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Sample records for prepares bilingual special

  1. Bridging Bilingual and Special Education: Opportunities for Transformative Change in Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Brandon, Regina R.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen; Ramírez, Pablo C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the design and performance of ALAS (Acquisition of Language Skills and Academic Literacy) Teacher Education Project designed to bridge Biliteracy and Special Education teacher preparation. ALAS was designed by faculty in two higher education departments engaged in teacher preparation to respond to California's need for…

  2. Translanguaging in Bilingual Teacher Preparation: Exploring Pre-Service Bilingual Teachers' Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musanti, Sandra I.; Rodríguez, Alma D.

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging, or the complex, dynamic, and integrated linguistic practices of bilinguals have been recently identified as a pedagogical strategy to facilitate learning in bilingual classrooms. Given its potential implications for teacher preparation, a qualitative case study was conducted at a university on the Texas-Mexico border to explore…

  3. Bilingualized Dictionaries with Special Reference to the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese EFL Context. Yuzhen Chen, Department of Foreign Languages, ..... user type (advanced-level vs. medium-level vs. elementary-level, adult dictionary vs. .... Assessment of the special merits of the so-called bilingualized dic- tionary as .... BLDs and electronic BLDs in patterns of use and dictionary evaluation. Chan.

  4. Minority Recruitment and Retention for Universities: Bilingual Special Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of minority faculty in bilingual special education is a perilous task. Research has shown that minority faculty/teachers are able to provide emotional support, mentor students, serve as role models, create a positive climate, provide diverse views, increase collaboration among faculty and teachers, and work with…

  5. Preparing Culturally Diverse Special Education Faculty: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Patricia; Showalter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes why more bilingual culturally responsive special education faculty are needed to meet the needs of the increasing number of culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities in the United States. In addition, the paper presents the successes and challenges in the journey to prepare university faculty leaders in…

  6. Teacher Agency in Bilingual Spaces: A Fresh Look at Preparing Teachers to Educate Latina/o Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Deborah; Martinez, Ramon Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This review poses an increasingly common--and increasingly urgent--question in the field of teacher education: How can teachers best be prepared to educate Latina/o bilingual learners? The answers that the authors offer here challenge some of the prevailing assumptions about language and bilingualism that inform current approaches to teacher…

  7. Special Education Teachers’ Narratives on Literacy Support for Bilingual Students with Dyslexia in Swedish Compulsory Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Jalali-Moghadam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate how special education teachers talk about their teaching in relation to bilingual students with dyslexia within Swedish compulsory schools. Data consist of transcripts from in-depth interviews with 15 special education teachers. According to the teacher narratives, the special education services appeared to be biased against bilingual students, as the support provided to bilingual students with dyslexia was revealed to be more or less the same as that provided to monolingual Swedish-speaking students with dyslexia. This bias is discussed in relation to the notion of difference blindness as well as in relation to practical constraints. Nevertheless, the teachers strongly advocated collaborative work with mother tongue teachers in order to facilitate dyslexia identification in bilingual students and to gain a more comprehensive picture of their language and literacy competencies, which is a desire that contrasts and contests a pedagogical monolingual master model within special education services.

  8. Sink or Swim? Throw Us a Life Jacket! Novice Alternatively Certified Bilingual and Special Education Teachers Deserve Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Pat; Dunlap, Karen; Brister, Heather; Davidson, Michele; Starrett, Teresa Martin

    2013-01-01

    Special education and bilingual teachers are in high demand. Many teachers in these specialization areas enter the profession via alternative certification programs, expedited routes to teacher certification. There is little research focusing on the specific support needs of novice special education and bilingual teachers from these widely varying…

  9. Sink or Swim? Throw Us a Life Jacket! Novice Alternatively Certified Bilingual and Special Education Teachers Deserve Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Pat; Dunlap, Karen; Brister, Heather; Davidson, Michele; Starrett, Teresa Martin

    2013-01-01

    Special education and bilingual teachers are in high demand. Many teachers in these specialization areas enter the profession via alternative certification programs, expedited routes to teacher certification. There is little research focusing on the specific support needs of novice special education and bilingual teachers from these widely varying…

  10. Special ways of knowing in science: expansive learning opportunities with bilingual children with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    The field of bilingual special education is currently plagued with contradictions resulting in a serious underrepresentation of emergent bilinguals with learning disabilities in professional science fields. This underrepresentation is due in large part to the fact that educational systems around the world are inadequately prepared to address the educational needs of these children; this inadequacy is rooted in a lack of understanding of the linguistic and cultural factors impacting learning. Accepting such a premise and assuming that children learn in unexpected ways when instructional practices attend to culture and language, this study documents a place-based learning experience integrating geoscience and literacy in a fourth-grade dual language classroom. Data sources include transcribed audio-taped conversations from learning experience sessions and interviews that took place as six focus children, who had been identified as having specific learning disabilities, read published science texts (i.e. texts unaltered linguistically or conceptually to meet the needs of the readers). My analysis revealed that participants generated responses that were often unexpected if solely analyzed from those Western scientific perspectives traditionally valued in school contexts. However, these responses were also full of purposeful and rich understandings that revealed opportunities for expansive learning. Adopting a cultural historical activity theory perspective, instructional tools such as texts, visuals, and questions were found to act as mediators impacting the learning in both activity systems: (a) teacher- researcher learning from children, and (b) children learning from teachers. I conclude by suggesting that there is a need to understand students' ways of knowing to their full complexity, and to deliberately recognize teachers as learners, researchers, and means to expansive learning patterns that span beyond traditional learning boundaries.

  11. Special ways of knowing in science: expansive learning opportunities with bilingual children with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The field of bilingual special education is currently plagued with contradictions resulting in a serious underrepresentation of emergent bilinguals with learning disabilities in professional science fields. This underrepresentation is due in large part to the fact that educational systems around the world are inadequately prepared to address the educational needs of these children; this inadequacy is rooted in a lack of understanding of the linguistic and cultural factors impacting learning. Accepting such a premise and assuming that children learn in unexpected ways when instructional practices attend to culture and language, this study documents a place-based learning experience integrating geoscience and literacy in a fourth-grade dual language classroom. Data sources include transcribed audio-taped conversations from learning experience sessions and interviews that took place as six focus children, who had been identified as having specific learning disabilities, read published science texts (i.e. texts unaltered linguistically or conceptually to meet the needs of the readers). My analysis revealed that participants generated responses that were often unexpected if solely analyzed from those Western scientific perspectives traditionally valued in school contexts. However, these responses were also full of purposeful and rich understandings that revealed opportunities for expansive learning. Adopting a cultural historical activity theory perspective, instructional tools such as texts, visuals, and questions were found to act as mediators impacting the learning in both activity systems: (a) teacher-researcher learning from children, and (b) children learning from teachers. I conclude by suggesting that there is a need to understand students' ways of knowing to their full complexity, and to deliberately recognize teachers as learners, researchers, and means to expansive learning patterns that span beyond traditional learning boundaries.

  12. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  13. The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Manuel H.; And Others

    The problem of retaining Mexican American students in institutions of higher education is reviewed in these 5 papers: "The Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education with Special Reference to Bicultural and Bilingual Problems" by Manuel H. Guerra; "Mexicanismo vs. Retention: Implications of Retaining Mexican American…

  14. Student Perception of Online Learning in ESL Bilingual Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Schumacher, Gail; Stelter, Nicole; Riley, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies are changing delivery options for post-graduate teacher education. Many practicing teachers who return to school to prepare to educate English learners choose distance learning. This article explores teachers' perceived satisfaction with the quality of online courses, with the collaborative tasks required in these, and the…

  15. Evolution of Hydrogen Storage Alloys Prepared by Special Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong; Zhang Ximin; Jing Hai; Li Chengdong; Xu Jun

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure characteristics and electrochemical properties of hydrogen storage alloys prepared by gas atomization, melt spinning and strip casting respectively were outlined.The advantages, disadvantages and research development of the above methods for preparing hydrogen storage alloys were explained.The strip casting is a new special means for preparing AB5 rare earth hydrogen storage alloys of high performance and low cost, and the study of the strip casting for preparing hydrogen storage alloys is presented specially.

  16. Special Education Teacher Preparation in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Clayton; Al-Hendawi, Maha; Abuelhassan, Hadeel

    2016-01-01

    The provision of special education for students with disabilities depends upon the availability of well-qualified special educators, which, in turn, depends upon the availability and characteristics of preparation programs. In countries of the world where special education systems are still developing the capacity to provide the education that…

  17. Preparing Urban Special Education Leaders: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne M.; Little, Joyce; Miller, Katie; Gourwitz, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Special education administrators play a critical role in the implementation of successful inclusion in diverse, standards-based environments. They provide the vision and leadership necessary to guide educators in both general and special education as they deliver instructional programs to meet the needs of diverse students with disabilities.…

  18. Preparing Special Education Research Articles in APA Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan

    2002-01-01

    This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…

  19. Preparing Special Education Research Articles in APA Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan

    2002-01-01

    This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…

  20. Materials Used in Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bilingual Resource Center.

    This list, prepared by the Bilingual Resource Center in New York City, of instructional materials used in bilingual programs includes textbooks, educational materials, and audio-visual aids used in the various school districts of New York City. (SK)

  1. 双语教学在机械类专业课中的实践与思考%Practice and thinking about bilingual education in mechanical specialized course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芬; 刘安民

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of current situation analysis of bilingual education in mechanical specialized course, put forword the goal of bilingual teaching and approch.%分析了机械专业类双语教学的现状,提出专业课双语教学的发展目标及实现途径。

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Route Special Education Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Dewey, James F.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Corbett, Nancy L.; Denslow, David; Lotfinia, Babik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors estimated costs of alternative route preparation to provide states a basis for allocating training funds to maximize production. Thirty-one special education alternative route program directors were interviewed and completed cost tables. Two hundred and twenty-four program graduates were also surveyed. The authors…

  3. Teacher Preparation for Inclusive and Critical (Special) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler, Celia

    2011-01-01

    The author's preservice program prepares both single and dual certification master's students to teach in inclusive classrooms. This article provides an overview of the context in which, and for which, the program was designed, a description of the program, including what the author means by inclusive education and critical special education,…

  4. Perfection of the special preparation of volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bogush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop and apply the complex of exercises for perfection of the special physical preparation of volleyball players and its constituents: special quickness, force, endurance. Material and Methods: sportsmen (candidates in sport masters, I and II digits inspected in age from 16 to 23 in an amount 40 persons; the special quickness and its constituents are probed: latent period of the reaction, the speed of individual movements; maximum force in various modes; endurance – speed, hopping, power. Results: at drawing on the offered complex of exercises the improvement of indexes of speed and endurance hopping, speed-power capabilities is marked at stimulation of tension of muscles in the conditions of development of a maximum of dynamic effort. Conclusions: terms and methods are certain for the effective conducting of training process, which provides optimum intercommunication of levels of bodily and functional conditions, technical and tactical preparation.

  5. Preparacion e Iniciacion de la Lectura en Espanol para Maestros de Programas Bilingues. Serie Tierra de Encanto (Preparation and Initiation of Reading in Spanish for Teachers of Bilingual Programs. Land of Enchantment Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque.

    Part of the "Land of Enchantment" series of instructional materials, this very detailed teaching manual is designed to help teachers in bilingual programs prepare students to read Spanish. It contains suggestions for developing reading readiness skills and ways to teach a basic 30-word reading vocabulary. The reading program follows five steps:…

  6. Preparation for Adoptive Parenthood with a Special-Needs Child: Role of Agency Preparation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Bibhuti K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined tasks mothers of adopted special-needs children undertook to prepare for parenthood. Found mothers engaged in tasks related to learning about the child and participating in training. Overall preparedness was positively associated with assessment of child and family functioning. Findings pose implications for adoption preparation programs.…

  7. Specialized Preparation for Middle Level Teachers: A National Review of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Penny B.; Faulkner, Shawn A.; Cook, Chris M.; Miller, Nicole C.; Thompson, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Since William Alexander's (1963, 1995) call for attention to the need for specialized middle level teacher preparation in 1963, 45 states have created requirements for middle level certification, licensure, or endorsement (Association for Middle Level Education [AMLE], 2014) which have led to institutions of teacher preparation creating routes…

  8. An Innovative International Program for the Preparation of Bilingual-Crosscultural Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrow, Norma; Sutter, Richard

    Searching for additional bilingual-crosscultural teachers, the California State University (CSU) system plans to combine teacher education and the CSU International Programs approach. Basic elements of this program are: (1) intensive study of Spanish and immersion in a Spanish-speaking milieu; (2) a living experience in the Mexican culture; (3) a…

  9. Preparing Bilingual Teachers for the Future: Developing Culture and Linguistic Global Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Increasing diversity and linguistics complexity in classrooms is occurring in schools throughout the world. Bilingual teachers need to develop knowledge and skills to succees in teaching diverse students. Demographic shifts are bringing increasing numbers of international students from diverse racial, ethnic, religious, class, and linguistic…

  10. Event-related brain potential investigation of preparation for speech production in late bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jing eWu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been debated how bilinguals select the intended language and prevent interference from the unintended language when speaking. Here, we studied the nature of the mental representations accessed by late fluent bilinguals during a rhyming judgment task relying on covert speech production. We recorded event-related brain potentials in Chinese-English bilinguals and monolingual speakers of English while they indicated whether the names of pictures presented on a screen rhymed. Whether bilingual participants focussed on rhyming selectively in English or Chinese, we found a significant priming effect of language-specific sound repetition. Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English. This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ~200 ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgements in Chinese. These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

  11. Principals as Linchpins in Bilingual Education: The Need for Prepared School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, Kate; Solorza, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from qualitative research conducted in 17 New York City schools to better understand why many school leaders--particularly principals--have recently dismantled their school's bilingual education programs, as part of a significant citywide trend during a restrictive period in US language policy. A main finding is that…

  12. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  13. 17 CFR 21.00 - Preparation and transmission of information upon special call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of information upon special call. 21.00 Section 21.00 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.00 Preparation and transmission of information upon special call. All information required upon special call shall be prepared in such form and manner and...

  14. Bilingual and Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Classrooms: Some Critical and Pedagogical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    In the light of educational reforms aimed at promoting greater inclusive policies and practices, it is important to put a more pronounced emphasis on the needs of English language learners (ELLs) with special educational needs and/or disabilities. Simultaneously, a focus should also be placed on understanding and dealing with the disproportional…

  15. Special Physical Preparation of High Schoolers for Performing Parkour Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Кравчук

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to ground and develop a methodology of special physical preparation of high schoolers for performing parkour elements, and to experimentally verify its effectiveness. Materials and methods: Kharkiv secondary school No. 84 served as the grounds for the study. The participants in the study were boys aged 15-17: 10 persons – in the reference group, and 10 persons – in the experimental group. The methods of the study: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation; video recording; biomechanical analysis; talks with experts; pedagogical experiment; mathematical and statistical methods of research materials processing. Results: The experimental group showed positive improvement in the balancing technique from 3.5 points before the experiment to 6.3 after the experiment (p < 0.05; a considerable increase in points in the jumping technique, including jumps onto the wall bars hand-gripping its edge, jumps into landing with a roll, and jumps over obstacle – from 2.9, 4.2 and 4.6 points respectively at the beginning of the experiment to 5.9, 6.7 and 7.8 points respectively after the experiment (p < 0.05; positive significant improvement in the wall bars running results – from 3.2 points at the beginning of the experiment to 6.7 after the experiment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: special sets of exercises have been designed to develop and improve these abilities in parkour, and the effectiveness of the designed methodology has been experimentally verified. The study has proved that, when used in physical training of high schoolers, the special sets of exercises intended to develop parkourists’ speed, strength and coordination abilities contribute to a significant increase in the level of the technique of execution of the main parkour elements.

  16. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition = Leamos! Prepare a sus hijos a leer y escribir: 101 ideas. Texto bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers of their children's literacy, this bilingual (Spanish/English) booklet offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The activities in the booklet are organized to fit the way parents tend to think about their time with their…

  17. Preparing Special Education Higher Education Faculty: The Influences of Contemporary Education Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBettencourt, Laurie U.; Hoover, John J.; Rude, Harvey A.; Taylor, Shanon S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a well-documented need for leadership personnel who are prepared at the doctoral level to fill special education faculty positions at institutions of higher education (IHEs) and train the next generation of teachers. The intersection of continued retirements of special education faculty, shortage of well-prepared special education faculty…

  18. Preparing Special Education Higher Education Faculty: The Influences of Contemporary Education Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBettencourt, Laurie U.; Hoover, John J.; Rude, Harvey A.; Taylor, Shanon S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a well-documented need for leadership personnel who are prepared at the doctoral level to fill special education faculty positions at institutions of higher education (IHEs) and train the next generation of teachers. The intersection of continued retirements of special education faculty, shortage of well-prepared special education faculty…

  19. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  20. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Odongo, George; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Muwana, Florence; Lipemba, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly identified special education teacher shortage as one of the factors that have stymied the development of special education in many African countries. Highly qualified special education teachers are an integral part of successful national educational systems. In order to ensure an optimum supply of qualified special…

  1. Key Points of Preparing Lessons on Bilingual Teaching Application CBL Gastroenterology%应用双语CBL教学法消化病学备课要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐欣萍; 徐有青

    2015-01-01

    The bilingual teaching method has been widespread used on teaching theory in medical colleges. CBL teaching method is recommended in clinical teaching pedagogy. Combing bilingual teaching with CBL and applying them in the teaching of digestive system disease will help students better master the teaching content, satisfy the requirements of syllabus within limited hours. Thus, it is necessary to prepare lessons in a scientiifc and rational way. Around the syllabus, seizing the important and dififcult points, rationally using bilingual and CBL teaching method via multimedia, and strengthening on preparing and reviewing lessons, which have signiifcant effect, should be widely applied.%医学双语教学法在我国医学院校理论授课上普遍使用,CBL教学法在临床教学中备受推崇,将双语与CBL教学法结合起来并应用于消化系统疾病的教学中,使学生在有限的学时内,掌握教学的内容,达到大纲的要求,就需要科学合理备课。围绕教学大纲,抓住重点和难点,借助多媒体,合理使用双语、CBL教学法,加强课前预习课后复习,效果显著。

  2. A Case-Based Curriculum Approach to Special Education Teacher Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peggy L.; Baker, Barbara K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how Metropolitan State College of Denver, a large undergraduate institution, developed and implemented a case-based special-education curriculum approach to special-education teacher preparation. Of 20 students prepared using the case-based method, 19 have successfully passed the State of Colorado mandated teacher competency test.…

  3. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  4. MicroComputers: New Directions and Methods for the Preparation of Special Education Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Scott K.; Kelemen, Eve J.

