des textes - français-arabe ou arabe-français, les étudiants se heurtent à certains problèmes pour rendre le texte vers la langue cible et qui soit convenable syntaxiquement et sémantiquement. On a remarqué donc que la traduction des prépositions vers l’une ou l’autre langue présente un dilemme pour les apprenants. On a décidé de composer un corpus de phrases contenant les propositions en français, « à » avec toutes ses formes, « dans et sur » et de l'arabe "على", "في" . Dans un premier temps, on a constitué le corpus avec 25 phrases dans les deux langues et on les a soumises aux étudiants, la liste en français aux étudiants du niveau A2 et la liste ne arabe aux étudiants du niveau A1. Par la suite, on a dégagé ce qui ressort de leurs traductions ce qui nous a permis de faire une analyse sémantico-syntaxique assez détaillée. En conclusion de cet article, on présente les résultats de cette expérience très intéressante.

  13. More Negative Findings for Positive Prepositions.

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    Abkarian, G. G.

    1983-01-01

    Three- and four-year-old children were tested in their comprehension of locative prepositions. Results showed that those prepositions characterized as positive were comprehended less well than their ostensibly negative counterparts, contrary to theoretical predictions. An explanatory hypothesis concerning children's developing spatial…

  14. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

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    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  15. Teaching English locative prepositions: a cognitive perspective

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    Silva Bratož

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are notoriously hard to learn, and frequently subject to negative transfer. In addition, prepositional meanings are commonly extended from the spatial to abstract domains and are, as a consequence, often unpredictable and arbitrary. Traditional approaches to second language preposition teaching have, therefore, suggested that the best way to learn prepositions would be through rote learning. On the other hand, a cognitive linguistics approach argues that the multiple uses of prepositions can be seen as related in systematic ways. Several pedagogical implications of applying cognitive linguistics findings in second language teaching and learning will be discussed, suggesting ways of translating theory into practical consideration and effective teaching materials. The second part of the article presents an instructional model for teaching the locative prepositions in, on and at from a cognitive perspective, and discusses the results of a study conducted to observe the learners’ response to instruction, based on cognitive linguistics findings. In addition, the benefits of focusing on the cross-linguistic differences between the native and target language, in an explicit and systematic way, will be discussed. In this context, reference will be made to several insights and ideas promoted by the CEFR. The article will end by considering some suggestions and ideas for future research.

  16. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  17. Unsupervised Key-phrase Extraction using Noun Phrases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shailendra Singh Kathait; Shubhrita Tiwari; Anubha Varshney; Ajit Sharma

    2017-01-01

    .... The automated key phrase generation of resources helps in the information retrieval. To generate the key phrases for texts from all possible domains, the need is an automated approach that would extract the key ideas directly from the text itself...

  18. О первом актанте русского предлога(On the First Actant of the Russian Preposition

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    Lennart Lönngren

    2007-01-01

    In the article, the inventory of possible forms of the first actant is established. Moreover, special attention is paid to ambiguous constructions. For example, the preposition together with its second actant can function as an attribute of the first actant. Under certain circumstances, however, the preposition phrase may become detached, so that it is no longer syntac- tically, only semantically, connected with the first actant.

  19. Easy French phrase book over 700 phrases for everyday use

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Over 700 French phrases and sentences include terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. Designed as a quick reference and study guide, this up-to-date volume is organized for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shopping, emergencies, and other common circumstances. A phonetic pronunciation accompanies each phrase.

  20. 15000 useful phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiser, Grenville

    1900-01-01

    This incredibly useful book will appeal to writers, public speakers and anyone else who would like to improve their vocabulary. It contains a huge number of phrases which you can use in everyday speech and at special occasions, which will help you express your thoughts, ideas and feelings in a brand new way. A classic reference work, this edition has been specially formatted for today's e-readers.

  1. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  2. Distinct ERP signatures of word frequency, phrase frequency, and prototypicality in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Peter; Bolger, Patrick; Baayen, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have documented frequency effects for word n-grams, independently of word unigram frequency. Further studies have revealed constructional prototype effects, both at the word level as well as for phrases. The present speech production study investigates the time course of these effects for the production of prepositional phrases in English, using event related potentials (ERPs). For word frequency, oscillations in the theta range emerged. By contrast, phrase frequency showed a persistent effect over time. Furthermore, independent effects with different temporal and topographical signatures characterized phrasal prototypicality. In a simulation study we demonstrate that naive discrimination learning provides an alternative account of the data that is as least as powerful as a standard lexical predictor analysis. The implications of the current findings for models of language processing are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. What is the "Sense" of Prepositions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreike, Beate

    1975-01-01

    Examines the semantics of certain prepositions to show that the interpretation of relationships between linguistic units in a sentence is not always deducible from the logical structure underlying it, if this study does not include the study of pragmatic factors. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  4. What is the "Sense" of Prepositions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreike, Beate

    1975-01-01

    Examines the semantics of certain prepositions to show that the interpretation of relationships between linguistic units in a sentence is not always deducible from the logical structure underlying it, if this study does not include the study of pragmatic factors. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  5. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    it shows that the noun phrase word order patterns of any human language can be derived from three universal ordering principles and, furthermore, that these are all elaborations of one general iconic ordering strategy according to which elements that belong together semantically tend to occur together...... the occurrence of adjectives as a major word class in the part-of-speech system of a language. The book aims for accessibility and assumes no knowledge of a particular formal or functional theory of grammar. It addresses professional linguists and students of linguistics of all theoretical persuasions...

  6. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    it shows that the noun phrase word order patterns of any human language can be derived from three universal ordering principles and, furthermore, that these are all elaborations of one general iconic ordering strategy according to which elements that belong together semantically tend to occur together...... the occurrence of adjectives as a major word class in the part-of-speech system of a language. The book aims for accessibility and assumes no knowledge of a particular formal or functional theory of grammar. It addresses professional linguists and students of linguistics of all theoretical persuasions...

  7. Priming prepositional phrase attachment: Evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewyn, M.A.; Zirnstein, M.; Swaab, T.Y.; Traxler, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Three syntactic-priming experiments investigated the effect of structurally similar or dissimilar prime sentences on the processing of target sentences, using eye tracking (Experiment 1) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiments 2 and 3) All three experiments tested readers' response to sente

  8. The preposition potential in formation of conjunctional means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjuškevič Marija I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the ability of preposition to form conjunction or its equivalent has been considered. The mechanism of denominalization has been shown on the Russian material with the involvement of the author’s observations on prepositions in the Belarusian language - the morphological form transformation in to the subordinate part of complex sentence. The author’s conception is: 1 the syntaxeme is the actant position in the sentence; 2 the syntaxeme consists of the formant (preposition + flexion and nominative component (substantive; 3 at the level of the complex sentence the same actant position may take the predicative unit (subordinate part of the complex sentence; 4 the formant of the predicative syntaxeme in transforms is the conjunctional combination “preposition + demonstrative pronoun that + subordinate part conjunction“. The preposition at case syntaxeme transformation in to predicative does not change its function, but it is included in to the conjunctional formant as one of the elements of more complex formant - conjunctional combination. Each element of the conjunctional combination fulfills its function: the preposition still forms the syntaxeme, but with more complex nominative component as predicative unit, the pronoun that is “flection“ of this nominative component (subordinate part, and the conjunction acts as the explicator, providing grammatical connection of the nominative component of syntaxeme with the “flexion“ and the preposition. It is noted that the mechanism and the results of denominalization depend on the syntaxemes repertoire and character and on the preposition meaning: the same preposition, with different meaning has different conjunctional potential. In to the mechanism of denominalization are involved categorematic names (classifiers, which initially are used as structural vocabulary for forming secondary prepositions, and together with them, for forming conjunctional combinations. The methods

  9. The Production of Locative Prepositions by Young School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a study to examine the extent to which young English children volunteer prepositions in a simple but structured task of spatial description. Results show that children 3 to 7 years have an extensive and often inventive grasp of locative prepositions. (Author/KC)

  10. Noun Phrase in Bahasa Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahmi Yulia Ningsih; Chandra Kurniawan Wiharja

    2017-01-01

    ...). The aim of this article was identifying elements of forming noun phrases as the participants which represented processes in clauses, functions, as well as the distribution of its position in the clause...

  11. Trainable Children Can Learn Adjectives, Polars, and Preposition!

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Mitchell, Marlys

    1977-01-01

    A program utilizing a multisensory approach and active involvement was used to teach 12 trainable mentally retarded children (6-19 years old) the correct use of adjectives, polars, and locative prepositions. (DB)

  12. RUSSIAN PREPOSITION ПРИ IN ARKHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kachinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article preposition при in Arkhangelsk dialects is considered from the point of view of its syntactic role (use with certain cases, in its stressed and unstressed variants, and semantics: locative, komitative, temporal, possessive and comparative. It is proved that in the dialects preposition при have more meanings than in the Russian literary language; it is used not only with locative, but with genitive, dative, accusative cases.

  13. The Comprehension and Use of English Spatial Prepositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗平

    2009-01-01

    The traditional semantic accounts of spatial prepositions, mainlly focusing on the geometric relationship be-tween the locating object and the located object, are proved to be inadequate to explain the comprehension and use of spatial prepositions in all the .real situations. To compensate the deficiency, it is necessary to take into consideration the functional relationship between the Figure and the Ground, as well as the cognitive constraint on the choice of the Fig-ure and the Ground.

  14. Noun Phrase in Bahasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Yulia Ningsih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contained research about the analysis of the text of Bahasa Indonesia speech with the Systemic Functional Linguistic approach (LFS. The aim of this article was identifying elements of forming noun phrases as the participants which represented processes in clauses, functions, as well as the distribution of its position in the clause. The research method used was qualitative research with the method of data analysis in the form of 60 clauses through the approach of LFS. The 60 clauses data were taken from the text of the speech of UNJ Rector, which was then analyzed into 100 phrases in the noun. According to the LFS method, it finds that the noun phrase is formed by elements of the noun classes. From the 100 noun phrases analyzed, there are 100 nouns that have different functions in each process. There are 86 nouns represent the material process, 5 nouns represent the relational process, 4 nouns represent the verbal process, 3 nouns represent mental processes, and 2 nouns represent the existential process. The study also finds that in the form of the lexicon, the same noun with the different distribution of its position will result in different functions in the representation process.

  15. Preposition stranding versus pied-piping: Negative Shift of prepositional complements in dialects of Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Engels

    2009-01-01

             These asymmetries will be accounted for within Fox and Pesetsky's (2003, 2005 cyclic linearization model, which requires non-string-vacuous movement to proceed through the left edge of Spell-out domains, deriving cross-linguistic variation as to Negative Shift from differences in the availability of these left-edge positions. Thereby, pied-piping is considered a last resort strategy, possible only if the prepositional complement cannot undergo Negative Shift on its own due to the unavailability of the relevant left-edge position.

  16. Preposition accuracy on a sentence repetition task in school age Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2017-05-16

    Preposition knowledge is important for academic success. The goal of this project was to examine how different variables such as English input and output, Spanish preposition score, mother education level, and age of English exposure (AoEE) may have played a role in children's preposition knowledge in English. 148 Spanish-English children between 7;0 and 9;11 produced prepositions in English and Spanish on a sentence repetition task from an experimental version of the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias & Goldstein, in development). English input and output accounted for most of the variance in English preposition score. The importance of language-specific experiences in the development of prepositions is discussed. Competition for selection of appropriate prepositions in English and Spanish is discussed as potentially influencing low overall preposition scores in English and Spanish.

  17. Language disorders as a window on universal grammar: an abstract theory of agreement for IP, DP, and V-PP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeper, T; Ramos, E; Seymour, H; Abdul-Karim, L

    2001-06-01

    A new concept of Agreement (AGR) has been represented as a Formal Feature that can appear in a wide range of different configurations (Chomsky, 1998). A case study from language disorders supports and extends this abstract concept. The child shows no agreement in Inflectional Phrase me can and Determiner Phrase them eyes. We then extend the notion of AGR to include verb-Prepositional Phrase relations, where the child also systematically avoids certain prepositions (go beach). The analysis is supported by intuitional data from compounds (sweep with broom --> broom-swept). We also define a systematic notion of Possible deficit as a premature fixation of functional items which normally require additional Phi-features. The notion of Maximization of Formal Features then emerges as a significant feature of learnability from both a normal and disordered perspective.

  18. Locative and Directional Prepositions in Conceptual Spaces: The Role of Polar Convexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, J.; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We approach the semantics of prepositions from the perspective of conceptual spaces. Focusing on purely spatial locative and directional prepositions, we analyze both types of prepositions in terms of polar coordinates instead of Cartesian coordinates. This makes it possible to demonstrate that the

  19. Prescribed Spatial Prepositions Influence How We Think about Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Prepositions combine with nouns flexibly when describing concrete locative relations (e.g. "at/on/in" the school) but are rigidly prescribed when paired with abstract concepts (e.g. "at" risk; "on" Wednesday; "in" trouble). In the former case they do linguistic work based on their discrete semantic qualities, and in the latter they appear to serve…

  20. 33 CFR 154.1130 - Requirements for prepositioned response equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for prepositioned response equipment. 154.1130 Section 154.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... (7) Buckets, shovels, and various other tools. (8) Decontamination equipment. (9) Shoreline...

  1. 33 CFR 155.1130 - Requirements for prepositioned response equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for prepositioned response equipment. 155.1130 Section 155.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... various other tools; (8) Decontamination equipment; (9) Shoreline cleanup equipment; (10)...

  2. The Relationship between Understanding Prepositions and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Charles David

    The major objective of this study was to determine whether understanding prepositions and the relationships they signal is related to reading comprehension. A sample of 127 fourth grade students was selected from three socioeconomic levels of the Columbus, (Ohio) Public Schools using a stratified random sampling technique. The subjects were…

  3. Optimal Growth in Phrase Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Medeiros

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article claims that some familiar properties of phrase structure reflect laws of form. It is shown that optimal sequencing of recursive Merge operations so as to dynamically minimize c-command and containment relations in unlabeled branching forms leads to structural correlates of projection. Thus, a tendency for syntactic structures to pattern according to the X-bar schema (or other shapes exhibiting endocentricity and maximality of ‘non-head daughters’ is plausibly an emergent epiphenomenon of efficient computation. The specifier-head-complement configuration of X-bar theory is shown to be intimately connected to the Fibonacci sequence, suggesting connections with similar mathematical properties in optimal arboration and optimal packing elsewhere in nature.

  4. A Preposition Is Something You Can End a Sentence With: Learning English Stranded Prepositions through Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) learners of English could learn to produce stranded prepositions through structural priming. Structural priming is the tendency for speakers to repeat the structure of previously experienced sentences, without intention or conscious awareness of such behaviour, and is thought to be associated…

  5. A Preposition Is Something You Can End a Sentence With: Learning English Stranded Prepositions through Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) learners of English could learn to produce stranded prepositions through structural priming. Structural priming is the tendency for speakers to repeat the structure of previously experienced sentences, without intention or conscious awareness of such behaviour, and is thought to be associated…

  6. Exclusives, equatives and prosodic phrases in Samoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Calhoun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the functions of prosodic phrasing in the Austronesian VSO language Samoan. Two types of sentences are investigated, exclusives (involving the particle 'na’o' ‘only’ and equatives. Two complementary methodologies were used, a production study and an acceptability judgment study, to examine the prosodic realisation and relative naturalness of different word orderings of the two sentence types. The particle 'na’o' has an unusual distribution: preceding the initial constituent, be it the verb or a fronted noun phrase; or following the verb, but only modifying the absolutive (object. It was found that post-verbal absolutives modified by 'na’o' are usually not preceded by a phrase boundary, unlike unmodified absolutives which are consistently preceded by a high phrase tone (H- (cf. Yu 2009. Equatives in Samoan involve clauses which are the juxtaposition of two noun phrases, one the rheme (focus and the other the theme (topic. It was found that rhemes are usually followed by a phrase break, while for themes this is optional. Rheme-theme order was strongly preferred to theme-rheme order. These findings are argued to show a close relationship between information structure, constituent ordering and prosodic phrasing in Samoan. The preferred order of constituents in Samoan is rheme-theme, with a high phrase tone marking the end of the rheme. The absolutive argument is strongly preferred to be at the start of the theme. This article is part of theSpecial Collection: Prosody and constituent structure

  7. The Arabic noun phrase : a minimalist approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, Joost Merijn

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a model of the Arabic noun phrase from a minimalist perspective. It provides an analysis of many phenomena in the Arabic noun phrase, such as the construct state, adjectival agreement, definiteness inheritance, the formation of deverbal nouns and participles, etc.

  8. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  9. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  10. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...... attested, with the exception of those stated to be nonexistent (or rare) by Greenberg's Universal 18. Some apparent counterexamples are examined in some detail and it is shown that they involve constituents that are not an integral part of the simple noun phrase....

  11. La preposición cero (Zero preposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El llamado "signo cero" tiene una realidad funcional y semántica en la lengua en aquellos casos en que una ausencia contrasta de modo sistemático con una presencia en un contexto dado. En el caso concretoel análisis sintáctico, Ambrosio Rabanales (1966 ha postulado que en el complemento directo "sin preposición" de hecho hay un contraste recurrente, sistemático y significativo con la preposición "a". El presente trabajo sistematiza los planteamientos de Rabanales y ofrece ejemplos y argumentos para avalar la existencia de esta "preposición cero". (The notion of "zero sign" is both functionally and semantically valid in those cases where an absence (a silence systematically contrasts with a presence in a given context. Rabanales (1966 has posited the existence in Spanish of a recurrent "zero preposition" in the direct object, when the preposition "a" contrasts with an absence of a preposition. This paper offers cases and analyses that corroborate his position.

  12. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    (last section from 'Introduction' of The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar) The previous sections have shown that there are basically three proposals concerning the way NPs should be analysed in F(D)G: 1. the analysis according to “classical FG” (Dik 1997); 2. the analysis proposed in FDG...... treatment of noun phrases. Hengeveld takes the prototypical noun phrase as his point of departure, which he defines as an NP with a nominal head that denotes a concrete, first-order entity by lexical means and is used referentially rather than ascriptively. He then discusses examples of non-prototypical NPs...... earlier studies. The authors assume a process interpretation of the F(D)G model in which matters of form and order are interlaced. Their contribution is particularly concerned with agreement phenomena in the German noun phrase, which is noted for its morphological complexity. They show that their model...

  13. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    reporting requirement.3 In our prior reports, we identified a number of long - term and ongoing challenges to DOD’s prepositioned stocks related to strategic...prepositioned stocks and the extent to which these shortfalls contribute to operational risk . View GAO-15-570. For more information, contact Cary Russell...shortfalls, Page 5 GAO-15-570 Prepositioned Stocks risks , and mitigation efforts. We also compared DOD’s definitions of prepositioning and

  14. Preposition Entries in UK Monolingual Learners' Dictionaries: Problems and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective examination of the entries of the preposition "on" in five advanced learners' dictionaries published in the United Kingdom. The principal concern is the preposition "on" as a signifier of contact with a surface--especially an upper surface. (Author/VWL)

  15. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  16. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  17. Two ways of encoding location in Greek: Locative applicatives and prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Daskalaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, oblique theta roles such as location can be encoded by both adpositions and applicative morphemes. In this paper we argue that Standard Modern Greek (SMG, a language that encodes location primarily with prepositions, has a set of morphologically complex predicates that consist of an intransitive verbal root and a locative prefix, and behave like locative applicative constructions. We argue that this prefix is a low applicative head, licensing the addition of a locative DP argument to the intransitive verbal root. Specifically, this applicative head: (i case-and theta-licenses the added argument, but being void of phi-features, it blocks its cliticization; (ii is distinct from a homophonous free standing P semantically and syntactically; (iii is undergoing grammaticalization, as evidenced by the emergence of a novel configuration, in which the locative predicates combine with locative PPs that retrieve semantic and syntactic information of the locative prefix. Our findings show that applicatives may come in various flavors, that a language may use both analytic and synthetic devices to encode location which are not derivationally related, and that lexical/inherent case does not necessarily reduce to a PP structure.

  18. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  19. Minimal Interference from Possessor Phrases in the Production of Subject-Verb Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L; Barss, Andrew; Barker, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    We explore the language production process by eliciting subject-verb agreement errors. Participants were asked to create complete sentences from sentence beginnings such as The elf's/elves' house with the tiny window/windows and The statue in the elf's/elves' gardens. These are subject noun phrases containing a head noun and controller of agreement (statue) and two nonheads, a "local noun" (window(s)/garden(s)), and a possessor noun (elf's/elves'). Past research has shown that a plural nonhead noun (an "attractor") within a subject noun phrase triggers the production of verb agreement errors, and further, that the nearer the attractor to the head noun, the greater the interference. This effect can be interpreted in terms of relative hierarchical distance from the head noun, or via a processing window account, which claims that during production, there is a window in which the head and modifying material may be co-active, and an attractor must be active at the same time as the head to give rise to errors. Using possessors attached at different heights within the same window, we are able to empirically distinguish these accounts. Possessors also allow us to explore two additional issues. First, case marking of local nouns has been shown to reduce agreement errors in languages with "rich" inflectional systems, and we explore whether English speakers attend to case. Secondly, formal syntactic analyses differ regarding the structural position of the possessive marker, and we distinguish them empirically with the relative magnitude of errors produced by possessors and local nouns. Our results show that, across the board, plural possessors are significantly less disruptive to the agreement process than plural local nouns. Proximity to the head noun matters: a possessor directly modifying the head noun induce a significant number of errors, but a possessor within a modifying prepositional phrase did not, though the local noun did. These findings suggest that proximity to a

  20. The acquisition of prepositions in Serbian: Factors and mechanisms of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proceeds from the results of the previous studies showing that the distributional characteristics (frequency of language input are crucial for the acquisition of prepositions (Savić & Anđelković, 2005, in preparation. The authors analyze deviations in the distribution of prepositions in children's spontaneous speech from the prediction made on the basis of the distributional characteristics of prepositions in adult language. The results show that, in comparison with adult language, only the prepositions "kod" (at, by, near, beside and "sa" (with, from, off deviate from the prediction. It was also found out that the unexpectedly early and frequent use of the preposition "kod" in child speech stemmed from the frequent use of this preposition in child-directed speech. On the other hand, the preposition "sa", which is very frequent in child-directed speech, is not present in children's production at the earliest age, because its homonymy makes it cognitively complex. The analysis of the reasons for such a deviation provided a basis for the discussion about the possible factors and mechanisms of development: the distributional characteristics of adult language are the major factor of acquisition, but the effects of conceptual and structural complexity were recorded as well.

  1. NPtool, a detector of English noun phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, A

    1995-01-01

    NPtool is a fast and accurate system for extracting noun phrases from English texts for the purposes of e.g. information retrieval, translation unit discovery, and corpus studies. After a general introduction, the system architecture is presented in outline. Then follows an examination of a recently written Constraint Syntax. An evaluation report concludes the paper.

  2. Phrase Completions: An Alternative to Likert Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Gillespie, David

    2003-01-01

    Delineates the problems with Likert scales, with a particular emphasis on multidimensionality and coarse response categories, and proposes a new measurement method called "phrase completions," which has been designed to circumvent the problems inherent in Likert scales. Also conducts an exploratory test, in which Likert items were adapted to…

  3. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  4. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  5. A Lexical Phrase Grammar for ESL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Lexical phrases such as deictic locutions, phrasal constraints, sentence builders, and situational utterances are examined using categories from artificial intelligence. It is argued that these and other types of patterned speech should be carefully organized and given a greater place in English as a Second Language curricula than at present. (PMJ)

  6. On degree phrases and result clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoek, Paulien Dea

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts, one on degree phrases and one on result clauses. Sentence (1) below exemplifies a result clause construction: (1) Zij had zo mooi gezongen dat het publiek er stil van was she has so beautifully sang that the audience there silent of was ‘She had sung so beaut

  7. One sententional model with the prepositional accusativ AS proleptic subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is a model of two-predicate sentence in which with the matrix predication, which makes the so-called sentential-transitive verb, there appears accusative with the preposition ZA (for and the complement clause with the conjunction DA (that. On the basis of such formal structure, it represents a sentence with two objects - one non-propositional object in the form of the prepositional accusative - indirect type and the other propositional object, sententially formalized. Conducted analysis showed that this is a specific sentential model which could be viewed at several relevant levels: at the syntactic, syntactic-semantic, semantic and pragmatic level, because only that way one can view all its features. It turned out that the status of complement clause was not problematic - it is a propositional-sentential object, obligatorily postponed both to the basic predication and to the prepositional accusative, but the prepositional accusative, though placed in the matrix sentence, is not in the direct correlation with its predication, so it is not its object, but has the function of PROLEPTIC SUBJECT of the complement clause (in the periphrasis test, the prepositional accusative is turned into nominative and is placed inside the complement clause, and semantically it is a pseudoagent: the bearer of the feature expressed in the predicate of the complement clause whose referent most frequently has the feature ‘alive’ ‘human’, but can also be abstract. Therefore, the verbs which appear in the matrix predication are the verbs of simple, obligatorily propositional-sentential transitivity which in addition also belong to specific semantic classes: it is the case with the verbs of cognition: primarily the basic verb of having knowledge znati (know and the verbs of acquiring knowledge saznati, doznati (get to know; the verbs of a different degree of certainty about the factual situation: the verb garantovati (guarantee and the

  8. LOOSE PHRASE EXTRACTION WITH n-BEST ALIGNMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yongzeng; Li Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Loose phrase extraction method is proposed and applied for phrase-based statistical machine translation. The method extracts phrase pairs that are not strictly consistent with word alignments. Two types of constraints on word positions are investigated for this method. Furthermore,n-best alignments are introduced for phrase extraction instead of the one-best. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline system, Pharaoh system, for both one-best and n-best alignments.

  9. Noun-Phrase Indexing, Pronouns, and the "Definite Article."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Geoffrey

    Chomsky has suggested that certain lexical items, which he calls "referential items," should be given integer markers (or "indices") and that the noun-phrase deletion transformation which creates reflexive pronouns should be limited to cases where the noun-phrase to be deleted is fully identical to the antecedent noun-phrase,…

  10. Can Intonational Phrase Structure Be Primed (Like Syntactic Structure)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred…

  11. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

  12. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

  13. Phrase frequency effects in language production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Janssen

    Full Text Available A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., 'car', 'red', and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., 'red car' are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words.

  14. A double dissociation between the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Abstract We describe two patients who manifested opposite patterns of performance on test batteries that evaluated production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of action verbs on the one hand (e.g. smile, wave, run ) and locative prepositions on the other (e.g. in, on, over ). JP failed all of the verb tests but passed all of the preposition tests, suggesting impaired knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but intact knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. In contrast, RR exhibited the reverse dissociation: he passed many of the verb tests but failed all of the preposition tests, suggesting mostly intact knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but impaired knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. This behavioral double dissociation reflects the fact that the two categories of words differ along several conceptual parameters. To a large extent, the patients exhibited a neuroanatomical double dissociation as well, since JP's lesion is predominantly in the left frontal operculum whereas RR's is predominantly in the left inferior parietal lobe and the posterior superior temporal region. This constitutes preliminary evidence that the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions are represented by partially independent neural networks in the brain.

  15. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  16. 《元曲选》中方位短语及其功能(下)%POSITIONAL PHRASES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN 《THE SELECTION OF YUANQU》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐韵

    2001-01-01

    《元曲选》中,方位短语前不加介词可直接充当句子的状语、补语。方位短语直接充当状语是近代汉语中较为常见的语法现象,现代汉语当中虽不普遍,但仍有少量用例。充当补语时,方位短语多数表处所,且动词一般是非行走义类。方位短语直接作补语是《元曲选》中也是近代汉语中不常见的现象,在现代汉语中仍有遗留。%In 《The Selection of Yuanqu》,the positional phrases with no prepositions before them were used as adverbials and complements. Positional phrases directly used as adverbials were common grammatical phenomena in modern Chinese and there are a few examples in present Chinese. When they are used as complements, most of them indicate positions, with which used the verbs mean non-going and non-coming. The positional phrases directly used as complements in 《The Selection of Yuanqu》were not common in modern Chinese but there are some remnants in present Chinese.

  17. Effects on Text Simplification: Evaluation of Splitting Up Noun Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Gondy; Kauchak, David; Hogue, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To help increase health literacy, we are developing a text simplification tool that creates more accessible patient education materials. Tool development is guided by a data-driven feature analysis comparing simple and difficult text. In the present study, we focus on the common advice to split long noun phrases. Our previous corpus analysis showed that easier texts contained shorter noun phrases. Subsequently, we conducted a user study to measure the difficulty of sentences containing noun phrases of different lengths (2-gram, 3-gram, and 4-gram); noun phrases of different conditions (split or not); and, to simulate unknown terms, pseudowords (present or not). We gathered 35 evaluations for 30 sentences in each condition (3 × 2 × 2 conditions) on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 12,600). We conducted a 3-way analysis of variance for perceived and actual difficulty. Splitting noun phrases had a positive effect on perceived difficulty but a negative effect on actual difficulty. The presence of pseudowords increased perceived and actual difficulty. Without pseudowords, longer noun phrases led to increased perceived and actual difficulty. A follow-up study using the phrases (N = 1,350) showed that measuring awkwardness may indicate when to split noun phrases. We conclude that splitting noun phrases benefits perceived difficulty but hurts actual difficulty when the phrasing becomes less natural.

  18. On the Normative Evaluation and Presentation of Some Phenomena in Lithuanian Syntax: Cases of the Prepositional Construction tikėti į ką (Believe in sb. and Attributive Locative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Valskys

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of issues concerning the relationship of the prepositional construction tikėti į ką (“believe in sb.” and the attributive locative with the codified language norm. On the basis of the polemic and insights by some linguists and theologists as well as the data of contemporary usage, it is argued in the article whether the phrase tikėti į Dievą (“believe in God” should reasonably be treated as a translation loanword, whether it does not possess distinctive semantics typical of the Christian discourse, due to which such a prepositional construction should rather be acknowledged as variant of the norm in Standard Lithuanian. The article also contains a discussion on some cases of expressing an attribute using the locative case, as they also have a nuance of location. Therefore, a question is raised whether they are reasonably attributed to syntactic phenomena that should be avoided in standard language.

  19. Marker-based filtering of bilingual phrase pairs for SMT

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Martínez, Felipe; Way, Andy

    2009-01-01

    State-of-the-art statistical machine translation systems make use of a large translation table obtained after scoring a set of bilingual phrase pairs automatically extracted from a parallel corpus. The number of bilingual phrase pairs extracted from a pair of aligned sentences grows exponentially as the length of the sentences increases; therefore, the number of entries in the phrase table used to carry out the translation may become unmanageable, especially when online, ‘on demand’ translati...

  20. On Functional Peculiarities of Locative Prepositions As Means of Spatial Relationships Expression in the German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mikhaylovna Generalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents locative prepositions as tools of space conceptualization and verbalization in the German language. The author states that there is some close interlink between two concepts – Man and space, and it plays an initial role in the organization of human knowledge. On offering the statement presented above, the author considers specificity of situational perception of spatial relationships that are conceptualized in a particular language. The suggested correlations of spatial relationships: location in space, transporting in space as a result of the movement and the movement itself included, helps the author to prove that spatial relationships may be differentiated as dynamic or static. It is confirmed that the main factors that influence the choice of the locative prepositions, viewed as the markers of spatial relationships, may include the measurability of the object relations, its functional qualities, and principles of visual perception that guard the specificity of person's orientation in space. It is proved that the native German speakers prefer using the preposition in to verbalize the situations of internal space and choose the preposition an to verbalize the situations of external space. The author concludes that the choice of the locative preposition for denoting space depends on the speaker's intentions and the ontological focus in which the speaker wishes to describe spatial relations.

  1. 类型学视野下汉韩语介词①相关语序与选择动因--以汉语“在+NP”及其韩语对应形式为中心%The Related Word Order and Motivation of Choice of Chinese and Korean Prepositions from the Perspec-tive of Typology-the Chinese “在+NP” and its Cor-responding Forms in Korean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑杰

    2016-01-01

    本文运用语序类型学、认知语言学等相关理论,以汉语“在+NP”及其韩语对应形式为中心,对汉韩语介词相关语序、选择动因等问题进行了细致的考察和说明。本文认为类型学关注的介词相关语序中,汉韩二语在介词短语内部都基本保持了与各自语言基本语序的和谐,体现了语言表达的经济性原则。但在句法层次上,韩语受限于动词强制居尾的句法结构特点,在距离象似原则的支配下,与VP形成和谐组配;而句法化程度较低的汉语则因为距离象似与时间象似性原则的竞争与妥协,以及介词语法化、动补结构发达等因素的共同作用,不仅大量派生介词框式结构,介词短语语序也呈现比韩语复杂的局面。%From the perspective of word order typology and cognitive linguistics, this paper has focused on the Chinese “在+NP ” and its cor-responding forms in Korean, elaborating on the related word order and motivation of choice of Chinese and Korean prepositions. This paper pro-poses that the word order inside the prepositional phrases of both Chinese and Korean are aligned with their basic word order, which embodies the economy principle of language. But on syntactic level, restricted by the characteristic of mandatory ending of verbs in Korean syntactic structure, prepositional phrases form a harmonious pair with VP under the dominance of distance iconicity principle. However, in Chinese, there are a large num-ber of circumpositions and the word order of prepositional phrases is also more complex than in Korean, due to the lower degree of syntacticalization and the competition and compromise between the principle of distance iconicity and the principle of temporal sequence (PTS), together with the combined effect of various factors including grammaticalization of preposi-tion and verb-complement structure.

  2. Generic noun phrases in mother-child conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A; Gelman, S A

    1998-02-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g. Tigers are fierce) are of interest for their semantic properties: they capture 'essential' properties, are timeless, and are context-free. The present study examines use of generic noun phrases by preschool children and their mothers. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while looking through a book of animal pictures. Each page depicted either a single instance of a particular category (e.g. one crab) or multiple instances of a particular category (e.g. many crabs). The results indicated a striking difference in how generics vs. non-generics were distributed, both in the speech of mothers and in the speech of preschool children. Whereas the form of non-generic noun phrases was closely linked to the structure of the page (i.e. singular noun phrases were used more often when a single instance was presented; plural noun phrases were used more often when multiple instances were presented), the form of generic noun phrases was independent of the information depicted (e.g. plural noun phrases were as frequent when only one instance was presented as when multiple instances were presented). We interpret the data as providing evidence that generic noun phrases differ in their semantics and conceptual organization from non-generic noun phrases, both in the input to young children and in children's own speech. Thus, this simple linguistic device may provide input to, and a reflection of, children's early developing notion of 'kinds'.

  3. The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Disaster Assistance PREPO Prepositioned stocks SCM Supply Chain Management STRAT AIR Strategic Airlift STRAT SEA Strategic Sealift UN...prepositioning sources. Important outcomes of this examination identify advantages and disadvantages of logistical enablers i.e. supply chain management and...interest to the study. Furthermore, the case studies recognized above continues to identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with HADR

  4. Rejoindre une phrase, s’y poursuivre

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Comment vivons-nous avec les phrases (et pas nécessairement avec les récits synthétiques) que nous lisons ou que nous avons lues ? Comment les citations littéraires deviennent-elles l’occasion d’une orientation intérieure de notre expérience ? Cet article souligne le mouvement esthétique par lequel nous pouvons être attirés vers des possibilités authentiques de nous-mêmes dans l’acte même de la lecture. Pour ainsi faire, il offre une vision dynamique du « style » et explore la logique de la l...

  5. The Axial Part Phrase in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takamine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the categorial status of spatial terms in locative/directional expressions in Japanese. I will show that a certain class of spatial terms have a distinct categorial status from both regular postpositions and nouns. On one hand, syntactic diagnostics such as doubling, coordination by to, and co-occurrence with demonstratives indicate that these spatial terms belong to a nominal category rather than to a postpositional category. On the other hand, the fact that these spatial terms are modified by range modifiers indicates that they are more similar to regular postpositions than to nouns. On the basis of these diagnostics, I will argue that spatial terms in Japanese need to be assigned a new category Axial Part Phrase which is proposed by Svenonius 2006.

  6. Language Expression Means of the Conceptual Category "Relation" with Derivative Prepositions in Modern English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kameneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the revealing of the essence of language and cognitive processes behind the secondary nomination of expression of the conceptual category of «attitude» by derivative prepositions in modern English. The study addresses the issue of formation of prepositions in the diachronic aspect, as well as their status in the general classification of parts of speech in modern linguistics, deals with the phenomenon of secondary nomination, described by semantic features data implying the method of cognitive modeling, namely propositional modeling method.

  7. Literary authorship attribution with phrase-structure fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We present a method of authorship attribution and stylometry that exploits hierarchical information in phrase-structures. Contrary to much previous work in stylometry, we focus on content words rather than function words. Texts are parsed to obtain phrase-structures, and compared with texts to be an

  8. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  9. Chunk Tagger Statistical Recognition of Noun Phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Skut, W; Skut, Wojciech; Brants, Thorsten

    1998-01-01

    We describe a stochastic approach to partial parsing, i.e., the recognition of syntactic structures of limited depth. The technique utilises Markov Models, but goes beyond usual bracketing approaches, since it is capable of recognising not only the boundaries, but also the internal structure and syntactic category of simple as well as complex NP's, PP's, AP's and adverbials. We compare tagging accuracy for different applications and encoding schemes.