    1984-01-01

    The article discusses the dual role of the microcomputer as a focus and a medium for training special educators. Current issues, applications, and outcomes surrounding the impact of microcomputer technology on the preparation of special education personnel are explored. Implications for inservice and preservice training of special educators are…

  5. Ensenanza Bilingue (Bilingual Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo L.

    The purpose of bilingual education is to increase the academic ability and success of the student through the use of the native language as the principal instrument of instruction. The aim is for the student to develop appropriate academic attitudes towards, practical aptitudes in, and a knowledge of the target language. The pamphlet explores…

  6. Pre-Service Bilingual Teachers and Their Invisible Scars: Implications for Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Arribalzaga, Matilde A.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how language "autobiographies" are used in a teacher preparation program (TEP) as a healing pedagogy to understand the impact longstanding traditions of symbolic violence in education have had on Latino students who are in the process of becoming teachers. Writing about themselves and their education experience…

  7. Preparing Special Education Mentors Using Classroom Artifacts as a Vehicle for Learning about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Katz, Michelle; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine a project that focuses on preparing special educators to mentor pre-service teachers throughout their preparation program, instead of mostly at the end of their program. Through use of classroom literacy artifacts, mentors are prepared in how to guide novices as they transition through coursework and into classroom practice.…

  8. Study on the Competency of Bilingual Art Teachers Based on the Psychology Capital Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donglan

    2013-01-01

    In this globalization era, it is an important strategy to focus on the core status of bilingual art teachers in the internationalization of higher education. And it is necessary to prepare a thorough, detailed, well-designed assessment criterion for teachers, especially for teachers specialized in art, as their competency relates directly to…

  9. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  10. Early Childhood Special Educators Reflect on their Preparation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, Valerie F.; Recchia, Susan L.; Giovacco-Johnson, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five recent graduates of a Master's Program in Early Childhood Special Education participated in focus group interviews designed to explore their perceptions and experiences regarding their first years of practice in urban schools. Findings revealed that participants faced many challenges including collaboration with colleagues, seeking…

  11. Incorporating English Language Learner Instruction within Special Education Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.; Spies, Tracy Griffin; Morgan, Joseph John; Baker, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    The number of students who are English language learners (ELL) is increasing significantly across the United States. As this number increases, so does the number of students who are ELL and being identified as having disabilities. The intersection of English language instruction and special education is an emerging field of scholarship, and it is…

  12. Incorporating English Language Learner Instruction within Special Education Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.; Spies, Tracy Griffin; Morgan, Joseph John; Baker, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    The number of students who are English language learners (ELL) is increasing significantly across the United States. As this number increases, so does the number of students who are ELL and being identified as having disabilities. The intersection of English language instruction and special education is an emerging field of scholarship, and it is…

  13. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 141 - Special Preparation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., proficiency, resourcefulness, self-confidence, and self-reliance in the student for performing that special... authorization sought, for developing competency, proficiency, resourcefulness, self-confidence, and self-reliance in the student. 4. Use of flight simulators or flight training devices. (a) The approved...

  14. Special Education "Preparation Gap": Perceptions of the Western Region Special Education Advisers Concerning Pennsylvania's Special Education Competencies for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study determines the strengths and weaknesses of the Special Education Competencies for School Leaders framework as adopted by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The perspectives of Special Education Advisers (individuals with significant experience in serving students with disabilities) are gathered through semi-structured interviews.…

  15. Educational Preparation of Hygienists Working with Special Populations in Nontraditional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leonard; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study of the employment patterns, academic preparation, and work characteristics of dental hygienists working with special populations (including the physically handicapped, mentally and emotionally handicapped, geriatric, mentally compromised, homebound, low income, and children) are reported. (MSE)

  16. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Classroom Management: Implications for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Special education teachers' skills with classroom organization and behavior management affect the emergence and persistence of behavior problems as well as the success of inclusive practice for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Adequate special education teacher preparation and strong classroom organization and behavior…

  17. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  18. The Affordances and Constraints of Special Education Initial Teacher Licensure Policy for Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Linda P.; Boveda, Mildred; Munoz, Lorena R.; Pugach, Marleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Initial licensure polices in special education were examined to determine how these policies support or hinder reform efforts to develop teacher education programs that prepare graduates for the increasingly complex needs of diverse students. Initial special education licensure policies are described with an emphasis on the differences across…

  19. Envisioning the Future of Special Education Personnel Preparation in a Standards-Based Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.; Brownell, Mary T.; Sindelar, Paul T.; Kiely, Mary Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The authors consider the future of special education personnel preparation by responding to an overarching question: "What frameworks might teacher educators use as a basis to promote special education teacher effective performance now and in the future?" In answering this question, they summarize current trends in the context of…

  20. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  1. Preparing Teachers for Special Education in the United States: A Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Ugwuanyi, L.; Obiyo, N. O.; Udaya, J.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing teachers for special education in the United States is a reflection that is not merely another attempt to reinvent the wheel. Rather, it is an investigation to learn from the past, use applications today in order to secure concrete and measurable goals in the diversified future of special education in America. Several historical figures…

  2. "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities. (Author/DLH)

  3. "No Hablo Ingles": Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Preschool Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role and components of both bilingualism and multiculturalism in preschool settings. Notes implications for the preparation of teachers and suggests strategies that preschool administrators could utilize in meeting needs of bilingual communities. (Author/DLH)

  4. Promising Practices in the Preparation of Special Educators to Provide Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Gormley Budin, Shannon E.; Bennett, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The majority of students with disabilities require support in the area of reading. Given the importance of reading instruction, it is essential that special education teacher preparation programs prepare candidates who are knowledgeable about reading development and skilled in the delivery of reading instruction. The purpose of this article is…

  5. Preparing the Hearing-Impaired Social Studies Teacher: Special Challenge to a Special Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David S.

    The paper focuses on the special adaptations made at Gallaudet College (Washington, DC) to train hearing impaired students to teach social studies to hearing students at the elementary and secondary levels. It is pointed out that all instruction at Gallaudet employs the simultaneous communication method of voice and signed English while using…

  6. Bilingualism in children with developmental disorders: A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Genesee, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often need and sometimes opt to become bilingual. The context for bilingual acquisition varies considerably and can impact outcomes. In this first article of the special issue, we review research on the timing and amount of bilingual exposure and

  7. Bilingualism in children with developmental disorders: A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Genesee, F.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often need and sometimes opt to become bilingual. The context for bilingual acquisition varies considerably and can impact outcomes. In this first article of the special issue, we review research on the timing and amount of bilingual exposure and outcome

  8. Bilingualism and Bilingual Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Medardo

    1972-01-01

    The bilingual is an individual who straddles and/or links, to a greater or lesser degree, two or more languages and cultures. The degree of language and cultural dominance can vary from individual to individual, and bilingual programs must take this variety into consideration. This paper considers some of the varying degrees of bilingual…

  9. Assessing services with communicatively impaired bilingual adults in culturally and linguistically diverse neurorehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José G

    2015-01-01

    The combined effect of the steady increase in cultural and linguistic diversity and epidemiological factors in minority populations is estimated to continue having an impact on adult neurorehabilitation programs in the country, particularly in the number of bilingual individuals receiving clinical services. No comprehensive assessment of the present professional and clinical realities in service delivery to communicatively impaired adults in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) neurorehabilitation contexts has been conducted. The current survey research was undertaken to examine current professional training, clinical practices, and challenges in the services rendered to the steadily increasing numbers of communicatively disordered adults in CLD neurorehabilitation programs with a special focus on bilingual persons. A 36-question, 6-section survey was administered to health care-based SLPs working with adults to examine multiple factors regarding work setting and caseload, professional training, clinical tools and procedures, service delivery issues, and suggestions to improve clinical work with bilingual adults in CLD neurorehabilitation environments. Results support that SLPs presently make sensible decisions to serve communicatively disordered bilingual adults with neuropathologies despite training gaps and scant clinical resources. Responses additionally highlight critical areas to improve professional preparation and available resources. Results are discussed in terms of strengths and weaknesses as well as their implications to professional education and target research areas in order to minimize present gaps in service delivery with bilingual speakers in CLD adult neurorehabilitation programs. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) Discuss the demographic and epidemiological factors that suggest a continued increase in the number of communicatively impaired bilingual adults in CLD neurorehabilitation programs. (2) Describe

  10. Learning to Teach: Practice-Based Preparation in Teacher Education. Special Issues Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Amber; Holdheide, Lynn; Brownell, Mary; Foley, Abigail Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issues Brief from the Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability and Reform (CEEDAR Center) and the Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) outlines essential features for providing high-quality, structured, and sequenced opportunities to practice within teacher preparation programs. This brief is…

  11. Cooperating Teachers' Role in Preparing Preservice Special Education Teachers: Moving beyond Sink or Swim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carly A.; Benedict, Amber E.; Thomas, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Practicum experiences, a crucial component of preservice teacher preparation, help establish the foundational knowledge and skills necessary for beginning special education teachers (SETs). Preservice SETs need cooperating teachers (CTs) who support preservice SETs in proper emotional development (i.e., feeling like a teacher), who can model and…

  12. Preparation of special silicon steel grade MgO from hydromagnesite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangyang Zhou; Shanni Li; Jie Li; Hongzhuan Liu; Shangyuan Wu

    2007-01-01

    A preparation technology of MgO powder used in special silicon steel from hydromagnesite mineral has been developed.The preparation technology includes the following steps: (1) calcining the hydromagnesite at 700-750 ℃ for 1.5-2 h; (2) hydrating the the slurry, the carbonation temperature, CO2 pressure, and end point PH value of carbonation are less than 40℃, 0.4-0.6 MPa, and 7 respectively during the carbonation process; (4) preparing precipitated basic magnesium carbonate by thermally decomposing the Mg(HCO3)2 solution at 90-100 ℃; (5) obtaining the MgO product by calcining the precipitated basic magnesium carbonate at 850-950 ℃ for 30-60 min, and adopting flowing nitrogen during the cooling process. By using this technology, more than 80wt% magnesium in hydromagnesite mineral can be extracted, and high-performance MgO products used in special silicon steel can be obtained.

  13. Study of special performance and volume training loadings at swimmers in the year preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamutova N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the dynamics of the special performance and volume of training load during annual training swimmers. Material / Methods : The study involved 14 teams of students of Kharkiv universities. All swimmers are of high qualification. Motor tests of special performance swimmers, functional tests were used to confirm the effectiveness of the training process. Results : The dynamics of special performance indicators and volume of training load of highly qualified swimmers in the annual cycle of training. Determined part of aerobic (58.3 %, aerobic- anaerobic special (34.5%, anaerobic- glycolytic (5.5%, anaerobic- alactate (1.7% loadings in the direction of total training load for the academic year. Conclusions : In preparing swimmers stayer is the most appropriate single-cycle construction of the annual cycle, and for swimmers, sprinters should be based on two-cycle version of the load distribution.

  14. El individuo bilingue (The Bilingual Person)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenraad, R.

    1975-01-01

    The problems and advantages of being bilingual are discussed, along with the personality of bilinguals and the different forms of bilingualism. It is concluded that the optimum situation is passive bilingualism, i.e. reading and understanding various languages, accompanied by active monolingualism, i.e. speaking and writing only one language.…

  15. Bilingualism. Bilingual education. Natal/RN

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Vian Jr; Janaina Weissheimer; Lígia Leite; Rodrigo Queiroz; Wilka Soares; José Mauro Uchôa; James Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a preliminary account of the bilingual education in Natal/RN based on the notions of bilingual (GROSJEAN, 1982; WEI, 2000) and bilingual education (HAMERS; BLANC, 2000; FISHMAN; LOVAS, 1970; DALE; TANNER, 2012). The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews in four private bilingual schools in Natal/RN. Results indicate that most of the schools include two languages concomitantly in their bilingual curriculum with differences as regards the hour l...

  16. Zionism & Bilingualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    In Today’s Israel the school system is divided by nationality and language. Jews study in Jewish only schools and the medium of instruction is Hebrew, while Arabs study in Arab only schools and the medium of instruction is Arabic. The first initiative of Arab-Jewish bilingual education is from...... the 70s. Then, the Arab-Jewish village ‘Neve Shalom’ was founded, and a bi-national & bilingual school was established. In 1998 a grass-root movement of educationalists and parents started the “Hand in Hand” organization of Arab-Jewish bilingual education in Israel. This organization consists today of 4...... schools throughout the country. In those schools, pupils from the two populations, Jews and Arabs receive their primary schooling in the two languages concurrently. This unique educational phenomenon has attracted considerable attention in the media and the published press, and both documentary films...

  17. Peculiarities of morphological indexes of the pushers of the nucleus at the stage of specialized basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Rozhkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: explore peculiarities morphological indexes of the pushers of the nucleus at the stage of specialized basic preparation. Material & Methods: the study was attended by 12 core pushers 15–17 years who were at the stage of specialized basic training. We used the following methods: analysis and synthesis of scientific and technical literature, the definition of anthropometric indicators index method. Results: presented morphological indexes of the pushers of the nucleus at the stage of specialized basic preparation. Conclusions: the figures obtained showed that at the stage of specialized basic preparation the somatotype of shot-putters corresponds the somatotype of the highly qualified shot-putters.

  18. Reading in 3 Languages. La lectura en 3 idiomas. La lecture en langues. Manual Prepared for the Bilingual Demonstration Project, Title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The manual contains forms, handouts, checklists, and other materials used in and developed by the Bilingual Screening and Reading Clinic Demonstration Project of New York City's Community School District 3. The materials are provided for teachers and administrators to use or modify for working with bilingual school populations in need of…

  19. A Study of Taiwan Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Curriculum for Language Development, Language Teaching and Bilingualism within the Context of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lan-Ying

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses one central issue: How do Taiwan's teacher education programs promote future teachers' knowledge that fosters bilingualism in children? Three bodies of knowledge were included in this study. The first reviews the theory of second-language acquisition and bilingualism. The second involves the literature of early childhood…

  20. A Study of the Bilingual Instructional Support Component in New Instructional Model Schools. Prepared Pursuant to the Remedial Plan for Limited English Proficiency Asian Students. Report No. 9119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Judy; And Others

    This study assessed the bilingual instructional support component in Philadelphia's (Pennsylvania) New Instructional Model schools in the 1990-91 school year. Focus was on the following topics: (1) the extent to which the bilingual instructional support component had been implemented in the 32 schools; (2) the appropriateness and quality of the…

  1. Language Diversity and Bilingual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    This special issue on language diversity and bilingual processing is based on papers presented at the "Exploratory Workshop on Speaking, Thinking and Gesturing in Two Languages," at the University of Reading, UK, in September 2012, sponsored by the European Science Foundation (IM/SCH/EW11-145). The workshop brought together a…

  2. Special physical preparation of skilled wrestlers during a macrocycle in the conditions of higher educational establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogar' G.O.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is developed and experimentally grounded efficiency and methods of improvement of the special physical preparedness of skilled fighters. It is certain that a method parts on a few stages of preparation of training macrocycle and optimized for sportsmen which parallel study in higher educational establishment. It is set that the educational training process of skilled fighters must take into account the specific of organization of educational process of educational establishment and answer the calendar of competitions on a CY.

  3. The analysis of the computer technologies used during preparation of sportsmen, specializing bodybuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedljar J.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The generalized data about directions of information technologies use in sports practice are cited in the article. The opportunities of information-methodical system "Athlete" use in system of bodybuilder's preparation are examined in details. Program "Athlete" is a collection of tools, methods of automated data collection, processing, storage and use of information, with access to various information resources, including Internet. The prospects of computer technologies use in educational-training process of the sportsmen specializing in bodybuilding are designated.

  4. Preparation of multi-atom specially entangled W-class state and splitting quantum information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG YaHong; SONG HeShan

    2009-01-01

    We give a protocol to prepare specially entangled W-class state of multi-atom which can be used to exactly teleport an arbitrarily unknown two-level two-atom state.During the process,the quantum information is split into n parts and the original quantum information can be sent to anyone of the n recipients with the other n-1 recipients' collaboration.In addition,we will give a suggestion to realize this scheme via QED cavity.

  5. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition. Revised Edition = Leamos! Prepare a sus hijos a leer y escribir: 101 Ideas. Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers, this bilingual (Spanish/English) book offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The revised edition provides a preface by Professor Josefina Villamil Tinajero and additional information of particular interest to Latino parents.…

  6. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Fifth Edition. Bilingual Education & Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling book provides a comprehensive introduction to bilingualism and bilingual education. In a compact and clear style, its 19 chapters cover all the crucial issues in bilingualism at individual, group and national levels. These include: (1) defining who is bilingual and multilingual; (2) testing language abilities…

  7. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Third Edition. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to bilingualism and bilingual education. In a compact and clear style, bilingualism is discussed at individual, group, and national levels. The 20 chapters cover essential issues and controversies about language minorities and bilingual education. These include the following: defining who is…

  8. A new method for preparation of template DNA for PCR from special plant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simple method for preparation of template DNA suitable for PCR amplification from herbarium sampies and plant tissues rich in byproducts, e.g. polysaccharides, tannins, polyphenolic, and terpenoids compounds, is described. The total DNA from regular extraction procedure is absorbed by a small amount of glass powder and the final precipitation of glass powder is used directly as a template for PCR. Taking six plant taxa, including the herbarium specimens of Lythraceae collected from Namibia in 1957 and the silicon-dried leaf tissue from mangrove plants (Rhizophoraceae and Combretaceae) rich in by-products as exampies, the PCR products, including nrDNA ITS regions and cpDNA rbcL gene, amplified following the regular and new methods respectively are compared. Our method provides a simple, rapid and economic approach to purify and prepare template DNA for PCR from special plant materials.``

  9. 双语教学在物理学专业课中的作用%The Role of Bilingual Teaching in Specialized Courses in Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康帅

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual teaching is a new teaching method in universities. Bilingual teaching in physics, can take the initiative as soon as possible to enable students to understand the dynamics of international physics research frontiers, expanding hor-izons, to lay a more solid foundation for future learning and work.%双语教学是高校的一种新的教学方法。在物理学专业中采用双语教学,可以使学生尽早主动地去了解国际物理前沿领域的研究动态,扩大视野,为以后的学习和工作打下更加坚实的基础。

  10. Reflection on Bilingual Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严玲

    2013-01-01

    Some problems are found about bilingual teaching in the local universities and colleges through the research. This pa⁃per intends to solve the problems by analyzing the findings from the investigations done among the bilingual teachers and stu⁃dents, who are now involved in bilingual teaching. And it also proposes a practical bilingual teaching model especially for universi⁃ties and colleges. This will determine the quality of practicing bilingual teaching and will improve its efficiency.

  11. Bilingualism. Bilingual education. Natal/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Vian Jr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a preliminary account of the bilingual education in Natal/RN based on the notions of bilingual (GROSJEAN, 1982; WEI, 2000 and bilingual education (HAMERS; BLANC, 2000; FISHMAN; LOVAS, 1970; DALE; TANNER, 2012. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews in four private bilingual schools in Natal/RN. Results indicate that most of the schools include two languages concomitantly in their bilingual curriculum with differences as regards the hour load to work with each of the languages

  12. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  13. Bilingual Education Act: Background and Reauthorization Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    The Bilingual Education Act (BEA) title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), is the federal program intended to help children who are limited English proficient (LEP) learn English. BEA activities focus on transitional bilingual education; developmental bilingual education; special alternative instruction (such as English as…

  14. How Pedagogy 2.0 Can Foster Teacher Preparation and Community Building in Special Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hardman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how one teacher educator used action research methodology to investigate the feasibility of using Web 2.0 technology to build a virtual professional learning community (PLC in special education to support the preparation of highly qualified special education teachers. Study participants included 218 pre-service and in-service teachers who joined the virtual PLC over a four-year period. Data were collected using two Web 2.0 tools, wiki and Ning, and analyzed to evaluate the degree to which the virtual community met the essential characteristics of a PLC. The results showed that 200 of the 218 graduate students who joined the PLC as graduate students continued their membership after graduation but participated in community work as observers only, rarely if ever contributing anything to community growth and development. The implication of the results are discussed with respect to the importance of preparing teachers for service in today’s modern 21st Century academically diverse, inclusive learning communities.

  15. Education of the impellent-plastic expressiveness at a stage of specialized base preparation in art gymnastics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article is proved and opened the technique of education of the impellent-plastic expressiveness at a stage of specialized base preparation in art gymnastics. Criteria and modern requirements to the impellent-plastic expressiveness of gymnasts are analyzed. Its basic components are defined: musical-rhythmic preparation; mastering by skills of expressive movement; choreographic preparation; studying of elements of national and ball dances.

  16. Implicazioni del Nuovo Bilinguismo (Implications of New Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Adolph

    This article discusses the implications of the present trend towards bilingual education in the United States. Special attention is paid to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which has established bilingual programs in all of its public schools. Included among the possible effects of the new law are the following points of interest: (1) Students…

  17. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  18. Bilingualism: Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  19. Bilingualism: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony

    This paper on bilingualism defines the concept and its usage throughout the world. The various dichotomies that have evolved in the study of bilingualism are described: compound and coordinate, simultaneous and successive, additive and subtractive, and elite and folk. Balanced bilingualism, usually referring to an individual who has roughly equal…

  20. Management and control after the special preparation of skiers-racing drivers on the stages of annual macrocycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In theory and the estimation of the special preparation of skiers-racing drivers is experimentally grounded on the stages of annual cycle of training. The norms of the special preparedness of sportsmen are certain depending on style of movement. The levels of the special preparedness of sportsmen are certain in the whole-year training. It is well-proven that an orientation on evaluation scales allows objectively to characterize the state of separate components of motive function of every sportsman. Also to range and group sportsmen on typological the features of preparedness. Technology of correction of orientation of the trainings loadings is recommended.

  1. L'universite bilingue (The Bilingual University).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, Albert

    A noticeable trend in higher education is the development of the bilingual university. This study considers a university bilingual if it satisfies one element in the following definition: (1) all courses are given in both languages; (2) a part of the program is in both languages; or (3) all students are required to take some courses in one…

  2. El Debate Bilingue/The Bilingual Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Reynaldo F.

    1978-01-01

    Like so many issues in a democratic society, bilingual programs have become entangled in a series of related problems, from other schooling policies to economics and, even, political squabbles. As a result, the whole subject of bilingual schooling seems to be dimly seen and easily misunderstood. Adding to the difficulties, the national media have…

  3. Musical expertise, bilingualism, and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Depape, Anne-Marie

    2009-04-01

    The authors investigated whether intensive musical experience leads to enhancements in executive processing, as has been shown for bilingualism. Young adults who were bilinguals, musical performers (instrumentalists or vocalists), or neither completed 3 cognitive measures and 2 executive function tasks based on conflict. Both executive function tasks included control conditions that assessed performance in the absence of conflict. All participants performed equivalently for the cognitive measures and the control conditions of the executive function tasks, but performance diverged in the conflict conditions. In a version of the Simon task involving spatial conflict between a target cue and its position, bilinguals and musicians outperformed monolinguals, replicating earlier research with bilinguals. In a version of the Stroop task involving auditory and linguistic conflict between a word and its pitch, the musicians performed better than the other participants. Instrumentalists and vocalists did not differ on any measure. Results demonstrate that extended musical experience enhances executive control on a nonverbal spatial task, as previously shown for bilingualism, but also enhances control in a more specialized auditory task, although the effect of bilingualism did not extend to that domain. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Linguistic Construction and Negotiation of Social Relations among Bilingual Turkish-speaking Adolescents in North-western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. Normann

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the topic of this special issue of the journal--linguistic construction and negotiation of social relations among bilingual Turkish-speaking adolescents in North-western Europe. The studies included focus on Turkish-German bilinguals and the Koge project in Denmark, a longitudinal study of bilingual development among Turkish Danes.…

  5. Social Development: Self Help Skills. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lynne

    This monograph presents the self-help skills module of the social development curriculum portion of the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Included are: (1) an ontogeny of self-help skills (feeding, dressing, toileting, and grooming) in young children; (2) a brief discussion of the relevance of self-help skills to the…

  6. Transcending Rainbow Flags and Pride Parades: Preparing Special Education Preservice Educators to Work with Gay and Lesbian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often at a loss in handling lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues in the classroom. tvOften this is attributable to a lack of training during the preservice program at the university level. This article suggests that special education teacher preparation programs are uniquely positioned to promote sexual diversity…

  7. Preparing Special Educators for Collaboration in the Classroom: Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Jones, Bethany M.; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms and programs continues to be a focus in the international field of special education. In the USA where the history of inclusion is over three decades old, current special educator's professional standards clearly expect that certified special educators will enter the field…

  8. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifers Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  9. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifer’s Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents’ oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents’ bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  10. Policy and Practice in Bilingual Education: A Reader Extending the Foundations. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 2 Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Baker, Colin, Ed.

    This book can be used as a comprehensive introduction for instructors, researchers, and students, and as an interactive text for students. In designing the text the authors have been particularly attentive to the needs in teacher education, especially in the preparation of bilingual teachers. Thus, each of the readings is followed by questions and…

  11. Construction of annual cycle of preparation of sportsmen, specialized in cheerleading. [Postroenie godovogo cikla podgotovki sportsmenov, specializiruiushchikhsia v cherlidinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loutsenko L.S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The plan-chart of distributing of educational material is rotined in the annual loop of preparation of sportsmen. In an experiment took part 42 sportsmen in age 18-19 years. It is marked that duration of setup time is occupied by to 6 months of preparation. The following correlation of elements is recommended in the structure of competition period: 10% is a body-conditioning, 20% is the special physical preparation, 70% is technical preparation. It is marked that it is necessary to concentrate basic attention on working off competition composition, elements and synchronousness at implementation of compositions. It becomes firmly established that the transitional period of sportsmen is directed on renewal of physical and psychological potential. In this period it is recommended to bring in adjustments in competition compositions or make new.

  12. The Application of Maintenance Bilingual Education in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language Speciality%保持型教学模式在对外汉语双语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春莉; 强东红

    2012-01-01

    According to the language enviroment of China,features of university and the fact of students,we study maintenance bilingual education which suits Chinese as a second language speciality.The thesis discusses from four fields: the design of teaching steps,the organization of teaching material,the new idea of teaching method,the establish of reasonable teaching evaluation system.%根据我国的语言环境和高等院校特点及生源的实际情况,探讨适合对外汉语专业的保持型双语教学模式。从保持型双语教学步骤的设计、双语教学材料的组织、双语教学方法的创新、合理有效的双语教学评价体系的建立四个方面进行了论述。

  13. Integrating English as a Second Language into Special Education Teacher Personnel Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Hudson, Roxanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Preparing educators who are culturally responsive and prepared to meet the needs of English-language learners is a national priority. Consequently, many teacher preparation programs are being encouraged to include English as a second-language content in their programs of study. The following case study describes the development and implementation…

  14. Words, feelings, and bilingualism: Cross-linguistic differences in emotionality of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    Cross-linguistic differences in emotionality of autobiographical memories were examined by eliciting memories of immigration from bilingual speakers. Forty-seven Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recount their immigration experiences in either Russian or English. Bilinguals used more emotion words when describing their immigration experiences in the second language (English) than in the first language (Russian). Bilinguals' immigration narratives contained more negative emotion words than positive emotion words. In addition, language preference (but not language proficiency) influenced results, with emotional expression amplified when speaking in the preferred language. These findings carry implications for organization of the bilingual lexicon and the special status of emotion words within it. We suggest that bilinguals' expression of emotion may vary across languages and that the linguistic and affective systems are interconnected in the bilingual cognitive architecture.

  15. Dental Assisting Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in dental assisting, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to prepare the student to assist the dentist at the chairside in the dental operatory, to perform reception and clerical functions, and to carry out selected dental laboratory work. The course covers an introduction to the…

  16. Bilingual Folk Stories in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynham, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Describes a method of drawing on the students' own knowledge and resources in developing language teaching materials. Discusses the use of folk stories as a source of reading materials and examines the process of preparing a Mullah Nasreddin story, first told in a classroom discussion, for publication as a bilingual reader. (SED)

  17. Preparing Preschool Teacher Candidates for Inclusion: Impact of Two Special Education Courses on Their Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Cig, Oguzcan; Parlak-Rakap, Asiye

    2017-01-01

    Successful implementation of inclusive practices depends mainly on teachers' attitudes towards children with special needs and their inclusion, and teachers' willingness to work with children with special needs in their classrooms. Experiences teacher candidates have during pre-service stage might influence their perceptions towards children with…

  18. Preparing the Next Generation of Higher Education Faculty in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBettencourt, Laurie U.

    2014-01-01

    There is a shortage in the number of funded doctoral programs in the field of special education. As a result the number of higher education faculty who are trained in the knowledge and skills necessary to train the next generation of special education teachers is critically low. This article describes a doctoral program funded by the Office of…

  19. A Model for Bilingual Physics Teaching: "The Feynman Lectures "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Heqing W.

    2006-12-01

    Feynman was not only a great physicist but also a remarkably effective educator. The Feynman Lectures on Physics originally published in 1963 were designed to be GUIDES for teachers and for gifted students. More than 40 years later, his peculiar teaching ideas have special application to bilingual physics teaching in China because: (1) Each individual lecture provides a self contained unit for bilingual teaching; (2)The lectures broaden the physics understanding of students; and (3)Feynman's original thought in English is experienced through the bilingual teaching of physics.

  20. The functional model of optimization of the special physical preparation of students in the period of flying practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpenko V.N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is considered approaches to optimization special physical preparation of students during the period of flying practice. For the construction of functional model of such system new information IDEF technology is utillized (ICAM Definition. The feature of technology is gradual introduction all large levels of working out in detail (decoupligs. It is marked that it is expedient to carry out a decouplig before functions which will realize leaders of physical preparation and instructor of flying preparation. It is well-proven that on the stage of research of function a fundamental place is occupied by a functional design. The result of optimization of maintenance of teaching is systematization of knowledge, abilities, facilities of development and support professionally of meaningful qualities of students. The hierarchical levels of process of systematization of maintenance of teaching are recommended. It is offered directions of realization of functional model through conditioning optimization of pedagogical activity of teacher.

  1. Implementing Bilingual Pattern Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how semi-communicative bilingual drills were implemented in a four-month course in pedagogical English for a group of ten Polish adult learners. When the course was over, the learners were asked to evaluate the procedure by filling in a questionnaire. The learners expressed overwhelming approval for bilingual drills in terms…

  2. Bilingualism, Biculturalism, and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains three parts. In the first part, what it means to be bilingual in sign language and the spoken (majority) language is explained, and similarities as well as differences with hearing bilinguals are discussed. The second part examines the biculturalism of deaf people. Like hearing biculturals, they take part, to varying degrees,…

  3. Implementing Bilingual Pattern Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how semi-communicative bilingual drills were implemented in a four-month course in pedagogical English for a group of ten Polish adult learners. When the course was over, the learners were asked to evaluate the procedure by filling in a questionnaire. The learners expressed overwhelming approval for bilingual drills in terms…

  4. Value-Added Assessment of Teacher Preparation: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansle, Kristin A.; Noell, George H.; Grandstaff-Beckers, Gerlinde; Stringer, Angelle; Roberts, Nancy; Burns, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    As states move to teacher evaluation that is intended to capture teacher contributions to students' learning outcomes, some states have adopted "value-added measures" to examine teachers' and teacher preparation programs' effectiveness. In Louisiana, the value-added assessment of teacher preparation programs includes students with…

  5. Bilingualism, Mind, and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.; Bice, Kinsey; Perrotti, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The use of two or more languages is common in most of the world. Yet, until recently, bilingualism was considered to be a complicating factor for language processing, cognition, and the brain. The past 20 years have witnessed an upsurge of research on bilingualism to examine language acquisition and processing, their cognitive and neural bases, and the consequences that bilingualism holds for cognition and the brain over the life span. Contrary to the view that bilingualism complicates the language system, this new research demonstrates that all of the languages that are known and used become part of the same language system. The interactions that arise when two languages are in play have consequences for the mind and the brain and, indeed, for language processing itself, but those consequences are not additive. Thus, bilingualism helps reveal the fundamental architecture and mechanisms of language processing that are otherwise hidden in monolingual speakers. PMID:28642932

  6. Rethinking Bilingual Education in Postcolonial Contexts. Bilingual Education & Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimbutane, Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    This book calls for critical adaptations when theories of bilingual education, based on practices in the North, are applied to the countries of the global South. For example, it challenges the assumption that transitional models necessarily lead to language shift and cultural assimilation. Taking an ethnographically-based narrative on the purpose…

  7. Computer Mediated Communication in the Universal Design for Learning Framework for Preparation of Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, James D.; Lowrey, K. Alisa; deNoyelles, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework as a basis for a bi-university computer mediated communication (CMC) collaborative project. Participants in the research included 78 students from two special education programs enrolled in teacher education courses. The focus of the investigation was on exploring the…

  8. Perils to Self-Efficacy Perceptions and Teacher-Preparation Quality among Special Education Intern Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeunjoo; Patterson, Philip P.; Vega, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    To reduce teacher shortages, an intern credential has been introduced as a means of alternate certification in California. Individuals who meet the requirement of subject matter competency are eligible for an intern credential, allowing them to teach students in special education programs for two years while completing their coursework…

  9. Early bilingualism enhances mechanisms of false-belief reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda

    2009-01-01

    In their first years, children's understanding of mental states seems to improve dramatically, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Such 'theory of mind' (ToM) abilities may arise during development, or have an innate basis, developmental changes reflecting limitations of other abilities involved in ToM tasks (e.g. inhibition). Special circumstances such as early bilingualism may enhance ToM development or other capacities required by ToM tasks. Here we compare 3-year-old bilinguals and monolinguals on a standard ToM task, a modified ToM task and a control task involving physical reasoning. The modified ToM task mimicked a language-switch situation that bilinguals often encounter and that could influence their ToM abilities. If such experience contributes to an early consolidation of ToM in bilinguals, they should be selectively enhanced in the modified task. In contrast, if bilinguals have an advantage due to better executive inhibitory abilities involved in ToM tasks, they should outperform monolinguals on both ToM tasks, inhibitory demands being similar. Bilingual children showed an advantage on the two ToM tasks but not on the control task. The precocious success of bilinguals may be associated with their well-developed control functions formed during monitoring and selecting languages.