  10. The proper name in the structure of the noun phrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pronińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Italian nominal groups containing proper nouns. The article discusses two syntagma types with elliptical structure as well as analogical structures where the common and proper nouns are joined by the preposition “di”. The classification and analysis of nominal groups have been carried out on the basis of the function of the proper noun in the syntagma. Two groups of syntagmas have been distinguished: one with the proper noun functioning as a superordinate constituent and one with the proper noun functioning as a modifier. In the former type (where the proper noun is a superordinate constituent, the common noun functions as a descriptive or restrictive appositive. The syntagmas, where the proper noun functions as a modifier, are of particularly diverse character. In such cases, the possibility to paraphrase them by means of the analysed structures constitutes an additional criterion. Consequently, three syntagma types have been distinguished as represented by the following examples: il progetto Leonardo (which does not allow for an alternative synonymous version, *il progetto di Leonardo, il governo Monti (where the prepositional structure il governo di Monti may be used interchangeably and un quadro di Rubens (which does not allow for an alternative synonymous version with the ellipsis of the preposition “di” *un quadro Rubens.

  11. A Constructivist View of Teaching——Taking Preposition “at” as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓惠

    2015-01-01

    Language is a dynamically evolving system. A word in its long development will little increasingly extend from a simplex meaning to a number of meanings,resulting in what is generally referred to as lexical polysemy. How to learn these words effectively? In this paper,a constructivist view of teaching and corpus were used to present how to teaching preposition effectively.

  12. Determining Reliable Networks of Prepositioning Materiel Warehouses for Public-Sector Rapid Response Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Events such as natural disasters or combat operations require a rapid response capability from humanitarian service providers and military organizations. Such organizations can decrease their response times through the prepositioning of materiel in forward warehouses, reducing the time needed to transport items to the site of need. A particular challenge to the development of networks of prepositioning warehouses is that the warehouses themselves may be impacted by the very disruptions that drive demands for prepositioned materials. The objective of this research is to identify a reliable network posture, which is a set of utilized facility locations and an allocation of materiel to those locations, that can satisfy time-sensitive delivery requirements to potential locations around the globe, ensuring that demands can be satisfied even in the event of loss of access to a subset of storage sites (along with said sites’ materiel, all at minimum total cost. We develop new optimization formulations to account for differing levels of network reliability, all reflecting the time-sensitive environment faced by rapid response operations. We demonstrate an application of this methodology using rapid response material prepositioned by the US Air Force.

  13. More on the Acquisition of Locative Prepositions: An Analysis of Hebrew Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther

    1979-01-01

    The acquisition and use of locative prepositions by 30 Hebrew-speaking children aged two to three years was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Both the order of acquisition and the role of linguistic complexity in determining that order were examined. (Author/AM)

  14. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  15. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  16. Animation of graphic symbols representing verbs and prepositions: effects on transparency, name agreement, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-04-01

    The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to guess the meaning of symbols and to identify a target symbol among foils given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more transparent than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs. Animated verbs were named more accurately than static verbs, but there was no difference between animated and static prepositions. Verbs were identified more accurately compared with prepositions, but there was no difference between symbol formats. Older children guessed, named, and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation enhances transparency and name agreement, especially for verbs, which reduces the instructional burden that comes with nontransparent symbols. Animation does not enhance identification accuracy. Verbs are easier to identify than prepositions. A developmental effect was observed for each measure. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  18. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  19. The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on Omani Students’ Accuracy in the Use of English Prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examin the effectiveness of providing written corrective feedback (WCF to Arab speakers of English on ten uses of English prepositions. Arab speakers commonly find it difficult to correctly use English propositions, mainly due to the differences between the two languages (e.g. Ortega, 2009. Examples of prepositions misuse are “married from,” “die from,” and “kind with.” The WCF implementation lasted for seven weeks.  The students’ being in intact classes made random assignments to different groups difficult. The data were derived from three tests: pre-test, immediate post-test and delayed post-test as well as an open-ended questionnaire. The experimental group (n= 25 received WCF on their writing, oral meta-linguistic tutorials, and a treatment task for their pre-test. For both the immediate post-test and the delayed post-test, they only received WCF on their writings. The control group (n= 25 only received general comments, like “good organization of the story events.” The statistical results of the independent samples t-test show the experimental group outperforming the control group on the target features. The analysis of the questionnaire data also shows the benefits of WCF for improving preposition use. The results also have pedagogical implications with regard to WCF. Keywords: WCF, writing, prepositions, students’ views, Arabic, EFL

  20. On search guide phrase compilation for recommending home medical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2010-01-01

    To help people find desired home medical products (HMPs), we developed an intelligent personal health record (iPHR) system that can automatically recommend HMPs based on users' health issues. Using nursing knowledge, we pre-compile a set of "search guide" phrases that provides semantic translation from words describing health issues to their underlying medical meanings. Then iPHR automatically generates queries from those phrases and uses them and a search engine to retrieve HMPs. To avoid missing relevant HMPs during retrieval, the compiled search guide phrases need to be comprehensive. Such compilation is a challenging task because nursing knowledge updates frequently and contains numerous details scattered in many sources. This paper presents a semi-automatic tool facilitating such compilation. Our idea is to formulate the phrase compilation task as a multi-label classification problem. For each newly obtained search guide phrase, we first use nursing knowledge and information retrieval techniques to identify a small set of potentially relevant classes with corresponding hints. Then a nurse makes the final decision on assigning this phrase to proper classes based on those hints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques by compiling search guide phrases from an occupational therapy textbook.

  1. Implementation of the common phrase index method on the phrase query for information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Triyah; Zaman, Badrus; Werdiningsih, Indah

    2017-08-01

    As the development of technology, the process of finding information on the news text is easy, because the text of the news is not only distributed in print media, such as newspapers, but also in electronic media that can be accessed using the search engine. In the process of finding relevant documents on the search engine, a phrase often used as a query. The number of words that make up the phrase query and their position obviously affect the relevance of the document produced. As a result, the accuracy of the information obtained will be affected. Based on the outlined problem, the purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation of the common phrase index method on information retrieval. This research will be conducted in English news text and implemented on a prototype to determine the relevance level of the documents produced. The system is built with the stages of pre-processing, indexing, term weighting calculation, and cosine similarity calculation. Then the system will display the document search results in a sequence, based on the cosine similarity. Furthermore, system testing will be conducted using 100 documents and 20 queries. That result is then used for the evaluation stage. First, determine the relevant documents using kappa statistic calculation. Second, determine the system success rate using precision, recall, and F-measure calculation. In this research, the result of kappa statistic calculation was 0.71, so that the relevant documents are eligible for the system evaluation. Then the calculation of precision, recall, and F-measure produces precision of 0.37, recall of 0.50, and F-measure of 0.43. From this result can be said that the success rate of the system to produce relevant documents is low.

  2. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction.

  3. Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Evans, David A.; Zhai, Chengxiang

    1996-01-01

    Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from complex noun phrases using both corpus statistics and linguistic heuristics. Results of experiments show that indexing based on such extracted subcompounds improves both recall and precision in an information retrieval system. The noun-phrase analysis techniques are also potentially useful for book indexing and automatic thesaurus extraction.

  4. Identifying synonymy between relational phrases using word embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Miwa, Makoto; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Many text mining applications in the biomedical domain benefit from automatic clustering of relational phrases into synonymous groups, since it alleviates the problem of spurious mismatches caused by the diversity of natural language expressions. Most of the previous work that has addressed this task of synonymy resolution uses similarity metrics between relational phrases based on textual strings or dependency paths, which, for the most part, ignore the context around the relations. To overcome this shortcoming, we employ a word embedding technique to encode relational phrases. We then apply the k-means algorithm on top of the distributional representations to cluster the phrases. Our experimental results show that this approach outperforms state-of-the-art statistical models including latent Dirichlet allocation and Markov logic networks.

  5. Noun-Phrase Analysis in Unrestricted Text for Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David A.; Zhai, Chengxiang

    1996-01-01

    Information retrieval is an important application area of natural-language processing where one encounters the genuine challenge of processing large quantities of unrestricted natural-language text. This paper reports on the application of a few simple, yet robust and efficient noun-phrase analysis techniques to create better indexing phrases for information retrieval. In particular, we describe a hybrid approach to the extraction of meaningful (continuous or discontinuous) subcompounds from ...

  6. Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Alan W.; Taylor, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    One of the important stages in the process of turning unmarked text into speech is the assignment of appropriate phrase break boundaries. Phrase break boundaries are important to later modules including accent assignment, duration control and pause insertion. A number of different algorithms have been proposed for such a task, ranging from the simple to the complex. These different algorithms require different information such as part of speech tags, syntax and even ...

  7. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  8. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called "portmanteau" sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an

  9. Portmanteau constructions, phrase structure and linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hok-Shing Chan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e. head-initial vs head-final, a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called portmanteau sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff, Poplack, and Vanniarajan, 1990, etc. have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012. Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005 as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.. Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980, the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc., and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013, the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM interface (Chomsky, 2005; 2013, this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e. head-initial word order or the reverse (i.e. head-final word order. As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau

  10. The Syntax and Semantics of Phonological Phrasing in Shanghai and Hokkien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hooi Ling

    2001-01-01

    It has been observed that phonological phrasing in Shanghai Chinese distinguishes certain determiners from others and wh-quantifier phrases from non-wh-quantifier phrases. This article shows that such phonological phrasing distinctions are also found in Hokkien Chinese but in a more restricted environment. (Author/VWL)

  11. Prepositioned Materiel and Equipment: DOD Would Benefit from Developing Strategic Guidance and Improving Joint Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    analysis by having two analysts independently compare the prepositioned materiel and equipment information in DOD’s fiscal year 2011 report with the 12...Source: GAO analysis . We assessed five of the elements as being addressed because the information provided in the report was responsive to the...report did not include Air Force munitions, auxiliary fuel tanks, missile launchers, pylons, ejector racks, and adapters, medical stocks, fuel, and

  12. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    OpenAIRE

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be tru...

  13. Learning Noun Phrase Anaphoricity in Coreference Resolution via Label Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Zhou; Fang Kong

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of noun phrase anaphoricity might be profitably exploited in coreference resolution to bypass the resolution of non-anaphoric noun phrases. However, it is surprising to notice that recent attempts to incorporate automatically acquired anaphoricity information into coreference resolution systems have been far from expectation. This paper proposes a global learning method in determining the anaphoricity of noun phrases via a label propagation algorithm to improve learning-based coreference resolution. In order to eliminate the huge computational burden in the label propagation algorithm, we employ the weighted support vectors as the critical instances to represent all the anaphoricity-labeled NP instances in the training texts. In addition, two kinds of kernels, i.e., the feature-based RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel and the convolution tree kernel with approximate matching, are explored to compute the anaphoricity similarity between two noun phrases. Experiments on the ACE2003 corpus demonstrate the great effectiveness of our method in anaphoricity determination of noun phrases and its application in learning-based coreference resolution.

  14. The semantics of the preposition ὑπέρ in Homeric Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zanchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are highly polysemic words. In Homeric Greek, they either retain a number of meanings that are lost in post-Homeric Greek, or have not yet developed other meanings that later become conventionalized. In this paper, I analyze the semantics of the preposition ὑπέρ in Homeric Greek using the terminology of cognitive grammar. In addition, I use the model of structured polysemy in order to detect the original meaning of ὑπέρ, and to distinguish, among all its meanings, those triggered by the context from those independently stored in the mind of speakers. While making such a distinction, I also take into account both the semantic development of ὑπέρ in post-Homeric Greek, and the interaction between preposition and morphological case. I then arrange the distinct meanings in a semantic network, and link them directly or indirectly to the original spatial meaning. At the end, I show how further spatial or abstract meanings develop from the original meaning.

  15. L1 Transfer in Post-Verbal Preposition: An Inter-level Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mollaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study intended to investigate the well-known issue of L1 transfer in L2acquisition. The primary aim of this research was to compare the extent to which L1 transfer may take place in different developmental stages in L2 learning procedure. Persian learners of English have been observed to misuse a number of the prepositions with some of the verbs. Having scrutinized more than a hundred pieces of students’ writing assignments, the authors came up with a pattern of errors in this area. It was observed that the majority of these errors could be attributed to Persian: the learners’ choice of preposition mirror the corresponding case in their L1, Persian. Moreover, the pattern of mistakes was put to test to check whether these mistakes increase or decrease according to the level of proficiency of the learners. To this end, two groups of students, one in elementary and the other in intermediate level, were tested on their use of proper prepositions with different verbs and the results of these tests were compared to see whether any significant difference exists between the two groups of students. The results showed no significant difference between the students of the two proficiency levels.

  16. Codification of Some Usage Cases of Lithuanian Language Cases and Prepositions

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    Vidas Valskys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is related to analysing several cases of the relationship between usage of cases and prepositions with the norms indicated in the syntax booklet “Language Advice”. The article is a discussion regarding some normative evaluation aspects regarding the usage of the preposition “greta” (next to having the meaning of exception (exclusion, usage of the adjectivised instrumental case in constructions with the verb “(pavirsti” (to turn, to become, to grow, to get and some cases of the postposition “dėka” (with the help of. Utmost attention is paid to discussion of (nonnormative evaluation of some constructions including usage of the said cases and prepositions that are doubtful in some aspects, their presentation in normative sources and further prospects related to further codification of the said cases. The article is based on vast empirical materials: examples from the “Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian”, the Internet and other texts related to contemporary usage.

  17. Introduction (of 'The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar')

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Velasco, Daniel; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this volume analyse the noun phrase within the framework of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), the successor to Simon C. Dik’s Functional Grammar (FG). The Noun Phrase was the main conference theme of the 11th International Conference on Functional Grammar, which took place......, the most recent treatment of NPs by Dik in terms of “classical FG” was published (posthumously) in 1997, in the first volume of The Theory of Functional Grammar. Given the fact that FDG presents a strongly revised version of Dikkian FG with respect to rules, variables, representations and overall design...

  18. Effects of Natural Disaster Trends: A Case Study for Expanding the Pre-Positioning Network of CARE International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  19. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  20. A Corpus Based Study on the Use of Preposition of Time "On" and "At" in Argumentative Essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Darina Lokeman; Ali, Juliana; Anthony, Norin Norain Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a corpus-based investigation on English prepositions of time presented in the argumentative essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian secondary students in the MCSAW corpus. The aims were to find out the distribution patterns and the common errors in the use of preposition of time, "on" and "at". This corpus…

  1. The Use of Locative Prepositions by Hebrew Speaking Children 2:0 - 3:0 Years Old. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther

    The use of locative prepositions in the spontaneous speech of 30 Hebrew speaking children two to three years old was studied. The rank order of locative prepositions is determined according to the correct use in obligatory contexts, and tentative conclusions are drawn concerning the order of acquisition of these terms in Hebrew. An attempt is made…

  2. The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12: the result of negative phrasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 is used routinely as a unidimensional measure of psychological morbidity. Many factor-analytic studies have reported that the GHQ-12 has two or three dimensions, threatening its validity. It is possible that these 'dimensions' are the result of the wording of the GHQ-12, namely its division into positively phrased (PP and negatively phrased (NP statements about mood states. Such 'method effects' introduce response bias which should be taken into account when deriving and interpreting factors. Methods GHQ-12 data were obtained from the 2004 cohort of the Health Survey for England (N = 3705. Following exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the goodness of fit indices of one, two and three factor models were compared with those of a unidimensional model specifying response bias on the NP items, using structural equation modelling (SEM. The hypotheses were (1 the variance of the responses would be significantly higher for NP items than for PP items because of response bias, and (2 that the modelling of response bias would provide the best fit for the data. Results Consistent with previous reports, EFA suggested a two-factor solution dividing the items into NP and PP items. The variance of responses to the NP items was substantially and significantly higher than for the PP items. The model incorporating response bias was the best fit for the data on all indices (RMSEA = 0.068, 90%CL = 0.064, 0.073. Analysis of the frequency of responses suggests that the response bias derives from the ambiguity of the response options for the absence of negative mood states. Conclusion The data are consistent with the GHQ-12 being a unidimensional scale with a substantial degree of response bias for the negatively phrased items. Studies that report the GHQ-12 as multidimensional without taking this response bias into account risk interpreting the artefactual factor structure as denoting 'real' constructs

  3. The Numerical Semigroup of Phrases' Lengths in a Simple Alphabet

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    Aureliano M. Robles-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be an alphabet with two elements. Considering a particular class of words (the phrases over such an alphabet, we connect with the theory of numerical semigroups. We study the properties of the family of numerical semigroups which arise from this starting point.

  4. Exact Decoding for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, W.; Dymetman, M.; Specia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The combinatorial space of translation derivations in phrase-based statistical machine translation is given by the intersection between a translation lattice and a target language model. We replace this intractable intersection by a tractable relaxation which incorporates a low-order upperbound on t

  5. The numerical semigroup of phrases' lengths in a simple alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Aureliano M; Rosales, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Let A be an alphabet with two elements. Considering a particular class of words (the phrases) over such an alphabet, we connect with the theory of numerical semigroups. We study the properties of the family of numerical semigroups which arise from this starting point.

  6. Relevance and Phrase Searching in Summon: looking under the hood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hodge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly examines the mechanisms behind seemingly counter-intuitive phrase search results in Serials Solutions’ discovery platform Summon. The authors use the platform’s search API to explain why users sometimes encounter greater numbers of results when typically they would expect fewer. The article explores the reasons behind the search results and the implications for library instruction.

  7. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  8. Cueing the Virtual Storyteller: Analysis of cue phrase usage in fairy tales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, Manon; Theune, Mariët; Busemann, S.

    2007-01-01

    An existing taxonomy of Dutch cue phrases, designed for use in story generation, was validated by analysing cue phrase usage in a corpus of classical fairy tales. The analysis led to some adaptations of the original taxonomy.

  9. Applying cognitive linguistics to pedagogical grammar: the english prepositions of verticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyvyan Evans

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we illustrate the merit of applying insights from Cognitive Linguistics to pedagogical grammar. We do so by examining English prepositions, long assumed to be one of the most difficult areas of acquisition for second language learners. The approach to the semantics of English prepositions we present is that developed in Evans and Tyler (2004a, b, In prep. and Tyler and Evans (2001a, 2003. This account offers the following insights: 1 the concepts encoded by prepositions are image-schematic in nature and thus have an embodied basis. In other words, prepositions are not appropriately modelled as constituting linguistic propositions or semantic feature bundles (the received view in formal linguistics; 2 an English preposition encodes an abstract mental idealization of a spatial relation, derived from more specific spatial scenes. This forms the primary meaning component of a semantic network; 3 the idealized spatial relation also encodes a functional element, which derives from the way spatial relations are salient and relevant for human function and interaction with the physical environment; and 4 the additional senses in the semantic network have been extended in systematic, constrained ways. We discuss two key principles of extension: ways of viewing a spatial scene and experiential correlation. We demonstrate the usefulness of a Cognitive Linguistics approach by examining a few aspects of the lexicalization patterns exhibited by in and the four English prepositions of verticality, over, above, under and below. These prepositions provide good evidence that prepositional meanings are extended from the spatial to abstract domains in ways that are regular and constrained. We conclude that a Cognitive Linguistics approach to prepositions provides a more accurate, systematic account that, in turn, offers the basis for a more coherent, learnable presentation of this hitherto seemingly arbitrary aspect of English grammar.Neste artigo

  10. The structural possibilities of serbo-croatian related to the English structure adjective + prepositional sentential complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Bibović

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentential complements occurring with prepositions in English are traditiona ly known as gerunds, verbal forms in -ing having the functions of both nouns and verbs.In transformational-generative grammar they are interpreted as ,embedded sentences in the underlying structure containing their own subject, which may be either deleted under coreference with the subject of the matrix sentence or overtly expressed, as in 1. (aJohn is happy about leaving (b John is happy about Mary leaving.

  11. BattRAE: Bidimensional Attention-Based Recursive Autoencoders for Learning Bilingual Phrase Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Biao; Xiong, Deyi; Su, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a bidimensional attention based recursive autoencoder (BattRAE) to integrate clues and sourcetarget interactions at multiple levels of granularity into bilingual phrase representations. We employ recursive autoencoders to generate tree structures of phrases with embeddings at different levels of granularity (e.g., words, sub-phrases and phrases). Over these embeddings on the source and target side, we introduce a bidimensional attention network to learn their interac...

  12. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling dire

  13. Finite-State Approximation of Phrase-Structure Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, F C N; Pereira, Fernando C. N.; Wright, Rebecca N.

    1996-01-01

    Phrase-structure grammars are effective models for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but can be computationally too demanding for use as language models in real-time speech recognition. Therefore, finite-state models are used instead, even though they lack expressive power. To reconcile those two alternatives, we designed an algorithm to compute finite-state approximations of context-free grammars and context-free-equivalent augmented phrase-structure grammars. The approximation is exact for certain context-free grammars generating regular languages, including all left-linear and right-linear context-free grammars. The algorithm has been used to build finite-state language models for limited-domain speech recognition tasks.

  14. Some aspects of agreement with numeral phrases in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Witkoś

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly analyze the agreement patterns in Polish constructions with quantified subjects and adjectival predicates/participles, and propose an account built on the nanosyntactic ideas regarding the nature of case, i.e., split Kase Phrase (Caha 2009, 2010. In the analysis we address the troublesome issues regarding the Genitive of Quantification, i.e., the source of Genitive on the nominal complement in structural contexts, and the optionality in agreement in case between the adjectival predicate/participle and the numeral (≥5, or the noun of the quantified subject. The essential part of our proposal is based on the articulated Kase Phrase in the functional sequence of the extended nominal projection and its role in the syntactic derivation of case in the spirit of nanosyntactic approach.

  15. The Point Approach and the Phrase Approach to Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦媛

    2013-01-01

      As is known to all, vocabulary acquisition plays an essential role in English learning. However, it was supposed very dif⁃ficult to many Chinese learners. For the reason that so many kinds of approaches exists in the real life, English learners are always do not know which one is suitable and more effective. To solve this problem, the paper will analyze two approaches (point approach and phrase approach) for you.

  16. Learning theories for noun-phrase sentiment composition

    OpenAIRE

    Petrakis, S.; Klenner, M

    2011-01-01

    The work presented here is an approach to Sentiment Analy- sis from a rule-based, compositional perspective. The proposed approach is characterized by three major points: (a) rules are automatically learned from annotated corpora using Inductive Logic Programming and represented as Prolog sets of clauses, (b) the focus is on the noun-phrase (NP) level, and (c) learning is performed on deep-parsed structures. We describe the process of annotating a collection of some 3000 German NPs of medi...

  17. Automatic Titling of Electronic Documents with Noun Phrase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ, Cédric; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Automatic titling (i.e. providing titles) is one of key domains of Web site accessibility. This paper provides an approach allowing the automatic titling of texts (e.g. emails, fora, etc.) relying on the morphosyntactic study of human written titles in a corpus of various texts. The method is developed in four stages: Corpus acquisition, candidate sentences determination for titling, noun phrase extraction in the candidate sentences, and finally, selecting a particular...

  18. ASYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK AND THE CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS: Is It Really Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Behrooz HOSSEINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An area that has recently attracted increasing attention is providing feedback on learners’ writing accuracy through the Internet. However, research in this area has largely focused on synchronous communication, i.e., chatting, with fewer studies assessing asynchronous technologies, i.e., e-mailing. Therefore, this study investigates the effectiveness of asynchronous computer-mediated corrective feedback-explicit and implicit, on increasing the correct use of prepositions. Forty-five Iranian elementary EFL learners at the ILI in Tehran were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, receiving explicit and implicit corrective feedback respectively, and one control group receiving no corrective feedback. Each group included 15 participants. After the treatment, a post-test was administered to assess the probable increase in the correct use of prepositions for the experimental groups compared to the control group. Analysis of the results through a one-way ANOVA revealed that the experimental group 1 who received explicit corrective feedback significantly outperformed the experimental group 2 and the control group. The experimental group 2 who received implicit corrective feedback showed no significant improvement over the experimental group 1 and the control group. Computer-mediated communication, asynchronous CMC, synchronous CMC, the Internet, corrective feedback, e-mail, chat. Although the findings support the current view on feedback through technology, due to the scarcity of research, more investigation is merited as there is much to gain regarding this burgeoning field.

  19. A corpus-based study on the spatial metaphor--take the preposition under as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒晗

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the preposition under when it is used in a metaphorical expression. The data for the spatial metaphorical use of the word under were colected from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). This paper aims to analyze the actual cognitive metaphorical use of the word under with the corpus colected.

  20. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children’s understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer. PMID:27471479

  1. Can 28-month-old children learn spatial prepositions robustly from pictures? Yes, when narrative input is provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina J. Rohlfing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled for the (a for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children’s understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  2. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children's understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  3. Acquisition of Some Selected Prepositions of Time by English Major Undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Ayat Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the acquisition of some selected prepositions of time by English major undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan and to reveal any significant differences among their acquisition attributed to the academic level (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year levels) and to studying "English Basic Grammar" course. A…

  4. Concurrent Models and Cross-Linguistic Analogies in the Study of Prepositional Stranding in French in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otheguy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions can be found with and without adjacent complements in many forms of popular spoken French. The alternation appears in main clauses ("il veut pas payer pour ca [approximately] il veut pas payer pour" "he doesn't want to pay for [it]") and, though with a more restricted social and geographic distribution, in relative…

  5. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be truncated. In other words, since this head noun is governed by case marker in its null form to generate the postpositional phrase, the head noun can be encoded.  The second approach generates two different types of noun phrases in their structures: free structured and non-free structured noun phrases. Of them, the free structured noun phrase allows any syntactic transformations in their internal structure based on the senses of the case markers which denote a relation. That is to say, the null constituents in this type of noun phrases can be encoded to generate an extended alternative of the noun phrase and a relative clause.

  6. A Sign-Based Phrase Structure Grammar for Turkish

    CERN Document Server

    Sehitoglu, O T

    1996-01-01

    This study analyses Turkish syntax from an informational point of view. Sign based linguistic representation and principles of HPSG (Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar) theory are adapted to Turkish. The basic informational elements are nested and inherently sorted feature structures called signs. In the implementation, logic programming tool ALE (Attribute Logic Engine) which is primarily designed for implementing HPSG grammars is used. A type and structure hierarchy of Turkish language is designed. Syntactic phenomena such a s subcategorization, relative clauses, constituent order variation, adjuncts, nomina l predicates and complement-modifier relations in Turkish are analyzed. A parser is designed and implemented in ALE.

  7. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.

  8. Lexical, conceptual and motor information in memory for action phrases: a multi-system account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelkamp, Johannes; Jahn, Petra

    2003-06-01

    According to the multi-system account [J. Engelkamp, H.D. Zimmer, The Human Memory: A Multi-Modal Approach, Hogrefe & Huber, Seattle, 1994], the enactment effect in free recall of action phrases (e.g. break the stick) is independent of inter- and intra-phrase associations because it emerges from the nonverbal encoding processes under enactment. Two experiments have been reported which tested these and further assumptions of the multi-system account of the enactment effect. In both experiments, inter- and intra-phrase (verb-object) associations were varied simultaneously in addition to enactment. In Experiment 1, the memory test was free recall, and in Experiment 2, it was cued recall. Independent effects of all three factors were observed in free recall. Enacted phrases were recalled better than phrases learned only verbally. Phrases with high-associated objects and verbs were better recalled than phrases with low-associated objects and verbs, and categorically related phrases were better recalled than unrelated phrases. In cued recall, there was no effect of categorical list structure. The effects of intra-phrase structure and enactment corresponded to those in free recall. All interactions were nonsignificant. The findings were interpreted as support for the multi-system account.

  9. Prepositioned Stocks: DOD has Addressed Required Reporting Elements but Needs to Develop a Department-Wide Policy and Joint Service Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    possibility of higher repair costs in the long run. The Army and Air Force Prepositioned Stock Programs Reported Assumed Risks but Did Not...in the quality of information DOD provided on costs for completely reconstituting prepositioned stocks . Further, GAO found that risks which DOD...have reported on a number of ongoing and long - term challenges in DOD’s annual reports to Congress related to strategic planning, joint service

  10. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  11. Neural Correlates of Phrase Rhythm: An EEG Study of Bipartite vs. Rondo Sonata Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the neural correlates of phrase rhythm. In short, phrase rhythm is the rhythmic aspect of phrase construction and the relationships between phrases. For the sake of establishing the neural correlates, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to phrase rhythm. Brain activity is monitored through electroencephalography (EEG by using a brain–computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. Our experiment shows statistical differences in theta and alpha bands in the phrase rhythm variations of two classical sonatas, one in bipartite form and the other in rondo form.

  12. Modeling of meaning acquisition based on NL phrases using state transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cretu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop techniques for the meaning acquisition of the NL phrases. Our approach is based on modeling meaning extraction by analyzing lexical component, syntactic component and semantic component of the phrases written or spoken in NL. To assure necessary semantic precision we adopt a double-level interpretation of the NL phrases using formal language with well defined semantics. This fact is essential for our approach.

  13. Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies by Michael H Lee ARL-TN-0664 February 2015...February 2015 Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies Michael H Lee Computational and...COVERED (From - To) 03/2014–05/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies 5a

  14. MEDLINE Abstracts Classification Based on Noun Phrases Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rico, Fernando; Vicedo, José-Luis; Rubio-Sánchez, María-Consuelo

    Many algorithms have come up in the last years to tackle automated text categorization. They have been exhaustively studied, leading to several variants and combinations not only in the particular procedures but also in the treatment of the input data. A widely used approach is representing documents as Bag-Of-Words (BOW) and weighting tokens with the TFIDF schema. Many researchers have thrown into precision and recall improvements and classification time reduction enriching BOW with stemming, n-grams, feature selection, noun phrases, metadata, weight normalization, etc. We contribute to this field with a novel combination of these techniques. For evaluation purposes, we provide comparisons to previous works with SVM against the simple BOW. The well known OHSUMED corpus is exploited and different sets of categories are selected, as previously done in the literature. The conclusion is that the proposed method can be successfully applied to existing binary classifiers such as SVM outperforming the mixture of BOW and TFIDF approaches.

  15. You had me at hello: How phrasing affects memorability

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Kleinberg, Jon; Lee, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which information achieves widespread public awareness is a research question of significant interest. We consider whether, and how, the way in which the information is phrased --- the choice of words and sentence structure --- can affect this process. To this end, we develop an analysis framework and build a corpus of movie quotes, annotated with memorability information, in which we are able to control for both the speaker and the setting of the quotes. We find significant differences between memorable and non-memorable quotes in several key dimensions. One is lexical distinctiveness: in aggregate, memorable quotes use less common word choices, but at the same time are built upon a scaffolding of common syntactic patterns; another is that memorable quotes tend to be more general in ways that make them easy to apply in new contexts. We also show how the concept of "memorable language" can be extended across domains.

  16. Pre-editing and Recursive-Phrase Composites for a Better English-to-Arabic Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Al-A'ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an approach for an English-to-Arabic Machine Translation System based on Building correct grammar and phrase structures first and then automatically deriving Translation Rules for phrase translation. For every English phrase, the grammar is first analysed and then a corresponding Arabic translation is given which would be used by the machine learning system to produce a translation rule with the help of a dictionary and the user. These same derived rules can partially be used for other phrase sequences especially in the case of a phrase consisting of a number of smaller phrases and thus implemeting the idea of recusive phrase strucutres. The approach was implemented and tested on simple cases and the results are given which indicate that this approach is successful for small to medium phrases. Our approach is an enhancement on existing phrase translation techniques because it analyses the source language grammar first, then builds a syntactic structure before proceeding with the machine learning process of learning the translation rules. Our approach is enhancement on existing phrase based translations in two directions: the grammar editing before the translation rules and the derived translation rules can be complete for complete phrases or are rules for translating smaller phrases which are subsets of larger phrases. The approach has improved the speed and correctness of phrase translations.

  17. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  18. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  19. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

  20. The Effect of Anaphoric References and Noun Phrase Organizers on Paragraph Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Anne Stevens

    1978-01-01

    According to a theory of textual cohesion, anaphoric references and noun phrase organizers may serve as cohesive ties linking separate sentences into unified paragraphs. This study revealed that only the noun phrase organizer condition was significant in promoting comprehension and indicated no difference in time scores by paragraph condition.…

  1. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  2. Dealing with Phrase Level Co-Articulation (PLC) in speech recognition: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; van Leeuwen, David A.; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Whereas nowadays within-word co-articulation effects are usually sufficiently dealt with in automatic speech recognition, this is not always the case with phrase level co-articulation effects (PLC). This paper describes a first approach in dealing with phrase level co-articulation by applying these

  3. The word order change in Dutch directional phrases: from the perspective of language typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study provides an alternative explanation of the word order change observed in Dutch directional phrases from the perspective of typology. This change took place around the end of the 19th century and concerns directional phrases such as 'in de kamer' (‘in(to) the room’) and 'de kamer in

  4. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgonsuren, Tseden

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if…

  5. Phrase translation probabilities with ITG priors and smoothing as learning objective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylonakis, M.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    The conditional phrase translation probabilities constitute the principal components of phrase-based machine translation systems. These probabilities are estimated using a heuristic method that does not seem to optimize any reasonable objective function of the word-aligned, parallel training corpus.

  6. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value.…

  7. Phrase-Level Sentiment Polarity Classification Using Rule-Based Typed Dependencies and Additional Complex Phrases Consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luke Kien-Weng Tan; Jin-Cheon Na; Yin-Leng Theng; Kuiyu Chang

    2012-01-01

    The advent of Web 2.0 has led to an increase in user-generated content on the Web. This has provided an extensive collection of free-style texts with opinion expressions that could influence the decisions and actions of their readters.Providers of such content exert a certain level of influence on the receivers and this is evident from blog sites having effect on their readers' purchase decisions,political view points,financial planning,and others.By detecting the opinion expressed,we can identify the sentiments on the topics discussed and the influence exerted on the readers.In this paper,we introduce an automatic approach in deriving polarity pattern rules to detect sentiment polarity at the phrase level,and in addition consider the effects of the more complex relationships found between words in sentiment polarity classification.Recent sentiment analysis research has focused on the functional relations of words using typed dependency parsing,providing a refined analysis on the grammar and semantics of textual data.Heuristics are typically used to determine the typed dependency polarity patterns,which may not comprehensively identify all possible rules.We study the use of class sequential rules (CSRs) to automatically learn the typed dependency patterns,and benchmark the performance of CSR against a heuristic method.Preliminary results show CSR leads to further improvements in classification performance achieving over 80% F1 scores in the test cases.In addition,we observe more complex relationships between words that could influence phrase sentiment polarity,and further discuss on possible approaches to handle the effects of these complex relationships.

  8. Neural Features of Processing the Enforcement Phrases Used during Occupational Health and Safety Inspections: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shi, Liping; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Qiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate enforcement phrases used during occupational health and safety (OHS) inspection activities is a crucial factor to guarantee the compliance with OHS regulations in enterprises. However, few researchers have empirically investigated the issue of how enforcement phrases are processed. The present study explored the neural features of processing two types of enforcement phrases (severe-and-deterrent vs. mild-and-polite phrases) used during OHS inspections by applying event-related potentials (ERP) method. Electroencephalogram data were recorded while the participants distinguished between severe-and-deterrent phrases and mild-and-polite phrases depicted in written Chinese words. The ERP results showed that severe-and-deterrent phrases elicited significantly augmented P300 amplitude with a central-parietal scalp distribution compared with mild-and-polite phrases, indicating the allocation of more attention resources to and elaborate processing of the severe-and-deterrent phrases. It reveals that humans may consider the severe-and-deterrent phrases as more motivationally significant and elaborately process the severity and deterrence information contained in the enforcement phrases for the adaptive protection. The current study provides an objective and supplementary way to measure the efficiency of different enforcement phrases at neural level, which may help generate appropriate enforcement phrases and improve the performance of OHS inspections. PMID:27807404

  9. Effects of musical expertise and boundary markers on phrase perception in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Christiane; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-03-01

    A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift ("music CPS") and has an equivalent in the perception of speech ("language CPS"). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). Musicians and nonmusicians were tested while listening to binary phrased melodies. ERPs and ERFs of both subject groups differed considerably from each other. Phrased melody versions evoked an electric CPS and a magnetic CPSm in musicians, but an early negativity and a less pronounced CPSm in nonmusicians, suggesting different perceptual strategies for both subject groups. Musicians seem to process musical phrases in a structured manner similar to language. Nonmusicians, in contrast, are thought to detect primarily discontinuity in the melodic input. Variations of acoustic cues in the vicinity of the phrase boundary reveal that the CPS is influenced by a number of parameters that are considered to indicate phrasing in melodies: pause length, length of the last tone preceding the pause, and harmonic function of this last tone. This is taken as evidence that the CPS mainly reflects higher cognitive processing of phrasing, rather than mere perception of pauses. Furthermore, results suggest that the ERP and MEG methods are sensitive to different aspects within phrase perception. For both subject groups, qualitatively different ERP components (CPS and early negativity) seem to reflect a top-down activation of general but different phrasing schemata, whereas quantitatively differing MEG signals appear to reflect gradual differences in the bottom-up processing of acoustic boundary markers.