  10. Solution to new word perplexity in immersion bilingual teaching of engineering graphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; FAN Ning; BAI Daiping

    2012-01-01

    Numerous and specialized words are main obstacles in immersion bilingual teaching of engineering graphics. A feasible solution to this problem is given by classifying new words into three categories. The fear of new words among students is overcome and the effect of bilingual teaching is greatly improved .

  11. Playing to Learn: A Qualitative Analysis of Bilingual Pupil-Pupil Talk during Board Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores what happens when bilingual learners come together to play a board game specially designed to facilitate an interactive context in which the learning of English as a second or additional language is promoted. An example of the interactive behaviour of one group of bilingual learners is then presented in order to illustrate such…

  12. Glosario Bilingue De Terminos Matematicos: Espanol/Ingles = Bilingual Glossary of Mathematical Terms: Spanish/English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This glossary has been prepared for the convenience of bilingual (English and Spanish) teachers who may not always be familiar with mathematical terminology in both languages. Often teachers must research and translate the terms necessary for each lesson. In some cases, the translations are literal, which results in the adoption of different terms…

  13. Glosario Bilingue De Terminos Matematicos: Espanol/Ingles = Bilingual Glossary of Mathematical Terms: Spanish/English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This glossary has been prepared for the convenience of bilingual (English and Spanish) teachers who may not always be familiar with mathematical terminology in both languages. Often teachers must research and translate the terms necessary for each lesson. In some cases, the translations are literal, which results in the adoption of different terms…

  14. Preparation of novel CdS-incorporated special glass composite as photocatalyst material used for catalyst-fixed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maochang; Jing, Dengwei; Zhao, Liang; Guo, Liejin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A novel catalyst-fixed way is present. And two series of novel CdS-incorporated special glass composite photocatalysts working under visible light were successfully prepared in this way by a two-step thermal sulfidation procedure for the use of catalyst-fixed system. One was by a high temperature way, and the other was by a low temperature way. The composite photocatalysts with different content of CdS prepared by the methods were found to show a good activity for the decomposition of water under visible light. The highest rate of H{sub 2} revolution is 1549 {mu}mol/(hg{sub CdS}) with wt1%-Pt loaded. The composites prepared by high and low temperature were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as-prepared photocatalysts exhibited different photochemical and photophysical properties for the combined way between glass-base and CdS. The photochemical and photophysical properties were very important in the catalyst-fixed system used for large-scale hydrogen production. (author)

  15. Preparing Special Education Teachers to Use Educational Technology to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Teresa; Georgina, David

    2014-01-01

    New standards require teachers to integrate the use of technology in their teaching and preparing teachers at the preservice level to integrate technology into the classroom is key. The way in which this is accomplished varies across institutions though often a technology tools course stands as an individual course with the hope professors are…

  16. Bilingual teaching of molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently bilingual teaching in China's universities has been widely carried out and become a popular subject for study. In this paper, the reasons for bilingual teaching of molecular biology are pointed out, the textbook of molecular biology and teaching method in bilingual teaching classes are determined after investigation and the practice of bilingually teaching molecular biology use both English and Chinese in a class. The effect has proved good. The bilingual teaching methods, the problem of bilingual teaching, the importance of understanding its significance and the possibilities of improving such teaching of the subject are also discussed.

  17. Le bilingue, surhomme ou infirme? (The Bilingual, Superman or Cripple?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Michel

    1975-01-01

    Discusses good translation techniques, "true bilingualism," and the effect of bilingualism on cognitive development. (Text is in French.) Available from Lloyds Bank Chambers, 91 Newington Causeway, London SE1 6BN, England. (AM)

  18. Preparing Teachers to Teach Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities: The Significance of a National PGCE Development and Evaluation Project for Inclusive Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Nash, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising from a national development and evaluation project, which (1) surveyed national primary and secondary postgraduate certificate programmes (PGCE) about how they prepare trainees to teach pupils with special educational needs; and (2) conducted a trial of a practical teaching task for preparing primary and…

  19. Pulling it all together: The road to lasting bilingualism for children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    Children with DD must and do become bilingual, but the research reported in this special issue raises questions about equitable access to bilingual opportunities and provision of appropriate supports to ensure optimal bilingual growth in these children. The purpose of the present article was to apply the findings from our international collaboration to inform policy and practice on bilingualism in children with developmental disabilities (DD). To do this, we first overview the research presented in detail in other articles of this special issue: a narrative literature review, a review of site policies and practices related to special education and language education, a qualitative analysis of key informant interviews, and a quantitative analysis of surveys of practitioners. From these overviews emerge a complex set of contextual factors that impact bilingual development in children with DD. We then use the Bioecological Systems model of Bronfenbrenner and Morris (2007) and conceptual maps (C-maps) to examine the particular circumstances of three hypothetical children with DD who are in very different bilingual contexts. In so doing, areas of both positive and negative influence on lasting bilingualism are identified for each child. We end with recommendations for increasing access to and support for bilingualism in children with DD.

  20. Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. NLIA Occasional Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Anthony Liddicoat on the general nature of bilingualism, three papers on the characteristics, development, and advantages of bilingualism are presented. "Psycholinguistic Aspects of Bilingualism" by Susanne Dopke, Tim Macnamara, and Terry Quinn considers the linguistic, cognitive, emotional, and educational…

  1. Responding to the Call: Developing and Assessing Pedagogical Spanish Competencies in Bilingual Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Sterling, Cristian R.

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual teacher education scholars continue to advocate for the improvement of Spanish language-related teacher preparation practices. However, the field is in need of research on how bilingual teacher educators across the U.S. are addressing this task in their work with future teachers. In responding to this call, I describe an approach and an…

  2. MEANING DISCRIMINATION IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IANNUCCI, JAMES E.

    SEMANTIC DISCRIMINATION OF POLYSEMOUS ENTRY WORDS IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PAPER. HANDICAPS OF PRESENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES AND BARRIERS TO THEIR FULL UTILIZATION WERE ENUMERATED. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) A BILINGUAL DICTIONARY SHOULD HAVE A DISCRIMINATION FOR EVERY TRANSLATION OF AN ENTRY WORD WHICH HAS SEVERAL…

  3. Dominance and Age in Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the relationship between age and dominance in bilingual populations. Age in bilingualism is understood as the point in development at which second language (L2) acquisition begins and as the chronological age of users of two languages. Age of acquisition (AoA) is a factor in determining which of a bilingual's two…

  4. Bilingual Education in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明勇

    2005-01-01

    This paper will consider both the general theory of bilingual education and the bilingual practice in Chinese universities. The necessity and possibility of carrying out bilingual education will be particularly dealt with. The current situation will be analyzed, namely, the achievements, the difficulties, and the solution and the future trend.

  5. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  6. STUDY OF PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF PRATIMARSHA NASYA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANU TAILAM (AN AYURVEDIC PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Y. R.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasa (Nose is considered as one among the panchagnanendriya, whose functions are not only limited to olfaction and respiration but also considered as a pathway for drug administration. Since it is described as nose is the gateway for the shiras. Nasya karma is the special procedure where the drug is administered through that gateway. The medicine that is put into nostril moves in the channels & shows influence on shiras by removing out the accumulated doshas localized in shiras i.e., from all sinuses in the skull. In ayurvedic texts Pratimarsha, a type of Nasya is indicated as a daily regimen to keep maintain health of Nasal passage. ‘Anu Tailam’ is classical oil, indicated in Ashtang Hridaya (an authoritative text for various disorders of head, eyes, nose, ears and graying of hair. An open-label, placebo controlled, prospective, interventional, and exploratory clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the preventive effects of Anu Tailam. Experimental & placebo group contains 20 volunteers. Administration of Nasya therapy with “Anu tailam” for 30 days showed significant results on symptoms like tiredness, intensity of eyesight, capacity of senses, premature graying of hair, skin complexion. No considerable results obtained in placebo group.

  7. Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Thomas H; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008-2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading. Our results suggest a positive effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition, including in those who acquired their second language in adulthood.

  8. Studying bilingual students’ literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    2012-01-01

    ), and linguistic diversity seems to be associated with societal problems and educational failure. ”The bilingual student” is placed in the core of this debate, as he or she is portrayed as a main cause of the low national placement in the international rankings (Holm & Laursen, 2011) and thus increasingly...... conceived of as a threat to a school’s profile (Rampton, Harris & Leung, 2001). In this paper, I focus on different conceptualizations of literacy and discuss the implications for research on bilingual children's literacy acquisition and the need to expand the understanding of literacy in ways, which might...... contribute to lift the basic understanding of bilinguals’ literacy out of a disqualifying political discourse. Drawing on the ongoing study Sign of Language (Laursen, 2011), I reflect on how a social semiotic framework might help open new research perspectives on bilingual children’s literacy acquisition...

  9. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.

  10. Influence of Bilinguism on Socio-Cognitive Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overeview of foreign studies devoted to bilinguism and its influence on socio-cognitive personality development. Experimental research conducted in the recent years has broken the myth of negative influence of childhood bilinguism. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis, the present research shows the advantages of children and adults grown up in the bilingual environment. Their advantages compared with the monolingual peers include the well-developed meta-lingual abilities and executive functions - executive control, attention, planning, concentration, rejection of inessential information - necessary for fulfilling verbal tasks and activity control. The paper emphasizes the influence of bilinguism on cognitive decentration, ability to learn foreign languages and develop higher social sensitivity regarding both verbal and non-verbal communication (i.e. interpretation of mimics, gestures, intonations, and more adequate reaction to communicative behavior of surrounding people.The author concludes that bilinguism stimulates creativity, facilitates divergent thinking necessary for observing a variety of possible solutions and creative ideas development. Bilingual skills broaden children’s mental horizons leaving them more prepared for adult life compared to their monolingual peers. 

  11. Le Valais bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Petite

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le Valais est l’un des trois cantons bilingues de la Suisse. 63 % de sa population parle le français dans la partie ouest du canton et 28 % l’allemand dans sa partie est. Ce « plurilinguisme de juxtaposition » (pour reprendre le terme d’André-Louis Sanguin dans sa Géographie politique de la Suisse soulève des questions politiques et sociales qu’ambitionne de traiter l’ouvrage des linguistes Iwar Werlen, Verena Tunger et Ursula Frei. Le constat auquel aboutit cette recherche sur le bilinguism...

  12. Tonal bilingualism : the case of two closely related Chinese dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Junru

    2015-01-01

    Tonal bilinguals of two closely related Chinese dialects handle two tonal systems in their mind; their two vocabularies are from closely related dialects; and they write translation equivalents with common Chinese characters. Their unique language situation makes their mind special. This thesis inve

  13. An Analysis of Bilingual Education Programs and Directors in Texas Education Service Center Region Two School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Michelle Arevalo

    2013-01-01

    In this mixed methods research study, the researcher investigated the difference between additive and subtractive bilingual education programs and student achievement. The researcher examined types of bilingual education and special language programs currently utilized in school districts located within the Education Service Center Region Two…

  14. Studying bilingual students’ literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    2012-01-01

    ), and linguistic diversity seems to be associated with societal problems and educational failure. ”The bilingual student” is placed in the core of this debate, as he or she is portrayed as a main cause of the low national placement in the international rankings (Holm & Laursen, 2011) and thus increasingly...

  15. Bilingualism and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Although a bilingual advantage has been described for neurodegenerative disease in general, it is not known whether such an advantage could accrue to individuals suffering from schizophrenia, since language networks are known to be disrupted in this condition. The aim of this minireview was to scan the existing literature to determine: (1) whether individuals with schizophrenia are able to learn a second language as adults; (2) whether clinical assessment, both for the purpose of accurate diagnosis and for the prediction of treatment response, should be carried out in both languages in bilinguals with schizophrenia; (3) whether psychotherapy in schizophrenia is affected by bilingualism; and (4) whether speaking a second language improves outcome in schizophrenia. The literature to date is too sparse to make definitive statements, but: (1) individuals with schizophrenia appear to be capable of learning a new languages as adults; and (2) it is possible that teaching a foreign language may serve as a form of cognitive rehabilitation for this condition. This literature review recommends research into the effects of bilingualism on the outcome of schizophrenia. Included in this review is a retrospective pilot study conducted in Canada, which suggests that employment opportunities for patients with schizophrenia are improved when they speak more than one language. This is important to note because employment is generally problematic in the context of schizophrenia while, at the same time, the ability to obtain work contributes significantly to quality of life. PMID:27354960

  16. Bilingual Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to identify research-supported strategies for reading and writing that can be integrated effectively to promote the development of biliterate academic literacy by English language learners (ELLs) in middle-school bilingual classrooms. The paper begins with a review of the theoretical foundations that highlight…

  17. Bilingualism and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in…

  18. The Advantages of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew S.

    1998-01-01

    Some experts claim that learning two languages well gives rise to mental flexibility, superior concept formation, a diversified set of mental abilities, and metalinguistic awareness. Although most researchers believe accomplished bilingualism and cognitive development are positively related, this view is not universally accepted, and the exact…

  19. Bilingual Education through Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy, Rosa H.

    The purpose of this project was to design a bilingual/bicultural kindergarten course of study based on the concepts of the Richards Education Through Music Method. This method is rooted in the Hungarian composer-educator Zoltan Kodaly's educational philosophy and was developed in the U.S. by Mary Helen Richards. This is a method of teaching all…

  20. Successful Bilingual Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecel, Maria Robledo; Cortez, Josie

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research project carried out by the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA). IDRA's primary research question for this study was, "What contributed to the success of a bilingual education classroom as evidenced by LEP student academic achievement?" In addition to the student data, qualitative and contextual…

  1. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  2. International Perspectives on Academic and Professional Preparation of School and Educational Psychologists: Introduction to a Special Issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology" is devoted to promoting an understanding of some current features of school psychology programs and to suggest ways to further strengthen preparation. Information summarized in these 12 articles is intended to assist us in determining the relevance…

  3. Dependence of sports results on data of physical development, morphofunctional and special power preparedness of weight-lifters at the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bugaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the establishment of nature of the interrelation between sports results of weight-lifters and level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness. Material & Methods: 48 sportsmen of group of initial preparation of the first year of training were involved to the experiment. The research was conducted on the basis of the chair of weightlifting and boxing of Kharkov state academy of physical culture and CYSS “HTZ”. Results: the correlation between indicators of morphofunctional, high-speed and power and special (competitive preparedness of weight-lifters is revealed at the stage of initial preparation. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation, depends on power and high-speed and power preparedness. Conclusions: it is established that the correlation between results of competitive exercises and jumps uphill from the place, in length from the place, run on 30 m can demonstrate the interrelation of power and high-speed and power preparedness of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation.

  4. International Perspectives on Academic and Professional Preparation of School and Educational Psychologists: Introduction to a Special Issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology" is devoted to promoting an understanding of some current features of school psychology programs and to suggest ways to further strengthen preparation. Information summarized in these 12 articles is intended to assist us in determining the relevance…

  5. Intercommunications of indexes of speed and power qualities of sportsmen single combat on the stage of the specialized base preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykytenko A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is a study of interdependence between indexes specially-preparatory and general preparatory exercises of sportsmen (boxing, sporting hand-to-hand fight hopak, fencing. 42 sportsmen took part in researches. Statistical reliable intercommunications are set: a indexes of force of shots by hands with the indexes of rate of single movement; b indexes of force of shots by feet with indexes from maximal force of muscles (tractive forces; c indexes of speed of shots by hands (pricking with the indexes of distance of shove of balls by mass 300 gramme; d indexes of speed of movement a step in a battle bar with indexes: speeds of shots by hands (pricking; e indexes of frequency of shots of boxers and sportsmen hand-to-hand fight hopak with the indexes of frequency of movement (manoeuvring on feet. Facilities which it is expedient to apply in the training process of single combats on this stage of long-term preparation are certain.

  6. [The analysis of possibility to apply new preparations in serologic diagnostic of agent of cholera in working activity of specialized anti-epidemic brigades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Tatarenko, O A; Alekseyeva, L P; Agafonova, V V; Shaly, O A; Pisanov, R V; Aiydinov, G V; Stupina, N A

    2013-05-01

    The approbation of diagnostic preparations on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies developed in the institute was carried out during tactical specialized exercise with building up of units on the basis of mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. It is established that diagnostic agglutinating and fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulins by their sensitivity are equal to polyclonal commercial preparations and can be used at the stages of laboratory diagnostic of cholera both in conditions of stationary laboratory and mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. The method of dot immunoanalysis on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies can, on a par with such common methods as immunofluorescence, slide-agglutination and polymerase chain reaction, be applied in complex of methods of express-diagnostic of cholera.

  7. New Jersey Bilingual Education Program. Formal Project Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineland School District, NJ.

    Major objectives of a proposed New Jersey cooperative project are (1) to establish 10 first-grade demonstration bilingual and bicultural classes in strategic target areas throughout the state (to help Spanish-speaking children extend skills in their native language and in English); (2) to prepare preservice and inservice workshops for personnel in…

  8. Word Association Data and the Assessment of Bilingual Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capco, Clemencia S.; Tucker, G. Richard

    1971-01-01

    Manuscript supported, in part, by grants from the Canada Council and the Defense Research Board of Canada to Mr. Tucker. More complete version was prepared by Miss Capco as A Study of the Verbal Behavior of Bilingual Children Using a Word Association Technique", M.A. thesis, Philippine Normal College, Manila, 1969. (VM)

  9. Bilingual Education in an Aboriginal Context: Examining the Transfer of Language Skills from Inuktitut to English or French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Caouette, Julie; Qumaaluk, Qiallak; Taylor, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Bilingual education is thought to be one of the principal means of simultaneously revitalizing threatened language and preparing students for success in mainstream society. However, little research has examined, in a comprehensive and longitudinal fashion, bilingual programs in Aboriginal contexts. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to conduct…

  10. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers’ and preschoolers’ knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture’s name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children’s looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals’ word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children’s robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

  11. Young Bilingual Children's Perceptions of Bilingualism and Biliteracy: Altruistic Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    2002-01-01

    A study examined 13 bilingual Spanish-speaking children's perceptions of their bilingualism and biliteracy through conversations, collages, and drawings. The children felt the usefulness of becoming biliterate to be embedded in altruistic helping relations with family members and other monolingual speakers. Identity issues surfaced for all the…

  12. Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in a Complex Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Lazaro Moreno; Wedin, Asa

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on results from a baseline study for an intended intervention project in bilingual-intercultural education in the Municipality of San Miguel Ixtahuacan, in the Department of San Marcos, Guatemala. To a great extent the article deals with issues of bilingual education from the perspective of social justice. It analyses the…

  13. Un Bosquejo del Proyecto Bilingue (Outline of a Bilingual Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton City Schools, CA.

    Bilingual education in English and Spanish is intended to give native speakers of both languages insights into two cultures, a broader background, and greater life opportunities. Spanish-speaking students in bilingual programs can retain their language ties and the ability to communicate with their families and older relatives. The directors of…

  14. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin

    The textbook for training bilingual education teachers addresses psychological and social questions that enable teachers to define more clearly what they want to do in a classroom, and offers theoretical and practical information for a variety of social contexts. The first section addresses individualism and the social nature of bilingualism, and…

  15. Identifying priorities for establishing bilingual provision in nurse education: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gwerfyl W; Irvine, Fiona E; Tranter, Siobhan; Spencer, Llinos H

    2010-10-01

    Research evidence demonstrates that offering language choice to patients enhances the quality of healthcare provision. This has implications for the preparation of nurses for practice in bilingual settings, where legislation often leads to demands for health services in both languages and bilingual competence amongst healthcare providers. This paper reports on a scoping study of bilingual provision in nurse education in the bilingual context of Wales, UK, as a means of informing the evidence base for national strategic planning. The study incorporated three elements: (i) literature analysis (ii) policy review and (iii) stakeholder consultation (n=70). Six themes emerged from the stakeholder consultation, reflecting the main drivers and barriers associated with bilingual provision in course delivery. These themes aligned with findings identified from the policy and literature review that related to strategic, organisational and individual influences on bilingual educational provision. Strategic planning for bilingual provision in nurse education in Wales should take account of the factors that affect provision at different levels. These factors feature across bilingual settings outside the UK, thus giving the study international relevance and scope to inform the delivery of nurse education that meets the needs of wider diverse language communities.

  16. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festman, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  17. Metalinguistic Aspects of Bilingual Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in metalinguistic development between monolingual and bilingual children in terms of three subcategories: word awareness, syntactic awareness, and phonological awareness. In each case, some studies have reported advantages for bilingual children, while others have found either no difference between the groups or monolingual…

  18. Bilingualism and Achievement in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ure, Jean

    1980-01-01

    Failures are better documented than successes in bilingual education programs. A theory is needed powerful enough to predict success while accounting for reported failures. Most important is the effect of bilingualism on cognitive development. Use of the first language should complement the second, particularly in problem solving and question…

  19. Bilingual Approaches to Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaryMcgroarty; NorthernArizonaUniversity

    2003-01-01

    “Billingual Approaches to Language Learning” describes the various bilingual models found at different levels(elementary,secondary,post-secondary,and adult education),identifying key instructional features and emphasizing the drive for quality instruction.The paper makes reference to consideration of the political contexts as well as pedagogical factors affecting the choices and outcomes related to bilingual instruction.

  20. Theory and Practice of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinsky, Frieda L.

    This paper presents a discussion of the theory of bilingual education, including ideas developed by several linguistic researchers. Various aspects of bilingual education are discussed including objectives, definition, raison d'etre, dominance and balance, learning, types, and barriers. Second language learning is considered along with reasons for…

  1. Bilingual Education: Broadening Research Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Carrol E.; Hakuta, Kenji

    The focus of this paper is on research in bilingual education in the United States, dealing with its history, practices, and potential. The introductory section describes a variety of models of bilingual education and establishes a foundation of terminology for those new to the field. The second section looks historically at research in the field…

  2. The Needs of Educators in Intercultural and Bilingual Preschools in Chile: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Lubies, Rukmini; Fones, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have examined the lack of or the insufficient preparation of K-12 educators to work in intercultural and bilingual (IBE) schools in Chile, but little is known about the preparation of educators to teach in IBE preschools. Even less is known about teachers' perceptions of their own preparation. This work contributes to a growing…

  3. Project 2011 and the Preparation of Black and Latino Students for Admission to Specialized High Schools in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebanks, Mercedes E.; Toldson, Ivory A.; Richards, Soyini; Lemmons, Brianna P.

    2012-01-01

    Public elite and specialized high schools in New York City have a very low enrollment of Black and Latino students. Project 2011 is an intensive preparatory instructional program to improve acceptance rates for Black and Latino children to the eight specialized public high schools in New York City. Initiated and funded by District 17 and 18 of the…

  4. Does bilingualism twist your tongue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Goldrick, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical information did or did not support sound processing), and similar or dissimilar sounds (thus varying in difficulty with respect to competition at a sub-lexical level). Even though bilinguals had learned English at an early age, and spoke English without an accent, Spanish-English bilinguals produced significantly more twister errors than monolinguals, particularly in the absence of lexical support. Mandarin-English bilinguals were also disadvantaged, but more consistently across all twister types. These results reveal that bilingual disadvantages extend beyond the lexical level to affect the processing of sub-lexical representations. More generally, these findings suggest that experience with sound structures (and not simply their intrinsic complexity) shapes sub-lexical processing for all speakers.

  5. Bicultural-Bilinguals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David; Reihlen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    in meaning across cultures. Yet previous research has only shown this effect at a between-subject level during which cultural variables were not controlled for. Our research controls for such influences by relying on a within-subject approach, illustrating that language triggers frame switching among...... bicultural-bilinguals and that the process is largely tacit. Moreover, such frame switching may lead to unintended consequences for organizations seeking to control a meaning across cultures as the meaning in the original language is uprooted to a point where it may no longer be recognizable within...

  6. Sections Bilingues in Somerset (Bilingual Sections in Somerset)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ann

    1975-01-01

    Two experimental bilingual classes in French begun in Somerset, Scotland, in September 1973 are described. Included in the course are the study of the language itself and of geography and French civilization through the French language. (RM)

  7. The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Pangelinan, Melissa M; Bogulski, Cari; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Luk, Gigi; Grady, Cheryl L; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    matter, emphasizing the importance of preserved white matter in maintaining executive function in aging. These results underscore previous findings implicating an association between bilingualism and preserved frontal and temporal lobe function in aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory Å.

  8. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  9. Improvement of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics by means of choreography at a stage of the specialized basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove experimentally the technique of improvement of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics by means of choreography at a stage of the specialized basic preparation. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: theoretical analysis and synthesis of data of special scientific and methodical literature; pedagogical supervision; pedagogical testing; methods of mathematical statistics. 10 competitive programs of woman’s pair in acrobatics are analyzed before and after the pedagogical experiment. Results: the estimated results of the technique of execution of the competitive program of each woman’s pair separately were received on the basis of a rating scale of criterion of implementation of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics (Rules of FIG, 2013–2016. The dynamic of the level of the competitive program of each woman’s pair separately is defined. Conclusions: it is established that additional resources of choreography influence significantly the level of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics at a stage of the specialized basic preparation

  10. Developing the Bilingual Competence in Learning Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Znamenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of bilingualism and its effect on the personality of the speaker. Various types of bilingualism are described along with the factors determining the bilingual competence formation: age, individual experience, socio-cultural conditions of the native and foreign language interaction. The author points out both the positive and negative impact on the native language as the result of the second language learning. The special emphasis is on language interference in the process of learning a foreign language. To make sure the students achieve the adequate degree of its authenticity, and therefore the bilingual competence, the teacher should take into account the specificity of national styles, communicative strategies and speech tactics of both languages. A comparative analysis of linguistic differences of the English and Russian languages is demonstrated on the level of phonetics, vocabulary, grammar and national communicative stylistics. The author maintains that successful inter-language and cross-cultural communication requires the integrative cross-disciplinary approach, consolidation of the linguistic theory and methods of foreign language teaching. 

  11. Developing the Bilingual Competence in Learning Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Znamenskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of bilingualism and its effect on the personality of the speaker. Various types of bilingualism are described along with the factors determining the bilingual competence formation: age, individual experience, socio-cultural conditions of the native and foreign language interaction. The author points out both the positive and negative impact on the native language as the result of the second language learning. The special emphasis is on language interference in the process of learning a foreign language. To make sure the students achieve the adequate degree of its authenticity, and therefore the bilingual competence, the teacher should take into account the specificity of national styles, communicative strategies and speech tactics of both languages. A comparative analysis of linguistic differences of the English and Russian languages is demonstrated on the level of phonetics, vocabulary, grammar and national communicative stylistics. The author maintains that successful inter-language and cross-cultural communication requires the integrative cross-disciplinary approach, consolidation of the linguistic theory and methods of foreign language teaching. 

  12. Bilingualism Gives a Cognitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have shown bilingualism has an influence on cognition, both negative and positive. This essay aims to discuss the cognitive disadvantages and advantages bilingualism brings, by emphasizing how it affect children ’s cognitive devel-opment. It will first briefly introduce the disadvantages such as a lower verbal fluency and vocabulary deficit, and then analyse the advantages on non-verbal cognition and attention controlling, a more sensitive metalinguistic awareness and a lower decline rate of cognitive processing.

  13. Blended learning and bilingual education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firpo Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the applied research presented herein is to devise and promote language teaching paradigms that are intended to develop bilingual abilities in second-generation Latin Americans (aged 11-12 years in the Italian middle school, thereby recovering their original linguistic background, while amplifying their knowledge of Italian, thus redefining a carefully balanced, pluralistic linguistic framework. Moreover, the study aims to establish a bilingual teaching model that may also be applied to different language pairings.

  14. Bilingualism as a Model for Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Because both languages of bilinguals are constantly active, bilinguals need to manage attention to the target language and avoid interference from the non-target language. This process is likely carried out by recruiting the executive function (EF) system, a system that is also the basis for multitasking. In previous research, bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on tasks requiring EF, suggesting that the practice using EF for language management benefits performance in other tasks as well. The present study examined 203 children, 8-11 years old, who were monolingual, partially bilingual, bilingual, or trilingual performing a flanker task. Two results support the interpretation that bilingualism is related to multitasking. First, bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on the conflict trials in the flanker task, confirming previous results for a bilingual advantage in EF. Second, the inclusion of partial bilinguals and trilinguals set limits on the role of experience: partial bilingual performed similarly to monolinguals and trilinguals performed similarly to bilinguals, suggesting that degrees of experience are not well-calibrated to improvements in EF. Our conclusion is that the involvement of EF in bilingual language processing makes bilingualism a form of linguistic multitasking. PMID:25821336

  15. "I Was Confident about Teaching but SEN Scared Me": Preparing New Teachers for Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a research study undertaken with a small group of student teachers in an English university. They took part in a specialised school placement with pupils identified as having special educational needs, one of a range of current government initiatives designed to increase their capacity to work inclusively in schools. The…

  16. Preparing Teachers to Teach Pupils with Special Educational Needs in More Inclusive Schools: Evaluating a PGCE Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Gill; Norwich, Brahm; Bayliss, Phil

    2005-01-01

    As we move towards a more inclusive education system in the UK, there is a real need to equip teachers to work in more diverse classrooms from the start of their teaching careers. In this article, Gill Golder, teaching and research fellow (physical education), Brahm Norwich, Professor of Educational Psychology and Special Educational Needs, and…

  17. Reviewing Special Education Teacher Preparation Field Experience Placements, Activities, and Research: Do We Know the Difference Maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.; deBettencourt, Laurie U.

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on what constitutes an ideal special education field experience, and it is not clear which components or activities within a field experience impact a teacher's growth to the greatest extent. Reviewing past research will assist in categorizing the components typically included in field experiences and may assist in…

  18. Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Altered States: Encouraging Preparation for Learning in the Classroom for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis

    2013-01-01

    In seeking to identify the processes associated with the immediate engagement of learning for students with mild special educational needs, this study examined the responses of an extraction group (n = 7) of 11- to 13-year-old students who participated in a number of lessons in which the opening episode involved the use of visualisation techniques…

  19. Bridging between Craft and Academic Knowledge: A Computer Supported, Problem-Based Learning Model for Professional Preparation in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Michael M.; English, Judy; Singer, George S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Project CASELINK, a project that uses a problem-based learning perspective to design and develop eight interactive multimedia modules on the Internet to augment introductory courses in special education anywhere in the nation. Addresses how and why interactive, multimedia, and distance-learning technologies are used. (Author/CR)

  20. Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Altered States: Encouraging Preparation for Learning in the Classroom for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis

    2013-01-01

    In seeking to identify the processes associated with the immediate engagement of learning for students with mild special educational needs, this study examined the responses of an extraction group (n = 7) of 11- to 13-year-old students who participated in a number of lessons in which the opening episode involved the use of visualisation techniques…

  1. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  2. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  3. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Scott R.; Viorica Marian; Anthony Shook; James Bartolotti

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined biling...

  4. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Bartolotti, James

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls) on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.

  5. Substratum, Adstratum, and Residual Bilingualism in Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsmore, Hugo Baetens

    1983-01-01

    Discusses residual bilingualism as a means of identifying the nature, quantity, and distribution of Dutch-origin elements in the speech of different users of French in Brussels. Observations on code switching in a community of monoglots, bilinguals, and immigrants help provide a frame of reference for similar complex bilingual contexts elsewhere.…

  6. A Computational Account of Bilingual Aphasia Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Grasemann, Uli; Sandberg, Chaleece; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Current research on bilingual aphasia highlights the paucity in recommendations for optimal rehabilitation for bilingual aphasic patients (Edmonds & Kiran, 2006; Roberts & Kiran, 2007). In this paper, we have developed a computational model to simulate an English-Spanish bilingual language system in which language representations can vary by age…

  7. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Schroeder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.

  8. A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

  9. Current Challenges in Bilingual Education in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W. Gwyn

    2008-01-01

    In Wales, bilingual education in Welsh and English has an increasingly high profile and Wales shares international leadership of bilingual education policies and practices alongside other countries where bilingual education flourishes. Ever since the first designated Welsh-medium primary school was opened in 1939, Welsh-medium and bilingual…

  10. Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…

  11. Interpretive Studies on Bilingual Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Horacio, Ed.

    This final report contains speeches on bilingualism given at conferences in San Antonio, Los Angeles, and Albuquerque. "Bilingualism and Socioculture", "Community Involvement Through Effective Use of Mass Media Communication", "In-Service Training", "Folklore", "Dialectic Education", and "What's the Score on Bilingual Education?" are reprinted in…

  12. Bilingualism and Creativity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Tovli, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the possible effect of bilingualism on creativity in nonmathematical and mathematical problem solving among bilingual and monolingual preschoolers. Two groups of children (M age = 71.9 months, SD = 3.6) from the same monolingual kindergartens participated in this study: 15 Russian/Hebrew balanced bilinguals and 16 native…

  13. Survey of Bilingualism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Lamond, Erin; Holden, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    This survey study investigates issues related to bilingualism and autism. Bilingualism is common around the world but there is little published information to guide professionals and parents in making decisions about bilingualism for children with autism. Participants were 49 parents or guardians of children with autism who were members of a…

  14. Degrees of Bilingualism in Otomi Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra, Yolanda

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on Otomi-Spanish bilingualism found in Mexico. Distinguishes different types f bilinguals and gives examples from bilingual speakers demonstrating how features apparent in their Spanish can be explained by Otomi structure. Also provides examples of Spanish loans and examples from Otomi texts where the grammar shows Spanish influence.…

  15. A Critical Foundation for Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew David; Rodriguez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we weave lived experiences, those of a bilingual social studies teacher at a middle school in a large city in the Southwestern US, with critical theory/pedagogy and bilingual education. The purpose of this paper is to present an articulation of the practice of critical pedagogy in a bilingual educational context principally under the…

  16. The Evolution of Bilingual Schools in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Christina; Day, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets out to provide a preliminary descriptive account of an important subsector of the Argentine education system: those schools locally known as "bilingual schools" or "colegios bilingues". As the authors will show, the label "bilingual" has, at times, been applied rather loosely to a number of…

  17. Beyond Panglossian Optimism: Larger N2 Amplitudes Probably Signal a Bilingual Disadvantage in Conflict Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Paap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue on the brain mechanisms that lead to cognitive benefits of bilingualism we discussed six reasons why it will be very difficult to discover those mechanisms. Many of these problems apply to the article by Fernandez, Acosta, Douglass, Doshi, and Tartar that also appears in the special issue. These concerns include the following: 1 an overly optimistic assessment of the replicability of bilingual advantages in behavioral studies, 2 reliance on risky small samples sizes, 3 failures to match the samples on demographic characteristics such as immigrant status, and 4 language group differences that occur in neural measures (i.e., N2 amplitude, but not in the behavioral data. Furthermore the N2 amplitude measure in general suffers from valence ambiguity: larger N2 amplitudes reported for bilinguals are more likely to reflect poorer conflict resolution rather than enhanced inhibitory control.