  10. Leveraging syntax to better capture the semantics of elliptical coordinated compound noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine; Rindflesch, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Full-text scientific articles are increasingly available, but capturing the meaning conveyed within an article automatically remains a bottleneck for semantic search and reasoning systems. In this paper we consider elliptical coordinated compound noun phrases that authors use to save space in an article. Systems that do not attend to coordination would incorrectly interpret "breast or lung cancer" as a body part (breast) and a disease (lung cancer) rather than two diseases. The algorithmic approach introduced in this paper uses a generate-and-test strategy where candidate expansions for forward, backward and complex ellipses are generated from syntactic dependencies. Dependencies are also used to create a dictionary of non-coordinated noun phrases that is used during the test phrase. Experiments on 21,280 full-text articles show that more than a million noun phrases were impacted by coordinated ellipses. The system achieves 73.07% precision, 75.38% recall, 74.23% F-score and 94.72% accuracy for new noun phrases in the development set. The precision was higher for backward (82.62 vs. 78.63) and forward expansions (64.82 vs. 60.17) and lower for complex expansions (63.41 vs. 72.59) in a test set. On average 10.79% of all noun phrases would be missed if coordination were not resolved, which corresponds to 48 new noun phrases per article in the journal Carcinogenesis, 52 new phrases per article in Diabetes, and 56 new phrases per article in Endocrinology. Results also show coordinated ellipses are more prevalent in abstracts (12.31% of all noun phrases) than in the body of an article (10.70%). To further test the generalizability of this approach the system (without modification) was used on two new collections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 英语中的介词及隐喻意义探讨%Discussion on Prepositions in English and Their Metaphorical Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐莉

    2015-01-01

    The preposition is an important part of English language , and the metaphor plays a critical role in learning English prepositions . To clear the metaphorical meanings of English preposi‐tions ,firstly ,this paper defines the original spatial meaning of English prepositions .Then it gives a de‐tailed analysis on the cognition of metaphorical meanings of English prepositions .Finally ,it analyzes the metaphorical rhetorical effect of prepositions .The author hopes that this paper can help English learners understand the importance of metaphorical competence and strength the development of metaphorical competence in English learning .%介词是英语语言的重要组成部分,而隐喻对学习者学习英语介词具有非常重要的作用。为明确英语介词的隐喻意义,文章首先对英语介词的空间愿意进行释义,其次,对英语介词的隐喻意义认知进行详细的分析,最后围绕隐喻介词的修辞效果进行了详细的分析,希望可以使英语学习者明确隐喻能力的重要性,并加强英语学习中隐喻能力的培养。

  12. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic analysis of…

  13. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic…

  14. It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

  15. Extracting Noun Phrases from Large-Scale Texts A Hybrid Approach and Its Automatic Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Chen, Kuang-hua; Chen, Hsin-Hsi

    1994-01-01

    To acquire noun phrases from running texts is useful for many applications, such as word grouping,terminology indexing, etc. The reported literatures adopt pure probabilistic approach, or pure rule-based noun phrases grammar to tackle this problem. In this paper, we apply a probabilistic chunker to deciding the implicit boundaries of constituents and utilize the linguistic knowledge to extract the noun phrases by a finite state mechanism. The test texts are SUSANNE Corpus and the results are evaluated by comparing the parse field of SUSANNE Corpus automatically. The results of this preliminary experiment are encouraging.

  16. Combining Preposition “Ki” and Relative Pronoun “Kim” and Their Using in Different Meanings in Tenses in Ancient Anatolian Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan TOKATLI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Combining sentences one by other by preposition comes to Turkish from endo-european languages. Preposition ki that combines the sub-clause to the main-clause as well used like adjective to a noun has entered Turkish from Perisain Language. Thus Turkish question pronoun kim had been used as ki until seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Specially takes place in Ancient Anatolian Turkish texts. In this article we try to spot light on the using of ki and kim from point of view of changing the meanings. Examples are taken from Ancient Anatolian Turkish texts.

  17. Structural organization and scale-free properties in Chinese Phrase Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WEI Luoxia; NIU Yi; YIN Junxun

    2005-01-01

    Monkey language models are defined for Chinese Phrase Networks, and scale-free features of Chinese Phrase Networks are uncovered. It is pointed out that the ratio of average degree to the total number of nodes ((K)IN) is close to a constant. Simulation for the evolution of phrase networks indicates that one of the important reasons for power law distributions is the word selection frequency, which, when tuned aptly, can make the monkey language present similar statistic traits as that of natural languages. Power law tails emerge at large k, and the exponent is about 6. Comparison between monkey model and natural language shows that humans are able to use Chinese words resources in more effective and compact ways to express their intentions. All the results demonstrate an important fact that the least effort principle is the basis of Chinese Phrase Networks.

  18. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960.

  19. The phrase “information storage and retrieval” (IS&R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origi...... yet. In this article, further information about the phrase “information storage and retrieval” is provided. To know the history of terms and their associated concepts is an important prescription against poor terminological phrasing and theoretical confusion.......Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origin...

  20. An investigation into the correlation of cue phrases, unfilled pauses and the structuring of spoken discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, J E

    1992-01-01

    Expectations about the correlation of cue phrases, the duration of unfilled pauses and the structuring of spoken discourse are framed in light of Grosz and Sidner's theory of discourse and are tested for a directions-giving dialogue. The results suggest that cue phrase and discourse structuring tasks may align, and show a correlation for pause length and some of the modifications that speakers can make to discourse structure.

  1. Rule Based Machine Translation of Noun Phrases from Punjabi to English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaljeet Kaur Batra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents automatic translation of noun phrases from Punjabi to English using transfer approach. The system has analysis, translation and synthesis component. The steps involved are pre processing, tagging, ambiguity resolution, translation and synthesis of words in target language. The accuracy is calculated for each step and the overall accuracy of the system is calculated to be about 85% for a particular type of noun phrases.

  2. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  3. Identifying performing and under performing graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions in animated and static formats: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions that were performing and underperforming in static and animated formats in a recent experiment on the effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols. Variable-specific criteria were developed in order to define when a symbol is considered to be performing in terms of its transparency, name agreement, and identification accuracy. Additionally, across-variable heuristic criteria were developed that allowed classification of symbols into four categories: (a) performing exceptionally, (b) performing effectively, (c) performing adequately, and (d) performing inadequately. These criteria were applied to 24 symbols for verbs and 8 symbols for prepositions in both animated and static formats. Results indicated that the vast majority of the symbols performed adequately or better while a few did not. Potential reasons as to why some of the symbols may have underperformed are discussed. Where appropriate, implications for modifying existing symbols and future research are drawn. Although the fact that the heuristic criteria were developed post-hoc is discussed as a limitation, the benefits of the proposed categories bode well for future applications.

  4. A Hybrid Model For Phrase Chunking Employing Artificial Immunity System And Rule Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu.M.S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural language Understanding (NLU, an important field of Artificial Intelligence (AI is concerned with the speech and language understanding between human and computer. Understanding language means knowing what concept a word or phrase stands for and how to link them to form meaningful sentence. Identification of phrases or phrase chunking is an important step in natural language understanding (NLU. Chunker identifies and divides sentences into syntactically correlated word groups. Question Answering (QA systems, another important application of Artificial Intelligence (AImostly requires retrieval of nouns or noun phrases as answers to the questions raised by the users. Also Chunking is an important preprocessing step in full parsing. Due to high ambiguity of natural language, exact parsing of text may become very complex. This ambiguity may be partially resolved by using chunking as an intermediate step. To the best of our knowledge no known work or tag set is available for phrase chunking in Malayalam. To separate the chunks in a document it must be labeled with parts-ofspeech (POS tags. POS Tagging is a difficult task in Malayalam as it is a complex and compounding language. In this paper we describe the application of artificial immunity system (AIS for chunking which is implemented and obtained an accurate output with 96% precision and 93% recall. This system istested on corpuses collected from reputed news papers and magazines. These corpuses contained documents from five different domains such as sports, health, agriculture, science and politics and each document contained sentences –simple, compound, complex-of various levels of complexity. POS tag set with 52 tags is developed for preparing the tagged corpus for Malayalam. The phrase tag set contains 20 phrase tags.

  5. PP-HBP改性PP/PVC的流变行为%Study on Rheologic Behavior of PP Grafted with Hyperbranched Poly (amide-ester)/PP/PVC Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁建志; 宋晓红; 张建民; 彭政

    2006-01-01

    研究了聚丙烯接枝超支化聚(酰胺-酯)(PP-HBP)/PP/聚氯乙烯(PVC)共混体系的流变行为.讨论了PP-HBP用量对PP/PVC共混体系流变行为的影响.结果表明,当PP/PVC共混体系中加入PP-HBP不大于5份时,PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系的表观粘度大于PP/PVC共混体系的;当加入PP-HBP大于5份时,PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系的表观粘度小于PP/PVC共混体系的;随着温度升高,PP/PVC和PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系表观粘度减小.

  6. Parallel functional category deficits in clauses and nominal phrases: The case of English agrammatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia exhibit restricted patterns of impairment of functional morphemes, however, syntactic characterization of the impairment is controversial. Previous studies have focused on functional morphology in clauses only. This study extends the empirical domain by testing functional morphemes in English nominal phrases in aphasia and comparing patients' impairment to their impairment of functional morphemes in English clauses. In the linguistics literature, it is assumed that clauses and nominal phrases are structurally parallel but exhibit inflectional differences. The results of the present study indicated that aphasic speakers evinced similar impairment patterns in clauses and nominal phrases. These findings are consistent with the Distributed Morphology Hypothesis (DMH), suggesting that the source of functional morphology deficits among agrammatics relates to difficulty implementing rules that convert inflectional features into morphemes. Our findings, however, are inconsistent with the Tree Pruning Hypothesis (TPH), which suggests that patients have difficulty building complex hierarchical structures.

  7. Arabic Phrase-Level Contextual Polarity Recognition to Enhance Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. Abdelrahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of opinion mining works need lexical resources for opinion which recognize the polarity of words (positive/ negative regardless their contexts which called prior polarity. The word prior polarity may be changed when it is considered in its contexts, for example, positive words may be used in phrases expressing negative sentiments, or vice versa. In this paper, we aim at generating sentiment Arabic lexical semantic database having the word prior coupled with its contextual polarities and the related phrases. To do that, we study first the prior polarity effects of each word using our Sentiment Arabic Lexical Semantic Database on the sentence-level subjectivity and Support Vector Machine classifier. We then use the seminal English two-step contextual polarity phrase-level recognition approach to enhance word polarities within its contexts. Our results achieve significant improvement over baselines.

  8. The two forms of Visuo-Spatial Perspective Taking are differently embodied and subserve different spatial prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eKessler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We set out to distinguish level 1 (VPT-1 and level 2 (VPT-2 perspective taking with respect to the embodied nature of the underlying processes as well as to investigate their dependence or independence of response modality (motor vs. verbal. While VPT-1 reflects understanding of what lies within someone else’s line of sight, VPT-2 involves mentally adopting someone else’s spatial point of view. Perspective taking is a high-level conscious and deliberate mental transformation that is crucially placed at the convergence of perception, mental imagery, communication, and even theory of mind in the case of VPT-2. The differences between VPT-1 and VPT-2 mark a qualitative boundary between humans and apes, with the latter being capable of VPT-1 but not of VPT-2. However, our recent data showed that VPT-2 is best conceptualised as the deliberate simulation or emulation of a movement, thus underpinning its embodied origins. In the work presented here we compared VPT-2 to VPT-1 and found that VPT-1 is not at all, or very differently embodied. In a second experiment we replicated the qualitatively different patterns for VPT-1 and VPT-2 with verbal responses that employed spatial prepositions. We conclude that VPT-1 is the cognitive process that subserves verbal localisations using in front and behind, while VPT-2 subserves left and right from a perspective other than the egocentric. We further conclude that both processes are grounded and situated, but only VPT-2 is embodied in the form of a deliberate movement simulation that increases in mental effort with distance and incongruent proprioception. The differences in cognitive effort predict differences in the use of the associated prepositions. Our findings, therefore, shed light on the situated, grounded and embodied basis of spatial localisations and on the psychology of their use.

  9. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing......), (ii) the special relationship between localizing and discourse-referential modifiers (section 5), and (iii) semantic and morpho-syntactic parallels between modifier categories in the noun phrase and the clause (section 6). In addition this sample-based typological study shows (contra Hawkins...

  10. The phrase “information storage and retrieval” (IS&R):A historical note

    OpenAIRE

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origin yet. In this article, further information about the phrase “information storage and retrieval” is provided. To know the history of terms and their associated concepts is an important prescription ag...

  11. Anatomie d'une pseudo-phrase complexe: le cas de heureusement que P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaatone David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les phrases du type "Heureusement que P" ont souvent intrigué les linguistes, qui les mentionnent, en règle générale, au chapitre de la phrase complexe. Elles soulèvent un certain nombre de questions, auxquelles ont été données des réponses pas toujours évidentes. S'agit-il vraiment d'une phrase complexe, introduite par un adverbe, qui ferait fonction de proposition principale elliptique, averbale, suivie d'une subordonnée, elle-même introduite par la conjonction de subordination par excellence "que"? Ou aurait-on plutot affaire à une phrase indépendante, ou "que", qui peut commuter avec une virgule, ne serait rien d'autre qu'une marque prosodique? Comment, dans chacune de ces optiques, rendre compte de la différence de mode du verbe dans les énoncés sémantiquement équivalents "Heureusement que Nir (est/*soit venu" et "Il est heureux que Nir (?est/soit venu"? Quels sont les adverbes susceptibles d'introduire de telles phrases? Appartiennent-ils à une famille semantique homogène et, le cas échéant, laquelle? Quelle est la structure thématique des phrases de ce type et leur rôle dans la communication? Sont-elle toujours permises ou leur emploi dépend-il d'un certain contexte? Et, lorsqu'elles le sont, peut-on toujours les faire commuter avec des phrases de même sens, mais formellement différentes, telles que, par exemple, les phrases correspondantes avec adverbe en tête, séparé du reste par une simple pause ("Heureusement, Nir est venu"? Enfin, avons-nous affaire a une structure productive, un moule dans lequel on peut introduire tout adverbe de la famille syntactico-sémantique de "heureusement", ou plutot d'une construction en quelque sorte figée, limitée à un relativement petit nombre d'adverbes?

  12. STUDY ON PP/PVC/PP-HBP BLENDS%PP/PVC/PP-HBP共混体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁建志; 巴信武; 丁海涛; 李春子

    2005-01-01

    研究了聚丙烯接枝超支化聚(酰胺-酯)(PP-HBP)对聚丙烯/聚氯乙烯(PP/PVC)共混体系力学性能的影响.结果表明,在PP/PVC(质量比为70/30)共混体系中加入5份PP-HBP时,共混物拉伸强度和冲击强度均出现最大值.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)研究结果证明,PP-HBP增强了PP/PVC的界面粘结作用,减小了共混体系的相分离程度.

  13. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

  14. Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

  15. "THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

  16. Acoustic patterns and communicative functions of phrase-final F0 rises in German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombrowski, Ernst; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic features and communicative functions of phrase-final F(0) rises starting before an accented-vowel onset are analysed in a corpus of German unscripted speech. Two conversational conditions are examined: turn-yielding and turn-holding. The most important feature distinguishing rises...

  17. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  18. HPSG 2005 - The 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar: Conference Notes

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, António Horta; Costa, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This technical report collects the extended abstracts selected for presentation at HPSG 2005 - The 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (University of Lisbon, August 23-24, 2005 - http://hpsg2005.di.fc.ul.pt/) by the corresponding program committee

  19. The perception of musical phrase structure: a cross-cultural ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-06-13

    Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in a cross-cultural music study investigating phrase boundary perception. Chinese and German musicians performed a cultural categorization task under Chinese and Western music listening conditions. Western music was the major subject for both groups of musicians, while Chinese music was familiar to Chinese subjects only. By manipulating the presence of pauses between two phrases in the biphrasal melodies, EEG correlates for the perception of phrase boundaries were found in both groups under both music listening conditions. Between 450 and 600 ms, the music CPS (closure positive shift), which had been found in earlier studies with a false tone detection task, was replicated for the more global categorization task and for all combinations of subject group and musical style. At short latencies (100 and 450 ms post phrase boundary offset), EEG correlates varied as a function of musical styles and subject group. Both bottom-up (style properties of the music) and top-down (acculturation of the subjects) information interacted during this early processing stage.

  20. On the Law of Zipf-Mandelbrot for Multi-Word Phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1999-01-01

    Zipf's law states that if words in a text are arranged in decreasing order of occurrence, then the product of the rank of a word and the number of times it occurs is a constant of that text. Examination of the probabilities of occurrence of multi-word phrases in information retrieval in relation to the probabilities of occurrence of single words…

  1. The Economy of Fluent Speaking: Phrase-Level Reduction in a Patient with Pure Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Anja; Ruttenauer, Anna; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The term "phrase-level reduction" refers to transformations of the phonetic forms of words in connected speech. They are a characteristic property of fluent speech in normal speakers. Phrase-level reductions contribute to a reduction of articulatory-motor effort and constitute an important aspect of speech naturalness. So far, these phenomena have…

  2. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  3. 13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.6 What does the phrase...

  4. The Economy of Fluent Speaking: Phrase-Level Reduction in a Patient with Pure Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Anja; Ruttenauer, Anna; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The term "phrase-level reduction" refers to transformations of the phonetic forms of words in connected speech. They are a characteristic property of fluent speech in normal speakers. Phrase-level reductions contribute to a reduction of articulatory-motor effort and constitute an important aspect of speech naturalness. So far, these phenomena have…

  5. 轮机英语中介词的语义动化%Semantic Verbalization of Prepositions in Marine Engineering English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾玉莲

    2011-01-01

    语义范畴的转换,尤其是由静态到动态的转换,是英语介词与汉语介词的重要区别之一。工科专业英语对简洁度和准确度的特别要求使得轮机英语中大量存在语义动化的介词。这些介词在语义指涉、句法功能、翻译方法、所接宾语等方面存在一定的特点,了解这些特点有助于学生更加准确理解并灵活运用轮机英语。%The shift of semantic domain,especially the shift from static to dynamic,makes a distinction between English prepositions and Chinese ones.Special requirement for concision and accuracy by ESP results in the massive presence of verbalized prepositions in marine engineering English.These prepositions have some characteristics regarding semantic reference,syntactic function,translation methods and following objects.Learning about these characteristics may help marine engineering majors to gain a more comprehensive knowledge and a better command of marine engineering English.

  6. Matrix Theory of pp Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, J

    2004-01-01

    The Matrix Theory that has been proposed for various pp wave backgrounds is discussed. Particular emphasis is on the existence of novel nontrivial supersymmetric solutions of the Matrix Theory. These correspond to branes of various shapes (ellipsoidal, paraboloidal, and possibly hyperboloidal) that are unexpected from previous studies of branes in pp wave geometries.

  7. The Rightward Movement of Complements and Adjuncts in the Old English of "Beowulf."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintzuk, Susan; Kroch, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the rightward movement of noun and prepositional phrases in the Early Old English poem "Beowulf." Evidence is provided for heavy noun phrase shift, with a characteristic major intonational boundary between the main verb and the postponed noun phrase, and preposition phrase extraposition, where the intonational boundary was much…

  8. The Rightward Movement of Complements and Adjuncts in the Old English of "Beowulf."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintzuk, Susan; Kroch, Anthony S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the rightward movement of noun and prepositional phrases in the Early Old English poem "Beowulf." Evidence is provided for heavy noun phrase shift, with a characteristic major intonational boundary between the main verb and the postponed noun phrase, and preposition phrase extraposition, where the intonational boundary was much less…

  9. Extracting the Odderon from $pp$ and $\\bar pp$ scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Ster, Andras; Csorgo, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a simple empirical parametrization of the scattering amplitude, successfully describing the dip-bump structure of elastic $pp$ scattering in $t$ at fixed values of $s$, we construct a toy model interpolating between missing energy gaps to extract the Odderon contribution from the difference between $\\bar pp$ and $pp$ elastic and total cross sections. The model is fitted to data from $\\sqrt s=23.5$ GeV to 7 TeV and used to extract the Odderon and its ratio to the Pomeron.

  10. 以介词为标记的句式信息组织原则及理据分析%An Analysis of the Information Organization Principle and Motivation for the Sentence Marked with Prepositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振来

    2012-01-01

    Word order is one of the most important Chinese grammar means. The basic order of Chinese is SVO. The marked preposition has no real word meaning and only have grammatical meaning, which can function as preposition introduction, transition and sentence forming in semantic functions. Some typical preposition marks can change the frame of Chinese order and preposition mark. "Ba" and "bei" can bring the object before the verb. The marked preposition for the principle of sentence information organization has two prominent characteristics: first, the agent and the patient can be placed before the verb; second, sentence often tends to highlight the result of action. This article, by application of marked theory, analy- zes the sentence marked with preposition for the information organization principle. We believe that there is a motive for engendering the preposition marked that preposition is a mark to differentiate between se- mantic roles, when the agent and the patient are placed before the verb. The composition of the sentence marked with preposition has motivation. It has prominent semantic features and forms a unique sentence characteristics.%语序是汉语最重要的语法手段之一,汉语的基本语序是SVO。介词标记没有实在的词汇意义,只有语法意义,在句法功能上起介引功能、衔接功能、构句功能等。而有些典型介词标记的使用可以改变汉语语序的格局,介词标记"把"、"被"等可以把宾语提到动词前,使句式格局发生变化,这种句式的突出特点是:一是使施事和受事置于动词前;二是句式往往突出动作的结果。说话者选用介词标记是有动因的,要求介词标记不仅要与句式语义相匹配,还要与语境相匹配。从句式结构上可以看出介词标记与句子其他成分之间的组合关系,这些成分的组合是有规律的,从认知角度探讨这些成分的组合规律,对外国人学习以介词为标记的句式大有裨益。

  11. Goal-Source Asymmetry and Russian Spatial Prefixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Markovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I draw on data from Russian to argue for the asymmetry between Goal and Source prepositional phrases. Source prepositional phrases are structurally ambiguous; they can occur both as arguments and adjuncts in certain syntactic contexts. Goal prepositional phrases are unambiguously arguments. I claim that Source prepositions have lexically specified semantics, which determines their relative structural freedom; whereas Goal prepositions are derived from locative prepositions when the building of the event structure takes place and therefore they are bound to be the arguments of the verb.

  12. Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data showing that the syntax of the Nahuatl dialect spoken in Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico has traits of nonconfigurationality: free word order and free pro-drop, with predicate-initial word order being pragmatically neutral. It permits discontinuous noun phrases and has...... no naturally occurring true quantifiers, suggesting that noun phrases in Hueyapan Nahuatl are adjuncts rather than actual arguments. These findings are contrasted with those of an earlier study by Jeffrey MacSwan, who concludes that Nahuatl syntax has relatively fixed subject-verb-object word order....... It is suggested that the differences observed between the two Nahuatl varieties may be a result of methodological problems in MacSwan's collection of data, skewing it in the direction of a more rigid syntax....

  13. Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    By determining which were the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the 16th century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the 16th than they had in the 20th century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of the Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth.

  14. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N.; Dean, Roger T.; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event ‘hazard’ analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  15. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event 'hazard' analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  16. (-p)p and pp Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the eikonalized Glauber representation of hadron-hadron scattering, we study the diffractive processes of -pp and pp elastic scattering at high energies. From our theoretical calculations and fits to the corresponding experimental data at high energies and all available momentum transfer, we find that the Pomeron exchange contributions play a significant role in description of differential cross section dσ/dt in the whole experimental domain. The Pomeron exchange contributions are related to multi-gluon exchanges in QCD, which are color singlet bound state of Reggeized gluons, such as tensor glueball and Odderon. Accordingly, we may claim that the -pp and pp diffractive processes at high energies s and moderate momentum transfer t would be a good tool to verify the existence of the color singlet multigluon bound states and to test QCD since QCD theory does predict the existence of these states. Therefore, we believe that the experimental measurement should be done for these diffractive processes.

  17. Symmetry and phrase definition: Ginastera’s First Piano Sonata, op. 22, II mov.

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Erick

    2013-01-01

    The article evaluates the usefulness of the twelve-tone analytical approach when applied to the second movement of Alberto Ginastera’s first Piano Sonata, Op. 22 (1952). Based on the results from this evaluation, it postulates a new analytical approach grounded on two main principles. The first principle is the recognition of symmetrical pitch-class sets and their rapport with the establishment of phrase structures. The second principle deals with the combination of tonal and atonal gestures ...

  18. Advances in Fully-Automatic and Interactive Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Martínez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents different contributions in the fields of fully-automatic statistical machine translation and interactive statistical machine translation. In the field of statistical machine translation there are three problems that are to be addressed, namely, the modelling problem, the training problem and the search problem. In this thesis we present contributions regarding these three problems. Regarding the modelling problem, an alternative derivation of phrase-based s...

  19. Polysynthesis in Hueyapan Nahuatl: The Status of Noun Phrases, Basic Word Order, and Other Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This article presents data showing that the syntax of the Nahuatl dialect spoken in Hueyapan, Morelos, Mexico has traits of nonconfigurationality: free word order and free pro-drop, with predicate-initial word order being pragmatically neutral. It permits discontinuous noun phrases and has....... It is suggested that the differences observed between the two Nahuatl varieties may be a result of methodological problems in MacSwan's collection of data, skewing it in the direction of a more rigid syntax....

  20. Automatic extraction of syntactic patterns for dependency parsing in noun phrase chunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Colhon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a method for automatic extraction of syntactic patterns that are used to develop a dependency parsing method. The patterns have been extracted from a corpus automatically annotated for tokens, sentences’ borders, parts of speech and noun phrases, and manually annotated for dependency relations between words. The evaluation shows promising results in the case of an order-free language.

  1. Bidirectional Extraction of Phrases for Expanding Queries in Academic Paper Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzana Win

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for query expansion based on bidirectional extraction of phrases as word n-grams from research paper titles. The proposed method aims to extract information relevant to users’ needs and interests and thus to provide a useful system for technical paper retrieval. The outcome of proposed method are the trigrams as phrases that can be used for query expansion. First, word trigrams are extracted from research paper titles. Second, a co-occurrence graph of the extracted trigrams is constructed. To construct the co-occurrence graph, the direction of edges is considered in two ways: forward and reverse. In the forward and reverse co-occurrence graphs, the trigrams point to other trigrams appearing after and before them in a paper title, respectively. Third, Jaccard similarity is computed between trigrams as the weight of the graph edge. Fourth, the weighted version of PageRank is applied. Consequently, the following two types of phrases can be obtained as the trigrams associated with the higher PageRank scores. The trigrams of the one type, which are obtained from the forward co-occurrence graph, can form a more specific query when users add a technical word or words before them. Those of the other type, obtained from the reverse co-occurrence graph, can form a more specific query when users add a technical word or words after them. The extraction of phrases is evaluated as additional features in the paper title classification task using SVM. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy is improved than the accuracy achieved when the standard TF-IDF text features are only used. Moreover, the trigrams extracted by the proposed method can be utilized to expand query words in research paper retrieval.

  2. Children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech in the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Åsa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged 4-6 years followed longitudinally over 2 years during which time they had received intervention at a specialized autism center. In this study, data collected at the 2-year follow-up were used. Three categories of expressive language were defined: nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech. Data from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II were used to classify expressive language. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze factors that might be linked to verbal ability, namely, child age, cognitive level, autism subtype and severity of core autism symptoms, developmental regression, epilepsy or other medical conditions, and intensity of intervention. The proportion of children who met the criteria for nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech were 15%, 10%, and 75%, respectively. The single most important factor linked to expressive language was the child's cognitive level, and all children classified as being nonverbal or minimally verbal had intellectual disability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Using phrases and document metadata to improve topic modeling of clinical reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, William; Ong, Michael K; Arnold, Corey W

    2016-06-01

    Probabilistic topic models provide an unsupervised method for analyzing unstructured text, which have the potential to be integrated into clinical automatic summarization systems. Clinical documents are accompanied by metadata in a patient's medical history and frequently contains multiword concepts that can be valuable for accurately interpreting the included text. While existing methods have attempted to address these problems individually, we present a unified model for free-text clinical documents that integrates contextual patient- and document-level data, and discovers multi-word concepts. In the proposed model, phrases are represented by chained n-grams and a Dirichlet hyper-parameter is weighted by both document-level and patient-level context. This method and three other Latent Dirichlet allocation models were fit to a large collection of clinical reports. Examples of resulting topics demonstrate the results of the new model and the quality of the representations are evaluated using empirical log likelihood. The proposed model was able to create informative prior probabilities based on patient and document information, and captured phrases that represented various clinical concepts. The representation using the proposed model had a significantly higher empirical log likelihood than the compared methods. Integrating document metadata and capturing phrases in clinical text greatly improves the topic representation of clinical documents. The resulting clinically informative topics may effectively serve as the basis for an automatic summarization system for clinical reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. English Words and Phrases in Croatian: A Small-Scale Study of Language Awareness and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Perić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on language attitudes towards English words and phrases in the Croatian language. In order to prevent loanwords, linguistic purism has arisen as a theory about what languages should be like. The tradition of linguistic purism in Croatia has been shaped by various socio-historical factors. English may be viewed as a language of opportunity, or as a threat to the survival of other, usually minority and endangered, languages. In order to provide an insight into the use of English words and phrases in the Croatian context, a questionnaire about language attitudes and awareness was conducted on 534 participants. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine participants’ language attitudes and familiarity with English words and phrases. The results show that although people in Croatia generally like English, many of them are not familiar with English words, especially older participants and those with little or no knowledge of the English language. Moreover, the results indicate that the younger generation is more inclined towards English than the older generation; however, they are not as familiar with Croatian equivalents as they claim.

  5. ERP responses to processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Intonation phrase boundaries (IPBs) were hypothesized to be especially difficult to process in the presence of an amplitude modulated noise masker because of a potential rhythmic competition. In an event-related potential study, IPBs were presented in silence, stationary, and amplitude modulated noise. We elicited centro-parietal Closure Positive Shifts (CPS) in 23 young adults with normal hearing at IPBs in all acoustic conditions, albeit with some differences. CPS peak amplitudes were highest in stationary noise, followed by modulated noise, and lowest in silence. Both noise types elicited CPS delays, slightly more so in stationary compared to amplitude modulated noise. These data suggest that amplitude modulation is not tantamount to a rhythmic competitor for prosodic phrasing but rather supports an assumed speech perception benefit due to local release from masking. The duration of CPS time windows was, however, not only longer in noise compared to silence, but also longer for amplitude modulated compared to stationary noise. This is interpreted as support for additional processing load associated with amplitude modulation for the CPS component. Taken together, processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise seems to involve the same issues that have been observed for the perception and processing of segmental information that are related to lexical items presented in noise: a benefit from local release from masking, even for prosodic cues, and a detrimental additional processing load that is associated with either stream segregation or signal reconstruction.

  6. PP/共聚PP/POE共混体系的研究%Study of PP/Co-PP/POE Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘西文; 纪立军; 王重

    2008-01-01

    研究了POE用量对T30S/POE和F401/POE体系的力学性能、流动性能的影响,并研究了POE质量分数为15%的情况下,共聚PP用量对PP/共聚PP/POE共混体系的力学性能、流动性能的影响.结果表明:与T30S/POE相比,F401/POE体系的冲击强度提高比较显著,而两种共混体系的加工性能均较好;共聚PP在PP/共聚PP/POE体系中明显起到了协同增韧作用,其中,F401/EPS30R/POE共混体系的综合性能最好.

  7. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  8. Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land: a cognitive account of a stylistic feature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Luna

    2005-01-01

    This article focusses on one grammatical construction, namely heavy noun phrase (NP) constructions in Afrikaans, and more specifically on those instances encountered in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land by Karel Schoeman...

  9. On Weakly P.P. Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yue-ming; Ouyang Lun-qun; Wang Shu-gui

    2015-01-01

    We introduce, in this paper, the right weakly p.p. rings as the generaliza-tion of right p.p. rings. It is shown that many properties of the right p.p. rings can be extended onto the right weakly p.p. rings. Relative examples are constructed. As applications, we also characterize the regular rings and the semisimple rings in terms of the right weakly p.p. rings.

  10. A Study on the Diachronic Evolution of the Instrumental Prepositions%工具义介词的历时演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2014-01-01

    介词在句法系统中占有重要地位,但是在不同的语言中介词的数量和虚化程度是不同的。介词主要由动词语法化而来,尤其是赋元动词。“以”、“用”、“持”、“取”、“捉”、“著”、“将”、“把”、“拿”、“使”这十个介词都是在连谓结构中由动词虚化而来,它们的宾语经常是工具成分,所以称之为工具义介词。这十个介词在相同的句法结构中标记相同的成分,但是它们的出现时间、发展过程以及发展结果都不尽相同。“以”和“用”产生最早,持续时间最长,“以”直到清代后期才消失,而“用”至今还在广泛使用。“持”在西汉萌芽,“取、捉、著、将”出现在中古汉语阶段;“把、使、拿”在唐宋时期才出现,相对较晚。除了“用”之外,其他介词存在的时间长短不一,但是最终都没有在普通话中保存下来,“捉、使、拿”在方言中仍有使用。%The prepositions occupy an important position in the syntactic system,but in different lan-guages the number of the prepositions and the degree of grammaticalization are different. Chinese has not rich morphological changes,so word order and function words occupy an important position. The prepositions mainly come from the grammaticalized verbs,especially role-assigning verbs. For exam-ple,“Yi”,“Yong”,“Chi”,“Qu”,“Zhuo”,“Zhe”,“Jiang”,“Ba”,“Na”and“Shi”are all from the verb blur in the continuous predicate structure,their objects are often the tool of components,so we call them tool meaning prepositions. Although these ten prepositions in the same syntax structure marK the same composition,their time of occurrence,the development process and the development results are different.“Yi”and“Yong”produce the earliest,the longest,“Yi”didn’t disappear until the late Qing Dynasty,and“Yong”are still widely used

  11. What can children tell us about the fixedness of idiomatic phrases? The psycholinguistic relevance of a linguistic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleopatra Diakogiorgi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains two distinct yet intricately linked studies concerning idiomatic phrases in Greek: a linguistic study and a psycholinguistic study. The linguistic study aims at investigating the degree of fixedness of idiomatic phrases, through a semantic-lexical categorization of 470 phrases with fixed subject. Three phrase categories were distinguished: typical phrases characterized by a strong semantic-lexical articulation between their constituents, and non-typical phrases, in which the constituents have a certain semantic autonomy. Non-typical phrases were further categorized into a quasi-phrases and b conventionalized phrases, the constituents of which have the highest degree of semantic autonomy. Α linguistic model was developed named “graded fixedness model”, and the psycholinguistic relevance of the model assessed by examining idiom comprehension in Greek elementary school children, aged 7.5 and 9.5 years old. To achieve this, a psycholinguistic study was then carried out. Children were presented with 8 typical, 8 quasi and 8 conventionalized phrases. For each phrase, they were asked to choose the one they thought correct out of three interpretations proposed (idiomatic, literal and other. The research findings presented and discussed herein provide evidence supporting the psychological reality of the notion of semantic autonomy even for the younger children’s processing which was overall quite poor: thus, the greater the semantic autonomy of a phrase’s constituents, the easier the access to its idiomatic meaning.Le présent article comporte deux études distinctes mais étroitement liées concernant les phrases idomatiques en grec : une étude linguistique et une étude psycholinguistique. L’étude linguistique vise à examiner le degré de figement des phrases idiomatiques, à travers une catégorisation sémantico-lexicale de 470 phrases à sujet fixe. Trois catégories de phrases ont été distingu

  12. The importance of lexical verbs in the acquisition of spatial prepositions: The case of in and on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Kristen; Wilson, Colin; Landau, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The prepositions in and on appear early in children's descriptions of simple containment and support relations, such as "apple in the bowl" and "cup on the table". However, mature use of these basic terms extends across a very broad range of object configurations, raising the question of whether children and adults share the same underlying semantic space, and if so, how children's use of in and on comes to match that of adults. With a new battery containing diverse object configurations, we asked how 4 and 6 year-olds and adults distribute basic spatial expressions (isin, is on) and lexical verbs (hang, attach, etc.) across subtypes of containment and support. Our results reveal probabilistic distributions of in and on in both adult and child language, with similar distributions among adults and children for in but different patterns for on. Moreover, we find substantial differences in the use of lexical verbs across the two spatial domains and across ages. We propose that children and adults share a structured semantic space for both containment and support relations, but larger portions of this space are described by in and on early in development because alternative descriptions employing lexical verbs are inhibited. Using computational modeling along with experimental data, we link developmental changes in the scope of basic spatial expressions to increasing use of lexical verbs in parts of the space that reflect less central relations of containment or support. This result supports a nuanced view of spatial language acquisition that shifts the focus from how children learn basic expressions to how they learn to distribute expressions of varying content and complexity across the semantic space.

  13. Identité stricte ou partielle et identification dans les phrases à copule. Comment les identifier ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amary-Coudreau Valérie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Le terme d’identité est utilisé dans de nombreux domaines et notre étude pose la question de ce que peut être une identité en langue et plus particulièrement dans le traitement des phrases à copule. En s’appuyant sur la classification proposé par Higgins (1973, on se propose de distinguer l’identité de la spécification et de l’identification à l’aide de différents outils concernant deux problématiques : qu’elle peut être la forme d’une identité pour une phrase à copule et quel type de définition peut-on lui donner ? Pour ce qui concerne la forme, les phrases données comme des identités et traitées par les logiciens et philosophes en termes de vrai ou faux ne correspondent pas à ce qu’on peut supposer être des identités en langue : par exemple, en français, une phrase comme « Cicéron est Tullius » n’est pas valide et doit comporter c’est à la place de est (comme d’ailleurs les phrases spécificationnelles et identificationnelles pour ne pas paraître artificielle. On peut trouver une justification à cela dans la dichotomie entre prédicationnelles et équatives proposée par Heycock & Kroch (1999. Les équatives regroupent la spécification, l’identification et l’identité, mais ces deux dernières sous-catégories ne sont pas clairement distinguées dans la plupart des travaux sur le sujet. Pour ce qui concerne les définitions, l’identité mathématique, d’une part, et sur la Théorie des Opérations Enonciatives (cf. Culioli & Desclès, 1981, parmi d’autres références, d’autre part, ne permettent pas de lever totalement le voile sur cette problématique. On pose donc une hypothèse où la forme et l’interprétation sont liées : l’identité se présente sous la forme d’une phrase en X c’est Y où les deux termes X et Y possèdent exactement la même structure interne, et par conséquent le même degré de référentialité. Ceci nous permet de d’envisager les caract

  14. Comparison of Single Loop and Dual Loop PP Reactors and PP Product Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yunfeng; Jiang Rong; Feng Suogui

    2003-01-01

    The present status of PP technology in China is presented. Through a review of single loop and dual loop PP reactor technology as well as development and utilization of PP products it is concluded that import of PP technology should be based on the demand of PP products and market trend with consideration of local conditions. The existing problems and future development of PP technology in China are discussed.