  18. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  19. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  20. Pulpal regeneration after cavity preparation, with special reference to close spatio-relationships between odontoblasts and immunocompetent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hayato; Nakakura-Ohshima, Kuniko; Takeuchi, Kiichi; Hoshino, Masaaki; Takano, Yoshiro; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2003-04-01

    The regeneration process of the odontoblast cell layer incident to tooth injury, especially its relationship with immunocompetent cells in pulp healing, has not been fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to clarify this relationship between odontoblasts and immunocompetent cells in the process of pulp regeneration following cavity preparation in rat molars by immunocytochemistry for heat shock protein (Hsp) 25 as well as class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. In untreated control teeth, intense Hsp 25-immunoreactivity was found in the cell bodies of odontoblasts and their processes within the predentin, whereas class II MHC-positive cells were predominantly located beneath the odontoblast cell layer. Cavity preparation caused the destruction of the odontoblast layer to form an edematous lesion and the shift of class II MHC-positive cells with the injured odontoblasts toward the pulp core at the affected site. Some damaged odontoblasts without apparent cytoplasmic processes, round in profile, retained the immunoreactivity for Hsp25, suggesting the survival of a part of the odontoblasts against artificial external stimuli. Twelve hours after cavity preparation, numerous class II MHC-positive cells appeared along the pulp-dentin border and extended their processes deep into the exposed dentinal tubules. By postoperative 72 hours, newly differentiated odontoblasts with Hsp 25-immunoreactivity were arranged at the pulp-dentin border, but the class II MHC-positive cells moved from the pulp-dentin border to the subodontoblastic layer. These findings indicate that the time course of changes in the expression of Hsp 25-immunoreactivity reflects the regeneration process of odontoblasts. The functional roles of Hsp 25-positive odontoblasts and immunocompetent cells such as class II MHC-positive cells in the process of pulp regeneration after cavity preparation are discussed in conjunction with our previous experimental data.

  1. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia; Place, Silvia; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa; Parra, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1 ; 10 to 2 ; 6. The monolingually developing children were significantly more advanced than the bilingually developing children on measures of both vocabulary and grammar in single language comparisons, but they were comparable on a measure of total vocabulary. Within the bilingually developing sample, all measures of vocabulary and grammar were related to the relative amount of input in that language. Implications for theories of language acquisition and for understanding bilingual development are discussed.

  2. Understanding the Impact of Special Preparation for Admissions Tests. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-12-02. ETS Research Report No. RR-12-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Special preparation for tests has been a relatively contentious issue. The controversy has entailed (a) disagreement over the effectiveness of such preparation, (b) concern over unequal access to it, and (c) worries about its impact on the validity of test scores. This paper provides a brief history of ETS's involvement with, and contribution to,…

  3. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

  4. Translating Politeness in Bilingual English-Spanish Business Correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes Olivera, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    ' business-language competence does not enable them to express the right level of politeness. Bilingual dictionaries should offer a systematic treatment of cultural and genre-specific means of expressing politeness in contrastive, informative texts showing the specific uses of politeness in business......Politeness is an important element in interlingual business communication. Translators uae bilingual dictionaries as tools helping them in business discourse across cultures, but dictionaries do not contain the relevant pragmatic information. The functions of dictionaries are used to determine...... which pragmatic information types are needed when translating business letters. The analysis focuses on a Spanish-English business dictionary and its treatment of politeness in special sections dealing with business correspondence. The findings show that the treatment is insufficient, because users...

  5. Phonological development in young bilinguals: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children.

  6. Determinants of Bilingualism among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Gindelsky, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of bilingualism (i.e., speaks a language other than English at home) among children age 5 to 18 years in the American Community Survey, 2005-2011. Two groups of children are considered: those born in the US (native born) and foreign-born children who immigrated prior to age 14 (the 1.5 generation). The analyses are conducted overall, within genders, and within racial and ethnic groups. Bilingualism is more prevalent if the parents are foreign born, less pr...

  7. Access to opportunities for bilingualism for individuals with developmental disabilities: Key informant interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual

  8. Access to opportunities for bilingualism for individuals with developmental disabilities: Key informant interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual opp

  9. Making Bilingualism Work: Developments in Bilingual Education in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakir, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Systems of bilingual education in three neighboring countries, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam are examined in an attempt to understand basic issues. These are all Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries that fall into the category of Small Young Countries as discussed in Pakir (1992a). (Contains 43 references.) (JL)

  10. Graphic Arts. A Bilingual Text = Artes Graficas. Un Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in graphic arts. Addressed in the individual sections are basic graphic arts (composition, stone and press work, offset printing, silk screen, and photography) and allied graphic…

  11. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  12. Seccion Bilingue (Bilingual Section): GCSE Business Studies through Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, Salvador; Feltham, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of the bilingual section established in a modular business studies course taught in Spanish and designed to integrate the themes of "business" and "information studies" within a single subject. The teachers were expert in the subject studied and the language concerned, and the students had an adequate…

  13. Un vocabulaire juridique bilingue canadien (A Canadian Bilingual Legal Vocabulary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauziere, Lucie

    1979-01-01

    Describes a project called JURIVOC which sought to deal with the problem of a duality of language and a duality in legal systems in Canada. The development of a bilingual lexicon is discussed, and an example is given of the classic language/legal system duality in Canadian law. (AM)

  14. Graphic Arts. A Bilingual Text = Artes Graficas. Un Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in graphic arts. Addressed in the individual sections are basic graphic arts (composition, stone and press work, offset printing, silk screen, and photography) and allied graphic…

  15. Drafting. A Bilingual Text = Dibujo Mecanico. Un Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in drafting. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: safety, drafting tools and techniques, sketching, geometric construction, working drawings, sectioning,…

  16. Drafting. A Bilingual Text = Dibujo Mecanico. Un Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in drafting. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: safety, drafting tools and techniques, sketching, geometric construction, working drawings, sectioning,…

  17. Atomic force microscopy for the study of specially prepared surfaces including transferred Langmuir-Blodgett layers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. J. D. Miller

    1999-06-02

    During the past four years a major number of surface science research programs in the Department of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah have involved the use of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film balance procured with financial assistance from DOE under grant number DE-FG03-96ER76049. These instruments have been used for research in the areas of nonsulfide flotation chemistry, mineral processing, waste paper deinking, water treatment, treatment of contaminated soil, coal preparation, and plastics recycling. In addition, the AFM and LB film balance have been of great help to university researchers in other departments at the University of Utah and elsewhere, as well as researchers from industry.

  18. Preparation of waterproof OSL dosimeters from hygroscopic materials with a special reference to NaCl:Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Kumar, Munish; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) originally developed for geological/archaeological dating, has been found very useful for diverse applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. There is still a scarcity of OSL materials with demonstrated properties suited to dosimetry applications. Progress on the development of OSL materials with engineered properties has been slow and most research has focused on the OSL characterization of existing materials. One of the reasons for availability of only a handful of OSL dosimetry materials with adequate properties is that they have to satisfy certain stringent conditions necessary for such applications. Especially, hygroscopic materials are considered totally unsuitable. The efforts were made in our laboratory to overcome this problem. It is shown here that "water-proof" dosimeters can be prepared from even hygroscopic materials such as NaCl.

  19. Special physical preparation of athletes in motor sport during testing methods basic training level of preparedness for competitive athlete load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednychenko M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.

  20. The Effect of Eight Weeks of High Intensive Special Preparation on Selected Biomechanical and Anthropometrical Parameters in Young Elite Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Naserpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of high intensive exercise on selected biomechanical and anthropometrical variables in elite wrestlers. Methods: Sixteen young wrestlers (age 19.1±1 years and weight 74.9±17.3 kg attending the national Greco-Roman camps participated in this study. Biomechanical and anthropometrical variables included weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, balance, general body speed and acceleration, active range of motion of the joints, upper and lower extremities power and hand grip strength. These variables were measured before and after 8 weeks (67 sessions of special exercise training. The normality of data was checked by Kolmogorov- Smirnov normality measure and data were analyzed with Paired- samples t-test to compare variables before and after training program, with a significance level of (P≤0.05. Results: Results showed that there were significant differences between weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, semi-dynamic balance in the medial and anterior-medial directions, upper extremities power, the range of lateral flexion to the right of the neck and hip flexion of pre and post-test. Conclusion: Based on the results, it seems that applied training program had main effect on biomechanical and anthropometrical variables such as weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, power, balance and active range of motion of elite wrestlers that will increase the qualitative athletic performance

  1. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  2. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  3. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  4. What is special about L3 processing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cornelis L. J. (Kees); Jaensch, Carol

    2015-01-01

    While research on third language (L3) and multilingualism has recently shown remarkable growth, the fundamental question of what makes trilingualism special compared to bilingualism, and indeed monolingualism, continues to be evaded. In this contribution we consider whether there is such a thing as

  5. Self-Determination and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Rodrigue; Allard, Real; Deveau, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on additive bilingualism for minority group children, more specifically the development of strong literacy skills in English and in the children's language. The personal autonomization language learning (PALL) model is presented. It specifies eight testable hypotheses. Self-determination theory (SDT) is central in the PALL…

  6. STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONE, KEMP

    A STRUCTURAL, LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DESCRIBED. DETAILED DISCUSSIONS WERE INCLUDED FOR USES OF MORPHEMES, MORPHEMIC SEQUENCES, PHONEMES, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS, AND ALLOPHONES. THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF 13 PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960. (GC)

  7. SOME NOTES ON BILINGUAL LEXICOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARRELL, RICHARD S.

    BASIC PROBLEMS IN THE COMPOSITION OF BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WERE DISCUSSED, INCLUDING (1) DETERMINING USER-GROUPS FOR WHOM A DICTIONARY IS INTENDED, (2) INDICATING MULTIPLE SEMANTIC MEANINGS, AND (3) COMPILING A DICTIONARY FOR USER-GROUPS WHO AIM AT EXPRESSING THEMSELVES IN A LANGUAGE AS WELL AS COMPREHENDING IT. FURTHER DISCUSSIONS DEALT WITH…

  8. Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Jose Valencia; Iragui, Jasone Cenoz

    A study investigated the role of bilingualism (Basque/Spanish) and motivation in third (English) language acquisition in Spain's Basque country. Subjects were 321 secondary school students in two programs, one with instruction primarily in Spanish and one with instruction primarily in Basque. The following independent variables were analyzed in…

  9. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eBurfin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience –i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood– affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants’ languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV and audio-only (A conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically deaf and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  10. Parent Questionnaire on Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineland School District, NJ.

    This document provides a questionnaire to be used to determine the attitudes and influence of parents who have children in bilingual education programs. Thirty seven questions are listed, covering such factors as family background, language usage at home, and aspirations for the education of the children. Techniques for administering the…

  11. Gestalt Psychology and Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Bob; And Others

    Several concepts detailed in Gestalt psychology/therapy appear to have a close relationship with many concepts being applied in bilingual education. The primary contribution of Gestalt psychology to learning theory in the U.S. is an emphasis on perception and reintegration of relationships within an organized whole. To the teacher this means that…

  12. Bilingual Education and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…

  13. Bilingualism: A Bridge to Cosmopolitanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Raúl A.; Golovátina-Mora, Polina

    2011-01-01

    The literature in English education has discussed at length the proposed goals of English as a tool for international communication, diversity, and the mutual sharing of cultures. In Colombia, different policies have aimed at making "bilingualism" a policy and educational priority that wants to help Colombian students turn these goals…

  14. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  15. Dyslexia and Hyperlexia in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesha Joshi, R.; Padakannaya, Prakash; Nishanimath, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the nature of reading difficulties of two bilinguals in Kannada and English, which vary in their orthographic depth and script layout. VN and MS manifest two different types of reading disabilities, dyslexia and hyperlexia, respectively. The performance of VN was below average on Kannada and English tests of phonemic awareness,…

  16. Bilingual Newspapers, Newsletters, and Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bilingual Resource Center.

    This booklet presents a list of 34 Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States and Latin America, 23 newsletters with information in the field of bilingual education, and 42 magazines published in Spanish and available in the U.S. Information includes the name of the publication, the city or country of origin, the address of the…

  17. Issues in Portuguese Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Donaldo P., Ed.

    The following articles are included: (1) "Bilingual-Bicultural Education for Portuguese-Americans: An Overview" (Nelson H. Vieira); (2) "Minority Status for the Portuguese: Its Implication in Higher Education" (Gilbert R. Cavaco); (3) "The Luso-American Limbo: Closer to Heaven or Hell?" (Ana M. Fonseca); (4)…

  18. Bilingualism and the ESL Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Research Studies reveal that the development of native language proficiency and full bilingualism enhances rather than impedes the education and personal development of minority children. Teachers of language and all subjects should cooperate in promoting native language proficiency and encouraging its use at home. (PMJ)

  19. Optimization in Bilingual Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rakesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Pieter Muysken's keynote paper, "Language contact outcomes as a result of bilingual optimization strategies", undertakes an ambitious project to theoretically unify different empirical outcomes of language contact, for instance, SLA, pidgins and Creoles, and code-switching. Muysken has dedicated a life-time to researching, rather…

  20. Chemical Preparation of Beta Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Granules with a Special Particle Size as Bone Graft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sargolzaie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beta calcium sulfate hemihydrate (BCSH, which is commonly known as “Gypsum plaster” has long been used as bone graft material because of its excellent biocompatibility and the ability for bone regeneration. Several methods have been used for the preparation of BCSH, including heat treatment of calcium sulfate dihydrate with water, application of inorganic acids or condensed inorganic salt solutions under high or atmospheric pressure. As a bone graft, it is preferred that the BCSH powder has a granular form for the purpose of manipulation, bio-mechanical properties and ease of injection. Methods: For this study granules of BCSH in the size of 500 to 700 micrometers were manufactured and sterilized using gamma ray. For assessing the regeneration of thismaterial, six rabbits were selected and granules were injected in the bone defects that were made using diamond bur in their skull under general anesthesia. Biopsies for histological evaluations were done 3, 6, 9, 12, 14 and 16 months following surgery. Results: At the third month time-point, remodeling of the BCSH was evident, and complete newly formed bone was seen in the region of the defect. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that BCSH had a good biocompatibility without inducing an inflammatory response and promoted bone healing.

  1. The Benefits of Being Bilingual: Working Memory in Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; Küntay, A.C.; Messer, M.H.; Verhagen, J.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whether bilingual children outperform monolingual children on visuospatial and verbal working memory tests was investigated. In addition, relations among bilingual proficiency, language use at home, and working memory were explored. The bilingual Turkish–Dutch children (n = 68) in this study were ra

  2. Bilingual Identity Negotiation in Practice: Teacher Pedagogy and Classroom Interaction in a Bilingual Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how teachers in a bilingual education programme see their pedagogies and interactions influencing student connection to the languages of the bilingual programme. The teacher perception of the classroom is explored because the classroom is one of the principal settings in which the students negotiate their bilingual identities.…

  3. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  4. Bilingual Gestures: The "Manual" Way of Informing the Notion of "Balanced Bilinguals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermann, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Defining what makes a person bilingual is notoriously difficult and dependent on various factors like fluency, age of acquisition, and situational context, among others. The notion of a "balanced bilingual" is even more elusive and fraught with limitations regarding the proper assessment and linguistic profiling of bilinguals, leading to…

  5. Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and…

  6. Connecting the Present to the Past: Furthering the Research on Bilingual Education and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Doris Luft; Basaraba, Deni Lee; Polanco, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this chapter review empirical studies that have been conducted in bilingual education to propose a future research agenda that incorporates the most recent evidence on the effectiveness of bilingual programs, advances in neuroscience, and the body of evidence of the benefits of being bilingual and biliterate. They first describe the…

  7. Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs: Toward a More Inclusive Agenda in Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2001-01-01

    Examines essential components of quality two-way bilingual immersion programs. Discusses language acquisition research underlying context-embedded content-area instruction in a second language; research on the benefits of bilingualism in terms of academic, cognitive, and metalinguistic development; and the link between bilingualism and positive…

  8. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. The article also explores whether the inconsistent findings can be attributed to differences in study designs or the definitions of bilingualism used between studies. Based on current evidence, it appears that lifelong bilingualism, where individuals frequently use both languages, may be protective against dementia. However, becoming bilingual in adulthood or using the second language infrequently is unlikely to substantially delay onset of the disease.

  9. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protection. PMID:21910523

  10. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protec...

  11. Bilingualism: Consequences for Mind and Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children’s cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that bilingualism has a somewhat muted effect in adulthood but a larger role in older age, protecting against cognitive decline, a concept known as “cognitive reserve”. We discuss...