  15. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine eMichel Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favour a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-noun phrases may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal. Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers´ production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initialising participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-noun phrases: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  16. LA FRASE NOMINAL NGÄBÉRE The Nominal Phrase Ngäbére

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Murillo Miranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el avance de una amplia investigación cuyo propósito es elaborar una gramática descriptiva de la lengua chibcha ngäbére. El artículo presenta las características particulares más relevantes de la frase nominal de dicha variante dialectal (hablada en Costa Rica, también en Panamá, y establece la relación con algunas de las características generales de otras lenguas chibchas ístmicas. El primer apartado del escrito es una introducción a la lengua ngäbére y a sus hablantes; el segundo presenta la morfología de los sustantivos, pronombres y otras clases de palabras que conforman la frase nominal; el tercer apartado trata de la sintaxis de la frase nominal y esboza, de manera sucinta, las relaciones gramaticales; el cuarto apartado es una conclusión valorativa de este trabajo.This work is a preview of a broader study whose goal is to create a descriptive grammar of the Chibchan language, Ngäbere. The article describes the most relevant features of the dialect's nominal phrase (spoken in Costa Rica and Panama and establishes the relationship with some of the general features of other Isthmian Chibchan languages. The first part of the report is an introduction to Ngäbere and it speakers; the second, describes the morphology of the nouns, pronouns, and other words that make up the nominal phrase; the third, is about the syntax of the nominal phrase and it outlines in a succinct manner, grammatical relationships; the last part is a critical conclusion of this work.

  17. Generating descriptive visual words and visual phrases for large-scale image applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Hua, Gang; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen

    2011-09-01

    Bag-of-visual Words (BoWs) representation has been applied for various problems in the fields of multimedia and computer vision. The basic idea is to represent images as visual documents composed of repeatable and distinctive visual elements, which are comparable to the text words. Notwithstanding its great success and wide adoption, visual vocabulary created from single-image local descriptors is often shown to be not as effective as desired. In this paper, descriptive visual words (DVWs) and descriptive visual phrases (DVPs) are proposed as the visual correspondences to text words and phrases, where visual phrases refer to the frequently co-occurring visual word pairs. Since images are the carriers of visual objects and scenes, a descriptive visual element set can be composed by the visual words and their combinations which are effective in representing certain visual objects or scenes. Based on this idea, a general framework is proposed for generating DVWs and DVPs for image applications. In a large-scale image database containing 1506 object and scene categories, the visual words and visual word pairs descriptive to certain objects or scenes are identified and collected as the DVWs and DVPs. Experiments show that the DVWs and DVPs are informative and descriptive and, thus, are more comparable with the text words than the classic visual words. We apply the identified DVWs and DVPs in several applications including large-scale near-duplicated image retrieval, image search re-ranking, and object recognition. The combination of DVW and DVP performs better than the state of the art in large-scale near-duplicated image retrieval in terms of accuracy, efficiency and memory consumption. The proposed image search re-ranking algorithm: DWPRank outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithm by 12.4% in mean average precision and about 11 times faster in efficiency.

  18. Phrase-level speech simulation with an airway modulation model of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Brad H

    2013-06-01

    Artificial talkers and speech synthesis systems have long been used as a means of understanding both speech production and speech perception. The development of an airway modulation model is described that simulates the time-varying changes of the glottis and vocal tract, as well as acoustic wave propagation, during speech production. The result is a type of artificial talker that can be used to study various aspects of how sound is generated by humans and how that sound is perceived by a listener. The primary components of the model are introduced and simulation of words and phrases are demonstrated.

  19. Telugu Bigram Splitting using Consonant-based and Phrase-based Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kameswara Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Splitting is a conventional process in most of Indian languages according to their grammar rules. It is called ‘pada vicchEdanam’ (a Sanskrit term for word splitting and is widely used by most of the Indian languages. Splitting plays a key role in Machine Translation (MT particularly when the source language (SL is an Indian language. Though this splitting may not succeed completely in extracting the root words of which the compound is formed, but it shows considerable impact in Natural Language Processing (NLP as an important phase. Though there are many types of splitting, this paper considers only consonant based and phrase based splitting.

  20. A Linguistic Evaluation of Rule-Based, Phrase-Based, and Neural MT Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchardt Aljoscha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of several Machine Translation (MT engines implementing the three most widely used paradigms. The analysis is based on a manually built test suite that comprises a large range of linguistic phenomena. Two main observations are on the one hand the striking improvement of an commercial online system when turning from a phrase-based to a neural engine and on the other hand that the successful translations of neural MT systems sometimes bear resemblance with the translations of a rule-based MT system.

  1. Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Istók

    Full Text Available The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP, we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended.

  2. Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istók, Eva; Friberg, Anders; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP), we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan) or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended.

  3. A Cognitive Analysis of the Polysemy of the Preposition "to"%介词“to”多义性的认知分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春燕

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions are the most basic words people employ to express spatial concepts,and they are also an important part of English language.Based on the prototype theory,this paper is to analyze the semantic structure of to in a systematic and comprehensive way and to prove the fact that every sense of a preposition is from the prototypical features of the word.Thus,it is aimed to give some implications for English teaching.%介词是人们用来表达空间概念的一种基本词汇,在英语语言中起着举足轻重的作用。本文从认知语言学中的原型理论出发,对英语介词"to"的语义结构进行系统、全面的分析,阐述了介词的多义性均来自于其原型特征这一事实。

  4. Electrocorticographic language mapping with a listening task consisting of alternating speech and music phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Anne H; Huiskamp, Geertjan J M; Gosselaar, Peter H; Ferrier, Cyrille H

    2016-02-01

    Electrocorticographic (ECoG) mapping of high gamma activity induced by language tasks has been proposed as a more patient friendly alternative for electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), the gold standard in pre-surgical language mapping of epilepsy patients. However, ECoG mapping often reveals more language areas than considered critical with ESM. We investigated if critical language areas can be identified with a listening task consisting of speech and music phrases. Nine patients with implanted subdural grid electrodes listened to an audio fragment in which music and speech alternated. We analysed ECoG power in the 65-95 Hz band and obtained task-related activity patterns in electrodes over language areas. We compared the spatial distribution of sites that discriminated between listening to speech and music to ESM results using sensitivity and specificity calculations. Our listening task of alternating speech and music phrases had a low sensitivity (0.32) but a high specificity (0.95). The high specificity indicates that this test does indeed point to areas that are critical to language processing. Our test cannot replace ESM, but this short and simple task can give a reliable indication where to find critical language areas, better than ECoG mapping using language tasks alone. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of phrase-level prosodic information in lexical segmentation: evidence from word-spotting experiments in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahyang; Cho, Taehong

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the role of phrase-level prosodic boundary information in word segmentation in Korean with two word-spotting experiments. In experiment 1, it was found that intonational cues alone helped listeners with lexical segmentation. Listeners paid more attention to local intonational cues (...H#L...) across the prosodic boundary than the intonational information within a prosodic phrase. The results imply that intonation patterns with high frequency are used, though not exclusively, in lexical segmentation. In experiment 2, final lengthening was added to see how multiple prosodic cues influence lexical segmentation. The results showed that listeners did not necessarily benefit from the presence of both intonational and final lengthening cues: Their performance was improved only when intonational information contained infrequent tonal patterns for boundary marking, showing only partially cumulative effects of prosodic cues. When the intonational information was optimal (frequent) for boundary marking, however, poorer performance was observed with final lengthening. This is arguably because the phrase-initial segmental allophonic cues for the accentual phrase were not matched with the prosodic cues for the intonational phrase. It is proposed that the asymmetrical use of multiple cues was due to interaction between prosodic and segmental information that are computed in parallel in lexical segmentation.

  6. Discussion on the Difference between Phrases and Compound Words%谈短语与合成词的区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立

    2012-01-01

    短语与合成词是两种大小不同的语法单位,大多数短语和词的界限是清楚的。由于语言的发展变化,有些短语逐渐向合成词转化,在转化过程中就产生了某些短语和某些合成词的区分问题。本文对有争议的短语和合成词进行区分,以达到正确区分的目的。%Phrases and compound words are two grammatical units between the most phrases and words is discernible. As the changes which have different sizes, and the boundary of Chinese language, some phrases transform gradually into the compound words, and the differentiated problem of some phrases and some compound words has appeared. In this paper, we differentiate the debatable phrases and compound words, in order to master the cor- rect?differentiating standard.

  7. Comparison of pp and pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$=53 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alpgard, K; Åsman, B; Berglund, S; Bertrand, D; Böckmann, Klaus; Booth, C N; Buffam, C; Burow, L; Carlson, Per J; Carter, J R; Chevalley, J L; Eckart, B; Ekspong, G; Fabre, Jean-Paul; French, K A; Gaudaen, J; Gijsen, M; Hospes, R; Johnson, D; Jon-And, K; Kokott, T; Leistam, L; MacKenzie, R; Maggs, M N; Meinke, R; Mulkens, H; Müller, T; Munday, D J; Odian, A; Rosenberg, M; Rushbrooke, John G; Saarikko, H; Saarikko, T; Tavernier, Stefaan; Triantis, F A; Von Holt, K; Walck, C; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Weidberg, A R; White, T O; Wilquet, G; Yamdagni, N

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented from the first pp colliding beam runs at the CERN ISR, using the UA5 streamer chamber detector. pp interactions at \\sqrt{s}=53 GeV are compared with pp data taken in the same experiment. The results are in good agreement with extrapolations of low-energy pp data.

  8. Believing in God the Father: Interpreting a phrase from the Apostle’s Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sarot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our days, the creedal phrase ‘I believe in God the Father almighty’ is interpreted primarilyalong Trinitarian lines: It is applied to God as the Father of Jesus Christ. Here I argue that ithas a dual background: in Jesus’ prayer practice, in which He consistently addressed God as‘Father’, and in the Hellenistic habit of referring to the Creator as ‘Father’. I discuss Jesus’ useof the term ‘Father’ against its Old Testament background, and argue that it primarily pointsto the intimacy of Jesus’ relationship with His father. Against the Hellenistic background,however, the metaphor ‘Father’ means ‘he who brings forth effortlessly’. Finally, I discusssome gender issues connected with the use of the term ‘Father’ for God.

  9. Error-Driven Pruning of Treebank Grammars for Base Noun Phrase Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Cardie, C; Cardie, Claire; Pierce, David

    1998-01-01

    Finding simple, non-recursive, base noun phrases is an important subtask for many natural language processing applications. While previous empirical methods for base NP identification have been rather complex, this paper instead proposes a very simple algorithm that is tailored to the relative simplicity of the task. In particular, we present a corpus-based approach for finding base NPs by matching part-of-speech tag sequences. The training phase of the algorithm is based on two successful techniques: first the base NP grammar is read from a ``treebank'' corpus; then the grammar is improved by selecting rules with high ``benefit'' scores. Using this simple algorithm with a naive heuristic for matching rules, we achieve surprising accuracy in an evaluation on the Penn Treebank Wall Street Journal.

  10. Word Sense Disambiguation Using English-Spanish Aligned Phrases over Comparable Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Amoros, David

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a WSD experiment based on bilingual English-Spanish comparable corpora in which individual noun phrases have been identified and aligned with their respective counterparts in the other language. The evaluation of the experiment has been carried out against SemCor. We show that, with the alignment algorithm employed, potential precision is high (74.3%), however the coverage of the method is low (2.7%), due to alignments being far less frequent than we expected. Contrary to our intuition, precision does not rise consistently with the number of alignments. The coverage is low due to several factors; there are important domain differences, and English and Spanish are too close languages for this approach to be able to discriminate efficiently between senses, rendering it unsuitable for WSD, although the method may prove more productive in machine translation.

  11. [Acquisition of German morphosyntax in the context of constituent movement into the complementizer phrase position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    German is a genuine verb-second (V2) language. For V2 languages it is assumed that all sentence structures can be derived from the underlying subordinate clause structure via the movement of individual components. The acquisition of German V2 structures represents a critical step in German first language acquisition and is usually mastered at the age of 3 years. However, not all children succeed in filtering the necessary information from the spoken input in order to acquire this key component of German syntax. Use of canonical sentence structures alone is not a confirmation of a successful V2 acquisition. Moreover, this structure often represents some kind of interim grammar. Only the use of complementizer phrase (CP)-related structures, such as wh-questions or topicalizations of objects is a real indication of a successful V2 acquisition.

  12. Early acquisition of gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase: starting small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed presents some variations in relation to classical studies. The aim was to obtain a large corpus of NP data which would allow different types of analysis of the children's productions to be carried out. Intra-individual variability in early NP types was analyzed and measured, and an elicitation task for adjectives was used. Results show that the acquisition of NP and gender agreement is a complex process which advances as the children gradually integrate different pieces of evidence: phonological, distributional and functional. The reduction of variability as the grammatical process advances is a key feature for its explanation.

  13. Constructions Pluri-Pronominales dans les syntagmes verbaux complexes (Multi-Pronominal Constructions in Complex Verb Phrases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Maryse; De Spengler, Nina

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates variation affecting the position of pronouns in complex verb phrases among native French speakers. Describes the methods used to verify the hypothesis that there exists a correlation between individual hesitation and lack of consensus in the community. Analyzes data from questionnaires administered to 551 persons in Switzerland and…

  14. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  15. Bilinguals' Plausibility Judgments for Phrases with a Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning: The Influence of Language Brokering Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem G. López

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that prior experience in language brokering (informal translation may facilitate the processing of meaning within and across language boundaries. The present investigation examined the influence of brokering on bilinguals' processing of two word collocations with either a literal or a figurative meaning in each language. Proficient Spanish-English bilinguals classified as brokers or non-brokers were asked to judge if adjective+noun phrases presented in each language made sense or not. Phrases with a literal meaning (e.g., stinging insect were interspersed with phrases with a figurative meaning (e.g., stinging insult and non-sensical phrases (e.g., stinging picnic. It was hypothesized that plausibility judgments would be facilitated for literal relative to figurative meanings in each language but that experience in language brokering would be associated with a more equivalent pattern of responding across languages. These predictions were confirmed. The findings add to the body of empirical work on individual differences in language processing in bilinguals associated with prior language brokering experience.

  16. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  17. Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

  18. High Energy (-p)p and pp Elastic Scatterings in QCD Inspired Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Juan; MA Wei-Xing; HE Xiao-Rong

    2007-01-01

    We propose QCD inspired model to calculate (p)p and pp elastic scatterings at high energies in this paper.A calculation for total cross section of (p)p and pp is performed in which the contributions from gluon-gluon,quark-quark,and gluon-quark interactions are included.Our results show that the QCD inspired model gives a perfect fit to experimental data of total cross section both for (p)p and pp elastic scatterings at the whole energy region where experimental data existed at FNAL and CERN.

  19. Study of pp{yields}pp{eta} reaction at threshold; Etude de la reaction pp{yields}pp{eta} au seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleb, A.

    1994-11-01

    The {eta} production has been studied through the pp {yields} pp{eta} reaction at threshold. Data were taken at the Synchrotron of the ``Laboratoire National Saturne``. The detection in coincidence of the two protons scattered near 0 deg and analysed with the magnetic spectrometer SPES3 allows the reconstruction of missing mass spectra for the {eta} signature. A simulation program which takes into account all the experimental set up characteristics has been realized and tested through the pp {yields} d{pi}{sup +} reaction detected simultaneously with pp {yields} pp{eta}. The generated proton momentum spectra for pp {yields} pp{eta} show a pronounced {eta} mass dependence. This characteristic, connected to the kinematical properties of pp {yields} pp{eta} at threshold, is used to extract the mass of the meson {eta}. The obtained value, m{sub {eta}} = 547.65 {+-} 0.18 MeV, is in good agreement with measurement done recently through the pd {yields} {sup H}e{eta} reaction. The total cross section {sigma}{sub t} of pp {yields} pp{eta} measured at 1260, 1265 and 1300 MeV presents a strong energy dependence. This cross section increases less with energy than the phase-space. The influence of p-p and {eta}-p final state interactions in our measurements is studied. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions and assess the dominant character of the baryonic resonance N{sup *}(1535) in the {eta} mechanism production at threshold. These experimental results give an energy dependence which is not well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. This discrepancy could be an incorrect description of the {eta}-p interaction in the models. (author). 48 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Ainsi en tête de phrase + inversion : une analyse de corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karssenberg Lena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’une analyse de corpus de 171 exemples de l’adverbe ainsi en tête de phrase suivi de trois types d’inversion : inversion nominale, inversion complexe et inversion pronominale. Nous proposons une classification de cinq interprétations (manière, quotatif, causal, précision, illustration ainsi que des tests de reformulation pour distinguer entre ces interprétations. L’application de ces tests à notre corpus nous permet de constater que (1 l’inversion nominale se combine majoritairement avec ainsi de manière, alors que (2 l’inversion complexe et pronominale se combinent surtout avec ainsi adverbe de phrase. Contrairement à ce qui est affirmé dans les travaux antérieurs sur ainsi, l’inversion nominale se combine également avec ainsi causal dans environ 20 % des cas, ce que nous expliquons par la structure informationnelle de ces cas. La structure de l’information nous permet également d’expliquer pourquoi l’inversion nominale n’est que rarement introduite par ainsi illustratif. De plus, il s’avère que l’interprétation illustrative est de loin l’interprétation la plus fréquente quand ainsi se combine avec l’inversion complexe, et pas l’interprétation causale. Dernièrement, l’inversion complexe ainsi que l’inversion pronominale ne se combinent avec ainsi de manière qu’aux cas où l’inversion nominale est exclue en raison de la présence d’un objet direct. Cela nous amène à affirmer que, contrairement à ce qu’affirment certaines analyses antérieures d’ainsi + inversion, l’inversion pronominale n’est pas moins contrainte que l’inversion complexe en ce qui concerne les interprétations d’ainsi avec lesquelles ce type d’inversion se combine. La conclusion générale de cet article est donc que le choix du type d’inversion ne dépend pas uniquement de la sémantique d’ainsi ; des facteurs syntaxiques entrent également en jeu.

  1. ppGpp: magic beyond RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Swanson, Michele S

    2012-02-16

    During stress, bacteria undergo extensive physiological transformations, many of which are coordinated by ppGpp. Although ppGpp is best known for enhancing cellular resilience by redirecting the RNA polymerase (RNAP) to certain genes, it also acts as a signal in many other cellular processes in bacteria. After a brief overview of ppGpp biosynthesis and its impact on promoter selection by RNAP, we discuss how bacteria exploit ppGpp to modulate the synthesis, stability or activity of proteins or regulatory RNAs that are crucial in challenging environments, using mechanisms beyond the direct regulation of RNAP activity.

  2. Variable types for meaning assembly: a logical syntax for generic noun phrases introduced by most

    CERN Document Server

    Retoré, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a way to compute the meanings associated with sentences with generic noun phrases corresponding to the generalized quantifier most. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can thereafter be interpreted in your favourite models. To do so, we depart significantly from the dominant Fregean view with a single untyped universe. Indeed, our proposal adopts type theory with some hints from Hilbert \\epsilon-calculus (Hilbert, 1922; Avigad and Zach, 2008) and from medieval philosophy, see e.g. de Libera (1993, 1996). Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with ongoing work in lexical semantics (Asher 2011; Bassac et al. 2010; Moot, Pr\\'evot and Retor\\'e 2011). Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class, or a generic element of this class, which is not uttered but provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, ...

  3. Où finit la phrase ? Où commence le texte ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Benzitoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous nous proposons d’aborder l’épineuse question de la frontière entre la phrase et le texte à travers l’exemple des regroupements de constructions verbales. Plus spécifiquement, nous essayons de savoir dans quels cas il faut considérer qu’il s’agit d’un regroupement de nature syntaxique. Pour y répondre, nous détaillons en priorité les critères de syntaxe interne et externe sur lesquels nous basons notre analyse et qui nous permettent d’élaborer une typologie des regroupements. Toutefois, étant donné la complexité de la tâche, notre typologie posera essentiellement les principes généraux, chaque construction méritant une description approfondie.This paper questions the frontier between grammatical relations and discourse relations, by taking examples of verbal clause sequences, mostly drawn from spoken French corpora. More specifically, we try to analyse in which cases such combinations can be given a truly syntactic status. In order to elaborate our typology, we make a distinction between two kinds of criteria: those based on internal syntax and those based on external syntax. However, our typology will remain very general because of the difficulty of the task. In fact, every construction should be subject to a precise description.

  4. In a manner of speaking phrases, expressions, and proverbs and how we use and misuse them

    CERN Document Server

    McNairn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    What do “the whole kit and caboodle," “the whole shebang," “the whole megillah," “the whole enchilada," “the whole nine yards," “the whole box and dice," and “the full Monty" have in common? They're all expressions that mean “the entire quantity," and they're all examples of the breadth and depth of the English-speaking world's vocabulary. From the multitude of words and phrases in daily use, the author of this delightful exploration into what we say and why we say it zeroes in on those expressions and sayings and their variations that are funny, quirky, just plain folksy, or playfully dressed up in rhyme or alliteration. Some may have become clichés that, as it's said with “tongue in cheek," should be “avoided like the plague." Others have been distorted, deemed politically incorrect, or shrouded in mystery and must bear some explanation. Among the topics the author delves into are expressions that shouldn't be taken literally (“dressed to kill" and “kick the bucket"), foreign expressions that c...

  5. Dealing with phraseology in business dictionaries: focus on dictionary functions – not phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The language of written business communication is characterised by the extensive use of phraseology, not only in terms of collocations and idiomatic expressions, but also of standard phrases in prototypical business genres. In any case, the phraseological information should be included in business dictionaries (in the following referred to as BDs in accordance with the planned dictionary functions. Hence, the selection and presentation of the phraseological information should be decided by the lexicographer on the basis of the user needs alone and not on the recommendations of the phraseological literature about lexicographical practice. In this paper, I will firstly explain why lexicography and phraseology, although closely associated in a large number of studies, are quite different disciplines, and how their shared interest for dictionary practice in general is based on radically different views. I will then discuss the dictionary functions of BDs and focus on a number of concepts featuring extensive phraseological solutions to show and argue that dealing with phraseology in BDs should always keep focus on dictionary functions.

  6. A RADIOIMMUNOASSAY FOR PLACENTAL PROTEIN PP5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShui-Long; DUGuo-Guang; ZHENGShu-Rong; LIUXin-Jun; YANRen-Ying

    1989-01-01

    A radioimmunoasay of high sendtivity end smbility was developed For placental proteinPP5 (PP5), a syncytiotrophoblast product oF the human placenta. We measured 94 samples from 17 normal nonpregnant women, 47 normal pregnant women, and 30 samples

  7. No horizons in pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    We argue that pp-wave backgrounds can not admit event horizons. We also comment on pp-wave generalizations which would admit horizons and show that there exists a black string solution which asymptotes to a five dimensional plane wave background.

  8. Comprehension of Elided Phrases in Korean and English: VP-Ellipsis, Null Object Constructions, and One-Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the comprehension of elided phrases in Korean and English, focusing on the patterns exemplified below. (1) Korean a. VP-ellipsis: Sungki-ka phalan kabang-ul sa-ss-e-yo. Sunhuy-to-yey-yo Sungki-NOM blue bag-ACC buy-PST-DECL-POL Sunhuy-also-be-POL "Sungki bought a blue bag. Sunhuy did…

  9. Neural correlates of temporal context retrieval for abstract scrambled phrases: Reducing narrative and familiarity-based strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Diana, Rachel A

    2017-01-15

    Temporal context, memory for the timing of events, can be assessed using non-temporal strategies such as relative familiarity or inference from a semantic narrative. Neuroimaging studies, which have previously encouraged such strategies, find similar patterns of brain regions involved in both temporal and non-temporal context memory. The present study aims to investigate whether previous findings are driven by the use of non-temporal strategies or whether the same pattern of brain regions is identified when relative familiarity and semantic narrative strategies are discouraged. We used abstract phrases (e.g. alone me leave) created by scrambling familiar three-word phrases. The words in the phrases were less concrete than the object image stimuli used in previous studies of temporal context memory (Jenkins and Ranganath, 2010) and were presented quickly while participants read each word aloud. This differed from previous studies in which participants were encouraged to use narrative strategies during encoding (Tubridy and Davachi, 2011) and was designed to discourage use of narrative strategies. The relative familiarity of the words within each phrase was similar and likely not diagnostic of word order during encoding, in order to minimize the use of relative familiarity strategies. Neuroimaging results indicate that temporal context retrieval was associated with the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, which are regions consistent with the retrieval of non-temporal context in episodic memory, suggesting that previous findings were not driven entirely by non-temporal strategies but rather that temporal memory relies on similar brain regions to non-temporal memory.

  10. ONKALO pose experiment. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254 and ONK-PP259...261

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254, ONKPP259, ONK-PP260 and ONK-PP261 at ONKALO in the investigation niche ONKTKU- 3 (POSE) between December 2009 and June 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. El significado de la preposición 'de': un enfoque cognitivo-prototípico THE MEANING OF THE PREPOSITION 'DE: A COGNITIVE-PROTOTYPE FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Funes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El carácter léxico de la preposición 'de' no siempre ha sido reconocido debidamente por cuanto las preposiciones no pueden funcionar independientemente y por la variedad de significados que se les atribuye. Considerando este vacío teórico, el presente trabajo, enmarcado en el Enfoque Cognitivo-Prototípico (Lakoff 1987; Langacker 1987, 1991; Hopper 1988; Geeraerts 2007; entre otros, plantea las siguientes hipótesis: a los distintos valores semánticos de la preposición 'de' (en construcciones adnominales están organizados sistemáticamente y configuran un ítem polisémico; b el ítem polisémico 'de' se caracteriza por organizarse (1 mediante una estructura de categoría radial (Lakoff 1987, (2 sobre la base del modelo cognitivo idealizado del punto de referencia (Langacker 1991 y (3 a partir de los atributos de Taylor (1995 para el uso posesivo, que es el uso prototípico; c finalmente, las construcciones con 'de' que se alejan del valor prototípico siguen guardando relación semántico-pragmática con este por 'semejanza de familia' (Wittgenstein 1988[1953]; Lakoff 1987. Esta relación de semejanza contempla tanto la pérdida como el agregado de atributos no presentes en la zona prototípica. Para demostrar estas hipótesis, se analizaron cualitativamente diversos ejemplos de las extensiones semánticas surgidas del sentido central de posesión. Los ejemplos fueron seleccionados de un corpus oral del español de Buenos Aires.The lexical nature of the preposition 'de' has not always been recognized duly. This is because prepositions cannot work independently and also because of the variety of meanings that they convey. In view of this theoretical gap, the present study -in line with the Prototypical-Cognitive Approach (Lakoff 1987, Langacker 1987, 1991, Hopper 1988, Geeraerts 2007, among others- formulates the following hypotheses: a the different semantic values of the preposition 'de' (in nominal constructions are systematically

  12. « Sur la phonologie de la phrase » de Serge Karcevski. Essai de relecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ottavi Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La place liminale, à la frontière entre Cercle pragois, École de Genève et Cercle de Moscou, que l'historiographie linguistique réserve à la figure de Serge Karcevski (1884-1955 a fini par laisser dans l’ombre l’apport spécifique de son oeuvre et ses traits d’originalité. Une tension épistémologique très précise et très marquée ressort de l’ensemble de ses recherches : on y retrouve les questions de base de la linguistique théorique de son temps, qui portent sur la nature des unités minimes de la langue, sur le statut de la phrase et son rapport avec la notion de mot. D’un côté, le programme de recherche de Karcevski sont vigoureusement et explicitement généralistes (en témoigne le choix de rédiger en français ses travaux les plus accomplis, sa langue maternelle n’étant que le tout premier appui pour le développement d’une réflexion plus ample. De l’autre, son oeuvre, traversée par plusieurs pôles d’intérêt (sémiologie, grammaire, syntaxe, non moins que la didactique, est régie pour autant par une batterie de notions-clés très caractéristiques : le langage comme lieu d’interaction de forces opposées se produisant dans un « équilibre instable », la langue comme lieu de la productivité ayant le dialogue comme centre. En dépit de son présumé rôle d’intermédiaire, Karcevski fait preuve d’une attitude remarquablement cohérente et novatrice : moins intéressé que les autres « russes » du Cercle de Prague à la recherche strictement phonologique, il s’engage dans le développement d’une phonologie à lui, d’inspiration typologique, portant sur la definition des schémas intonatifs comme invariants linguistiques. La méthodologie et les outils conceptuels mis en oeuvre au cours de cette entreprise phonologique toute particulière font l’objet du présent essai. Notamment, notre propos majeur est de mettre en lumière les articulations principales de « Sur la phonologie de

  13. Glucose-induced posttranslational activation of protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 in yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dries Castermans; Ils Somers; Johan Kriel; Wendy Louwet; Stefaan Wera; Matthias Versele; Veerle Janssens; Johan M Thevelein

    2012-01-01

    The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 are major regulators of a variety of cellular processes in yeast and other eukaryotes.Here,we reveal that both enzymes are direct targets of glucose sensing.Addition of glucose to glucosedeprived yeast cells triggered rapid posttranslational activation of both PP2A and PP1.Glucose activation of PP2A is controlled by regulatory subunits Rts1,Cdc55,Rrd1 and Rrd2.It is associated with rapid carboxymethylation of the catalytic subnnits,which is necessary but not sufficient for activation.Glucose activation of PP1 was fully dependent on regulatory subunits Reg1 and Shp1.Absence of Gac1,GIc8,Reg2 or Red1 partially reduced activation while Pig1 and Pig2 inhibited activation.Full activation of PP2A and PP1 was also dependent on subunits classically considered to belong to the other phosphatase.PP2A activation was dependent on PP1 subunits Reg1 and Shpl while PP1 activation was dependent on PP2A subunit Rts1.Rts1 interacted with both Pph21 and Glc7 under different conditions and these interactions were Regl dependent.Regl-GIc7 interaction is responsible for PP1 involvement in the main glucose repression pathway and we show that deletion of Shpl also causes strong derepression of the invertase gene SUC2.Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22,Rrd1 and Rrd2,specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2,indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 derepression.Interestingly,the effect of the regulatory subunit Rtsl was consistent with its role as a subunit of both PP2A and PP1,affecting derepression and repression of SUC2,respectively.We also show that abolished phosphatase activation,except by reg1A,does not completely block Snf1 dephosphorylation after addition of glucose.Finally,we show that glucose activation of the cAMP-PKA (protein kinase A)pathway is required for glucose activation of both PP2A and PP1.Our results provide novel insight into the complex regulatory role of these two major protein phosphatases in glucose

  14. Analysis of Vernier Scans during the PP2PP run in 2009 (pp at 100 GeV/beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A.

    2011-12-13

    At the end of RHIC's 2009 operation a dedicated run for the PP2PP experiment (part of the STAR experiment) took place from Jun 29 to Jul 06 2009. Polarized protons were accelerated to 100 GeV using ramp-file pp100-90pp2pp with a {beta}* = 22 m in IR6. Since only transverse polarization was required no rotator ramp was in use. The PP2PP experiment consists mainly of two Roman Pot detectors (one horizontal and one vertical) on either side of IR6 in the outgoing-beam arms between the Q3 and Q4 magnets. The yellow pots are in sector 5, the blue ones in sector 6. Roman Pot type detectors are installed inside the beampipe causing an accelerator safety concern. To address this concern there is a limit to the allowable total beam current in the machine while Roman Pots are enabled to move closer to the beam. This limit was set to a motion limit of 5 mm from the center of the beampipe and 50 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} beam current per ring. In order to reduce the background in the detectors, beams were scraped using the RHIC collimator system prior to moving the pots closer. This was typically repeated several times throughout a store since beam halo reforms over the course of hours.

  15. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  16. Abstract and concrete phrases processing differentially modulates cortico-spinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Jacquet, Pierre O; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Nicoletti, Roberto; Tessari, Alessia; Borghi, Anna M

    2012-12-07

    An important challenge of embodied theories is to explain the comprehension of abstract sentences. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the role of the motor cortex in this process. We developed a new paradigm to study the abstract-concrete dimension by combining concrete (i.e., action-related) and abstract (i.e., non-action-related) verbs with nouns of graspable and non-graspable objects. Using these verb-noun combinations we performed a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) on the left primary motor cortex while participants performed a sentence sensibility task. Single-TMS pulses were delivered 250ms after verb or noun presentation in each of four combinations of abstract and concrete verbs and nouns. To evaluate cortico-spinal excitability we registered the electromyographic activity of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. As to verb-noun integration, analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after TMS pulse during noun presentation revealed greater peak-to-peak amplitude in phrases containing abstract rather than concrete verbs. Response times were also collected and showed that compatible (Concrete-Concrete and Abstract-Abstract) combinations were processed faster than mixed ones; moreover in combinations containing concrete verbs, participants were faster when the pulse was delivered on the first word (verb) than on the second one (noun). Results support previous findings showing early activation of hand-related areas after concrete verbs processing. The prolonged or delayed activation of the same areas by abstract verbs will be discussed in the framework of recent embodied theories based on multiple types of representation, particularly theories emphasizing the role of different acquisition mechanisms for concrete and abstract words (Borghi and Cimatti, 2009,2012).

  17. Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and

  18. Causal structures of pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the causal structure of pp-wave spacetimes using the ideal point construction outlined by Geroch, Kronheimer, and Penrose. This generalizes the recent work of Marolf and Ross, who considered similar issues for plane wave spacetimes. We address the question regarding the dimension of the causal boundary for certain specific pp-wave backgrounds. In particular, we demonstrate that the pp-wave spacetime which gives rise to the N = 2 sine-Gordon string world-sheet theory is geodesically complete and has a one-dimensional causal boundary.

  19. The Preference of Keeping the Intermediary /y/(ی in Prepositional Construction and Its Attachment to the Silent» h«.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   One of the problems of Persian writing is the question of writing and including the noun or adjective "Prepositional" construction sign in words the written form of which end in a silent » h « which is in fact a short vowel equivalent to /e/ (kasra ـِـ .The difference between the two ways of writing the intermediary consonant /y/( ی at the end of the word with a last silent » h « , completely as « ی » or with the sign « ء» on the silent » h « is rooted in the controversy between the traditional and modern approaches of writing.   The present study is about to study into the following subjects: an analysis and criticism of both the above approaches, a survey of the history of the intermediary /y/( ی , recognizing its phonetic significance and its role in making and adding new syllables, and finally a conclusion about the more convenient way to write it. It is possible that the outcome of the present study will provide us with a unique form of writing of the case in different texts like books, articles, newspapers, journals and electronic texts.

  20. Two Structural Positions for Locative and Directional PPs in Norwegian Motion Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Tungseth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two types of constructions in Norwegian where a combination of a verb of motion and a prepositional phrase are ambiguous between a reading of directed motion and a reading of located motion. Based on the differences in the syntactic behaviour of the two types of constructions with respect to a variety of tests (viz. VP constituency tests, adverbial placement, accent placement and the binding of anaphora, I argue that the two different readings have different argument structures and syntactic structures. On the directed motion reading, the PP appears low down in the verb phrase as complement to a functional head Path0, where it is interpreted as endpoint. Locative PPs, however, appear higher up in the structure as a verb phrase adjunct.

  1. GridPP returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Neasan O'Neill

    2011-01-01

    In early September, GridPP, the collaboration that manages the UK’s contribution to the worldwide LHC Computing Grid (wLCG), celebrated a decade of work by holding its twenty-seventh collaboration meeting at CERN.   Officially launched in September 2001, GridPP was one of the original partners in wLCG, funding much of the early work at CERN. Over the last decade GridPP has gone from a mere proposal to almost 30,000 CPUs working for researchers scattered across the globe. Twice a year, GridPP meets to discuss the progress and future plans of the community and this year, for the first time since 2004, decamped to CERN for this biannual meeting on the theme “GridPP in the International Context”. The main meeting was held over 2 days in the IT auditorium and was the perfect opportunity to have contributions from experts based at CERN, alongside those from within GridPP. Opening with a welcome from Frederic Hemmer, Head of the IT Department at CERN, the meeting began with...

  2. Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries.

  3. The Tragedy of the “Tragedy of the Commons”: Why Coining Too Good a Phrase Can Be Dangerous

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkshaw, Robert; Hawkshaw, Sarah; Sumaila, U.

    2012-01-01

    A deep reading of Hardin (1968) reveals that he had a lot more to say about the use and regulation of resources such as fisheries than he is given credit for in the literature. It appears that he is typically cited just so that authors can use the phrase “tragedy of the commons” to invoke the specter of looming catastrophe and then tie that to whatever solution they have proposed. We argue in this contribution that there is a lot more in Hardin’s essay that either contradicts or greatly compl...

  4. Identification of vowel length, word stress and compound words and phrases by postlingually-deafened cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Faulkner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: The accurate perception of prosody assists a listener in deriving meaning from natural speech. Few studies have addressed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to perceive the brief duration prosodic cues involved in contrastive vowel length, word stress, and compound word...... word stress, vowel length, and compound words or phrases all of which were presented with minimal-pair response choices. Tests were performed in quiet and in speech-spectrum shaped noise at a 10 dB signal- to-noise ratio. Also, discrimination thresholds for four acoustic properties of a synthetic vowel...

  5. The Tragedy of the “Tragedy of the Commons”: Why Coining Too Good a Phrase Can Be Dangerous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rashid Sumaila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A deep reading of Hardin (1968 reveals that he had a lot more to say about the use and regulation of resources such as fisheries than he is given credit for in the literature. It appears that he is typically cited just so that authors can use the phrase “tragedy of the commons” to invoke the specter of looming catastrophe and then tie that to whatever solution they have proposed. We argue in this contribution that there is a lot more in Hardin’s essay that either contradicts or greatly complicates the arguments he is cited as an authority for.

  6. Russian-English Glossary of International Maritime Law Terms (and Selected Terms in Related Disciplines.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Intelligence Support Center, Washington, DC.

    This glossary contains over 750 terms encountered in international maritime law texts. It includes terms of the art, fairly common abbreviations, geographic names, and prepositional phrases routinely encountered in international treaties, conventions, and agreements. The prepositional phrases are recorded exactly as they appear in formal texts.…

  7. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don

    2014-01-01

    The most abundantly produced virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the immunodominant phosphoprotein 65 (pp65), which is frequently included in CMV vaccines. Although it is nonessential for in vitro CMV growth, pp65 displays immunomodulatory functions that support a potential role in primary and/or persistent infection. To determine the contribution of pp65 to CMV infection and immunity, we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both pp65 orthologs (RhCMVΔpp65ab). While ...

  8. The phone makes us scream: corpus study of English and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kuznetsova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores English and Russian speech verbs with phone prepositional phrases (PPs. It investigates two hypotheses: 1 A phone PP produces an independent construction and 2 A phone PP can be freely added to any speech verb. Two constructions in English and two constructions in Russian are used as the material for the analysis. In both languages I explore a neutral phone construction and compare it with a construction meaning ‘speak into the phone’. I present a new method – statistical profiling, that explores which words occur in a slot of a construction most frequently and how that frequency list for a slot is changed if another slot is filled. This paper shows that English on the phone phrase can freely be added to any speech and sound verb, while other phone PPs produce different phone constructions.

  9. Recursividade e coordenação em português a partir de sintagmas preposicionais: da prosódia à sintaxe em estudos psicolinguísticos = Recursion and coordination in Portuguese from prepositional phrases: from prosody to syntax in psycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, Nathacia Lucena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de pistas prosódicas, verificadas com experimentos psicolinguísticos de leitura, tem-se aqui o propósito original, por meio dos postulados da Gramática Gerativa, de se mostrar se a prosódia marca a estrutura sintática relativa à Recursividade ou à Coordenação, presente em sintagmas preposicionais (PPs seguintes a um sintagma verbal no português do Brasil. A curva de pitch, detectada pelo uso da plataforma Praat, permite a análise de sintagmas intonacionais, que possuem características acústicas, como fronteiras, e características linguísticas, como pistas sintáticas (cf. LADD, 1986, 1988. As hipóteses são as de que em frases intonacionais em construções com PPs-adjunto coordenados haja o reset, e em construções com PPs-adjunto recursivos não haja o reset. A ausência do reset corresponde a uma pista prosódica do mecanismo de Recursividade

  10. Killing tensors in pp-wave spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, Aidan J [87 Carlton Place, Glasgow G5 9TD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tupper, Brian O J, E-mail: aidan@countingthoughts.co, E-mail: bt32@rogers.co [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2010-12-21

    The formal solution of the second-order Killing tensor equations for the general pp-wave spacetime is given. The Killing tensor equations are integrated fully for some specific pp-wave spacetimes. In particular, the complete solution is given for the conformally flat plane wave spacetimes and we find that irreducible Killing tensors arise for specific classes. The maximum number of independent irreducible Killing tensors admitted by a conformally flat plane wave spacetime is shown to be six. It is shown that every pp-wave spacetime that admits an homothety will admit a Killing tensor of Koutras type and, with the exception of the singular scale-invariant plane wave spacetimes, this Killing tensor is irreducible.

  11. Examination and Comparison of Phrases of Some Old Letters of Ascension (to Heaven and It's Comparison with Shafiee Kadkani's Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    کهدویی کهدویی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human voyage to the world of ultra sense is a matter of discourses which was widely discussed between nations and the various schools of philosophy, language and many people including leaders of religions and thoughts branches confessed doing such voyages and left some literary reports of their mystical and dreamy travel. The oldest and newest of these reports are shown in this paper and them between the voyages that traditional people have reported and the letter of ascension of M.R.SH.KK as ample of a modern man which is available we make some comparisons in different dimensions , dealing with unconscious and interfering of super human in forming their phrases . This survey shows that most of these voyages could have certain occurrences, and could explain them in scientific view and particularly based on Yung's ideas. In evaluating a part of phrases of these voyages it has been shown that the similarities and common points of these ascensions is related to the beliefs, mortification and deliberations that cause these voyages in one side and in the other side is related to the influence of the most formers and the letter voyages; also by comparing the two traditional and modern groups of passengers of the invisible world. Through submitting and explaining their documentary reports, the ideology role of these two groups is described in creating the elements of these phrases and mean while the commitment and mission of human is described based on considering the traditional definition of human as a speaking animal and the definition of moderns as a searching animal in human general ascension , and at the end it is reminded that the modern human is trying to encourage and prepare the collective conscience of human to clear and improve the society through conscious movement and describing manners of painful souls in world of spirits and using the fear strategy. The reason of fear less critic of poets in the last part of the letter of ascension of

  12. 基于意向图式的多义介词on的空间隐喻认知%Research on Spacial and Metaphorical Cognition of Polysemous Preposition On Based on Image Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林殷

    2014-01-01

    空间概念是人类较早产生的、可以直接理解的概念,也是人们认识社会表达各种认知成果的基础。据Brown和LOB语料库统计,空间介词on在英语语言学习中占据着至关重要的地位。意象图式是认知语言中的重要概念,基于认知语言学中的意象图式来剖析介词on的空间原型义,及其在进行跨概念域转用时的隐喻映射过程,是符合人们跨概念域认知世界的过程。%The spacial concept grown early and been understandable directly .It is the basis peo-ple cognize the world and expresses kinds of cognitive achievements.According to the statistics from the corpus Brown and LOB,the spatial preposition On plays a crucial role in English language learn-ing.Image schema is an important concept in cognitive linguistics.To analyze the prototypical meaning of the spacial preposition On and the role of On in the metaphorical process of cross conceptual domain based on image schema is in line with the process that people cognize the world through cross conceptu-al domains.

  13. Progress of Automatic Extraction of Uyghur Phrases%维吾尔语短语自动抽取研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军

    2015-01-01

    Phrase extraction, which is the research basis of machine translation and information retrieval, plays a very important role in natural language processing. This paper puts the emphasis on the research progress of of Uyghur phrase extraction. To make convenience for discussion, this paper studies the linguistic features of Uyghur phrases and analyzes the impacts of these features on the phrase extraction. This paper mainly summarizes the philological theories of phrase identification in Uyghur and discusses the technologies of automatic extraction of Uyghur phrases. There has made great progress on the extraction of Uyghur phrases in both theory and technology. However, there are still lots of work to be carried out, such as to formulate tagging standard, study tagged corpus and expend research domains etc. It is hoped that this paper can give some references to the research on phrase extraction in Uyghur.%短语识别是机器翻译与信息检索的技术基础,具有重要的研究价值.围绕维吾尔语短语识别的研究进展,阐述了维吾尔语的语言特点,分析了这些特点对维吾尔语短语识别的影响,总结了近年来维吾尔语短语识别的有关语言学研究成果,重点梳理了维吾尔语短语自动抽取的相关研究方法.通过总结和梳理,发现目前维吾尔语短语自动抽取研究在理论和实现技术方面取得了较大进展,但在短语标注标准、研究语料及研究领域等方面还有大量工作尚未有效开展,需要予以关注.希望该文能为维吾尔语短语抽取相关研究提供借鉴和参考.

  14. New boundaries for the "ppK-" production in p+p collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Eliane

    2014-11-01

    The HADES collaboration has searched for the anti-kaonic nuclear cluster "ppK-" in p+p collisions by its decay into pΛ. In the course of this analysis several cross checks had to be performed. This report discusses two examples thereof. In one test it was checked whether the presence of background events could introduce a bias on the applied partial wave analysis. The second item discussed here is the extraction of the total pK+Λ production cross section necessary to derive the absolute upper limit on the "ppK-" production cross section.

  15. New boundaries for the “ppK−” production in p+p collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epple Eliane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The HADES collaboration has searched for the anti-kaonic nuclear cluster “ppK−” in p+p collisions by its decay into pΛ. In the course of this analysis several cross checks had to be performed. This report discusses two examples thereof. In one test it was checked whether the presence of background events could introduce a bias on the applied partial wave analysis. The second item discussed here is the extraction of the total pK+Λ production cross section necessary to derive the absolute upper limit on the “ppK−” production cross section.

  16. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    53 msec longer than single noun (1W) production. Waveform amplitude and topographic analyses carried out on stimulus- and response-aligned ERPs indicated that the two conditions differed in a late time-window, with a topographic pattern for 2W lasting from 300 to 480 msec after picture presentation......The present study builds upon findings from event-related potential (ERP) studies of single word production in order to shed light onto the mechanisms underlying the production of dual-word adjective-noun phrases (NPs). In a first experiment, we tested for potential differences elicited by visual...... stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...

  17. Establishing generalized, productive verb-noun phrase usage in a manual language system with moderately handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, G R; Brenn-White, B; Lentz, A; Hodur, P; Egger, D; Frankoff, D

    1982-02-01

    Strategies for producing generalized language skills continue to be of considerable interest to those working with severely language-delayed children. Research on generalized instruction-following suggested that strategies employing linguistic elements (verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.) arranged in systematic combination matrices were successful in producing generalized and novel responses among handicapped children. The efficacy of a training matrix in the development of expressive verb-noun phrase usage was demonstrated. Two of the three students showed considerable gains in trained responses as well as predicted, novel responses, while a third who had much less training, showed some gains. Increases were also found in the overall development of expressive language tests. This approach is discussed in relation to other experimental approaches to language development.

  18. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  19. Using noun phrases for navigating biomedical literature on Pubmed: how many updates are we losing track of?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The "related citations" on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed "related citations." We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper--many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper.

  20. ISAJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for pp and anti pp interactions. Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, F.E.; Protopopescu, S.D.

    1982-09-01

    ISAJET is a Monte Carlo computer program which simulates pp and anti pp reactions at high energy. It can generate minimum bias events representative of the total inelastic cross section, high PT hadronic events, and Drell-Yan events with a virtual ..gamma.., W/sup + -/, or Z/sup 0/. It is based on perturbative QCD and phenomeno-logical models for jet fragmentation.

  1. Polarization observables for the reaction pp -> pp. pi. /sup 0/ at 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, P.J.; Bachman, M.; Hollas, C.L.; McNaughton, K.H.; Xu Shenwu; Bonner, B.E.; Van Dyck, O.B.; McGill, J.; McNaughton, M.W.; Peng, J.C.

    1987-10-22

    The Wolfenstein polarization observables D/sub NN/, D/sub S..cap omega../ and D/sub L..cap omega../, where ..cap omega.. denotes a mixture of S and L polarization components, the induced polarization P, and the analysing power A have been measured for the reaction pp -> pp..pi../sup 0/ at 800, 733, and 647 MeV. Comparisons are made to theoretical predictions of the model of Dubach, Kloet and Silbar.

  2. Chinese Phrase Tagging and Automated Annotation Based on CSSCI Corpus%CSSCI语料中短语结构标注与自动识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢靖; 苏新宁; 沈思

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a new syntax method as the solution of term phrase identification on CSSCI corpus, and obtains the inter - relationship among terms in academic literature from the linguistic aspect based on phrase components, such as words, part - of - speech, grammar functions, etc. These linguistic features are mixed with phrase features which are extracted from Tsinghua Treebank so as to leverage the accuracy of phrase auto - identification in academic corpus.%将短语结构标注引入CSSCI期刊论文题录信息分析,在关键词、术语构成上从语法角度深度探讨各组成词汇之间的语法关系,力图通过语法功能分析揭示其所蕴含的语义知识。在进行一定规模语料标注基础上,通过短语词汇、词性统计及短语语法功能分析获取学术文献中短语结构构成特征,并将这部分特征与清华树库语料短语特征混合,提高短语结构在科技文献中的识别率。

  3. P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Review of P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    Resensie van P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-...

  4. PP2A: The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Maeve [Department of Life Sciences, and Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Kiely, Patrick A., E-mail: Patrick.Kiely@ul.ie [Department of Life Sciences, and Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Stokes Institute, University of Limerick 78666, Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-04-13

    Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase in cells. It consists of a catalytic subunit (C), a structural subunit (A), and a regulatory/variable B-type subunit. PP2A has a critical role to play in homeostasis where its predominant function is as a phosphatase that regulates the major cell signaling pathways in cells. Changes in the assembly, activity and substrate specificity of the PP2A holoenzyme have a direct role in disease and are a major contributor to the maintenance of the transformed phenotype in cancer. We have learned a lot about how PP2A functions from specific mutations that disrupt the core assembly of PP2A and from viral proteins that target PP2A and inhibit its effect as a phosphatase. This prompted various studies revealing that restoration of PP2A activity benefits some cancer patients. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action of this is limited because of the complex nature of PP2A holoenzyme assembly and because it acts through a wide variety of signaling pathways. Information on PP2A is also conflicting as there are situations whereby inactivation of PP2A induces apoptosis in many cancer cells. In this review we discuss this relationship and we also address many of the pertinent and topical questions that relate to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at altering PP2A activity.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODIFIED PP/COPOLYPROPYLENE/POE BLENDS FOR AUTOMOBILE BUMPERS%PP/共聚PP/POE汽车保险杠专用料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠兴; 苏新

    2003-01-01

    研制了PP/共聚PP/聚烯烃弹性体(POE)汽车保险杠专用料,介绍了POE的结构特点,探讨了POE及共聚PP含量对PP力学等性能的影响.结果表明,POE对PP的增韧优于(乙烯/丙烯/二烯)共聚物(EPDM),共聚PP在PP/共聚PP/POE体系中也起到增韧作用,该共混料可以满足汽车保险杠性能的要求.

  6. pp Interaction in Extended Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Kohara, A Kendi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS) measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  7. pp interactions in extended air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Kohara A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  8. PP: A Lisp Pretty Printing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function is like PRIN1 except that it does not force ,PRINT-ESCAPE, to be T. The...PRINT-CASE, and ,PRINT- GENSYM , respectively. (’llhe last four of these variables are not supported by release 5 of the I isp Machine System...variables. PP:SET-INTERACTIVE-CONTROL-VARIABLES &key :escape :base :pretty :level :length :lines :array :radix :circle :case : gensym This function specifies

  9. Canonical Formulation of pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balasin, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We construct a Hamiltonian formulation for the class of plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel rays (pp-waves). Because of the existence of a light-like Killing vector, the dynamics is effectively reduced to a 2+1 evolution with "time" chosen to be light-like. In spite of the vanishing action this allows us to geometrically identify a symplectic form as well as dynamical Hamiltonian, thus casting the system into canonical form.

  10. $pp$-waves in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baykal, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The family of metrics corresponding to the plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel propagation, commonly referred to as the family of pp-wave metrics, is studied in the context of various modified gravitational models in a self-contained and coherent manner by using a variant of the null coframe formulation of Newman and Penrose and the exterior algebra of differential forms on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds.

  11. b-flavour tagging in pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Birnkraut, Alex

    2015-01-01

    An essential ingredient of all time-dependent CP violation studies of B mesons is the ability to tag the initial flavour of the B meson. The harsh environment of 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions makes this a particularly difficult enterprise. We report progresses in the flavour tagging of B0 and Bs mesons, including developments of novel techniques like the use of an opposite side charm tagger.

  12. String Theory on Parallelizable PP-Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadri, Darius J

    2003-05-05

    The most general parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds which are non-dilatonic solutions in the NS-NS sector of type IIA and IIB string theories are considered. We demonstrate that parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds are necessarily homogeneous plane-waves, and that a large class of homogeneous plane-waves are parallelizable, stating the necessary conditions. Such plane-waves can be classified according to the number of preserved supersymmetries. In type IIA, these include backgrounds preserving 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 supercharges, while in the IIB case they preserve 16, 20, 24 or 28 supercharges. An intriguing property of parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds is that the bosonic part of these solutions are invariant under T-duality, while the number of supercharges might change under T-duality. Due to their {alpha}{prime} exactness, they provide interesting backgrounds for studying string theory. Quantization of string modes, their compactification and behavior under T-duality are studied. In addition, we consider BPS Dp-branes, and show that these Dp-branes can be classified in terms of the locations of their world volumes with respect to the background H-field.

  13. String Theory on Parallelizable PP-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadri, D; Sadri, Darius; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.

    2003-01-01

    The most general parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds which are non-dilatonic solutions in the NS-NS sector of type IIA and IIB string theories are considered. We demonstrate that parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds are necessarily homogeneous plane-waves, and that a large class of homogeneous plane-waves are parallelizable, stating the necessary conditions. Such plane-waves can be classified according to the number of preserved supersymmetries. In type IIA, these include backgrounds preserving 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 supercharges, while in the IIB case they preserve 16, 20, 24 or 28 supercharges. An intriguing property of parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds is that the bosonic part of these solutions are invariant under T-duality, while the number of supercharges might change under T-duality. Due to their $\\alpha^\\prime$ exactness, they provide interesting backgrounds for studying string theory. Quantization of string modes, their compactification and behaviour under T-duality are studied. In addition, we consider...

  14. Characterization of the morphology of iPP/sPP blends with various compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bourbigot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the morphology and the structural properties of blends of isotactic polypropylene (iPP and syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP having different compositions using different techniques. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR permits via appropriate sequence to measure the composition, conformation and dynamics, and intimacy of mixing of polymeric materials. Measurement of relaxation times gives information on local structure of phases with different mobility. The morphology is directly related to the structural organization of the blends. The crystallization rate decreases as a function of the sPP content. The minor component is dispersed as a nodule in the main component of the blend and it plays the role of nucleating agent on it. Besides, morphology changes occur for the composition 50/50 (wt/wt of the blend iPP/sPP. Different phases are identified, namely free amorphous, constrained amorphous and crystalline regions which exhibit different molecular mobilities. It is also shown at the interphase matrix-nodules, the nodules create a constrained amorphous zone.

  15. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  16. An Analysis of the Errors in Sentences with the Chinese Prepositional Marker "you"%以介词“由”为标记句式的偏误分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振来; 侯盼盼

    2012-01-01

    “由”是介词,常做句式标记。留学生在使用介词标记“由”构句时,经常出现偏误现象。本文从第二语言习得的角度出发,以中介语理论为指导,对北京语言大学HSK动态作文语料库中的“由”字句进行了统计,把有问题的句式进行了分类,对“由”字句的偏误现象进行研究,主要偏误类型是与介词标记“由于、从、在”等混淆而造成的,在分析偏误原因的基础上提出解决的办法。%"you" is a Chinese preposition, which is often regarded as a marker of a sentence pattern. International students often commit errors when they use it. With the help of the second language ac- quisition theories and interlanguage theories, the paper gives a statistical analysis of the sentences with the Chinese prepos Culture University and caused by its confusion itional marker "you" from HSK composition databank in Beijing Language and classifies the sentences with such errors. It concludes that the main errors are with several other Chinese prepositions and some possible solutions are pro- posed.

  17. Studies on the properties of rice-husk-filled-PP composites: effect of maleated PP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Leal Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is a by-product of rice milling process that usually finds inadequate final disposal (burning, land filling. Thermoplastics composites filled with rice husk flour are materials that offer an alternative for using this agricultural resource viewing the production of low dense materials with some specific properties. In this work composites of polypropylene (PP and rice husk flour (RHF were prepared by melt extrusion. Maleic anhydride-modified PP (MAPP was added as a coupling agent. It was verified that tensile strength decreased with filler loading. The presence of MAPP improved this property showing a strong dependence on the MAPP/RHF ratio (MAPP/RHF = 0.03 produced the best results. The density of the composites slightly increased with filler and coupling agent in comparison to pure PP. The presence of MAPP diminished more than 20% water uptake in highly-loaded composites.

  18. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Dynamically Cured PP/MAH-g-PP/Epoxy Blends%动态固化PP/MAH-g-PP/EP共混物的等温结晶动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江学良; 张隐西

    2009-01-01

    分别用Avrami方程和Hoffman结晶理论研究了马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(MAH-g-PP)增容的动态固化聚丙烯(PP)/环氧树脂(EP)共混物中PP等温结晶动力学.实验结果表明,动态固化PP/MAH-g-PP/EP共混物中环氧颗粒可作为PP的成核剂,能显著促进PP的结晶.根据Avrami方程,动态固化PP/MAH-g-PP/EP共混物中PP的结晶速率常数K(T) 明显大于纯PP的K(T).依据Hoffman理论研究动态固化PP/MAH-g-PP/EP共混物结晶热动力学,动态固化PP/MAH-g-PP/EP共混物折叠链表面自由能(σe)明显小于PP折叠链表面自由能(σe).

  19. Content and Phrasing in Titles of Original Research and Review Articles in 2015: Range of Practice in Four Clinical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Kerans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reporting guidelines for clinical research designs emerged in the mid-1990s and have influenced various aspects of research articles, including titles, which have also been subject to changing uses with the growth of electronic database searching and efforts to reduce bias in literature searches. We aimed (1 to learn more about titles in clinical medicine today and (2 to develop an efficient, reliable way to study titles over time and on the fly—for quick application by authors, manuscript editors, translators and instructors. We compared content and form in titles from two general medical journals—the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM and the British Medical Journal—and two anesthesiology journals (the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Anesthesiology; we also analyzed the inter-rater reliability of our coding. Significant content differences were found in the frequencies of mentions of methods, results (between general and subspecialty titles, and geographic setting; phrasing differences were found in the prevalence of full-sentence and compound titles (and their punctuation. NEJM titles were significantly shorter, and this journal differed consistently on several features. We conclude that authors must learn to efficiently survey titles for form and content patterns when preparing manuscripts to submit to unfamiliar journals or on resubmitting to a new journal after rejection.

  20. Développement de la mémoire de travail et traitement des phrases complexes : Quelle relation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauenfelder Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La complexité syntaxique d’une phrase en langage oral peut se caractériser par le nombre et la nature des opérations syntaxiques nécessaires à son élaboration, et notamment par la profondeur de son enchâssement. Cette complexité influence l’âge d’acquisition des différentes structures syntaxiques, les énoncés les plus complexes étant maîtrisés plus tardivement par l’enfant. Certains auteurs attribuent cette acquisition de la syntaxe complexe à des contraintes développementales externes au système linguistique lui-même et notamment à des limitations dans les capacités de mémoire de travail (Jakubowicz, 2007. Ainsi, le traitement d’une phrase complexe engendrerait un coût cognitif important et constituerait une surcharge pour des capacités de mémoire de travail davantage limitées chez le jeune enfant. La maturation normale de ce système mnémonique permettrait ensuite à l’enfant de comprendre et de produire des énoncés de plus en plus complexes. La présente recherche a pour objectif d’éclaircir les liens entre le développement de la mémoire de travail et le traitement des phrases complexes chez l’enfant tout-venant âgé de 5 à 12 ans. Suivant le modèle de la mémoire de travail de Baddeley & Hitch (1986 et les travaux de Barrouillet & Camos (2001, 2007, nous avons appréhendé les compétences de la boucle phonologique via des épreuves d’empans simples (empan direct de chiffres, répétition de mots et de pseudo-mots et la mémoire de travail verbale via des tâches d’empans complexes (empan indirect de chiffres, counting span et running span. Les habiletés syntaxiques des enfants ont été évaluées en compréhension et en répétition d’énoncés complexes. Une analyse d’échantillons de langage spontané a enfin permis de récolter les données liées à l’utilisation de la syntaxe complexe en contexte écologique (LME, taux de subordination et taux d’enchâssement profond. Les

  1. Between fall and fall-rise: substance-function relations in German phrase-final intonation contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates an intonation contour of German whose status has not been established yet: a globally falling contour with a slight rise at the very end of the phrase (FSR). The contour may be said to lie on a phonetic continuum between falling (F) and falling-rising (FR) contours. It is hypothesized that F, FR and FSR differ with respect to their communicative functions: F is terminal, FR is non-terminal, and FSR is pseudo-terminal, respectively. The hypotheses were tested in two steps. First, measurements in a labelled corpus of spontaneous speech provided the necessary background information on the phonetics of the contours. In the second step, the general hypothesis was approached in a perceptual experiment using the paradigm of a semantic differential: 49 listeners judged 17 systematically generated stimuli on nine semantic scales, such as 'impolite/polite'. The hypotheses were generally confirmed. Both F and FSR were associated with a conclusive statement, while FR was more likely to be judged as marking a question. FSR differs from F in that it does not express features such as categoricalness, dominance or impoliteness. The results are interpreted as an instance of the frequency code: the addition of a slight rise means avoidance of extremely low F(0); the functional consequence is a reduction of communicated dominance.

  2. “A的是”短语的特殊功能%The Special Functions of "Adeshi" Phrases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗江

    2012-01-01

    Some of the adjectives or phrases of adjective nature in modern Chinese have funtions of discourse conjunction and as pragmatic markers when being followed by "deshi".While as pragmatic markers,they mainly function to editorialize.These functions originated from Ming and Qing Dynasty,but have been widespread since affected by synonymity in English.%现代汉语中有些形容词或形容词性短语加上"的是"之后,具有篇章连接功能和语用标记功能。在篇章功能中,它们既有逆接功能也有顺接功能;在语用标记功能中,它们主要是发挥主观评价功能,包括正面评价功能和负面评价功能。这类成分在明清之际开始产生,但它的扩散以至替换近代汉语中的同功能成分与英语中对应成分的影响有一定的关系。

  3. Remarques sur la place des formes faibles des pronoms personnels regimes dans la phrase en ancien français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Grad

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le chapitre de la syntaxe historique de la langue française, traitant l'ordre des mots dans la phrase et son évolution au cours des premiers siècles de l'ancien français, le problème de la proclise ou bien de l'enclise des formes faibles dos pronoms personnels régimes n'est pas le moins intéressant. En latin, la place de ces pronoms était en général après le verbe (Videt me, Pater amat me, c'est-à-dire que les pronoms se trouvaient en enclise au verbe, bien que des exemples où le pronom précède le verbe soient fréquents aussi, comp.: Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, sed libera nos a malo, Vulg., Math. 6, 13; Haec omnia tibi dabo, si cadens adoraveris me, ib. 4, 9, à côté de: Quaerite ergo primum regnum Dei.

  4. Computational Interpretation English Spatial Prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    cognitive concepts, among which are some which facilitate language-learning. In so doing, they have approached the theories of Jean Piaget who for half...the "map" analogy already mentioned, and the "oicture" analogy. As Piaget [ Piaget and Inhelder, 1967] and Clark [1973] noint out. the horizontal...drawing objects in regions with any part of the drawn object obscuring the drawn boundary of the region; evidence presented by Piaget and Inhelder [1967

  5. Nuclear Slope Parameter Of pp and (-p)p Elastic Scattering in QCD Inspired Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shan-Jun; LU Juan; LU Hai-Liang; MA Wei-Xing; FAN Hong-Yi; HE Xiao-Rong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the quaxk-gluon structure of nucleon and the possible existence of Odderon in strong interaction process due to gluon self-interaction, the elastic scatterings of pp and pp at high energies axe studied. The contributions from individual terms of quark-quark, gluon-gluon interactions, quaxk-gluon interference, and the Odderon terms to the nuclear slope parameter B(s) are analyzed. Our results show that the QCD inspired model gives a good fit to the LHC experimental data of the nucleax slope parameter.

  6. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed.

  7. 交集型歧义字段切分方法研究%Study of Segmentation Strategy on Ambiguous Phrases of Overlap Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫引堂; 周晓强

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a segmentation strategy on ambiguous phrases of overlap type with rules based on the independent-wording-ability frequency and collocating of words & parts of speech,which improves the accuracy of segmentation greatly. In an open test of a Chinese corpus with 40,000 characters, the accuracy of segmentation for ambiguous phrases of overlap type reached 98%.%本文通过动态建立独立成词能力频次库的方法以及基于词语/词性搭配的规则库,对交集型歧义字段进行处理,大大提高了切分正确率。在4万语料的开放测试中,交集型歧义字段的切分正确率可达98%以上。

  8. RegulonDB v8.0: omics data sets, evolutionary conservation, regulatory phrases, cross-validated gold standards and more

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Heladia; Peralta-Gil, Martin; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair S.; Weiss, Verena; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Salgado-Osorio, Gerardo; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes our progress with RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx/) during the past 2 years. We have kept up-to-date the knowledge from the published literature regarding transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli K-12. We have maintained and expanded our curation efforts to improve the breadth and quality of the encoded experimental knowledge, and we have implemented criteria for the quality of our computational predictions. Regulatory phrases now provide high-level descr...

  9. Selected Issues in the Theory of Comparison: Phrasal Comparison in Turkish and a Cross-Linguistic Perspective on Intensifiers, Negative Island Effects and the Distribution of Measure Phrases

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation primarily aims at filling a number of gaps in the theory of comparison, in particular with respect to phrasal comparison in Turkish, intensifiers, Negative Island Effects and the cross-linguistic distribution of measure phrases. In its first main section, it provides a fairly exhaustive overview of the inventory of comparison constructions attested in the Turkish language and shows that the adverb daha is a largely optional element with these except for constructions th...

  10. Modifikacija PP/SAN mešanic:

    OpenAIRE

    Musil, Vojko; Radonjič, Gregor

    1995-01-01

    Properties of isotactic polypropylene (PP) can be improved with the preparation of PP blends. Polymer blend PP/SAN is immiscible and it shows a decrease in some mechanical properties but processing and some other properties can be improved. Addition of an impact modifier can also change the final properties of the PP/SAN blends. As a modifier we used poly (styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) (SEBS) triblock copolymer. Blends were prepared in the melt in a Brabender kneading chamber, coo...

  11. Modifikacija PP/SAN mešanic

    OpenAIRE

    Radonjič, Gregor; Musil, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Izotaktični polipropilen (PP) je med poliolefini eden od najpogosteje uporabljanih polimerov. Kopolimer stiren/akrilonitril ima nekatere dobre lastnosti , ki skupaj z lastnostmi PP omogočajo doseganje sinergističnih učinkov. Polimerna mešanica PP/SAN je nemešljiva in kaže določeno poslabšanje nekaterih mehanskih lastnosti, vendar pa se izboljšajo predelovalne in nekatere druge lastnosti. Na spremembe lastnosti PP/SAN mešanic lahko vplivamo tudi z dodatkom modifikatorja. Zaradi omenjenih dejst...

  12. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1 complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourlay Robert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1 is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the phosphatase affinity matrix microcystin-Sepharose. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that each identified binding protein was either a direct PP1 interactor or was in a complex that contains PP1. Our results have linked PP1 to numerous new nuclear functions and proteins, including Ki-67, Rif-1, topoisomerase IIα, several nuclear helicases, NUP153 and the TRRAP complex. Conclusion This modification of the microcystin-Sepharose technique offers an effective means of purifying novel PP1 regulatory subunits and associated proteins and provides a simple method to uncover a link between PP1 and additional cellular processes.

  13. The electroweak corrections to the process pp(γγ→(tt))pp at the LHC%LHC对撞机上(pp)(γγ→ tt)(pp)过程的电弱修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙衍斌; 刘娜; 胡浩月; 张健; 田佳佳

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the electroweak corrections to the process pp (rr→tt)pp at the LHC are calculated in the equivalent photon approximation. Our results shows that the corrected cross sections for the process pp(rr→tt)pp at the LHC are small relatively to its subprocess (rr→t t), but the electroweak correction effect is large up to -7%. Therefore, for the process pp(rr→tt)pp which has very clean environment, its electroweak corrections have to be included.%在等效光子近似下计算了LHC对撞机上pp(γγ→(tt))pp过程的电弱修正.结果表明:pp(γγ→(tt))pp过程修正后的截面相对较小,但电弱修正效应却高达到-7%左右.所以,对于LHC对撞机上背景非常干净的pp(γγ→(tt))pp过程而育,电弱修正效应是不能忽略的.

  14. Study of baryon and search for dibaryon resonances by the pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, E.; Bashkanov, M.; Brodowski, W.; Bilger, R.; Clement, H.; Meier, R. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Morgenstelle 14, D-72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Calen, H.; Ekstroem, C.; Kupsc, A. [Svedberg Laboratory, S-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Fransson, K.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Kullander, S.; Marciniewski, P. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Greiff, J. [I. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik der Universitaet Hamburg, D-22761, Hamburg (Germany); Kilian, K. [IKP - Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425, Juelich (Germany); Morosov, B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Dubna, 101000, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oelert, W.; Paetzold, J.; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Scobel, W.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G.J.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zabierowski, J.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    2003-11-01

    Exclusive measurements of the two-pion production channel pp{yields}pp{pi} + {pi}{sup -} have been carried out near threshold at CELSIUS with the PROMICE/WASA detector. They reveal pp{yields}pp{sup *}(1440){yields}pp{sigma}{yields}pp({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){sub I=l=0} as the dominant process at these energies, however, the data exhibit also significant contributions from p{sup *}(1440){yields}{delta}{pi}{yields}p({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){sub I=l=0}. From the observed interference of these Roper decay routes their relative branching ratio is derived. The status on the search for NN-decoupled NN{pi}-resonances is reviewed with regard to recent experimental searches in the pionic double charge exchange in nuclei, the two-pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the photo pion-production on the deuteron and the electro pion-production in nuclei. (orig.)

  15. A Constructional Approach to "Guangpan" Pop Phrases%“光盘”类流行语的构式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐银

    2014-01-01

    形容词“光”参与汉语致使结果及物构式而形成“光盘”类流行语表达。此类流行语涉及“容器代内容”及“动作结果代动作过程”两类转喻。此种流行语的生成是归纳—演绎互动过程,其动因可归结为三方面:说话人的主观认知与经济性原则、修辞目标与语言优先原则、社会层面原因。%〝Guangpan( eat up everything on your plate)〝 pop phrases are formed as the Chinese adjective〝Guang〝participates in 〝cause-become〝 transitive construction. The two metonymic processes involved in 〝Guangpan( eat up everything on your plate)〝 pop phrases are〝container for content〝 and〝result for action〝. The use of such pop phases is the interaction between induction and deduction. And factors leading to generation of such pop phrases are generalized in the following three aspects:the speakerˊs subjunctive cognition and economy principle,rhetorical target and language--preferred principle and social factors.

  16. “文镜”发微%A Buddhist Inquiry into the Phrase Bunkyo of Kakai' s Bunkyo Hifuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石少欣

    2012-01-01

    《文镜秘府论》的书名与结构都独具特色,我们认为这一独特性应与空海大师醇厚的佛学修养密不可分。本文旨在结合佛教文献中禅宗、华严宗以及密宗对“镜”的意象的分析,试析“文镜”除去文学层面的表义之外,所含佛教方面的深意,并结合空海大师其他作品中所流露的弘法志向,阐发《文镜秘府论》一书所寄托的教化意图。%Kakai, who had intended to study in Tang for 20 years, got abhiksema given by Master Huiguo and was instructed to return to Japan soon, so that he left China after two - year study to spread Tantric Buddhism. Krlkai devoted himself to exercising and spreading Buddhism and left us many Buddhist works, among which there is a book on the writing art of poems and composi- tion, that is, the famous Bunkyo Hifuron. why did he edit such a book? Surely it shows his love of Han Culture. What's more, the uique title and structure speaks out his minds of buddhism. This article is ready to make an thourough inquiry into the Buddhist meanings of the unique phrase Bunkyo appearing in the title in order to expose K@ai' s Buddhist thoughts and devotion and to expose a new understanding of the book.

  17. La co-construction textuelle avec de jeunes enfants : de la phrase au texte, et vice versa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Torterat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un type d’intervention pédagogique qui, menée avec de jeunes enfants, favorise les acquisitions simultanément dans les domaines de la structuration discursive et de l’organisation textuelle. Dans ces quelques pages, nous exposons les principes de la démarche en nous appuyant sur plusieurs extraits de corpus de terrain, ce qui nous conduit par la suite à montrer dans quelle mesure la construction phrastique contribue à l’organisation textuelle, et même l’anticipe à bien des égards, à travers en particulier la thématicité, la phoricité et la prédicativité. L’ensemble aboutit à déterminer ce qui, dans la co-construction textuelle qui s’établit, caractérise en particulier les moments spécifiques de la démarche et les interactions qu’elle permet d’engager entre le texte et la phrase.This paper presents an educational intervention, with young children, which facilitates acquisition of both Discourse Structuring and Text Organization. In this article, we explain principles of this approach through several corpora, showing how Sentence Constructions contribute to Text Structuring, and even anticipate it. On the one hand, we examine thematic and anaphoric elements, but also predicates. On the other hand, we describe specific moments of this intervention to demonstrate to what extent it implies an interaction between Text and Sentences.

  18. Damping of forward neutrons in pp collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate absorptive corrections to single pion exchange in the production of leading neutrons in pp collisions. Contrary to the usual procedure of convolving the survival probability with the cross section, we apply corrections to the spin amplitudes. The nonflip amplitude turns out to be much more suppressed by absorption than the spin-flip one. We identify the projectile proton Fock state responsible for the absorptive corrections as a color octet-octet 5-quarks configuration. Calculations within two very different models, color-dipole light-cone description, and in hadronic representation, lead to rather similar absorptive corrections. We found a much stronger damping of leading neutrons than in some of previous estimates. Correspondingly, the cross section is considerably smaller than was measured at ISR. However, comparison with recent measurements by the ZEUS collaboration of neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering provides a strong motivation for challenging the normalization of the ISR data. This conjecture is also supported by preliminary data from the NA49 experiment for neutron production in pp collisions at SPS.