  12. Web-based Digital Lexicographic Bilingual Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa Dutsova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Web-based Digital Lexicographic Bilingual Resources The paper presents briefly a web-based system for creation and management of bilingual resources with Bulgarian as one of the paired language. This is useful and easy to use tool for collection and management of a large amount of different linguistic knowledge. The system uses two sets of natural language data: bilingual dictionary and aligned text corpora

  13. Research on Bilingual Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that bilingual educaiton, as a new way in teaching, has attracted much attention in China for several years. This language policy gains praises from supporters but also causes lots of controversies with its relevant limitations. The pres⁃ent paper provides a brief review of the broad historical development of bilingual education in China, analyzes the unsolved prob⁃lems and offers some recommendations for bilingual education to make it develop more smoothly and successfully.

  14. Reshaping the mind: the benefits of bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer's disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protection.

  15. On Bilingual Education in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明勇

    2009-01-01

    This paper will first review the general theory of bilingual education and then discuss bilingual practice in Chinese universities. The necessity of carrying out bilingual education will be particularly dealt with in this paper. The current situation in this field in Chinese universi-ties will be analyzed, namely, what has been achieved so far and what difficulties we are confronting. Solutions will be proposed and the future trend will be predicted.

  16. 双语教学准备工作中的“慢即快、少即多”%On the Two Points in the Preparation for Bilingual Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永军; 张香兰

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary for the college teachers to speak English fluently in bilingual teaching. Meanwhile, the abilities of listen-ing,speaking,reading,writing and translating in English,are also required. This paper provides an efficient way to obtain these five abilities.Listening magnetic tapes word by word,writing down what you have heard and speaking these sentences as loudly, quickly and clearly as possible are effective ways to crack English.%高校双语教学对任课教师外语的“听、说、读、写、译”五项能力提出了较高要求,如何提高双语教学准备工作的效率,出色完成双语教学任务?本文结合个人双语教学的经历,提出了一套从听、读入手的学习方法,以期达到提高双语教学能力、提高双语教学准备工作效率的目的。

  17. Bilingualism: theoretical perspectives of language diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbart, C L

    1992-01-01

    Bilingualism and second language acquisition are discussed with reference to different theoretical perspectives. An integrated definition of bilingualism is provided and concepts underlying second language acquisition are presented. Theoretical perspectives according to Dodson (1985), Skinner (1985) and Krashen (1982) are explored. It is concluded that due to the diverse nature of bilingualism, a single universal theory of second language acquisition does not seem feasible. The need for an increased awareness of the complexity of bilingualism and second language acquisition, particularly within the multicultural and multilingual South African context, is highlighted.

  18. Planned Alternation of Languages (PAL): Language Use and Distribution in Bilingual Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Migdalia; Parrino, Angela

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief discussion of legal and academic statements on mandatory bilingual education and mainstreaming, three models of the Planned Alternation of Languages (PAL) approach are described as a way to prepare students for mainstreaming. PAL allows for both languages to have feasible functions and support learners through acquisition of…

  19. Methods and Beyond: Learning to Teach Latino Bilingual Learners in Mainstream Secondary[superscript3] Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall-Leckrone, Laura; Pavlak, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports empirical evidence about the influence of a pre-service methods course on preparing aspiring and practicing content teachers to work with adolescent bilingual learners in secondary schools. Qualitative methods were used to analyze the extent to which participants developed abilities to plan instruction and to think complexly…

  20. Using Consultation to Support English Learners: The Experiences of Bilingual School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2016-01-01

    Through semi-structured interviews, this study explored 11 bilingual school psychologists' (BSPs) consultation experiences with teachers of English learners (EL) to determine referral concerns, recommendations made, challenges encountered, preparation experiences, and skills most needed. The most common referral issue concerned students' academic…

  1. Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Genesee, Fred; Crago, Martha B.

    2011-01-01

    As more and more dual language learners enter the school system, now is the ideal time for this second edition of the bestselling textbook--essential for preparing speech language pathologists (SLPs) and educators to work with young children who are bilingual or learning a second language. This comprehensive, student-friendly text takes the…

  2. Issues and principles in service delivery to communicatively impaired minority bilingual adults in neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José G

    2009-08-01

    Demographic and epidemiological trends coupled with health-care needs in minority populations highlight the imperative need to develop effective, culturally appropriate clinical approaches for minority adults with communication impairments. The steady increase in linguistic and cultural diversity in the country includes a large number of bilingual adults, which is estimated to continue. Because strokes are quite prevalent in racial/ethnic minorities, the number of bilingual adults with acquired communication disorders will similarly increase. However, members of minority groups presently confront disparities in health-care services compared with the general population that translates into reduced health outcomes. This article discusses the current clinical needs and complexities in service delivery to communicatively impaired minority adults, with a special focus on bilingual adults with aphasia.

  3. A Window into Bilingual Reading: The Bilingual Reading Practices of Fourth-Grade, Mexican American Children Who Are Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Georgia Earnest; Godina, Heriberto

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative think-aloud study, informed by social literacies and holistic bilingual perspectives, was conducted to examine how six emergent bilingual, Mexican American, fourth graders approached, interacted with, and comprehended narrative and expository texts in Spanish and English. The children had strong Spanish reading test scores, but…

  4. Preparation and Application of Special Silicon Mullite Brick for Cement Kiln%水泥窑用特种硅莫砖的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振英; 姚峰

    2012-01-01

    以高铝矾土熟料、90碳化硅、棕刚玉为主要原料,添加红柱石粉、广西白泥等外加剂,通过合理的颗粒级配,采用高压成型、高温烧成等方法,制备出水泥窑用特种硅莫砖,并研究了烧成后试样的体积密度、气孔率、强度、微观结构和耐磨性.结果表明:添加6%红柱石粉在1420℃制备的硅莫砖的性能最优,其体积密度为2.74 g/cm3,抗热震性30次,磨损量为1.06 cm3,热导率为1.65 W/(m·K),耐压强度高达159 MPa,在5000 t/d水泥回转窑过渡带上使用该产品,寿命可达一年以上,这是由于窑简体外表面温度比使用镁尖晶石砖平均降低80℃以上,极为有效地延长了该砖衬的使用寿命.%Special silicon mullite brick for cement kiln was prepared by the production technology of proper particle size grading,high pressure pressing and high temperature sintering using bauxite clinke,90 silicon carbide and brown alundum as raw materials, and andalusite powder and guangxi white clay as additives. The bulk density, apparent porosity, strength, microstructure and abrasion resistance of the sintered materials were investigated. The results showed that the sample sintered at 1420 t whose andalusite powder content was 6% was of good properties on bulk density of 2. 74 g/cm3, thermal conductivity of 1.65 W/ ( m · K ) , thermal shock resistance of 30 times, abrasion volume loss of 1.06 cm3 and compressive strength of 159 Mpa. When the brick were used in the transition zone of cement kiln,the service life of it was more than a year and a half .which was due to the cement kiln surface temperature of special silicon mullite brick was lower (average decreasing 80 X.) than that of magnesium spinel brick and the service life of special silicon mullite brick was prolonged effectively.

  5. [Problems of bilinguism in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, S; Müller, C

    1978-01-01

    The authors have attempted an introductory study of problems which are inherent to psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and psychoanalysis conducted in the second language of a bilingual therapist. This situation seems to be more complex than is usually admitted in current literature. The main problem encountered by the authors in their personal practice stems from the fact that the process of identification becomes complex when the therapist is confronted with regressive and/or progressive shifts in the course of the treatment.

  6. Profiling dyslexia in bilingual adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Christina

    2012-12-01

    This article addresses the issue of whether difficulties with reading and writing in a second language learner stem from developmental dyslexia or from issues associated with second language acquisition. In line with a phonological explanatory model of dyslexia, phonological processing and reading (decoding at both word and text levels) were tested, using data from 10 Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents whose teachers had identified them as possibly having dyslectic difficulties, and a matched comparison group of 10 Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents with no reading difficulties. Unlike previous studies, this analysis takes into account results from both languages and uses a matched bilingual comparison group as the norm. Based on these results, a bilingual dyslexia continuum is proposed as an analytical tool to be used for the assessment of developmental dyslexia from a bilingual perspective. The systematized continuum offers various degrees of difficulty -from high indications of dyslexia to no indications of dyslexia-and the positioning along this continuum by the target group participants of this study provides examples of both over- and under-identification of dyslexia. Overall, a greater number of participants in the target group were under-identified rather than over-identified by the schools. An important insight of this study is that the positioning of bilingual participants on the continuum would have been different if the analysis had taken only one of the two languages into account. Furthermore, possible effects from differences between Spanish and Swedish orthographies and syllable structure were observed, as, in general, the participants read more accurately in Spanish. The present data also suggest that decoding processing might vary more in second-language learners with dyslexia compared to monolingual individuals with dyslexia.

  7. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Siegal; Luca Surian; Ayumi Matsuo; Alessandra Geraci; Laura Iozzi; Yuko Okumura; Shoji Itakura

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be...

  8. The effects of bilingualism on children's perception of speech sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasileiro, I.

    2009-01-01

    The general topic addressed by this dissertation is that of bilingualism, and more specifically, the topic of bilingual acquisition of speech sounds. The central question in this study is the following: does bilingualism affect children’s perceptual development of speech sounds? The term bilingual i

  9. Perceptions of an Anticipated Bilingual Education Program in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozfidan, Burhan; Burlbaw, Lynn; Kuo, Li-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual education is globally an important aspect within the educational community in recent years. The purpose of the study is to explore perceptions towards a bilingual education program and investigate factors that may affect the development of a bilingual education program in Turkey. This study also identifies the benefits of bilingualism in…

  10. An Analysis on the Differentiation between Diglossia and Bilingualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2014-01-01

    Despite a hot and sensitive topic in China, the practice and education of bilingualism has been misunderstood in some areas because people have little sense of it. This paper is to differentiate the diglossia and the bilingualism to make it clear that it is important and necessary to put into practice the bilingualism and bilingual education in parts of China.

  11. Discourses on Bilingualism in Canadian French Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Galiev, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines discourses on bilingualism in French immersion schools and connects local ideologies of bilingualism to a more global view of what it means to be bilingual in Canada. Bilingualism is usually regarded as two isolated monolingualisms (or monolingual systems) in which there is no place for code-switching, uneven language…

  12. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  13. Bilingual Children's Reflections on Writing and Diglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of the development of metalinguistic consciousness examines bilingual children's perceptions of language contact in a situation of marked social imbalance between their first and second languages. The exploratory investigation focused on how school-age bilinguals view written forms in Spanish and Nahuatl. Forty-five Spanish/Nahuatl…

  14. Bilingual Language Proficiency : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-01-01

    his book investigates the role native language plays in the process of acquiring a second language within a bilingual educational model. The research presented is based on a 2 year longitudinal study of students in a bilingual school. Particular attention is paid to the development of academic

  15. Bilingualism and Enhanced Attention in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated executive attention during nonverbal and verbal processing among adults with a range of bilingual experience. Previous research has found that bilingual children control their attention better than their monolingual peers and that superior attentional control in some processing contexts persists into adulthood…

  16. Musical Expertise, Bilingualism, and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; DePape, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether intensive musical experience leads to enhancements in executive processing, as has been shown for bilingualism. Young adults who were bilinguals, musical performers (instrumentalists or vocalists), or neither completed 3 cognitive measures and 2 executive function tasks based on conflict. Both executive function…

  17. Lexical Aspects of Standard Dialect Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Uses Weinreich's (1953) partition of bilingualism to describe the effects of a small typological distance on the organization of the bilingual lexicon. Using standard Dutch and the dialect of Maastricht, subjects performed an auditory lexical decision task. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  18. How Does Pragmatic Competence Develop in Bilinguals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss how the emerging new language with its own developing socio-cultural foundation affects the existing L1-governed knowledge and pragmatic competence of "adult sequential bilinguals." It is assumed that these bilinguals already have an L1-governed pragmatic competence at place, which will be adjusted to…

  19. Bilingual Children's Reflections on Writing and Diglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of the development of metalinguistic consciousness examines bilingual children's perceptions of language contact in a situation of marked social imbalance between their first and second languages. The exploratory investigation focused on how school-age bilinguals view written forms in Spanish and Nahuatl. Forty-five Spanish/Nahuatl…

  20. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  1. A Management Engineered System for Bilingual Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Robert; Tinajero, Josefina

    The model shows how the essential components of a bilingual instructional setting can be interwoven with the concepts espoused in Management Engineered Teacher Education to provide a systems example that is adaptable to any classroom by the bilingual teacher. Implementation of the system begins with an assessment of the child's language…

  2. Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…

  3. Translanguaging and the Writing of Bilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Patricia; García, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    This article makes the case for using translanguaging in developing the academic writing of bilinguals. It reviews the emerging literature on learning and teaching theories of translanguaging and presents theoretical understandings of biliteracy development and specifically on the teaching of writing to bilingual learners. The article analyzes…

  4. Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students' communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design…

  5. Working with Bilingual Learners: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a theoretical overview of bilingualism and discuss the key concepts and theories that inform classroom pedagogy with bilingual learners. Although some specific classroom strategies are introduced, the primary purpose is not to offer strategies, but rather to offer guiding principles based on theory and research to…

  6. Bilingualism--A Sanguine Step in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism can be used as a teaching aid in teaching and learning English language in an Indian classroom and to improve the language accuracy, fluency, and clarity of learners. Bilingualism can aid the teaching and learning process productively in the classroom. In India, most of the students consider English as a subject rather than a tool of…

  7. Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

  8. Bilingual Picture Books: Libros Para Todos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of including bilingual English/Spanish picture books in library collections, introduces some recent titles, and describes some programming ideas. Topics include second language study, children teaching English to Spanish-speaking parents, cultural studies, and bilingual presentations. (LRW)

  9. Dual Language Exposure and Early Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erifka; Core, Cynthia; Place, Silvia; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa; Parra, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1 ; 10 to 2 ; 6. The monolingually developing children were significantly…

  10. Bilingualism as a Kind of Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulk, Aafke; Unsworth, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In her very interesting Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis gives a clear overview of recent research at the interface of bilingual development and child language disorders, and highlights its theoretical and clinical implications. She raises the challenging question of "whether bilingualism can be viewed as a kind of "therapy" for SLI." At first…

  11. Bilingualism as a kind of therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulk, A.; Unsworth, S.

    2010-01-01

    In her very interesting Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis gives a clear overview of recent research at the interface of bilingual development and child language disorders, and highlights its theoretical and clinical implications. She raises the challenging question of "whether bilingualism can be vie

  12. Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozione da definire (Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction, Total Immersion: Four Notions Needing To Be Defined).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Paolo E.

    1998-01-01

    This article suggests that the terms "bilingual education, multicultural education, bilingual instruction, and total immersion" refer to four distinct processes, each needing to be defined more clearly. To define them, a theoretical framework is proposed based on two sets of variables. The first set integrates the anthropological model of human…

  13. Early Bilingualism, Language Transfer, and Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between early bilingualism and phonological awareness in a sample of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual kindergarten children living in The Netherlands. In a longitudinal design, the children's first (L1) and second (L2) language abilities were measured at the beginning and end of…

  14. Bilingualism as a Kind of Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulk, Aafke; Unsworth, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In her very interesting Keynote Article, Johanne Paradis gives a clear overview of recent research at the interface of bilingual development and child language disorders, and highlights its theoretical and clinical implications. She raises the challenging question of "whether bilingualism can be viewed as a kind of "therapy" for SLI." At first…

  15. Application, preparation, and characterization of magnesium carbonate with special morphology%特殊形貌碳酸镁用途、制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 郑东; 杨小波; 贡胜军; 孙淑英; 宋兴福; 于建国

    2011-01-01

    碳酸镁大致可分为水合碳酸镁和碱式碳酸镁,是制备镁盐系列产品的重要原料.随着镁质材料的开发,功能化特殊形貌碳酸镁必将是一个重要发展方向.相转移过程贯穿于碳酸镁合成过程中,不同晶型和形貌的碳酸镁可以通过控制相转移过程获得.不同的反应条件和操作方式决定了相转移的热力学基础和动力学过程.棒状/针状三水碳酸镁可在较低温度下得到;碱式碳酸镁是纳米片状晶体的组装体,合成条件影响其外在形貌.较详细介绍了碳酸镁的用途及制备方法和制备碳酸镁过程中的相转移过程,最后对碳酸镁的表征手段予以介绍.%Magnesium carbonate which can be classed into magnesium carbonate hydrates and basic magnesium carbonates is an important raw material for preparing series magnesium-salt products. With the development of magnesia materials, the development of functional magnesium carbonates with special morphologies is bound to be an important direction. Phase transfer runs through the magnesium carbonate synthesis process. Magnesium carbonates with different crystal forms and morphologies can be obtained by controlling the phase transfer process. Different reaction conditions and operation modes determine the thermodynamics foundation and the kinetics process of phase transfer. Rod/needle-like nesquehonite can be obtained at lower temperature; basic magnesium carbonate is a assembly of nano-sized sheet-like crystals and synthesis conditions affect its morphologies. The uses and preparation methods of magnesium carbonate, as well as the phase transfer process during its preparation were described in detail. At last some means of characterization for magnesium carbonate were introduced.

  16. Progress in preparation of special paraffin wax emulsion and its application%特种乳化石蜡的制备及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金; 陈文艺; 曹月坤; 胡丹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了我国石蜡生产现状及石蜡乳化方法,并根据我国石蜡乳化工艺现状,总结了特种乳化石蜡制备工艺环节影响因素及最佳操作条件.立足于我国石蜡市场现状,综述了特种乳化石蜡在汽车制造业、农业、陶瓷工业等行业中的用途及其发展路线和市场前景.%This article introduced production status and emulsifying methods of paraffin wax in our country,reviewed the influencing factors of the emulsion preparation process and the optimum operation conditions. And based on paraffin wax market current situation at home, this paper summarized the application of special emulsification paraffin wax in the automobile manufacturing industry, agriculture and the ceramic industry,also pointed out its development routes and market prospect.