  19. Strangeness production in AA and pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castorina, Paolo [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Catania (Italy); Satz, Helmut [Universitaet Bielefeld, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Boost-invariant hadron production in high-energy collisions occurs in causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) are conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. Their size is determined by two time scales: the equilibration time specifying the formation of a quark-gluon plasma, and the hadronization time, specifying the onset of confinement. The expected values for these scales provide the theoretical basis for the suppression observed for strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e{sup +}e{sup -}) below LHC energies. In contrast, the space-time superposition of individual collisions in high-energy heavy-ion interactions leads to higher energy densities, resulting in much later hadronization and hence much larger hadronization volumes. This largely removes the causality constraints and results in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full chemical equilibrium. In the present paper, we determine the collision energies needed for that; we also estimate when pp collisions reach comparable hadronization volumes and thus determine when strangeness suppression should disappear there as well. (orig.)

  20. Strangeness production in AA and pp collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Boost-invariant hadron production in high-energy collisions occurs in causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) are conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. Their size is determined by two time scales: the equilibration time specifying the formation of a quark-gluon plasma, and the hadronization time, specifying the onset of confinement. The expected values for these scales provide the theoretical basis for the suppression observed for strangeness production in elementary interactions ( pp , e^+e^- below LHC energies. In contrast, the space-time superposition of individual collisions in high-energy heavy-ion interactions leads to higher energy densities, resulting in much later hadronization and hence much larger hadronization volumes. This largely removes the causality constraints and results in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full chemical equilibrium. In the present paper, we determine the collision energies needed for that; we also estimate when pp collisions reach comparable hadronization volumes and thus determine when strangeness suppression should disappear there as well.

  1. A Green Catch Phrase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The "low-carbon economy," an attention-grabbing slogan gaining increasing popularity in China, can be summed up as an economic develop- ment mode based on more efficient energy use that minimizes pollution and waste emissions. The concept is widely seen as an eventual and effective solution to addressing the environmental woes China faces today.

  2. Structural basis for transcription regulation by alarmone ppGpp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artsimovitch, Irina; Patlan, Vsevolod; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Vassylyeva, Marina N; Hosaka, Takeshi; Ochi, Kozo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Vassylyev, Dmitry G

    2004-04-30

    Guanosine-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is a major regulator of stringent control, an adaptive response of bacteria to amino acid starvation. The 2.7 A resolution structure of the Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme in complex with ppGpp reveals that ppGpp binds to the same site near the active center in both independent RNAP molecules in the crystal but in strikingly distinct orientations. Binding is symmetrical with respect to the two diphosphates of ppGpp and is relaxed with respect to the orientation of the nucleotide base. Different modes of ppGpp binding are coupled with asymmetry of the active site configurations. The results suggest that base pairing of ppGpp with cytosines in the nontemplate DNA strand might be an essential component of transcription control by ppGpp. We present experimental evidence highlighting the importance of base-specific contacts between ppGpp and specific cytosine residues during both transcription initiation and elongation.

  3. Rapidity dependence of particle densities in pp and AA collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bautista, Irais; Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Dias de Deus, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    We use multiple scattering and energy conservation arguments to describe $dn/d\\eta_{NANA}$ as a function of $dn/d\\eta_{pp}$ in the framework of string percolation. We discuss the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$? and beam rapidity Y dependence of particle densities. We present our results for pp, Au- Au, and Pb-Pb collisions at RHIC and LHC.

  4. Noether gauge symmetry classes for pp-wave spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Camci, U

    2016-01-01

    The Noether gauge symmetries of geodesic Lagrangian for the pp-wave spacetimes are determined in each of the Noether gauge symmetry classes of the pp-wave spacetimes. It is shown that a type N pp-wave spacetime can admit at most three Noether gauge symmetry, and furthermore the number of Noether gauge symmetries turn out to be four, five, six, seven and eight. We found that all conformally flat plane wave spacetimes admit the maximal, i.e. ten, Noether gauge symmetry. Also it is found that if the pp-wave spacetime is non-conformally flat plane wave, then the number of Noether gauge symmetry is nine or ten. By means of the obtained Noether constants the search of the exact solutions of the geodesic equations for the pp-wave spacetimes is considered and we found new exact solutions of the geodesic equations in some special Noether gauge symmetry classes.

  5. /bar p/p collider physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Strangeness Production in AA and pp Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, P Castorina ad H

    2016-01-01

    Boost-invariant hadron production in high energy collisions occurs in causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) are conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. Their size is determined by two time scales: the equilibration time specifying the formation of a quark-gluon plasma, and the hadronization time, specifying the onset of confinement. The expected values for these scales provide the theoretical basis for the suppression observed for strangeness production in elementary interactions ($pp$, $e^+e^-$) below LHC energies. In contrast, the space-time superposition of individual collisions in high energy heavy ion interactions leads to higher energy densities, resulting in much later hadronization and hence much larger hadronization volumes. This largely removes the causality constraints and results in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full chemical equilibrium. In the present paper, we det...

  7. PR65A phosphorylation regulates PP2A complex signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Kotlo

    Full Text Available Serine-threonine Protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A, a member of the PPP family of phosphatases, regulates a variety of essential cellular processes, including cell-cycling, DNA replication, transcription, translation, and secondary signaling pathways. In the heart, increased PP2A activity/signaling has been linked to cardiac remodeling, contractile dysfunction and, in failure, arrythmogenicity. The core PP2A complex is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme consisting of a 36 kDa catalytic subunit (PP2Ac; a regulatory scaffold subunit of 65 kDa (PR65A or PP2Aa; and one of at least 18 associated variable regulatory proteins (B subunits classified into 3 families. In the present study, three in vivo sites of phosphorylation in cardiac PR65A are identified (S303, T268, S314. Using HEK cells transfected with recombinant forms of PR65A with phosphomimetic (P-PR65A and non-phosphorylated (N-PR65A amino acid substitutions at these sites, these phosphorylations were shown to inhibit the interaction of PR65A with PP2Ac and PP2A holoenzyme signaling. Forty-seven phospho-proteins were increased in abundance in HEK cells transfected with P-PR65A versus N-PR65A by phospho-protein profiling using 2D-DIGE analysis on phospho-enriched whole cell protein extracts. Among these proteins were elongation factor 1α (EF1A, elongation factor 2, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, NADPH-dehydrogenase 1 alpha sub complex, annexin A, and PR65A. Compared to controls, failing hearts from the Dahl rat had less phosphorylated PR65A protein abundance and increased PP2A activity. Thus, PR65A phosphorylation is an in vivo mechanism for regulation of the PP2A signaling complex and increased PP2A activity in heart failure.

  8. Electron spin resonance studies on PS, PP and PS/PP blends under gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Jacobo E-mail: reyesj@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Albano, Carmen E-mail: calbano@ivic.vealbanoc@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Claro, Marjorie; Moronta, Delfin

    2003-06-01

    Electron spin resonance studies on polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and on 80/20 PS/PP blends with and without compatibilizer (block SBS), at 7.5 wt%, irradiated with gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 4.8 kGy/h and at integral irradiation doses of 10, 25, 50, 60, 70, 400, 800 and 1300 kGy in the presence of air and at room temperature are reported. Dependence of resonance line width, Hpp, resonance line shapes, K, and resonance line intensity, Ipp, on the integral dose of irradiation is investigated. Nature of free radicals after 10 days of air storage is discussed.

  9. Study on 'soft' and 'hard' interactions in (-p)p (pp) collisions using HIJING and PYTHIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi-Fei; Huang Sheng-Li; Zhang Zi-Ping; Wu Jian

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on 'hard' and 'soft' interactions in (-p)p (pp) collisions using a phenomenological model of HIJING, the jet-cone reconstruction method is employed to select the 'hard' and 'soft' event sub-samples from minimum bias events. It is found that the HIJING model can reproduce the energy scaling behaviour of mean transverse momentum (〈pT〉) distributions of charged hadrons versus multiplicity (Nch) in 'soft' events. From the PYTHIA simulation comparing with the HIJING model, the enhancement of the kaon and proton yields from 'hard'interactions comparing with 'soft' interactions is observed to be due to the mini-jets effect. These mechanisms responsible for the increase of charged hadron's 〈pT〉 are different in 'soft' and 'hard' interactions.

  10. Chiral Perturbation Theory and the $pp \\to pp \\pi^0$ Reaction Near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T; Myhrer, F; Kubodera, K

    1997-01-01

    A chiral-perturbative consideration of the near-threshold pp -> pp pi0 reaction indicates that the pion-rescattering term has a substantial energy and momentum dependence. The existing calculations that incorporate this dependence give pion rescattering contributions significantly larger than those of the conventional treatment, and this enhanced rescattering term interferes destructively with the one-body impulse term, leading to theoretical cross sections that are much smaller than the observed values. However, since the existing calculations are based on coordinate-space representation, they involve a number of simplifying assumptions about the energy-momentum flow in the rescattering diagram, even though the delicate interplay between the one-body and two-body terms makes it desirable to avoid these kinematical assumptions. We carry out here a momentum-space calculation that retains the energy-momentum dependence of the vertices as predicted by chiral perturbation theory. Our improved treatment increases ...

  11. Interrelationships of morphology, thermal and mechanical properties in uncrosslinked and dynamically crosslinked PP/EOC and PP/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs based on polypropylene (PP with ethylene octene copolymer (EOC and ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM have been developed by coagent assisted dicumyl peroxide crosslinking system. The study was pursued to explore the influence of two dissimilar polyolefin polymers (EOC and EPDM having different molecular architectures on the state and mode of dispersion of the blend components and their effects with special reference to morphological, thermal and mechanical characteristics. The effects of dynamic crosslinking of the PP/EOC and PP/EPDM have been compared by varying the concentration of crosslinking agent and ratio of blend components. The results suggested that the uncrosslinked and dynamically crosslinked blends of PP/EOC exhibit superior mechanical properties over PP/EPDM blends. From the hystersis experiments it was found that PP/EOC blends also perform better fatigue properties over PP/EPDM based blends. It was demonstrated that, the origin of the improved mechanical properties of EOC based blends is due to the combined effect of the unique molecular architecture with the presence of smaller crystals and better interfacial interaction of EOC phase with PP as supported by the results of thermal and fatigue analyses.

  12. The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for sister chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Touati, Sandra A; Berneau, Stéphane; Cladière, Damien; Hebras, Céline; Groeme, Rachel; McDougall, Alex; Wassmann, Katja

    2013-03-18

    Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs in meiosis I and sister chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining sister chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that sister chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, sister chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Le couple interactif texte / phrase dans l'histoire de la langue française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Lehmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude est consacrée à la question de la cohérence textuelle dans différents types de textes en moyen français (discours scientifiques, ouvrages didactiques, récits brefs. Nous mettons au premier plan l’ensemble texte / phrase et montrons sous quelles conditions l’évolution du système linguistique produit de nouvelles structures textuelles. Nous décrivons les différents types de progressions thématiques caractérisant les productions textuelles en ancien et moyen français. La notion de genre est un critère important pour l’analyse de la macro- et microstructure des textes. Notre étude montre que l’évolution des structures textuelles est liée au niveau syntaxique et se manifeste dans la complexité de plus en plus grande des structures thématiques en moyen français. La relation qui s’établit entre le niveau thématique et les niveaux morphosyntaxique et sémantique est définie comme une interaction dont le fonctionnement est analysé dans une perspective diachronique.This study is devoted to the question of textual coherence in various types of texts in Middle French (didactic works, short stories. The goal is to highlight the text / sentence (global set assembly and to show under which conditions the evolution of the linguistic system produces new textual structures. We describe here the different types of theme progression used in the textual productions in Middle French. The concept of genre is an important parameter for the analysis of macro- and microstructure of a text. Our study shows that the textual structures evolution is related to the syntactic level and appears in the increasing complexity of thematic structure sets in Middle French. The relation which is established between the thematic level and the morphosyntactic and semantic levels is defined as an interaction whose operation is analyzed in a diachronic perspective.

  14. Spoken language comprehension of phrases, simple and compound-active sentences in non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geytenbeek, Joke J M; Heim, Margriet J M; Knol, Dirk L; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J

    2015-07-01

    Children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) (i.e. 'non-speaking children with severely limited mobility') are restricted in many domains that are important to the acquisition of language. To investigate comprehension of spoken language on sentence type level in non-speaking children with severe CP. From an original sample of 87 non-speaking children with severe CP, 68 passed the pre-test (i.e. they matched at least five spoken words to the corresponding objects) of a specifically developed computer-based instrument for low motor language testing (C-BiLLT), admitting them to the actual C-BiLLT computer test. As a result, the present study included 68 children with severe CP (35 boys, 33 girls; mean age 6;11 years, SD 3;0 years; age range 1;9-11;11 years) who were investigated with the C-BiLLT for comprehension of different sentence types: phrases, simple active sentences (with one or two arguments) and compound sentences. The C-BiLLT provides norm data of typically developing (TD) children (1;6-6;6 years). Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to compare the percentage correct of each sentence type in children with severe CP with that in TD children (subdivided into age groups) and to compare percentage correct within the CP subtypes. Sentence comprehension in non-speaking children with severe CP followed the developmental trajectory of TD children, but at a much slower rate; nevertheless, they were still developing up to at least age 12 years. Delays in sentence type comprehension increased with sentence complexity and showed a large variability between individual children and between subtypes of CP. Comprehension of simple and syntactically more complex sentences were significantly better in children with dyskinetic CP than in children with spastic CP. Of the children with dyskinetic CP, 10-13% showed comprehension of simple and compound sentences within the percentage correct of TD children, as opposed to none of the children with spastic CP. In non

  15. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  16. (p)ppGpp and the bacterial cell cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aanisa Nazir; Rajendran Harinarayanan

    2016-06-01

    Genes of the Rel/Spo homolog (RSH) superfamily synthesize and/or hydrolyse the modified nucleotides pppGpp/ppGpp (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) and are prevalent across diverse bacteria and in plant chloroplasts. Bacteria accumulate (p)ppGpp in response to nutrient deprivation (generically called the stringent response) and elicit appropriate adaptive responses mainly through the regulation of transcription. Although at different concentrations (p)ppGpp affect the expression of distinct set of genes, the two well-characterized responses are reduction in expression of the protein synthesis machinery and increase in the expression of genes coding for amino acid biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli, the cellular (p)ppGpp level inversely correlates with the growth rate and increasing its concentration decreases the steady state growth rate in a defined growth medium. Since change in growth rate must be accompanied by changes in cell cycle parameters set through the activities of the DNA replication and cell division apparatus, (p)ppGpp could coordinate protein synthesis (cell mass increase) with these processes. Here we review the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial cell cycle regulation.

  17. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  18. The magic dance of the alarmones (p)ppGpp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinchen, Wieland; Bange, Gert

    2016-08-01

    The alarmones (p)ppGpp are important second messengers that orchestrate pleiotropic adaptations of bacteria and plant chloroplasts in response to starvation and stress. Here, we review our structural and mechanistic knowledge on (p)ppGpp metabolism including their synthesis, degradation and interconversion by a highly diverse set of enzymes. Increasing structural information shows how (p)ppGpp interacts with an incredibly diverse set of different targets that are essential for replication, transcription, translation, ribosome assembly and metabolism. This raises the question how the chemically rather simple (p)ppGpp is able to interact with these different targets? Structural analysis shows that the diversity of (p)ppGpp interaction with cellular targets critically relies on the conformational flexibility of the 3' and 5' phosphate moieties allowing alarmones to efficiently modulate the activity of target structures in a broad concentration range. Current approaches in the design of (p)ppGpp-analogs as future antibiotics might be aided by the comprehension of conformational flexibility exhibited by the magic dancers (p)ppGpp.

  19. (p)ppGpp and the bacterial cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Aanisa; Harinarayanan, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Genes of the Rel/Spo homolog (RSH) superfamily synthesize and/or hydrolyse the modified nucleotides pppGpp/ ppGpp (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) and are prevalent across diverse bacteria and in plant chloroplasts. Bacteria accumulate (p)ppGpp in response to nutrient deprivation (generically called the stringent response) and elicit appropriate adaptive responses mainly through the regulation of transcription. Although at different concentrations (p)ppGpp affect the expression of distinct set of genes, the two well-characterized responses are reduction in expression of the protein synthesis machinery and increase in the expression of genes coding for amino acid biosynthesis. In Escherichia coli, the cellular (p)ppGpp level inversely correlates with the growth rate and increasing its concentration decreases the steady state growth rate in a defined growth medium. Since change in growth rate must be accompanied by changes in cell cycle parameters set through the activities of the DNA replication and cell division apparatus, (p)ppGpp could coordinate protein synthesis (cell mass increase) with these processes. Here we review the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial cell cycle regulation.

  20. Intonational phrase prediction based on a CART-guided TBL%用CART模型指导TBL算法预测语调短语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方舟; 周游; 陶建华

    2011-01-01

    语调短语的自动预测是影响合成语音的可懂度和自然度的关键因素之一。该文提出了一种结合分类与回归树(classification and regression tree,CART)和基于转换的错误驱动的学习(transformation-based error-driven learning,TBL)算法的混合算法,从无限制的文本中预测语调短语边界。该方法根据CART模型的指导,自动生成TBL算法的规则模板,从而减少了规则学习过程中的人工参与。实验结果表明:基于该混合算法的语调短语预测的F-score达70.0%。自动生成的TBL模板不仅能较好地替代手工模板,而且在与手工模板一起使用时,也能为其提供有益的补充。%Intonational phrase prediction is important for both the naturalness and intelligibility of synthetic speech.This paper presents a hybrid tree-guided transformation-based learning(TGTBL) algorithm which combines a classification and regression tree(CART) with transformation-based error-driven learning(TBL) to predict intonational phrase breaks from unrestricted text.CART automatically generates the TBL rule templates,thereby minimizing the need for human supervision during the TBL training.Results of comparative tests show that the F-score of TGTBL based intonational phrase prediction is 70.0% and that the TBL templates automatically generated by CART provide good alternatives or supplements to manual templates.

  1. 1,001 words and phrases you never knew you didn't know hopperdozer, hoecake, ear trumpet, dort, and other nearly forgotten terms and expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Runyan, W R

    2010-01-01

    As times change so do the things we use and what we call them. W.R. Runyan has compiled a fascinating collection of words and phrases that, once common everywhere in America, are little known today. This book is a celebration of our linguistic past that will be a treat from word lovers everywhere. Do you know any of these: Snaffle, Steelie, Gully Washer, Cabriolet, Calk, Hardpan, Carbuncle, Pie Bird, Fid, or Hame? Did you know that a "Horse Apple" is actually an orange? Or that "Rolley Holley" is a marble game? With over one hundred illustrations, this is a book that will take you on

  2. Benchmark Varieties and the Individual Speaker: Indispensable Touchstones in Studies on Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsig, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The authors of "Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence", Poplack, Zentz & Dion (2011, this issue), henceforth cited as PZD, make a strong case for showing that, in spite of surface similarities, preposition stranding in Canadian French relative clauses…

  3. Persistent Structural Priming and Frequency Effects during Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2013-01-01

    We report 2 experiments using a sentence--picture matching task concerned with the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were ambiguous between high and low attachment (Branigan, Pickering, & McLean, 2005). After reading a prime sentence with a particular interpretation, participants tended to interpret an ambiguous prepositional phrase…

  4. Some nonlinear parameters of PP intervals of pulse main peaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The PP intervals of pulse main peaks from healthy and unhealthy people (arrhythmia) have different nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, the extraction of PP intervals of pulse main peaks is achieved by picking up P peaks of pulse wave with wavelet transform. Furthermore, several nonlinear parameters (correlative dimensions, maximum Lyapunov exponents, complexity and approximate entropy) of the PP intervals of pulse main peaks extracted from normal and unhealthy pulse signals are calculated, with the results showing that these nonlinear parameters calculated from the main wave interval signals are helpful for analyzing human's health state and diagnosing heart diseases.

  5. EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, A.; Schaap, D.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Pouliquen, S.; Gorringe, P.

    2012-04-01

    In December 2007 the European Parliament and Council adopted a common text for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive which aims to achieve environmentally healthy marine waters by 2020. This Directive includes an initiative for an overarching European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet). During the one-year consultation phase that followed the release of the EU Green Paper on a Future Maritime Policy for the European Union, stakeholders gave an overwhelming positive response. Facilitating access to high quality marine data will resolve difficulties and stimulate an expansion of value-added public and commercial services, lay the foundations for sound governance and reduce uncertainties on human impact on the planet as well as of forecasts relating to the future state of the marine environment. Better and linked marine data will have an immediate impact on the planning of environmental policy and mitigation measures, and will also facilitate impact assessments and scientific work. The overall objectives of the EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) preparatory action is to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans by means of a dedicated Pilot Portal and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists. The latter implicates that it is also an objective to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. This project will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). This is done done by: 1. providing through a portal: a. access to marine data from measurement stations and ferryboxes. Both near real-time and archived data of time series are to be made available. b. metadata for these data sets using EMODnet/INSPIRE standards. c. metadata maps and overviews for whole sea-basins showing the availability of data and monitoring intensity of that

  6. Phrases sans parole : à propos d'une histoire d'amour du XXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patron Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les relations entre récit (plus précisément narration et fiction dans une nouvelle de Mario Benedetti, "Cinq ans de vie", extraite des Histoires de Paris. Son cadre de référence théorique est la théorie non communicationnelle ou théorie poétique de la narration de S.-Y. Kuroda et Ann Banfield. Dans la première partie, je présente brièvement la théorie pour pouvoir déterminer ensuite ses modalités d"application à la nouvelle de Benedetti (nouvelle "fantastique", selon le terme de l'auteur, "transfictionnelle" selon la terminologie contemporaine. La théorie peut se résumer dans les huit propositions suivantes: (1 Les théories communicationnelles du récit, basées sur les concepts de narrateur et de narrataire, réels ou fictionnels, ne peuvent rendre compte que d’une sous-catégorie de récits de fiction ; (2 Il existe des récits de fiction avec narrateur (sous-entendu fictionnel et des récits de fiction sans narrateur. (3 Le narrateur omniscient est, dans la plupart des cas, une explication ad hoc. (4 Il convient de distinguer clairement ce qui relève du contenu de la représentation fictionnelle et ce qui relève des moyens mobilisés au service de la construction de cette représentation ; (5 Le récit de fiction moderne à la troisième personne peut être considéré comme une collection structurée d’informations, les unes sans origine assignable dans le monde de la fiction, les autres provenant d’un ou de plusieurs sujets de conscience appartenant au monde de la fiction ; (6 La lecture d’un récit de fiction moderne à la troisième personne implique que l’on reconnaisse les intentions de l’auteur relativement au caractère objectif ou subjectif des phrases ou des contextes. La deuxième partie propose une approche du dénouement de "Cinq ans de vie" selon le protocole défini par Kuroda et Banfield. Après avoir montré que la théorie pouvait prétendre à l'adéquation descriptive

  7. Synthesis of PP-g-MA as compatibilizer for PP/PLA biocomposites: Thermal, mechanical and biodegradability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghozali, Muhammad; Rohmah, Elfi Nur

    2017-01-01

    A synthesis of polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator has been conducted in a stainless-steel reactor at 120°C for 1 hours. The composition of maleic anhydride (MA) was varied between 10-40 phr, whereas BPO was between 0.5-2.0 phr. The grafting degree (GD) was determined by calculating the MA monomer grafted into polypropylene (PP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis was performed to study the functional group in the copolymer PP-g-MA. The result shows that the highest GD of 11.85% was obtained when the use of MA and BPO are 40 phr and 1 phr, respectively. PP/PLA biocomposites have been manufactured by adding polypropylene (PP), polylactic acid (PLA) and PP-g-MA as compatibilizer into rheomix at a temperature of 200-210°C with a stirring speed of 25 rpm for 7-10 minutes. PP/PLA biocomposites were varied at a ratio of 0/100, 20/80, 40/60, 60/40, 80/20 and 100/0. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultimate Testing Machine (UTM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and biodegradation analysis were performed to determine the functional groups, thermal stability, tensile strength and the biodegradability level of PP/PLA biocomposites, respectively. Thermal and mechanical analysis results indicate that the addition of PLA into PP/PLA biocomposites can reduce the thermal stability and mechanical properties, however the biodegradability is increased.

  8. UHMWPE/PP-X/PP共混物滑动摩擦性能研究%STUDY ON SLIDING WEAR PROPERTIES OF UHMWPE/PP-X/PP BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 蔡松; 梁兵

    2008-01-01

    采用自制的交联聚丙烯(PP-X)与超高分子量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)、聚丙烯(PP)共混,对共混物的力学性能和滑动摩擦性能进行了研究.结果表明,在力学性能改变不大的情况下,当UHMWPE/PP-X/PP的质量比为80/20/10时,共混物的磨痕宽度为5.69 mm,摩擦系数为0.125,比纯UHMWPE的磨痕宽度、摩擦系数分别下降了21.73%和39.90%,比UHMWPE)/PP(100/10)共混物分别下降了2.0%和18.83%.扫描电子显微镜照片显示,在UHMWPE的磨损表面存在严重的刮痕、裂纹及磨屑,而在UHMWPE/PP-X/PP共混物的磨损表面却很少发现上述现象.

  9. Study on Mechanical Properties of PP/POE Blends%PP/POE共混物力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁基照; 马文勇

    2010-01-01

    用双螺杆挤出机制备了聚丙烯(PP)/聚烯烃弹性体(POE)共混物,研究了POE用量对PP/POE共混物冲击性能、拉伸性能及弯曲性能的影响.结果表明:随着POE含量的增加,PP/POE共混物的冲击强度明显提高;拉伸强度及拉伸模量、弯曲强度及弯曲模量、断裂伸长率及断裂强度均减小.

  10. Search for a bound K− pp system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerini P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the K− absorption reaction on 6,7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O have recently been collected by FINUDA at the DAΦNE φ-factory (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati-INFN, following an earlier lower statitics run on 12C and some other targets. FINUDA is a high acceptance magnetic spectrometer which performed a wide range of studies by detecting the charged particles and neutrons exiting the targets after the absorption event. In this paper it is discussed about the study of the A(K− , Λp reaction in the context of the search for deeply bound $ar{K}$ - nuclear states. The observation of a bump in the Λp invariant mass distribution is discussed in terms of a possible signature of a deeply bound K− pp kaonic cluster as well as of more conventional physics. An overview of the experimental situation in this field will be given.

  11. PP/POE/PE/CaCO3/PP-g-MAH复合材料力学性能的研究%Study on the Mechanical Properties of PP/POE/PE/CaCO3/PP-g-MAH Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟; 王丽

    2009-01-01

    采用熔融共混法制备聚丙烯,聚烯烃弹性体/聚乙烯/马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(PP/POE/PE/CaCO3/PP-g-MAH)复合材料,并研究其力学性能.结果表明:PP-g-MAH可提高PP与CaCO3的相容性,使复合材料的韧性和拉伸性能得到提高,PE可提高PP与POE的相容性,并有效提高复合材料的韧性,经POE、PE、CaCO3和PP-g-MAH之间的相互协同改性作用可制得综合性能优良的PP复合材料.

  12. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  13. Study on Dynamic Vulcanized EPDM/PP Thermoplastic Elastomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ShiYuan

    2001-01-01

    @@ Based upon the THE,HAAK RHEOCORD 90 and Wx-ray observation,a study was made on the structure and property of ethylene-propylene-ethlidene norborene (EPDM)/polyprolene (PP) blending systems ,and the experimental results were fully explained. (1) The effect of Mooney viscosity (ML)of EPDM、 melt flow rate(MFR) of peroxide(DCP) and mixing steps on mechanical properties of EPDM/PP blends was studied. The results showed that the mechanical and process properties of EPDM?PP thermoplastic elastomers were better using EPDM with the ML of 60 and PP with MFR of 7.5g/10min as matrix,DCP with the content of 1.2 per cent with the help of twostep curing process at the temperature of 170-175 ℃.

  14. Study on Dynamic Vulcanized EPDM/PP Thermoplastic Elastomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; ShiYuan

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the THE,HAAK RHEOCORD 90 and Wx-ray observation,a study was made on the structure and property of ethylene-propylene-ethlidene norborene (EPDM)/polyprolene (PP) blending systems ,and the experimental results were fully explained.  (1) The effect of Mooney viscosity (ML)of EPDM、 melt flow rate(MFR) of peroxide(DCP) and mixing steps on mechanical properties of EPDM/PP blends was studied. The results showed that the mechanical and process properties of EPDM?PP thermoplastic elastomers were better using EPDM with the ML of 60 and PP with MFR of 7.5g/10min as matrix,DCP with the content of 1.2 per cent with the help of twostep curing process at the temperature of 170-175 ℃.……

  15. 试论英文国名词汇的文化情结%A Study of the Cultural Emotion in English Phrases with Country Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛丽霞

    2013-01-01

    Language often objectively relfects speciifc things and cultures, but ethnocentrism often causes the proud praise of one’s own country and the demeaning of other countries. Therefore, care must be taken in understanding and translating phrases containing names of countries. To avoid possible misunderstanding, the meanings of phrases with country names must be f ully understood by analyzing their underlied cultural connotations.%语言客观反映一国所特有的东西和文化,但民族中心主义导致了对本国的褒扬和他国的贬低,因此,对含有国家名称的词汇如何理解和翻译要慎重,切莫直译乱翻、望文生义,而要在了解其文化背景的基础上理解其涵义,避免产生误解。

  16. English Modal Verbs in Modal Verb Phrase Structures and Lexical Associations of Modality in ‘Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gajšt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a corpus-based analysis of English modal verbs and semi-modals in modal verb phrase structures as well as lexical association of modality in ‘standard terms and conditions of sale’, which are legally binding documents in the domain of commerce and whose purpose is to govern the obligations and rights of sellers and buyers in the transaction of goods for payment. Our research has established that the most frequent modal verbs in these documents are shall, will, may, must and can, and that the most common modal verb phrase structures in are ‘modal+infinitive’ and ‘modal+be+past participle’. We found 718 different lexical verbs that indicate actions, states and conditions associated with commercial transactions. These results correspond with the definition of these documents. Our findings are a demonstration of how language expresses the characteristics of a legal text type in a professional domain of commerce/trade.

  17. The Role of the Carbohydrate Recognition Domain of Placental Protein 13 (PP13) in Pregnancy Evaluated with Recombinant PP13 and the DelT221 PP13 Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Marei Sammar; Shahar Nisamblatt; Ron Gonen; Berthold Huppertz; Sveinbjorn Gizurarson; George Osol; Hamutal Meiri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Placental protein 13 (PP13), a placenta specific protein, is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. A naturally occurring PP13 deletion of thymidine at position 221 (DelT221 or truncated variant) is associated with increased frequency of severe preeclampsia. In this study we compared the full length (wildtype) PP13 and the truncated variant. Methods Full length PP13 or its DelT221 variant were cloned, expressed and purified fro...

  18. High p{sub T} jet production in pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskola, K.J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Wang, X.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Production rates of large p{sub T} jets in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are studied using the next-to-leading order calculation of S. D. Ellis, Z. Zunszt and D. Soper. The computed inclusive one-jet cross sections are compared against the CERN and Fermilab jet data from p{bar p} and pp collisions. The dependence of the results on the choice of the parton distributions and renormalization/factorization scales is investigated.

  19. Differential cross section and analysing power of the pp -> {pp\\}_s pi0 reaction at 353 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tsirkov, D; Baru, V; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Dzyuba, A; Gebel, R; Goslawski, P; Hanhart, C; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A; Khoukaz, A; Komarov, V; Kulessa, P; Kulikov, A; Kurbatov, V; Lensky, V; Lorentz, B; Macharashvili, G; Mchedslishvili, D; Mielke, M; Mikirtytchiants, S; Merzliakov, S; Nioradze, M; Ohm, H; Papenbrock, M; Rathmann, F; Serdyuk, V; Shmakova, V; Stroeher, H; Uzikov, Yu; Valdau, Yu; Wilkin, C

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish links between p-wave pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions and low energy three-nucleon scattering, an extensive programme of experiments on pion production is currently underway at COSY-ANKE. The final proton pair is detected at very low excitation energy, leading to an S-wave diproton, denoted here as {pp}_s. We now report on measurements of the differential cross section and analysing power of the pol{p}p->{pp}_s pi^0$ reaction at 353 MeV. Both observables can be described in terms of s- and d-wave pion production and, by using the phase information from elastic pp scattering, unique solutions can be obtained for the corresponding amplitudes. This information is vital for the partial wave decomposition of the corresponding pn->{pp}_s pi^- reaction and hence for the extraction of the p-wave terms.

  20. PP/clay nanocomposite films for food package; Filmes de nanocomposito PP/argila organofilica para embalagens de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Arthur R.A.; Silva, Suedina M.L., E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.ed [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMat/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Andrade, Daniela L.A.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Mesquita, Wandemberg B. [Felinto Industria e Comercio Ltda., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Small contents of organoclays (1 wt %) were incorporated to PP modified with maleic anhydride by melt intercalation, in order to prepare polymeric films for further applications in food package sector. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical properties. The data indicates that the incorporation of organoclay to PP results in transparent films with intercalated morphology and highly. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites films were superior from those pristine films. The results evidences that the PP/PP-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite films, prepared in this study might be promissory to the food package market and, in short time, be used like a new product by industries of this sector. (author)

  1. Synthesis of Highly Selective Submicromolar Microcystin‐Based Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatase (PP)2A over PP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanillo, Miriam; Zemskov, Ivan; Häfner, Maximilian; Uhrig, Ulrike; Salvi, Francesca; Simon, Bernd; Wittmann, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research and therapeutic targeting of the phosphoserine/threonine phosphatases PP1 and PP2A is hindered by the lack of selective inhibitors. The microcystin (MC) natural toxins target both phosphatases with equal potency, and their complex synthesis has complicated structure–activity relationship studies in the past. We report herein the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of 11 MC analogues, which was accomplished through an efficient strategy combining solid‐ and solution‐phase approaches. Our approach led to the first MC analogue with submicromolar inhibitory potency that is strongly selective for PP2A over PP1 and does not require the complex lipophilic Adda group. Through mutational and structural analyses, we identified a new key element for binding, as well as reasons for the selectivity. This work gives unprecedented insight into how selectivity between these phosphatases can be achieved with MC analogues. PMID:27723199

  2. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken’ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. PMID:25038254

  3. Study on the Impacts of Core Specialized Courses Preposition on Core Competency and Vocational Willingness of Midwifery Students%专业核心课程前置对助产学生核心胜任力及职业意愿的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖书娟; 石静; 王静; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    为分析助产专业核心课程前置对学生专业核心胜任力及职业意愿的影响,采用助产士核心胜任力量表对助产专业课程前置试验班及常规对照班学生进行核心胜任力评价,同时使用自制问卷收集其一般资料、成为助产士的意愿及核心课程理论成绩,分析试验组与对照组上述指标的差异性.路径分析模型结果显示,助产专业核心课程前置有利于提高学生专业核心胜任力以及增强学生职业选择成为助产士的意愿.%To analyze the impacts of core specialized courses preposition on the core competency and career willingness of midwifery students, this study evaluated the core competency of students both of core experimental class with core specialized courses preposition and conventional comparative class by using the "midwife core competency scale", meanwhile collected their demographic data and the willingness of being a midwife and the scores of core courses by using self-developed questionnaire, and then analyzed the difference between two groups in the indexes mentioned above. The results through pathway analyzing showed, the core courses preposition of midwifery specialty will improve the core professional competency and the vocational willingness to be midwife of students majoring midwifery specialty.

  4. Site specificity of DSP-PP cleavage by BMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Robert T; Lim, Glendale L; Yee, Colin T; Fuller, Robert S; Ritchie, Helena H

    2014-08-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 1 (BMP1), a metalloproteinase, is known to cleave a wide variety of extracellular matrix proteins, suggesting that a consensus substrate cleavage amino acid sequence might exist. However, while such a consensus sequence has been proposed based on P4 to P4' (i.e. the four amino acids flanking either side of the BMP1 cleavage site; P4P3P2P1|P1'P2'P3'P4') sequence homologies between two BMP1 substrates, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialoprotein phosphophoryn (DSP-PP) (i.e. xMQx|DDP), no direct testing has so far been attempted. Using an Sf9 cell expression system, we have been able to produce large amounts of uncleaved DSP-PP. Point mutations introduced into this recombinant DSP-PP were then tested for their effects on DSP-PP cleavage by either Sf9 endogenous tolloid-related protein 1 (TLR-1) or by its human homolog, BMP1. Here, we have measured DSP-PP cleavage efficiencies after modifications based on P4-P4' sequence comparisons with dentin matrix protein 1, as well as for prolysyl oxidase and chordin, two other BMP1 substrates. Our results demonstrate that any mutations within or outside of the DSP-PP P4 to P4' cleavage site can block, impair or accelerate DSP-PP cleavage, and suggest that its BMP1 cleavage site is highly conserved in order to regulate its cleavage efficiency, possibly with additional assistance from its conserved exosites. Thus, BMP1 cleavage cannot be based on a consensus substrate cleavage site.

  5. Overexpression of RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, induces the growth suppression of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Ochi, Kozo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Two genes encoding RelA/SpoT homologs, PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b, which are involved in the synthesis of bacterial alarmone guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) for the stringent response, were isolated from the moss, Physcomitrella patens. A complementary analysis of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b in Escherichia coli showed that these genes had ppGpp biosynthetic activity. The recombinant PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b were also shown to synthesize ppGpp in vitro. Both proteins were localized to the chloroplasts of P. patens. Expression of the PpRSH genes was induced upon treatment with abscisic acid or abiotic stresses, such as dehydration and UV irradiation. Overexpression of PpRSH2a and PpRSH2b caused suppression of the growth in response to 1% (w/v) of glucose. The present study suggests the existence of a mechanism to regulate the growth of P. patens, which is governed by plant RSH in chloroplasts.

  6. El régimen preposicional en español e italiano: breve estudio contrastivo y traductológico / The prepositional system in Spanish and Italian: towards a brief contrastive and translation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trovato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una sistematización en lo que atañe al régimen preposicional en dos lenguas afines: español e italiano. Por ello, el trabajo se inscribe dentro de un marco didáctico, con el objeto de brindar a todo docente de español algunas pautas metodológicas de interés e utilidad a la hora de abordar el tema en la clase de E/ LE. Para nuestros propósitos, pasaremos someramente revista a los estudios contrastivos más emblemáticos con los que contamos y, a continuación, para nuestro análisis, adoptaremos un enfoque contrastivo y traductológico (español-italiano, con miras a encuadrar la cuestión en un ámbito específico y determinar hasta qué punto las dos lenguas estudiadas guardan parentesco desde el punto de vista sintáctico y morfológico. ABSTRACT: This article aims to offer a systematization with regard to the prepositional system in two related languages: Spanish and Italian. To this end, this study adopts a didactic framework in order to provide every teacher of Spanish with useful methodological guidelines when it comes to addressing this grammar point with students in an SSL class. For our purposes, we will analyze the most important studies on this subject and we will then adopt a contrastive and translation approach (Spanish-Italian, in order to frame the question within a specific field and determine to what extent the two languages are related from a syntactic and morphological point of view.

  7. An electron paramagnetic resonance study of PP and PP/SBS blends irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pedro E-mail: silva@ivic.ve; Albano, Carmen; Perera, Rosestela; Gonzalez, Jeanette; Ichazo, Miren

    2004-11-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of Polypropylene (PP) and its blends with a Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) copolymer in 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.% of SBS were carried out. The samples were irradiated in the 0{<=}D{<=}100 kGy range at a dose rate of 4.8 kGy/h. Typical spectra indicative of the formation of peroxy and alkyl radicals were obtained. The dynamics of formation and recombination of radicals in these samples could be explained using a mixed zero and first order generation-recombination fit of the total spin concentration as a function of the integral dose. The time dependence of the spin concentration was studied assuming a mixed first order fit in the decay process. The parameters obtained from the fitting are interpreted in terms of the rate of formation of free radicals at the irradiation time and in terms of the decay time of the total free radical concentration.

  8. ANALYSIS OF PP/POE BLENDS PROPERTIES%PP/POE共混物性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2004-01-01

    对聚丙烯(PP)和聚烯烃弹性体(POE)共混来增韧PP的效果进行研究,通过差示扫描量热计分析了共混物熔点、结晶温度及结晶焓的变化,利用广角X射线衍射仪、透射电镜分别分析了共混物PP晶面间距和共混物中POE的粒径大小和分布.得到PP和POE不同配比共混物性能变化规律.结果也表明,POE增韧PP与POE的添加量粒径大小及分布有密切关系.

  9. Perspective fonctionnelle de la phrase et diachronie : le passage de l’ancien français au moyen français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Combettes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show how the concepts and the methods of FSP can be applied to the diachronic study. By leaning on a corpus of Old French and Middle French texts, we observe at first the specificity of the communicative dynamism and the passage of Old French system, which gives the priority to the identification of the theme, to Middle French, which takes into account the degrees of rhematic phrases. The diverse thematic progressions and, in particular, the emergence, during Middle French are then studied, progressions with derived themes, connected to the expression of the background. Changes which affect constituent order, in particular the change of status of V2 order, are then put in connection with textual evolutions.

  10. CHINESE-UYGHUR PHRASES COLLOCATION AND ALIGNMENT%汉维语短语搭配的识别和对齐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹龙; 田生伟; 杨飞宇

    2011-01-01

    提出一种简单实用的汉维语短语搭配的抽取方法.该方法不需要汉语分词、词性标注等预处理工作,根据语料中汉语字和维语单词的共现信息,避免语料中个别词汇数目极少而共现信息值较大出现噪音,采用t检验消除,相对于利用分词和词性标注等技术的抽取方法,该算法简单且时间效率较高.实验结果表明,该方法利用较小规模的语料库也能达到较好的短语搭配抽取效果.%This dissertation puts forward a simple and practical extraction method for Chinese and Uyghur phrases collocation. The method does not require Chinese word segmentation, POS tagging and other pre-processing works, according to co-occurrence information of Chinese characters and Uyghur words in the corpus, it avoids the existence of the noise caused by sparseness of exceptional words but with quite big co-occurrence information value in the corpus and uses t-test to eliminate the noise. Compared with traditional extraction methods based on word segmentation and POS tagging technologies, the algorithm is simple and time efficient. Experimental results show that the method can achieve preferable effect of phrases collocation extraction even using smaller corpus library.

  11. 细菌应激反应中(p)ppGpp代谢的调控%Modulation of (p)ppGpp metabolism during bacterial stringent response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪; 宁德刚

    2011-01-01

    (p)ppGpp is a well known intracellular signal that mediates bacterial stringent response to environment stresses through the change of its concentration level thus controls many important cellular processes for bacterial survival. In this review, we outline the mechanism of (p)ppGpp action, the enzyme system involved in (p)ppGpp metabolism, and summarize the signal transmission, the regulation and the diversity of (p)ppGpp metabolism. Moreover, we give a brief introduction on our achieved results recently about (p)ppGpp metabolism in cyanobacteria, and predict that a (p)ppGpp new metabolic mechanism different from those known exists in cyanobacteria.%(p)ppGpp是介导细菌细胞对环境胁迫产生应激反应的重要胞内信号,通过控制一系列重要的细胞活动使细菌得以生存.通过对蓝细菌中(p)ppGpp代谢的研究,对(p)ppGpp作用机制、控制(p)ppGpp代谢的酶系统、环境胁迫信号传递、细胞中(p)ppGpp水平的调控及其多样性进行了总结.

  12. pp-Solar Neutrino Spectroscopy Return of the Indium Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, R S

    2001-01-01

    A new indium-loaded liquid scintillator (LS) with up to 15wt% In and high light output promises a breakthrough in the 25y old proposal for observing pp solar neutrinos (nue) by tagged nue capture in 115In. Intense background from the natural beta-decay of In, the single obstacle blocking this project till now, can be reduced by more than x100 with the new In-LS. Only non-In background remains, dramatically relaxing design criteria. Eight tons of In yields ~400 pp nue/y after analysis cuts. With the lowest threshold yet, Q=118 keV, In is the most sensitive detector of the pp nue spectrum, the long sought touchstone for nue conversion.

  13. Evidence for collective phenomena in pp collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    Observation of long-range ridge-like correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions opened up new opportunities for exploring novel QCD dynamics in small collision systems. Based on data collected in 2015 and 2016 with the CMS detector at the LHC, the second-order ($v_{2}$) and third-order ($v_{3}$) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of $K_{s}^{0}$, $\\Lambda$ and inclusive charged particles are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For the first time in pp collisions, the $v_{2}$ signals are also extracted from multi-particle correlations, providing direct evidence of the collective nature of observed particle correlations. These results provide new insights on the origin of observed long-range correlations in pp collisions, and may shed light on how quantum fluctuations affect the proton structure at a very short time scale.

  14. Diversity in (p)ppGpp metabolism and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuanqing; Bittner, Alycia N; Wang, Jue D

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria produce guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate, collectively named (p)ppGpp, in response to a variety of environmental stimuli. These two remarkable molecules regulate many cellular processes, including the central dogma processes and metabolism, to ensure survival and adaptation. Work in Escherichia coli laid the foundation for understanding the molecular details of (p)ppGpp and its cellular functions. As recent studies expand to other species, it is apparent that there exists considerable variation, with respect to not only (p)ppGpp metabolism, but also to its mechanism of action. From an evolutionary standpoint, this diversification is an elegant example of how different species adapt a particular regulatory network to their diverse lifestyles.

  15. Core Drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP72...OL-PP89 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled eighteen drillholes to survey the ground and bedrock conditions in the encapsulation plant building site at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011. Soil quality, bedrock depth and quality of near surface bedrock were investigated in this project. The drillholes were drilled between 19th of October and 8th of November 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are mostly between 7 to 9 metres, except for the drillhole OL-PP79, which is 15 metres by length. The drillholes are 76 mm by diameter, and the core diameter is 60.2 mm. The lightweight GM75 drilling rig with rubber tracks was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO area research building freshwater pipeline and sodium fluorescein was added as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were not left open. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The average natural fracture frequencies of the drillcores range from 2.5 pc/m (OL-PP77) to 11.8 pc/m (OL-PP86). The average RQD ranges from 55.1 % (OL-PP86) to 96.4 % (OL-PP77). The penetrated soils are mostly ground fill (blast rock), but some clays and sands are lying below the fill layer. (orig.)

  16. The pp->p Lambda K+ and pp->p Sigma0 K+ reactions with chiral dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, E

    2011-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of the pp->p Lambda K+ and pp->p Sigma0 K+ reactions near threshold using a chiral dynamical approach. The production process is described by single-pion and single-kaon exchange. The final state interactions of nucleon-hyperon, K-hyperon and K-nucleon systems are also taken into account. We show that our model leads to a fair description of the experimental data on the total cross section of the pp->p Lambda K+ and pp->p Sigma0 K+ reactions. We find that the experimental observed strong suppression of Sigma0 production compared to Lambda production at the same excess energy can be explained. However, ignorance of phases between some amplitudes does not allow to properly account for the nucleon-hyperon final state interaction for the pp->p Sigma0 K+ reaction. We also demonstrate that the invariant mass distribution and the Dalitz plot provide direct information about the Lambda and Sigma0 production mechanism, and can be tested by experiments at COSY or HIRFL-CSR.

  17. Physcomitrella Patens Dehydrins (PpDHNA and PpDHNC Confer Salinity and Drought Tolerance to Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins (DHNs as a member of late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA proteins are involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Two dehydrins PpDHNA and PpDHNC were previously characterized from the moss Physcomitrella patens, which has been suggested to be an ideal model plant to study stress tolerance due to its adaptability to extreme environment. In this study, functions of these two genes were analyzed by heterologous expressions in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis revealed that overexpressing PpDHN dehydrin lines had stronger stress resistance than wild type and empty-vector control lines. These stress tolerance mainly due to the up-regulation of stress-related genes expression and mitigation to oxidative damage. The transgenic plants showed strong scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species(ROS, which was attributed to the enhancing of the content of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Further analysis showed that the contents of chlorophyll and proline tended to be the appropriate level (close to non-stress environment and the malondialdehyde (MDA were repressed in these transgenic plants after exposure to stress. All these results suggest the PpDHNA and PpDHNC played a crucial role in response to drought and salt stress.

  18. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  19. Molecular mechanism of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1cα-PP1r7) in spermatogenesis of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Song, Zhen Hui; Zhu, Hong Hong; Zhou, Zuo Yong; Zeng, Yuan Qin

    2015-09-01

    Toxocariasis is one of the most important, but neglected, zoonoses, which is mainly caused by Toxocara canis. To better understand the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in reproductive processes of male adult T. canis, differential expression analysis was used to reveal the profiles of PP1 catalytic subunit α (PP1cα) gene Tc-stp-1 and PP1 regulatory subunit 7 (PP1r7) gene TcM-1309. Indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry was carried out to determine the subcellular distribution of PP1cα. Double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) assays were employed to illustrate the function and mechanism of PP1cα in male adult reproduction. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed transcriptional consistency of Tc-stp-1 and TcM-1309 in sperm-producing germline tissues and localization research showed cytoplasmic distribution of PP1cα in sf9 cells, which indicated relevant involvements of PP1cα and PP1r7 in spermatogenesis. Moreover, spatiotemporal transcriptional differences of Tc-stp-1 were determined by gene knockdown analysis, which revealed abnormal morphologies and blocked meiotic divisions of spermatocytes by phenotypic aberration scanning, thereby highlighting the crucial involvement of PP1cα in spermatogenesis. These results revealed a PP1cα-PP1r7 mechanism by which PP1 regulates kinetochore-microtubule interactions in spermatogenesis and provided important clues to identify novel drug or vaccine targets for toxocariasis control.

  20. pp-Solar Neutrino Spectroscopy: Return of the Indium Detector

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A new indium-loaded liquid scintillator (LS) with up to 15wt% In and high light output promises a breakthrough in the 25y old proposal for observing pp solar neutrinos (nue) by tagged nue capture in 115In. Intense background from the natural beta-decay of In, the single obstacle blocking this project till now, can be reduced by more than x100 with the new In-LS. Only non-In background remains, dramatically relaxing design criteria. Eight tons of In yields ~400 pp nue/y after analysis cuts. Wi...

  1. $pp$ Elastic Scattering at LHC and Nucleon Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M M; Prokudin, A V

    2003-01-01

    High energy elastic pp differential cross section at LHC at the c.m. energy 14 TeV is predicted using the asymptotic behavior of sigma-tot(s) and rho(s), and the measured pbar-p differential cross section at sqrt{s}=546 GeV. The phenomenological investigation has progressively led to an effective field theory model that describes the nucleon as a chiral bag embedded in a quark-antiquark condensed ground state. The measurement of pp elastic scattering at LHC up to large |t| >~ 10 GeV^2 by the TOTEM group will be crucial to test this structure of the nucleon.

  2. Lambda production in p+p interactions at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Andrzej Gabriel; Kowalski, S

    The method of analysis for determination of Lambda production in p+p interactions has been developed, described, and applied to 158 GeV/c p+p data. The procedure has been used for calculation of double-differential spectra (d2n/dydpT, d2n/dydmT, d2n/dxFdpT), single-differential distributions (dn/dy , dn/dxF), mean transverse mass , and the dependence of inverse slope parameter T on y. Finally, mean Lambda multiplicity extrapolated to 4pi has been calculeted.

  3. The Wives and Sisters of Sahagun: Word Order of Latin and Romance Synonyms in Possessive Noun Phrases in the Formulae of Medieval Iberian Notarial Documents--"Uxor vs. Mulier" and "Soror vs. Germana," a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find and trace word order patterns in Possessive Noun Phrases ("PNP's") in formulaic language within notarial documents dating from the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, originating from the Monastery of Sahagun, Leon, Spain. The overall results show clear trends, which reveal a diachronic process that…

  4. The Wives and Sisters of Sahagun: Word Order of Latin and Romance Synonyms in Possessive Noun Phrases in the Formulae of Medieval Iberian Notarial Documents--"Uxor vs. Mulier" and "Soror vs. Germana," a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to find and trace word order patterns in Possessive Noun Phrases ("PNP's") in formulaic language within notarial documents dating from the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, originating from the Monastery of Sahagun, Leon, Spain. The overall results show clear trends, which reveal a diachronic process that…

  5. PP13, maternal ABO blood groups and the risk assessment of pregnancy complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandor Gabor Than

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental Protein 13 (PP13, an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078 and Hispanic (n = 242 women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13--blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test.

  6. PP13, Maternal ABO Blood Groups and the Risk Assessment of Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Meiri, Hamutal; Erez, Offer; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Barna, Laszlo; Szilagyi, Andras; Ackerman, Ron; Sammar, Marei; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Gonen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Placental Protein 13 (PP13), an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. Methods and Findings We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078) and Hispanic (n = 242) women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13 - blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. Conclusions ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test. PMID:21799738

  7. Nanocomposites of PP and bentonite clay modified with different surfactants; Nanocompositos de PP e bentonita organofilizada com diferentes tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Andre W.B.; Agrawal, Pankaj; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A., E-mail: tomas@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Ueki, Marcelo M. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI/CIMATEC), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro Integrado de Manufatura e Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was the development of nano composites of polypropylene (PP) and national bentonite clay modified with different surfactants. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the organophilization process was effective. The surfactants led to a significant increase in the basal spacing of Brasgel PA clay. XRD results of the mixture PP/Brasgel PA clay modified with Praepagem WB surfactant indicated that a nanocomposite with intercalated structure was formed. When the Brasgel PA clay was modified with Praepagem HY surfactant, DRX results indicated that a micro composite was formed. Screw speed, clay content and PP viscosity had no influence on the XRD pattern of the obtained materials. (author)

  8. Effect of tocopherols incorporation on physical properties of LDPE,PP and blend film of LDPE/PP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xuntao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of added tocopherols and blending of different polymers on the film physical properties.Tocopherols (3 000 mg/kg were incorporate into low density polyethylene (LDPE,polypropylene (PP and a blend film of LDPE/PP (50/50 by extrusion process.Then films were evaluated to determine tocopherol recovery and physical properties.Results showed that extrusion did not significantly change film thermal properties (Tm,Tc and Tg as compared with synthetic polymer resin pellet (raw material.LDPE and PP did not seem to react with each other to form new polymers under the current extrusion conditions.Addition of tocopherol significantly changed film mechanical properties compared with control.The above results and other data seemed to support that polymer blending is a feasible approach for producing tocopherol containing packaging films.

  9. 基于医院文化建设和团队精神培养的医院入职培训模式设计%Design on hospital pre-positive training formation based on the hospital culture construction and teamwork spirit training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文京; 王霞; 张瑶

    2012-01-01

    The new staff pre-positive training plays a vital role in adapting new employees of different positions to the hospital working environment, and the medical working pressure. The author hopes to demonstrate that it can make newcomers adjust to the hospital culture more quickly by adding the courses of hospital culture and teamwork spirit into the new staff pre-positive training, besides, it can also make them get more effective communication, thereby improve the sense of belonging and cohesion of the new staff's.%医院的入职培训对于不同岗位的新职工适应医院的工作环境、适应医疗工作的压力,有着重要意义.笔者通过对不同模式的入职培训的比较分析,阐述了入职培训中加入医院文化和团队精神建设两方面内容,能使新职工更快地融入到医院文化当中,并促进新职工之间的积极沟通,从而提高新职工的归属感和凝聚力.

  10. Ueber die Reaktion pppp π+π- bei Primaerimpulsen von 12 und 24 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Herbert M

    1978-01-01

    The author has studied the ppppπ+π- reaction at primary impulses of 12 to 24 GeV/c. He has obtained the mass spectra of the pπ+π- system which show evidence for diffractive production of a N*(1470) resonance together with superpositions of further resonance-like structures. Furthermore the decay of the pπ+π- system is studied by means of a momentum analysis of the decay angular distributions. Finally a partial wave analysis is performed. (HSI)

  11. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Au setup in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Au stores.

  12. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Aluminum setup in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-02

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Aluminum stores.

  13. Genetic characterization of two fully sequenced multi-drug resistant plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 from Leclercia adecarboxylata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengjun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Qiang; Luo, Wenbo; Tong, Yigang; Zhang, Defu; Wang, Qian; Feng, Wei; Chen, Weijun; Fan, Yahan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported the complete sequence of the resistance plasmid pP10164-NDM, harboring blaNDM (conferring carbapenem resistance) and bleMBL (conferring bleomycin resistance), which is recovered from a clinical Leclercia adecarboxylata isolate P10164 from China. This follow-up work disclosed that there were still two multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmids pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 coexisting in this strain. pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 were completely sequenced and shown to carry a wealth of resistance genes, which encoded the resistance to at least 10 classes of antibiotics (β-lactams. macrolides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, amphenicols, quaternary ammonium compounds, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, and rifampicin) and 7 kinds of heavy mental (mercury, silver, copper, nickel, chromate, arsenic, and tellurium). All of these antibiotic resistance genes are associated with mobile elements such as transposons, integrons, and insertion sequence-based transposable units, constituting a total of three novel MDR regions, two in pP10164-2 and the other one in pP10164-3. Coexistence of three resistance plasmids pP10164-NDM, pP10164-2 and pP10164-3 makes L. adecarboxylata P10164 tend to become extensively drug-resistant. PMID:27658354

  14. Search for Exotic Processes at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, R.; Bagnaia, P.; Banner, M.;......Kofoed-Hansen

    1987-01-01

    The total UA2 data sample at the CERN pp̄ Collider corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 910 nb−1. Limits on various hypothetical processes, such as production of excited electrons, additional charged or neutral vector bosons, or supersymmetric particles, are presented from the analysis of t...

  15. Multiple photon effects in $pp$ scattering at SSC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, D B; Shio, C; Siopsis, G; Ward, B F L

    1992-01-01

    The Monte Carlo program SSCYFS2 is used in conjunction with available parton distribution functions to calculate the effects of multiple photon radiation on pp scattering at SSC energies. Effects relevant to precision SSC physics such as Higgs discovery and exploration are illustrated.

  16. The Hyperon Λ(1405) in p+p reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenson, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    We present an analysis of the hyperon Λ(1405) for p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). A Λ(1405) signal could be reconstructed in both charged decay channels (Λ(1405)→Σ±πmnplus;).

  17. Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Sharma, A.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Susa, T.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Abdelalim, A. 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L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. F.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Albert, A.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Behnamian, H.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Barducci, D.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Diamond, B.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Forthomme, L.; Kenny, R. P., III; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Kumar, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at √{ s} = 5 , 7, and 13TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0pb-1 (5 TeV), 6.2pb-1 (7 TeV), and 0.7pb-1 (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v2) and third-order (v3) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v2 of KS0 and Λ / Λ ‾ particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v2 values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), KS0 , and Λ / Λ ‾, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pT ≈ 2GeV/ c. For 13 TeV data, the v2 signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

  18. Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-06-20

    Measurements of two- and multi-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 5, 7, and 13 TeV are presented as a function of charged-particle multiplicity. The data, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.0 inverse picobarns (5 TeV), 6.2 inverse picobarns (7 TeV), and 0.7 inverse picobarns (13 TeV), were collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The second-order (v[2]) and third-order (v[3]) azimuthal anisotropy harmonics of unidentified charged particles, as well as v[2] of K0 short and Lambda/anti-Lambda particles, are extracted from long-range two-particle correlations as functions of particle multiplicity and transverse momentum. For high-multiplicity pp events, a mass ordering is observed for the v[2] values of charged hadrons (mostly pions), K0 short, and Lambda/anti-Lambda, with lighter particle species exhibiting a stronger azimuthal anisotropy signal below pt~2 GeV/c. For 13 TeV data, the v[2] signals are also extracted from four- and six-particle correlations for the first time in pp collisions, with comparable magnitude to those from two-particle correlations. These observations are similar to those seen in pPb and PbPb collisions, and support the interpretation of a collective origin for the observed long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions.

  19. Heavy neutrinos and the $pp\\to lljj$ CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    Gluza, J

    2015-01-01

    We show that the excess in the $pp \\to ee jj$ CMS data can be naturally interpreted within the Minimal Left Right Symmetric model (MLRSM), keeping $g_L = g_R$, if CP phases and non-degenerate masses of heavy neutrinos are taken into account. As an additional benefit, a natural interpretation of the reported ratio (14:1) of the opposite-sign (OS) $pp\\to l^\\pm l^\\mp jj$ to the same-sign (SS) $pp\\to l^\\pm l^\\pm jj$ lepton signals is possible. Finally, a suppression of muon pairs with respect to electron pairs in the $pp \\to lljj$ data is obtained, in accordance with experimental data. If the excess in the CMS data survives in the future, it would be a first clear hint towards presence of heavy neutrinos in right-handed charged currents with specific CP phases, mixing angles and masses, which will have far reaching consequences for particle physics directions.

  20. New results of the Borexino experiment: pp solar neutrino detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davini, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, N.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Borexino experiment is an ultra-pure liquid scintillator detector, running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). Borexino has completed the real time spectroscopy of the solar neutrinos generated in the proton-proton chain in the core of the Sun. This article reviews the Borexino experiment and the first direct measurment of pp solar neutrinos.

  1. Média dos valores da frase em diferentes gravidades do desvio fonológico evolutivo Average values of phrase in different severities of phonological disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Konzen Albiero

    2012-01-01

    , through the research on the average values of phrase, in which they collected phrases from three different language modalities: describing a picture, telling a story, and answering questions. The five phrases the children first spoke were punctuated according to their complexity. Next, we accomplished the statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. The significant p value is considered p<0.05. RESULTS: there was no statistical significant difference among the different degrees of severity of the phonological disorder in the three evaluated language modalities, as related to the morphosyntax, semantics, total of construction, and total of length. CONCLUSION: we can conclude that the severity of the phonological disorder does not affect the children's performance regarding morphosyntax and semantic development, because there was no statistical significance among the results. Therefore, we may suggest that other studies should be carried out in order to confirm or not such results.

  2. Toughening of wood plastic composite based on X-PP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Khongrit, A.

    2016-03-01

    Wood plastic composite(WPC) based on crosslinked polypropylene(X-PP)/wood flour was explored. The peroxide/silane was used as crosslinking system. The sauna incubation under moisture saturated oven was applied to accelerate the competition of the siloxy/moisture networking reaction. There were three parts of the research work; design of experiment, toughening of WPC and the effect of peroxide, silane and PP copolymer on properties of the WPC, respectively. In this published work, the toughness improvement of the composite was focused. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer(EPDM) were employed to improve impact strength via blending with x-PP matrix. Composites were compounded into pellets by co-rotational twin screw extruder and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. Sauna incubation at 105°C for 12 hrs in oven chamber was performed to accelerate the final silane condensation crosslink reaction. MFI, impact strength, flexural properties and heat deflection temperature measurement were conducted. Impact strength, HDT and flexural modulus were improved with increasing UHMWPE content, and the optimal values around 5-10 phr of UHMWPE were achieved. Addition of EPDM elastomer to the matrix blends, reduced flexural strength and modulus but increased impact strength. While incorporation of EPDM into the PP/UHMWPE blends was exhibited much higher impact strength than that of the PP/UHMWPE binary blends. Silane crosslinked through sauna treatment improved the impact strength. HDT were also much risen for the crosslinked composite comparing with the non-crosslinked one.

  3. Effects of PP4 suppression on the proliferation of MCF7 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Lifeng; LONG Zhitao; HUANG Xiuqing; SUN Lingling; SANG Jianli

    2006-01-01

    PP4, one of the few protein phosphatases associated with centrosome in cells of many species such as Drosophila, C. elegans and mammals, plays an essential role in the regulation of centrosome functions in Drosophila and C. elegans. In order to explore the role of PP4 in mammalian cells, full-length PP4 gene was obtained by RT-PCR from MCF7 cell total RNA and inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C1. The resultant construct pEGFP-C1-PP4 was transfected into MCF7 cells and immunostaining was carried out to confirm the centrosome localization of PP4. Then we reversely subcloned a non-conserved domain of PP4 into pXJ41 to construct an anti-sense vector pXJ41- as-PP4. By transfecting pXJ41-as-PP4 into MCF7 cells and screening with G418, we obtained a stable cell line in which PP4 expression was stably suppressed. The cell line was analyzed on cell morphology, cytoskeleton structure, growth characteristics and the mitosis process. It was found that the proliferation rate decreased and serum-dependence increased in PP4-suppressed cells. Furthermore, flow cytometry and mitotic index analysis showed that G2/M transition was prolonged. PP4 suppression resulted in abnormal interphase microtubule, formation of multipolar spindles and an increase in percentage of multinuclear cells. These results suggested that PP4 is required for centrosome function in mammalian cells.

  4. Core drilling of hydco drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for HYDCO-program in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2010. The drillhole ONK-PP262 was drilled in May 2010 and the drillhole ONK-PP274 in December 2010. The lengths of the drillholes are 25.02 and 23.88 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in the investigation niche 4 at the access tunnel chainage 3747. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in both drill cores are 1.4 pcs/m. The average RQD values in the drillcores are 97.2 % (ONK-PP262) and 98.6 % (ONK-PP274). (orig.)

  5. Comparison of anti pp and pp elastic scattering with 0. 6 < t < 2. 1 GeV/sup 2/ at the CERN-ISR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhan, S.; Smith, A.M.; Meritet, L.; Reyrolle, M.; Vazeille, F.; Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Medinnis, M.; Schlein, P.E.; Sherwood, P.

    1985-02-28

    anti pp and pp elastic scattering differential cross sections are presented for momentum transfer 0.6 < t < 2.1 GeV/sup 2/ and ..sqrt..s=53 GeV. Measurements were made in the same apparatus at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The anti pp and pp results are in statistical agreement with one another over the entire t range, although the point at t=1.32 GeV/sup 2/ is 1.5sigma above the pp data. The anti pp points appear to have the same shape as the predictions of Donnachie and Landshoff but are significantly lower in magnitude for 0.9 < t < 1.5 GeV/sup 2/. (orig.).

  6. Comparison of anti pp and pp elastic scattering with 0. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhan, S.; Smith, A.M. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Meritet, L.; Reyrolle, M.; Vazeille, F. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire); Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Medinnis, M.; Schlein, P.E.; Sherwood, P.

    1985-02-28

    anti pp and pp elastic scattering differential cross sections are presented for momentum transfer 0.6pp and pp results are in statistical agreement with one another over the entire t range, although the point at t=1.32 GeV/sup 2/ is 1.5sigma above the pp data. The anti pp points appear to have the same shape as the predictions of Donnachie and Landshoff but are significantly lower in magnitude for 0.9

  7. In the gramaticalization limits. The evolution of encima (de que as speech marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Garachana Camarero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the process of semantic subjectivization that Spanish encima ‘on top’ undergoes in its development from a prepositional phrase (en cima ‘on top’ to its extended uses as a discourse marker of addition, counterargumentation, and retort. Many changes implicated in the evolution of encima are typical of grammaticalization (semantic bleaching, development of procedural meanings, decategorization, and univerbation of the two original components of the PP. Nonetheless, the fact that the discoursive marker is able to come out of syntagmatic frame, reaching an orational and textual level, gaining in syntaxes mobility or even to occupy a speech turn by itself (¡Encima! is a serious objection when the time comes to include it into the gramaticalization, typically characterized basically by eliminating the gramaticalized term’s phonology and by the obligatorification and rigidification of the piece being gramaticalized.

  8. PP-g-(MAH-co-St)增容PA6/PP研究%Study on Toughening for PA6/PP Blends by PP-g-(MAH-co-St)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甲敏; 陈军龙; 赵文庆; 廉全贵

    2013-01-01

    以马来酸酐、苯乙烯多单体熔融接枝聚丙烯(PP)[PP-g-(MAH-co-St)]为增容剂,制备了尼龙(PA)6/PP/PP-g-(MAH-co-St)共混物,研究了PP-g-(MAH-co-St)用量对共混物性能的影响。结果表明,加入一定量的PP-g-(MAH-co-St)能有效改善PA6与PP间的相容性,提高共混物的力学性能。对不同拉伸速率的拉伸试样进行了差示扫描量热分析,结果发现取向对PA6的结晶温度和熔融温度有一定影响。%The PA6/PP alloy was obtained through the compatibilization of melt grafting maleic anhydride and styrene onto polypropylene PP-g-(MAH-co-St).The effects of varied content of PP-g-(MAH-co-St) on alloy properties were studied.The results show that proper content of PP-g-(MAH-co-St) can effectively improve the compatibility of PA6 and PP,so as to improve the properties of the alloy.The tensile specimens of different rates were determined by after DSC analysis.Results show that orientation of PA6 affects the crystallization temperature and melting temperature.

  9. Non-Isothermal Crystallization of PP/HGB Composites%PP/空心玻璃微珠复合材料非等温结晶研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军伟; 赵巍; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    采用熔融共混挤出的方法,制备了聚丙烯(PP)/空心玻璃微珠(HGB)复合材料,用差示扫描量热法研究了PP和PP/HGB复合材料的非等温结晶过程,并通过Jeziorny和莫志深方程研究了非等温结晶动力学.结果表明,随降温速率的增大,PP和PP/HGB复合材料的结晶峰温和结晶度降低,结晶速率增大;HGB的加入降低了PP的结晶速率.%The polypropylene/hollow glass beads (PP/HGB) composites were prepared by a melt-extrusion method, and the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of pure PP and PP/ HGB composites was characterized via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the samples were discussed by Jeziorny and Mo equations, respectively. The results show that with increasing of the cooling rate, the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of PP and PP/HGB composites decrease, while the crystallization rate increases. However, HGB reduces the crystallization rate of PP.

  10. On Irregular Verb Phrases in Russian One-Dart Sentences%浅析俄语单部句中的动词不定式句

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣荣

    2011-01-01

    单部句中动词不定式句以其独特的结构形式和丰富多样的语义情态性区别于其他四种类型的动词单部句,即确定人称句、不定人称句、无人称句、泛指人称句。通过对单部句中动词不定式的情态意义、聚合体形式、句中词的排列等层面进行分析,认识到单部句动词不定式情态性的决定意义、主观认定和评价、理性感知的特点,语序性中的语义功能特点和聚合体的应用特点。%Irregular verb phrases in one-Dart sentences have peculiar structures and much variety of semantic modality which are different from other types(indefinite person sentence,definite person sentence,impersonal sentence,genetic sentence).From the modality,po

  11. Cross-cultural Conflict and Integration of Advertising Phrases%广告词的跨文化冲突与融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军

    2014-01-01

    在经济全球化的大背景下,广告的跨文化传播特性变得越来越明显。中西方不同的文化价值观念造成了广告词使用过程中的文化冲突,而跨国企业在宣传产品时通过提炼和加工,不断加强广告的文化适应性,以获取跨文化广告的最佳传播方式。%In the background of economic globalization,the characteristic of cross-cultural communication of advertising is becoming increasingly apparent.The cultural conflict in the process of using advertising phrases is caused by different values of eastern and west-ern cultures.However,multinational companies continue to strengthen the cultural adaptation of advertising by refining and processing the advertisements when promoting products,so as to acquire the best way of communication for cross-cultural advertisements.

  12. Music skills and the expressive interpretation of music in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome: pitch, rhythm, melodic imagery, phrasing, and musical affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopyan, T; Dennis, M; Weksberg, R; Cytrynbaum, C

    2001-03-01

    This paper studied music in 14 children and adolescents with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a multi-system neurodevelopmental disorder, and 14 age-matched controls. Five aspects of music were tested. There were two tests of core music domains, pitch discrimination and rhythm discrimination. There were two tests of musical expressiveness, melodic imagery and phrasing. There was one test of musical interpretation, the ability to identify the emotional resonance of a musical excerpt. Music scores were analyzed by means of logistic regressions that modeled outcome (higher or lower music scores) as a function of group membership (WBS or Control) and cognitive age. Compared to age peers, children with WBS had similar levels of musical expressiveness, but were less able to discriminate pitch and rhythm, or to attach a semantic interpretation to emotion in music. Music skill did not vary with cognitive age. Musical strength in individuals with WBS involves not so much formal analytic skill in pitch and rhythm discrimination as a strong engagement with music as a means of expression, play, and, perhaps, improvisation.

  13. PROMOTION OF NON-SUBJECT NOUN PHRASE TO SUBJECT IN CLAUSE OF SABU LANGUAGE, SABU RAIJUA REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sukendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive-qualitative one exploring the relation of non subject THAT was promoted to the slot of subject. From the syntactic point of view, two informants were considered adequate in the present study. The reason was that the Sabu language ‘Bahasa Sabu (hereinafter referred to as BS, as a langue, was homogenous in nature. The data needed were collected through observation and interview. The words, phrases, clauses and sentences focused on the topic of the study were note taken. In addition, the data were also collected by recording the speeches made by the BS speakers and the informants using a tape recorder and an electronic recorder. In this manner, it was possible to obtain as many data as possible. From the analysis, it was found that the clausal construction in BS could promote the non subject NP to the subject as the original subject could not be deleted. The other finding was that the promotion of the non-subject NP could be promoted to the slot of subject in the transitive and intransitive clauses. The clausal construction which could allow the promotion of the non-subject NP to the clausal construction was the clausal construction which had semantic roles as the MOTION, AFFECT, and CORPOREAL verbs. The clausal construction which could not allow the non-subject NP to be promoted to the subject was the instrumental clausal construction whose verb was realized by the verb hernabi ‘tutup’ [close].

  14. The PP1 binding code: a molecular-lego strategy that governs specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroes, Ewald; Lesage, Bart; Görnemann, Janina; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; Bollen, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a single-domain hub protein with nearly 200 validated interactors in vertebrates. PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) are ubiquitously expressed but show an exceptional diversity in brain, testis and white blood cells. The binding of PIPs is mainly mediated by short motifs that dock to surface grooves of PP1. Although PIPs often contain variants of the same PP1 binding motifs, they differ in the number and combination of docking sites. This molecular-lego strategy for binding to PP1 creates holoenzymes with unique properties. The PP1 binding code can be described as specific, universal, degenerate, nonexclusive and dynamic. PIPs control associated PP1 by interference with substrate recruitment or access to the active site. In addition, some PIPs have a subcellular targeting domain that promotes dephosphorylation by increasing the local concentration of PP1. The diversity of the PP1 interactome and the properties of the PP1 binding code account for the exquisite specificity of PP1 in vivo.

  15. The role of the carbohydrate recognition domain of placental protein 13 (PP13 in pregnancy evaluated with recombinant PP13 and the DelT221 PP13 variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marei Sammar

    Full Text Available Placental protein 13 (PP13, a placenta specific protein, is reduced in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia. A naturally occurring PP13 deletion of thymidine at position 221 (DelT221 or truncated variant is associated with increased frequency of severe preeclampsia. In this study we compared the full length (wildtype PP13 and the truncated variant.Full length PP13 or its DelT221 variant were cloned, expressed and purified from E-Coli. Both variants were administrated into pregnant rats at day 8 of pregnancy for slow release (>5 days through osmotic pumps and rat blood pressure was measured. Animals were sacrificed at day 15 or day 21 and their utero-placental vasculature was examined.The DelT221 variant (11 kDA lacked exon 4 and a part of exon 3, and is short of 2 amino acids involved in the carbohydrate (CRD binding of the wildtype (18 kDA. Unlike the wildtype PP13, purification of DelT221 variant required special refolding. PP13 specific poly- clonal antibodies recognized both PP13 and DelT221 but PP13 specific monoclonal antibodies recognized only the wildtype, indicating the loss of major epitopes. Wildtype PP13 mRNA and its respective proteins were both lower in PE patients compared to normal pregnancies. The DelT221 mutant was not found in a large Caucasian cohort. Pregnant rats exposed to wildtype or DelT221 PP13 variants had significantly lower blood pressure compared to control. The wildtype but not the DelT221 mutant caused extensive vein expansion.This study revealed the importance of PP13 in regulating blood pressure and expanding the utero-placental vasculature in pregnant rats. PP13 mutant lacking amino acids of the PP13 CRD domain fails to cause vein expansion but did reduce blood pressure. The study provides a basis for replenishing patients at risk for preeclampsia by the full length but not the truncated PP13.

  16. Molecular mutagenesis of ppGpp: turning a RelA activator into an inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljantseva, Jelena; Kudrin, Pavel; Jimmy, Steffi; Ehn, Marcel; Pohl, Radek; Varik, Vallo; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Shingler, Victoria; Tenson, Tanel; Rejman, Dominik; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2017-01-01

    The alarmone nucleotide (p)ppGpp is a key regulator of bacterial metabolism, growth, stress tolerance and virulence, making (p)ppGpp-mediated signaling a promising target for development of antibacterials. Although ppGpp itself is an activator of the ribosome-associated ppGpp synthetase RelA, several ppGpp mimics have been developed as RelA inhibitors. However promising, the currently available ppGpp mimics are relatively inefficient, with IC50 in the sub-mM range. In an attempt to identify a potent and specific inhibitor of RelA capable of abrogating (p)ppGpp production in live bacterial cells, we have tested a targeted nucleotide library using a biochemical test system comprised of purified Escherichia coli components. While none of the compounds fulfilled this aim, the screen has yielded several potentially useful molecular tools for biochemical and structural work. PMID:28157202

  17. Cytosolic ppGpp accumulation induces retarded plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Yuta; Masuda, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria a second messenger, guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), synthesized upon nutrient starvation, controls many gene expressions and enzyme activities, which is necessary for growth under changeable environments. Recent studies have shown that ppGpp synthase and hydrolase are also conserved in eukaryotes, although their functions are not well understood. We recently showed that ppGpp-overaccumulation in Arabidopsis chloroplasts results in robust growth under nutrient-limited conditions, demonstrating that the bacterial-like stringent response at least functions in plastids. To test if ppGpp also functions in the cytosol, we constructed the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Bacillus subtilis ppGpp synthase gene yjbM. Upon induction of the gene, the mutant synthesizes ∼10-20-fold higher levels of ppGpp, and its fresh weight was reduced to ˜80% that of the wild type. These results indicate that cytosolic ppGpp negatively regulates plant growth and development.

  18. Smearing of chaos in sandwich pp-waves

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, J

    1999-01-01

    Recent results demonstrating the chaotic behavior of geodesics in non-homogeneous vacuum pp-wave solutions are generalized. Here we concentrate on motion in non-homogeneous sandwich pp-waves and show that chaos smears as the duration of these gravitational waves is reduced. As the number of radial bounces of any geodesic decreases, the outcome channels to infinity become fuzzy, and thus the fractal structure of the initial conditions characterizing chaos is cut at lower and lower levels. In the limit of impulsive waves, the motion is fully non-chaotic. This is proved by presenting the geodesics in a simple explicit form which permits a physical interpretation, and demonstrates the focusing effect. It is shown that a circle of test particles is deformed by the impulse into a family of closed hypotrochoidal curves in the transversal plane. These are deformed in the longitudinal direction in such a way that a specific closed caustic surface is formed.

  19. LDPE and PP thermal diffusivity in molten state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genhli Yánez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are reported for measuring the thermal diffusivity of two polymer species: low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP. Measurements were taken in unsteady state heat flow conditions around the materials' melting temperature, using a device specially constructed for this purpose. The experimental results for the sample's temperature profile (temperature gradient product were adjusted with the theoretical results obtained by solving the heat conduction equation. Diffusivity values were α=6.92×(10^(-7 m^2⁄s for LDPE and α=5.53×(10^(-7 m^2⁄s for PP. This was pioneering work in measuring this property at high temperatures in non-stationary state heat flow conditions and should be useful in the search for improving the conditions for processing these materials.

  20. Preparation and properties of PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA composite%PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA复合材料的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 郭海福; 曾幸荣; 赖学军

    2011-01-01

    利用乳液聚合法引发醋酸乙烯酯(VAc)在有机蒙脱土(OMMT)中原位插层聚合,与聚丙烯(PP)-乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物(EVA)复合体系熔融共挤制备出PVAe-nano-0MMT/PP-EVA复合材料.X射线衍射(XRD)与透射电镜(TEM)测试结果表明,在强剪切作用下,PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA形成了剥离型纳米复合材料结构;热失重(TGA)测试结果显示PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA的起始分解温度明显高于PP-EVA和nanoOMMT/PP-EVA,PVAc-nano-OMMT的存在使材料的热性能得以改善;在PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA共混物中,PVAc-nano-OMMT具有明显的增韧作用;通过氧指数(LOI)和锥形量热(CONE)测试,PVAe-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA的氧指数为24.1%,可较大幅度地降低材料燃烧的热释放程度、有效燃烧热和烟释放过程,阻燃性能提高.%The in suit intercalated polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) and organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) was initiated via emulsion polymerization and obtained polyvinylacetate (PVAc)-nano-OMMT hybrid.Twofold blend composed of PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA was prepared by twin-screw extruder way, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that the structure of PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA is be treated as exfoliated nanocomposite structure during application of higher shear stress to system, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation gives the same result directly. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results show that the initial decomposition temperature of PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA is greater than that of PP-EVA and nano-OMMT/PP-EVA, the existence of PVAc-nano- OMMT makes composite better thermal stability. In the PVAc- nanoOMMT/PP-EVA composite, PVAc-nano-OMMT has better toughness. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter test indicate that LOI of PVAc-nano-OMMT/PP-EVA is 24. 1%, and has lower heat release rate,effective heat of combustion, smoke release course, and better flame retardancy.

  1. Strange baryon resonances in pp collisions measured with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenson, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.siebenson@ph.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe (Germany); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    We present an analysis of the hyperons {Lambda}(1405) and {Sigma}(1385){sup + } for p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). A {Lambda}(1405) signal could be reconstructed in both charged decay channels {Lambda}(1405){yields}{Sigma}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup Minus-Or-Plus-Sign }. The obtained statistics of the {Sigma}(1385){sup + } signal allows also differential studies.

  2. Strange baryon resonances in pp collisions measured with HADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenson, Johannes

    We present an analysis of the hyperons Λ(1405) and Σ(1385) + for p+p reactions at 3.5 GeV kinetic beam energy. The data were taken with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES). A Λ(1405) signal could be reconstructed in both charged decay channels Λ(1405)→Σ± π ∓ . The obtained statistics of the Σ(1385) + signal allows also differential studies.

  3. Color dipole chain and its hadronization in pp collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晋全; 王群; 谢去病

    1995-01-01

    High energy pp collision is dealt with by double-string model. Each string corresponds to one initial color dipole which will radiate gluons to form color dipole chain. Such gluon radiation process is described by color dipole model. According to the quark combination rule, the total multiplicity formulae for calculating primary meson and baryon of one dipole chain are presented- The calculated yields of various final hadrons in energy range =53- 1 800GeV agree well with available data.

  4. Charmonium production in pp collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hugo, Pereira Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We report on forward-rapidity charmonium production in pp collisions at a center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV, as measured by ALICE at the LHC. Differential cross sections for both J/{\\psi} and {\\psi}(2S) are presented as a function of the charmonium transverse momentum and rapidity. Results are compared to similar measurements performed by LHCb, to lower energy measurements and to state of the art model calculations.

  5. Multiparton interactions: From pp to pA

    CERN Document Server

    Bierlich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the process of understanding nuclear collisions, reliable extrapolations from pp collisions, based on Glauber models, are highly desirable, though seldomly accurate. We review the inclusion of diffractive excitations and argue that they provide an important contribution to centrality observables in pA collisions. We present a method for distinguishing between diffractively and non-diffractively wounded nucleons, and a proof-of-principle for an extrapolation of multiparton interaction models built on this.

  6. Prompt photon production in p-p collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleymans, J. [Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Redlich, K. [Universitat Bielefeld (Germany)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive photon cross-section in p-p collisions is presented. The dependence of the {gamma} rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. A comparison is made with experimental data for centre-of-mass energies ranging from 23 GeV to 1.8 TeV. Predictions of the cross-sections are given for two different sets of structure functions for RHIC and LHC energies.

  7. Observation of vertex factorisation breaking in central pp interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; Binon, Freddy G; Carney, J N; Di Bari, D; Dolgopolov, A V; Donskov, S V; Earl, B C; Elia, D; Evans, D; Fini, R A; French, Bernard R; Ghidini, B; Inaba, S; Inyakin, A V; Jacholkowski, A; Khaustov, G V; Kinashi, T; Kinson, J B; Kirk, A; Klempt, W; Kobayashi, M; Kondashov, A A; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Lednev, A A; Lenti, V; Lishin, V A; Loconsole, R A; Maljukov, S; Manzari, V; Martinengo, P; Minashvili, I A; Nakagawa, T; Navach, F; Norman, K L; Peigneux, J P; Polovnikov, S A; Polyakov, V A; Prokoshkin, Yu D; Romanovsky, V I; Rotscheidt, Herbert; Rusakovitch, N A; Samoylenko, V D; Semenov, A A; Sené, M; Sené, R; Shagin, P M; Shimizu, H M; Shtannikov, A V; Singovsky, A V; Soloviev, A S; Stroot, Jean-Pierre; Sugonyaev, V P; Takamatsu, K; Tchlatchidze, G A; Tsuru, T; Vasileiadis, G; Venables, M; Villalobos Baillie, O; Votruba, M F; Yasu, Y

    1996-01-01

    Central \\pipi events produced in pp interactions are studied in terms of correlations between the outgoing protons. It is observed there is more $\\rho^{0}$(770) and \\fmeson production in reactions where the outgoing protons %fastest and slowest particles in the laboratory frame are on opposite sides of the beam. This effect is not attributable to the trigger or the experimental acceptance, and suggests that the vertices do not factorise.

  8. Inclusive production of non-strange mesons in pp annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Hamatsu, R; Barreiro, F; Cerrada, M; Cooper, A M; De Guevara, P L; Defoix, C; Díaz, J; Dobrzynski, L; Ferrando, A; Ganguli, S N; Gurtu, A; Malhotra, P K; Montanet, Lucien; Nacasch, R; Raghavan, R; Rubio, J A; Subramanian, A

    1977-01-01

    A study of the inclusive production of pi /sup -/, eta , rho /sup 0/, omega and f mesons in pp annihilation at 0.7 GeV/c is presented. Topological and channel cross sections are determined. Longitudinal and transversal momentum distributions of non-strange mesons are studied. It is deduced that nearly 48% of all negative pions arise from the decay of eta , rho /sup 0/, omega and f mesons. (22 refs).

  9. Dilepton production in pp and CC collisions with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, I; Agodi, C; Balanda, A; Bellia, G; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S P; Christ, T; Destefanis, M; Daz, J; Dohrmann, F; Durán, I; Eberl, T; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, Paulo J R; Friese, J; Galatyuk, T; Garzn, J A; Gernhuser, R; Gilardi, C; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Grosse, E; Guber, F; Hadjivasiliou, C; Heilmann, M; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kmpfer, B; Kanaki, K; Karavicheva, T; Kirschner, D; König, I; König, W; Kolb, B W; Kotte, R; Krizek, F; Krcken, R; Kugler, A; Khn, W; Kurepin, A; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lange, S; López, L; Mangiarotti, A; Marn, J; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Mishra, D; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Münch, M; Müntz, C; Naumann, Lutz; Novotny, R; Otwinowski, J; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Pechenov, V; Perez, T; Pietraszko, J; Pleskac, R; Pospsil, V; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roy-Stephan, M; Rustamov, A; Sadovskii, A; Sailer, B; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Senger, P; Shileev, K A; Simon, R; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Teilab, K; Tlustý, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Veretenkin, I; Wagner, V; Wen, H; Wisniowski, M; Wojcik, T; Wüstenfeld, J; Zanevsky, Y; Zumbruch, P

    2007-01-01

    Dilepton production has been measured with HADES, the "High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer". In pp collisions at 2.2GeV kinetic beam energy, exclusive eta production and the Dalitz decay eta -> gamma e+e- has been reconstructed. The electromagnetic form factor is well in agreement with existing data. In addition, an inclusive e+e- spectrum from the C+C reaction at 2AGeV is presented and compared with a thermal model.

  10. Color screening, absorption and $\\sigma_{tot}^{pp}$ at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, R; Zoller, V R

    2014-01-01

    We show that a growth of the proton-proton total cross section with energy can be entirely attributed to the purely perturbative mechanism. The infrared regularization at rather short distances, $R_c\\simeq 0.3$ fm, allows to extend the BFKL technique from deep inelastic to hadron-hadron scattering. With the account of the absorption corrections our results are in agreement with the LHC data on $\\sigma_{tot}^{pp}$.

  11. Probing TMDs in heavy quarkonium production in $pp$ collision

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-01-01

    We present a recent calculation of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ production in unpolarized $pp$ collision and show that this can be used to probe the unpolarized gluon as well as the linearly polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). We use the color evaporation model for the heavy quarkonium production and use a generalized factorized form of the cross section. We compare the results with experimental data.

  12. Expression of protein phosphatases (PP-1, PP-2A, PP-2B and PTP-1B) and protein kinases (MAP kinase and P34cdc2) in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease and normal aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, J J; Sersen, E; Iqbal, K; Grundke-Iqbal, I

    1994-08-29

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated in the brain of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous studies have shown (i) that in vitro tau can be phosphorylated to an Alzheimer abnormally phosphorylated state-like protein by proline-directed protein kinases MAP kinase and p34cdc2, and (ii) that the AD abnormally phosphorylated tau can be in vitro dephosphorylated by protein phosphatases PP-2B, PP-2A and PP-1 and not by PP-2C. However, to have a direct effect on the regulation of phosphorylation of tau, these enzymes should be present in the affected neurons. In the present study immunocytochemical localization of protein phosphatases PP-1, PP-2A, PP-2B and PTP, and protein kinases MAP kinase and p34cdc2 were studied in the hippocampal formation of AD and as a control in non-demented elderly patients. All the protein phosphatases and protein kinases studied were localized to both granular and pyramidal neurons. In the pyramidal neurons, the enzymes staining was observed in neuronal soma and neurites. PTP-1B, PP-1 and PP-2A were also highly expressed in microglia. The topographical distributions of all the enzymes studied were similar, i.e. the intensity of immunostaining in hippocampus in end-plate (CA3 and CA4) > prosubiculum, subiculum > entorhinal cortex > dentate gyrus > CA2 > CA1. Furthermore, the expression of all the enzymes was also observed in the tangle-bearing neurons. The PP-2B staining of the tangle-bearing neurons was weaker than the unaffected neurons in the same tissue section field in AD cases.

  13. BQP_p = PP for integer p > 2

    CERN Document Server

    Bebel, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    There's something really strange about quantum mechanics. It's not just that cats can be dead and alive at the same time, and that entanglement seems to violate the principle of locality; quantum mechanics seems to be what Aaronson calls "an island in theoryspace", because even slight perturbations to the theory of quantum mechanics seem to generate absurdities. In [Aar 04] and [Aar 05], he explores these perturbations and the corresponding absurdities in the context of computation. In particular, he shows that a quantum theory where the measurement probabilities are computed using p-norm instead of the standard 2-norm has the effect of blowing up the class BQP (the class of problems that can be efficiently solved on a quantum computer) to at least PP (the class of problems that can be solved in probabilistic polynomial time). He showed that PP \\subseteq BQP_p \\subseteq PSPACE for all constants p != 2, and that BQP_p = PP for even integers p > 2. Here, we show that this equality holds for all integers p > 2.

  14. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates heterochromatin formation in interphase

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Inês J.; Budzak, James; Di Giacinto, Maria L.; Ligammari, Lorena; Gokhan, Ezgi; Spanos, Christos; Moralli, Daniela; Richardson, Christine; de las Heras, Jose I.; Salatino, Silvia; Schirmer, Eric C.; Ullman, Katharine S.; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Green, Catherine; Rappsilber, Juri; Lamble, Sarah; Goldberg, Martin W.; Vinciotti, Veronica; Vagnarelli, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Repo-Man is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting subunit that regulates mitotic progression and chromatin remodelling. After mitosis, Repo-Man/PP1 remains associated with chromatin but its function in interphase is not known. Here we show that Repo-Man, via Nup153, is enriched on condensed chromatin at the nuclear periphery and at the edge of the nucleopore basket. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates the formation of heterochromatin, dephosphorylates H3S28 and it is necessary and sufficient for heterochromatin protein 1 binding and H3K27me3 recruitment. Using a novel proteogenomic approach, we show that Repo-Man is enriched at subtelomeric regions together with H2AZ and H3.3 and that depletion of Repo-Man alters the peripheral localization of a subset of these regions and alleviates repression of some polycomb telomeric genes. This study shows a role for a mitotic phosphatase in the regulation of the epigenetic landscape and gene expression in interphase. PMID:28091603

  15. Charmonia production in p+p collisions under NRQCD formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the differential charmonia production cross sections in high energy p+p collisions calculated using NRQCD formalism. The NRQCD formalism, factorizes the quarkonia production cross sections in terms of short distance QCD cross sections and long distance matrix elements (LDMEs). The short distance crosssections are calculated in terms of perturbative QCD and LDMEs are obtained by fitting the experimental data. Measured transverse momentum distributions of $\\chi_{\\rm c}$, $\\psi$(2S) and J/$\\psi$ in p +{$\\bar {\\rm p}$} collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 1.8, 1.96 TeV and in p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 7, 8 and 13 TeV are used to constrain LDMEs. The feed-down contribution to each state from the higher states are taken into account. The formalism provides a very good description of the data in a wide energy range. The values of LDMEs are used to predict the charmonia cross sections in p+p collisions at 13 TeV in kinematic bins relevant for the LHC detectors. Charmonia ratios are predicted at 1.8, 5 and...

  16. The Schema Theory and English Lexical Phrases Teaching in Five-Year Higher Vocational School%图式理论与五年制高职英语词汇短语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis tends to apply the Schema Theory to lexical phrases teaching in five-year higher vocational school so as to solve the students' difficulties of learning English.%  本文试图将图式理论应用到五年制高职生英语词汇短语的教学中,以期解决学生在学习词汇短语中的困难。

  17. Study on Subject-predicate Phrase of "N+V" Structure in Search Engine Query Logs%搜索引擎日志中“N+V”型主谓短语研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红改; 肖诗斌; 王洪俊; 吕学强

    2011-01-01

    The "N+V" structure can constitute the phrase of three different structures: the "N+V" nominal modifying structure, the "N+V" verbal modifying structure and the "N+V" subject-predicate structure. Based on Sogou log corpus, this paper studies subject-predicate phrase of the "N+V" structure from three aspects of its characteristics of each element, syllable characteristics and syntactic function, and especially describes "V" from the semantics. This paper also carries out in-depth analysis and confirmation of experimental data, and proposes a solution to the problem of phrase structure ambiguities, which provides important theoretical basis for improving the retrieval quality of Chinese search engine and the construction of phrase dictionary which is used by search engine.%“N+V”型结构能够构成定中偏正、状中偏正和主谓三种不同结构的短语.基于搜狗日志语料,对“N+V”型主谓短语从其各组成要素特点、音节特点和句法功能三方面进行研究,着重从语义方面对“V”进行阐述.文中,还对实验数据进行深入的分析和实证,针对“N+V”型短语的句法结构歧义问题,提供了解决方案,这为提高中文搜索引擎的检索质量和搜索引擎用短语词典构建提供了重要的理论依据.

  18. Two-pion-exchange and other higher-order contributions to the $pp\\to pp\\pi^0$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y; Myhrer, F; Kubodera, K

    2008-01-01

    Much effort has been invested on effective-field-theoretical studies of the near-threshold NN \\to NN\\pi reactions and, in order to deal with the rather large three-momentum transfers involved, the momentum counting scheme was proposed as an alternative to the usual Weinberg counting scheme. To examine the practical utility of the momentum counting scheme, we study here the contributions of higher-order terms to the pp\\to pp\\pi^0 reaction. We discuss the consequences of the different treatments of the nucleon propagators in these two counting schemes. We also investigate certain higher chiral-order pion-rescattering terms and the five-point counter-term, which turn out to give important contributions.

  19. Recycled and Virgin HDPEs as Bleed Inhibitors and Their Rheological Influences on Lubricating Greases Thickened with PP and mPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Dixena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP thickened lubricating grease exhibits high oil bleed tendency at low temperatures, which makes it a promising candidate for low temperature applications. At elevated temperatures, PP thickened lubricating grease exhibits excessive oil bleeding, which limits its use at high temperatures. Excessive oil bleed adversely affects the lubricating performance of the PP thickened grease. The present work is focused on the study of the oil bleed tendency of PP and Maleated Polypropylene (mPP thickened greases at various temperatures by incorporating virgin and recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE into the thickener system. Grease containing various percentages of PP and mPP thickeners were prepared and modified with different percentages of virgin and recycled HDPE. Polymers were characterized through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC techniques. The oil bleed performance of these greases was evaluated by the conical sieve method (ASTM D 6184 at various temperatures. Storage (G′ and loss modulus (G″ of greases was determined by rheometry at 25 °C. Incorporation of HDPE and recycled HDPE in PP thickened grease decreased oil bleeding compared to the base grease.

  20. Studies on the preparation of multi-monomer grafted PP by one-step extrusion and the blends with PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, a novel grafted polypropylene (PP was prepared by one step free-radical melt grafting way in a single-screw extruder. The results were shown that the addition of St to the melt-grafting system as a comonomer could significantly enhance MMA grafting degree onto PP and reduce the degradation of PP matrix by means of FTIR and MFR test, respectively. Then, the extruded multi-monomer grafted PP, as a component, directly blend with poly (vinyl chloride (PVC, named as gPP/PVC. The corresponding improved compatibility was examined. Comparison with pure PP/PVC blends, due to the addition of gPP, the tensile strengths of gPP/PVC blends increased significantly and the impact strengths were unchanged as those of pure PP/PVC blends. The DSC results also suggested that the compatibility of PP/PVC blends were improved largely.

  1. Ratio of Real to Imaginary for pp and (p)p Elastic Scatterings in QCD Inspired Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Juan; MA Wei-Xing; HE Xiao-Rong

    2007-01-01

    We use the QCD inspired model to analyze the ratio of the real to the imaginary for pp and 5p elastic scatterings. A calculation for the ratio of the real to the imaginary is performed in which the contributions from gluongluon interaction, quark-quark interaction, quark-gluon interaction, and odd eikonal profile function are included. Our results show that the QCD inspired model gives a good fit to the LHC experimental data.

  2. Protein phosphatase PP1γ2 in sperm morphogenesis and epididymal initiation of sperm motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumela Chakrabarti; Lina Cheng; Pawan Puri; David Soler; Srinivasan Viiayaraghavan

    2007-01-01

    The serine/threonine phosphatase (PP1) isoform PP1γ2, predominantly expressed in the testis, is a key enzyme in spermatozoa. High PP1γ2 catalytic activity holds motility in check in immature spermatozoa. Inhibition of PP1γ2 causes motility initiation in immature spermatozoa and motility stimulation and changes in flagellar beat parameters in mature spermatozoa. The PP1γ2 isoform is present in all mammalian spermatozoa studied: mouse, rat, hamster,bovine, non-human primate and man. We have now identified at least four of its regulatory proteins that regulate distinct pools of PP1γ2 within spermatozoa. Our studies provide new insights into biochemical mechanisms underlying development and regulation of sperm motility. We hypothesize that changes in sperm PP1γ2 activity as a result of phosphorylation and reversible binding of the regulatory proteins to the catalytic subunit are critical in the development and regulation of motility and the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Targeted disruption of the Ppp1cc gene,which encodes the PP1γ1 or PP1γ2 isoforms, causes male infertility in mice as a result of impaired spermiogenesis.Our observations suggest that, in addition to motility, the protein phosphatase PP1γ2 might play an isoform-specific function in the development of specialized flagellar structures of mammalian spermatozoa.

  3. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-02

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes.

  4. Potential existence of two independent centrosome- targeting domains in PP4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is an important member in the PPP family of protein Ser/Thr phosphatases. It has been proven to regulate a variety of cellular processes such as centrosome maturation, microtubule nucleation, splicesome assembly, and JNK pathway activation. Compared to the crystallized and structurally well defined phosphatase PP1 and PP2B, little is known about the structure of PP4. Besides the conserved motifs characteristic of the PPP family, no information is available on the other domains of PP4. PP4 is reported to localize to the centrosome in many species such as Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and mammalian cells, which suggests a conserved role of PP4 in the regulation of centrosome function. Unlike several other centrosomal proteins, no sequence has been identified for PP4 that can target it to specific centrosomal localization. In this study, we used a combination of PCR mutagenesis and transient expression of GFP-tagged proteins in mammalian cells, and identified two PP4 centrosome-targeting domains of 68―136 and 134―220 aa. These two domains may be associated for appropriate localization to the centrosome. The findings are useful for further elucidating the function of the domains and other structural characteristics of PP4.

  5. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  6. PP/HDPE共混体系毛细管流变性能研究%Study of Capillary Rheological Properties of PP/HDPE Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶国良; 刘涌; 廖华勇; 纪波印; 李靖

    2012-01-01

    用毛细管流变仪对以马来酸酐接枝聚丙烯(PP-g-MAH)为相容剂的聚丙烯/高密度聚乙烯(PP/HDPE)共混体系的流变性能进行研究.研究发现,PP/HDPE共混体系属于假塑性流体:随着剪切速率的增加,表观黏度下降:PP-g-MAH的加入降低了共混体系的表观粘度:HDPE与PP的非牛顿指数在低剪切速事区与适宜强度下适用于幂律方程的经验公式;HDPE与PP共混后,HDPE含量越低,体系出现壁面滑移的临界剪切速率越高,可加工性能越好.%The rhealogical properties of PP/HDPE blends which was combined by PP-g-MAH ,were studied by capiiiary rheometer. The results show thai the rheological behavior of PP/HDPE blends is non-Newtonian fluid. With the increase of shear rate, the apparent viscosity drops. The apparent viscosity of the blends reduce with the added of PP-g-MAH. For the non-Newtonian index, the power law is applicable to HDPE and PP, white in low shear rate and the temperature is suitable. The critical shear rate in wall slip of PP/HDPE blends increases while the content of HDPE reduce. The property of process performance is better.

  7. Prepositioning for Flooding in the Sacramento Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    away from Sacramento , we select RL2 (Mather Field), RL3 ( McClellan Air Park), and RL4 (Beale AFB ). Through private communications with CDPH’s David...Decommissioned Air Force base ( AFB ) RL3 McClellan  Air Park Decommissioned  AFB RL4 Beale  AFB Large active  AFB RL5 Yuba/Sutter CFG Medium‐sized county fairgrounds... McClellan ) 1124 281 AA5 ( Sacramento ) RL9 (Kaiser) 971 243 AA6 (Elk Grove) RL10 (Sutter) 1016 254 Table 18. AST movement of EP in Scenario 1 In Table

  8. The Maritime Preposition Force Ship 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    suits Ship Repair 2 1 cannon Ship Repair 1 chock and FC/GM/ET 4 chain 15 81 Total 96 WCC Weapons Control Console LaCC Launcher Control Console Sup In...missions. 13. Full Battle Scenarios No attempt was made by the design team to evaluate war games which involve the entire battle force including the MEF

  9. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the etymologically related words so and such (English); så and sådan (Danish); and so and solch (German). Similarities and differences that have to be accounted for cross-linguistically are i. position (pre- or post- indefinite article), ii. agreement morphology (in Danish and German...

  10. Teaching English Phrases through SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cig, Enes Kurtay; Guvercin, Selim; Bayimbetov, Berdak; Dos, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the maximum efficiency in teaching a second language (L2) has always been an important issue for educators. Current globalization processes, development of international business relations, political integrations among the various countries throughout the world, and the abilities of latest information and communications technologies…

  11. Mechanical Properties of r-PET/PP Blends Compatibilized by PP-g-MA and Its Mixture%PP-g-MA及其混合相容剂增容r-PET/PP共混物的力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春广; 林劲新; 章自寿; 麦堪成

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop PP blends with recycled polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) , the blends of r-PET with compatibilizer, r-PET/PP and compatibilized r-PET/PP blends were prepared. PP-g-MA and its mixture of POE-g-MA or EVA-g-MA with same functional group were used as compatibilizers. The tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus and impact strength of blends were characterized. The effect of compatibilizer and r-PET on mechanical properties of blends was studied. The results indicated that the mechanical properties of r-PET decreased by adding compatibilizer. But the tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of iPP increased by introduction of r-PET, and the mechanical properties of r-PET/ iPP blends increased by adding compatibilization of PP-g-MA further. The increased mechanical properties of uncompatibilized and compatibilized r-PET/iPP blends with increasing r-PET contents indicated the presence of reinforcement of r-PET in the iPP matrix. The r-PET/iPP blends with high strength and high toughness could be obtained by compatibilization of mixture of compatibilizers. Addition of POE-g-MA or EVA-g-MA increased the impact strength of PP-g-MA compatibilized r-PET/PP blends. The r-PET/PP blends with high performance could be obtained by compatibilization of mixture PP-g-MA and POE-g-MA.%为利用废弃PET(r-PET)发展r-PET/PP共混物,该文制备了不同r-PET/相容剂、r-PET/PP和PP-g-MA及其混合相容剂增容r-PET/PP共混物,研究了以上共混物的拉伸、弯曲和冲击性能,讨论了不同相容剂对r-PET力学性能,r-PET对PP力学性能和增容共混物力学性能的影响.结果表明相容剂加入降低r-PET力学性能,r-PET提高PP拉伸和弯曲性能,r-PET/PP共混物的拉伸和弯曲性能随r-PET用量增加而提高,表明r-PET对PP中具有增强作用.PP-g-MA加入提高r-PET/PP共混物拉伸和弯曲性能,POE-g-MA和EVA-g-MA加入提高PP-g-MA增容r-PET/PP共混物冲击强度,采用混杂相容剂可获得综

  12. 颗粒内受限聚合法制备PP/POE/PS合金%Preparation of PP/POE/PS Ternary Alloys via Diffusion and Polymerization of Styrene in PP/POE Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪容; 郭朝霞; 于建

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene/ethylene octene copolymer/polystyrene ( PP/POE/PS) ternary alloys were prepared via diffusion and subsequent polymerization of styrene ( St) in PP/POE alloy granules. St could diffuse into the center of the PP/POE alloy granules and PS phases mostly included in POE phases with a particle size from several tens of nanometers to several hundred nanometers. The size of PS particles was influenced by the amount of styrene adsorbed and the size of the POE phases. The PS particles in POE phases formed in the center of the granules were the smallest. The diffusion and polymerization process of St in PP/POE ( mass ratio, 80: 20) was studied. The diffusion rate and the maximum adsorption of styrene in PP/POE were larger than those in pure PP as existence of amorphous POE phase was beneficial for diffusion of monomer. The content of PS in PP/POE/PS alloys can be tailored by changing the amount of monomer. Incorporation of PS into POE domains made the POE domains bigger and then resulted in lower melting temperatures and crystalline temperatures of PP, and PS dispersed in PP/POE/PS with a high PS content acted as a nucleation agent of PP.%以等规聚丙烯/乙烯-辛烯共聚物(PP/POE)合金颗粒为扩散基体,苯乙烯(St)为扩散单体,利用颗粒内受限聚合法制备了PP/POE/PS三元合金.结果表明,对于POE质量分数为20%~40%的PP/POE合金颗粒,St均可扩散至直径为4 mm的颗粒中心部位,在POE非晶相中生成相尺寸为几十至几百纳米的PS球.在PP/POE合金颗粒的不同部位,因POE相尺寸及单体的吸附量不同,生成的PS相尺寸也不同,在颗粒中心部位生成的PS球最小.研究了St在PP/POE(质量比80∶20)颗粒中的扩散-聚合行为,结果表明,St在合金颗粒中的扩散速率和扩散饱和值远大于在纯PP颗粒中的扩散速率和饱和值,这主要是因为PP/POE合金颗粒中的非晶POE相有利于扩散.改变单体投料量可以获得具有不同PS含量的PP/POE/PS三

  13. Tailored sPP/Silica Nanocomposite for Ecofriendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP/silica as an ecofriendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5–3% nanosilica. We found that the silica/sPP nanocomposite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nanosilica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nanosilica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nanocomposite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future ecofriendly extruded HVDC cables.

  14. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (Scripps); (NWU); (Purdue); (UCR); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (NU Singapore)

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  15. ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Epshtein, Vitaly; Benjamin, Bradley; Proshkin, Sergey; Mironov, Alexander; Cashel, Michael; Nudler, Evgeny

    2016-05-20

    The small molecule alarmone (p)ppGpp mediates bacterial adaptation to nutrient deprivation by altering the initiation properties of RNA polymerase (RNAP). ppGpp is generated in Escherichia coli by two related enzymes, RelA and SpoT. We show that ppGpp is robustly, but transiently, induced in response to DNA damage and is required for efficient nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER). This explains why relA-spoT-deficient cells are sensitive to diverse genotoxic agents and ultraviolet radiation, whereas ppGpp induction renders them more resistant to such challenges. The mechanism of DNA protection by ppGpp involves promotion of UvrD-mediated RNAP backtracking. By rendering RNAP backtracking-prone, ppGpp couples transcription to DNA repair and prompts transitions between repair and recovery states.

  16. Recent functional insights into the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C; Murakami, Katsuhiko S; Tenson, Tanel; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-05-01

    The alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p)ppGpp metabolism and (p)ppGpp-mediated regulation. In this Review, we summarize these recent insights, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of the RelA/SpoT homologue (RSH) proteins, which are key players that regulate the cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. We also discuss the structural basis of transcriptional regulation by (p)ppGpp and the role of (p)ppGpp in GTP metabolism and in the emergence of bacterial persisters.

  17. PpIX induces mitochondria-related apoptosis in murine leukemia L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaomin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Pan; Li, Long; Liu, Quanhong

    2014-07-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a well-known sensitizer that can enhance laser light or ultrasound induced cytotoxicity in photodynamic and sonodynamic therapy. However, PpIX alone could effectively cause anti-tumor effect and the underlying mechanisms are rarely been reported. Therefore, this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which PpIX revealed anti-proliferative effect on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The accumulation of PpIX in L1210 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated with flow cytometry. The subcellular localization of PpIX and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation were determined by confocal microscope. The cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD and DAPI staining were used to detect apoptotic cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were tested by rhodamine123 staining. DNA damage was measured by comet assay. PpIX preferentially accumulated in L1210 cells compared to PBMCs and PpIX mainly located in the mitochondria of L1210 cells. PpIX at a concentration of 1 µg/ml or above exerted significant anti-tumor effect and the cell viability loss presented PpIX dose-dependent manner. Typical apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation were observed by DAPI staining. Annexin V-PE/7-AAD analysis showed 5 µg/ml PpIX could induce about 24% cell apoptosis, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In addition, the PpIX caused MMP loss, AIF translocation to nucleus and serious DNA damage were also suppressed by CsA. The results indicate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were involved in PpIX caused cell damage on L1210 cells.

  18. Multisource thermal model to the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, BC; Liu, F; Wen, XJ

    2016-01-01

    In an improved multisource thermal model, we systematically investigate the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at high energies ranging from 62.4 GeV to 7 TeV. The results are compared with the experimental data in RHIC and LHC. Based on the collision energy dependence of the source-excitation factors, we estimate the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at higher energies, potential future pp colliders operating at 33 and 100 TeV.

  19. Dilepton production in pp and CC collisions with HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, I.; Heilmann, M.; Markert, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Stroebele, H.; Teilab, K. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Agakishiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Novotny, R.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Spruck, B.; Wen, H. [Justus Liebig Univ. Giessen, II.Physikalisches Inst., Giessen (Germany); Agodi, C.; Finocchiaro, P.; Spataro, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Balanda, A.; Kozuch, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T. [Jagiellonian Univ. of Cracow, Smoluchowski Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Bellia, G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Univ. di Catania (Italy). Dipt. die Fisica e Astronomia; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Marin, J. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Dept. de Fisica de Particulas, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Belyaev, A.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Ierusalimov, A.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Blanco, A.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP, Dept. de Fisica da Univ. de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Sailer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Physik Dept. E12, Garching (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B.; Roy-Stephan, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay Cedex (France); Braun-Munzinger, P.; Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Lange, S.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Zumbruch, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)] [and others

    2007-03-15

    e{sup +}e{sup -} production was studied using the High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES). In pp collisions at 2.2 GeV kinetic beam energy, the exclusive {eta} production and the Dalitz decay {eta}{yields}{gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -} have been reconstructed. The electromagnetic form factor of the latter decay was found to be in good agreement with the existing theoretical predictions. In addition, an inclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} invariant-mass spectrum from the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C reaction at 2 AGeV is presented and compared with a simplified thermal model. (orig.)

  20. The Application of CP and PP in Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lin; SUN Tian

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative principle and politeness principle enjoy great significance in pragmatic field.Via the analysis of certain ex⁃amples extracted from Business English course-book, this paper aims to study the observance of cooperative principle and polite⁃ness principle. The conclusion is reached that the application of CP and PP in pedagogical practice could benefit students ’lan⁃guage application. Meanwhile, this paper also aims to prove that cooperation and politeness are a key factor in communication through which teachers could improve students’language competence.