  17. L'education bilingue: Pour quoi faire? (Bilingual Education: For What Purpose?). Cahiers du CMIEB, Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Charlotte, Ed.

    This issue contains five articles on aspects of bilingualism and bilingual education, as well as documentation on the "Centre Mondial d'Information sur l'Education Bilingue" (CMIEB). The introductory article presents reasons for being able to communicate in more than one language in the world as it is today, and proposes that bilingual education…

  18. L'education bilingue: Pour quoi faire? (Bilingual Education: For What Purpose?). Cahiers du CMIEB, Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Charlotte, Ed.

    This issue contains five articles on aspects of bilingualism and bilingual education, as well as documentation on the "Centre Mondial d'Information sur l'Education Bilingue" (CMIEB). The introductory article presents reasons for being able to communicate in more than one language in the world as it is today, and proposes that bilingual education…

  19. Bilingual education in Slovakia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pokrivčáková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual education is one of the areas in contemporary education that brings out some important controversies (philosophical, conceptual, sociological, political, economical, etc. and thus calls for extensive and intensive debate. Bilingual education in Europe (and here the European Union countries are meant has gained a very different status, due to the general European policy of developing language diversity and promoting “European plurilingualism and multilingualism”. In Slovakia, one of the younger members of the EU, bilingual education became an extraordinarily popular instrument for the fulfilment of this task.  Since the specifically defined topic of bilingual education and its current status in Slovakia has not been studied and systematically reviewed yet, the research presented in this paper was designed as a single-phenomenon revelatory case study investigating seven research areas: reflection of bilingual education in school legislation and state pedagogical documents, purposes of bilingual education in Slovakia, its organization (levels and types of schools, foreign languages incorporated, teachers, structure of bilingual schools curricula, types of bilingual education applied at Slovak bilingual schools, and how bilingual education is both reflected in and saturated by the latest research findings. The conclusions presented in the paper were collected from multiple sources: state curriculum, statistical data published by the Slovak Ministry of Education or its partner institutions, international treaties on establishing and supporting bilingual sections of schools, bilingual schools curricula, interviews with school directors, teachers, and learners, direct observations at bilingual schools, research studies and research reports, etc. In the conclusion, bilingual education in Slovakia is identified as a unique, dynamically developing system which is both significantly shaped by the foreign language education policy promoted by

  20. Bilingualism: Consequences for Mind and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children’s cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that bilingualism has a somewhat muted effect in adulthood but a larger role in older age, protecting against cognitive decline, a concept known as “cognitive reserve”. We discuss recent evidence that bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of symptoms of dementia. Cognitive reserve is a crucial research area in the context of an aging population; the possibility that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve is therefore of growing importance as populations become increasingly diverse. PMID:22464592

  1. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto; Filippi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Luk, Gigi

    2012-04-01

    Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children's cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that bilingualism has a somewhat muted effect in adulthood but a larger role in older age, protecting against cognitive decline, a concept known as 'cognitive reserve'. We discuss recent evidence that bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of symptoms of dementia. Cognitive reserve is a crucial research area in the context of an aging population; the possibility that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve is therefore of growing importance as populations become increasingly diverse.

  3. Constellation of languages in multicultural space (to the problem of formation of active bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiryanov K. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern world is multicultural and multilingual, it creates difficulties for the mutual contacts of the nations with different languages. The problem of overcoming the language barrier in a multilingual world is urgent. One of the best ways to solve this problem is bilingualism: possession of two languages, a native and a second one, generally intermediate language. The choice of the intermediate language is determined by socio-political and socio-economic conditions of contacting people. In a multinational state official language of the country serves as an intermediate language. In the multi-ethnic Russian Federation, Russian language chosen as the intermediate language, by which representatives of different nationalities come into contact with each other. National-Russian bilingualism in the Russian Federation has become a mass phenomenon: all non-Russian population in varying degrees is fluent in Russian language. Further improvement of bilingualism at the present stage is solved in the new format - as an active bilingualism. In an active and harmonious bilingualism, languages distribute responsibilities among themselves: native language and intermediate language perform different public functions and the number of functions is usually not equal, one language performs more functions than the other does. It depends on the status of the language: the higher the status of the language, the more reason a speaker has for its extensive use in different areas of communication. Harmonious bilingualism helps to keep the national identity of each language and makes it possible to operate each of them on an equal footing in a multicultural space. Among the many politically and legally equal languages of the Russian Federation, a special place belongs to the Russian language: it performs a consolidating function, combines the languages of the nations of Great Russia into one united family. Multilingual Russia can be compared with a starry firmament

  4. [On factors that effect the variability of central mechanisms of bilingualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruchinina, O V; Gal'perina, E I; Kats, E É; Shepoval'nikov, A N

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the probable role of many factors that determine the individual variety of neurophysiological mechanisms, which provide the opportunity to learn and free use two or more languages. The formation of a speech functions is affected by both the general factors for bilinguals and monolinguals, as well as the specific characteristic of the situation of bilingualism. The general factors include genetic and environmental impact of explaining the diversity of individual options for the development of morphofunctional organization of speech functions. A bilinguals, obviously, have even more wide variance of the central maintenance of speech activity, due to the combination of different conditions that influence the language environment, which include the age of the second language acquisition, the language proficiency, linguistic closeness of the languages, the method of their acquisition, intensity of use and the scope of application of each of the languages. The influence of these factors can mediates in different ways by the individual characteristics of the bilingual's brain. Being exposed to two languages from the first days of life, the child uses for the development of speech skills of the unique features of the brain, which are available only in the initial stages of postnatal ontogenesis. In older age mastering a second language requires much more effort, when, as maturation, the brain acquires new additional possibilities, but permanently lose that special "bonus", which nature gives a small child only in the first months of life. Large individual variability patterns of activation of the cortex when verbal activity in late bilingual" compared with the "early", allows to assume, that the brain of "late bilingual", mastering a new language, forced to operate a large number of backup mechanisms, and this is reflected in the increase of variation in the cerebral processes, responsible for providing of speech functions. In addition, there is

  5. Project in Research in Universities: Learning English Incidentally--A Study of Bilingual Children. Bulletin, 1937, No. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriam, J. L.

    1938-01-01

    The educational welfare of children of native and minority groups in continental United States and its outlying parts involves instructional procedures which in recent years are becoming more and more recognized as constituting specialized problems in education. Bilingualism is generally recognized as offering serious instructional difficulties…

  6. Elite Bilingualism? Language Use among Multilingual Teenagers of Swedish Background in European Schools and International Schools in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenvald, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…

  7. Conflict Resolution in Sentence Processing by Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Wodniecka, Zofia; Alain, Claude

    2010-01-01

    The present study pursues findings from earlier behavioral research with children showing the superior ability of bilinguals to make grammaticality judgments in the context of misleading semantic information. The advantage in this task was attributed to the greater executive control of bilinguals, but this impact on linguistic processing has not been demonstrated in adults. Here, we recorded event-related potentials in young adults who were either English monolinguals or bilinguals as they performed two different language judgment tasks. In the acceptability task, participants indicated whether or not the sentence contained an error in either grammar or meaning; in the grammaticality task, participants indicated only whether the sentence contained an error in grammar, in spite of possible conflicting information from meaning. In both groups, sentence violations generated N400 and P600 waves. In the acceptability task, bilinguals were less accurate than monolinguals, but in the grammaticality task which requires more executive control, bilingual and monolingual groups showed a comparable level of accuracy. Importantly, bilinguals generated smaller P600 amplitude and a more bilateral distribution of activation than monolinguals in the grammaticality task requiring more executive control. Our results show that bilinguals use their enhanced executive control for linguistic processing involving conflict in spite of no apparent advantage in linguistic processing under simpler conditions. PMID:21057658

  8. Chinese and Thai Bilingual Topic Detection Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rang Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual topic detection is a vital application of natural language processing in the Internet plus Era and trend of economic globalization. At present, the method of bilingual topic detection can’t solve the problem of bilingual topic inconsistent distribution. Aiming at the shortcoming, this paper introduces a based on maximal clique method to find bilingual topic detection of Chinese and Thai feature words. First of all, extract the information of news with keywords of each Chinese and Thai documents through the TextRank algorithm. Next, disambiguate by means of the similarity combined with Chinese and Thai dictionary. Then, use credible association rules to cluster Chinese and Thai feature words, which generates maximal clique of bilingual topic. Finally, cluster similar maximal clique of topic to obtain the collection of final topic. According to the needs of users, the method can recommend a bilingual topic of different sizes. The test of Chinese and Thai news texts in January 2016 made good achievement. From the perspective of cross-language word clustering, the algorithm effectively solves the problem of inconsistency of bilingual topic distribution reasonably, and has the advantages of no need to estimate the number of topics and low time complexity, so it is suitable for the application of online discovery in ilingual topic.

  9. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Speech and language intervention in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, speech and language pathologists (SLPs around the world are faced with the unique set of issues presented by their bilingual clients. Some professional associations in different countries have presented recommendations when assessing and treating bilingual populations. In children, most of the studies have focused on intervention for language and phonology/ articulation impairments and very few focus on stuttering. In general, studies of language intervention tend to agree that intervention in the first language (L1 either increase performance on L2 or does not hinder it. In bilingual adults, monolingual versus bilingual intervention is especially relevant in cases of aphasia; dysarthria in bilinguals has been barely approached. Most studies of cross-linguistic effects in bilingual aphasics have focused on lexical retrieval training. It has been noted that even though a majority of studies have disclosed a cross-linguistic generalization from one language to the other, some methodological weaknesses are evident. It is concluded that even though speech and language intervention in bilinguals represents a most important clinical area in speech language pathology, much more research using larger samples and controlling for potentially confounding variables is evidently required.

  11. Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    the comprehension of texts. It is possible to show hierachical relationships (genus/species relation) between terms as well as sequential relations by way of cross-references. Examples taken from bilingual law dictionaries also show that cross-references can facilitate the use of synopsis articles and the placing...... of factual information in the field introduction in stead of in the articles. It is further argued that the compilers of a dictionary need to take a broad approach to the lexicographic mediostructure as it is directly linked to several other structures. Finally, the concept of lexicographic information costs...

  12. The processing of two-digit numbers in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Román, Patricia; Martín, María Cruz

    2011-08-01

    We explored possible between-language influences when bilinguals processed two-digit numbers. Spanish/English bilinguals and German/English bilinguals performed a number comparison task with Arabic digits and verbal numbers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2) while the unit-decade compatibility was manipulated. The two bilingual groups showed regular compatibility effect with Arabic digits. In L1, Spanish/English bilinguals showed reverse compatibility effect, while German/English bilinguals showed regular compatibility effect. However, both groups of bilinguals presented reverse compatibility effect in English (L2), which suggested that the bilinguals' L1 did not determine the processing of number words in their L2. The results indicated that bilinguals processed two-digit number words selectively in their L1 and L2 and that they did not transcode L2 numbers into Arabic format.

  13. The benefits of being bilingual: working memory in bilingual Turkish-Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Küntay, Aylin C; Messer, Marielle; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Whether bilingual children outperform monolingual children on visuospatial and verbal working memory tests was investigated. In addition, relations among bilingual proficiency, language use at home, and working memory were explored. The bilingual Turkish-Dutch children (n=68) in this study were raised in families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and had smaller Dutch vocabularies than Dutch monolingual controls (n=52). Having these characteristics, they are part of an under-researched bilingual population. It was found that the bilingual Turkish-Dutch children showed cognitive gains in visuospatial and verbal working memory tests when SES and vocabulary were controlled, in particular on tests that require processing and not merely storage. These findings converge with recent studies that have revealed bilingual cognitive advantages beyond inhibition, and they support the hypothesis that experience with dual language management influences the central executive control system that regulates processing across a wide range of task demands. Furthermore, the results show that bilingual cognitive advantages are found in socioeconomically disadvantaged bilingual populations and suggest that benefits to executive control are moderated by bilingual proficiency.

  14. Opinions of Students Enrolled in an Andalusian Bilingual Program on Bilingualism and the Program Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos Calvo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ministry of Education of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia, an autonomous community in the South of Spain, has established several bilingual programs to improve language proficiency of its student population. The programs, which undertake second languages as vehicular languages at the classroom, encourage student’s bilingualism, academic development and positive attitudes toward other groups. The following paper examines opinions given by a group of students enrolled in an Andalusian bilingual program about those matters. Students had different positive opinions on bilingualism as well as the program in general; however, they had some doubts over the intellectual and cognitive benefits of learning languages.

  15. Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2008-07-01

    How does age of first bilingual language exposure affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2-3, ages 7-9) in bilingual Spanish-English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An early age of first bilingual language exposure had a positive effect on reading, phonological awareness, and language competence in both languages: early bilinguals (age of first exposure 0-3 years) outperformed other bilingual groups (age of first exposure 3-6 years). Remarkably, schooling in two languages afforded children from monolingual English homes an advantage in phoneme awareness skills. Early bilingual exposure is best for dual language reading development, and it may afford such a powerful positive impact on reading and language development that it may possibly ameliorate the negative effect of low SES on literacy. Further, age of first bilingual exposure provides a new tool for evaluating whether a young bilingual has a reading problem versus whether he or she is a typically-developing dual-language learner.

  16. Ageing and bilingualism: absence of a "bilingual advantage" in stroop interference in a nonimmigrant sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaie, Shanna; Phillips, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found an advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals on tasks of attentional control. This advantage has been found to be larger in older adults than in young adults, suggesting that bilingualism provides a buffer against age-related declines in executive functioning. Using a computerized Stroop task in a nonimmigrant sample of young and older monolinguals and bilinguals, the current investigation tried to replicate previous findings of a bilingual advantage. A bilingual advantage would have been demonstrated by smaller Stroop interference (i.e., smaller increases in response time for incongruent than for neutral trials) for bilinguals than for monolinguals. The results showed that bilingual young adults showed a general speed advantage relative to their monolingual counterparts, but this was not associated with smaller Stroop interference. Older adults showed no effect of bilingualism. Thus, the present investigation does not find evidence of a bilingual advantage in young or older adults and suggests limits to the robustness and/or specificity of previous findings.

  17. Lexical access of bilinguals and multilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Freitas Pereira Toassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies on the lexical access of bilinguals with the aim of extending the assumptions of the bilingual lexicon to the study with multilinguals. For that, studies that investigated the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA+ model and the models of speech production, on the serial and interactive views, are presented. Two models specifically designed for multilinguals are also presented in this paper: the Multilingual Processing Model and the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism. Based on this review of literature, research questions are raised to the investigation of the models presented with multilinguals.

  18. Exploration and Practice of Bilingual Teaching in Independent Colleges%独立学院双语教学的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李创举; 徐修功

    2016-01-01

    本文结合文华学院城建学部双语教学的实践,提出了独立学院开展专业课双语教学的定位,探索出一种双语教学的新模式———半保持式。介绍了在独立学院实施双语教学的四条经验:使用校本双语讲义,进行启发式教学,融合多媒体软件与英文训练,建立新型考核机制。以促进独立学院专业课双语教学改革的蓬勃开展。%This paper combined with the practice of bilingual teaching of Wenhua College of urban construction.The author puts forward the orientation of bilingual teaching of specialized courses of independent college,to explore a new mode of bilin-gual teaching.This paper introduces four experiences of bilingual teaching in the independent college:the use of school based bilingual teaching materials,the heuristic teaching,the integration of multimedia software and English training,the establish-ment of a new assessment mechanism.It is to promote the reform of bilingual teaching in the specialized course of the independ-ent college.

  19. Bilingualism with and without CLIL, a Double-Edged Sword: Comparing Bilingual and Non Bilingual Young Learners' Beliefs about EFL and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Brotons, Alfonso Victor

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism and its reference methodology: CLIL are spreading at a very fast pace all through educative systems from some years on. The young status of bilingual programmes leads to little research about how bilingualism is influencing real learning contexts and which factors play important roles in that influence. In this way, this study aims to…

  20. Caminos Bilingues al Exito=Bilingual Pathways to Success: A Title VII Bilingual Education Program 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    Caminos Bilingues al Exito (Bilingual Pathways to Success), a comprehensive Title VII Bilingual Education program was established in 1995 to serve the 17 schools of the North Area Management District of the Houston Independent School District (Texas). Through teacher training, staff development, parental involvement, and instructional program…

  1. Caminos Bilingues al Exito=Bilingual Pathways to Success: A Title VII Bilingual Education Program 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    Caminos Bilingues al Exito (Bilingual Pathways to Success), a comprehensive Title VII Bilingual Education program was established in 1995 to serve the 17 schools of the North Area Management District of the Houston Independent School District (Texas). Through teacher training, staff development, parental involvement, and instructional program…

  2. Grammatical gender inhibition in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eMorales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control processes have been recently considered to be involved in interference resolution in bilinguals at the phonological level. In this study we explored if interference resolution is also carried out by this inhibitory mechanism at the grammatical level. Thirty-two bilinguals (Italian-L1 and Spanish-L2 participated. All of them completed two tasks. In the first one they had to name pictures in L2. We manipulated gender congruency between the two languages and the number of presentations of the pictures (1 and 5. Results showed a gender congruency effect with slower naming latencies in the incongruent condition. In the second task, participants were presented with the pictures practiced during the first naming task, but now they were asked to produce the L1 article. Results showed a grammatical gender congruency effect in L1 that increased for those words practiced 5 times in L2. Our conclusion is that an inhibitory mechanism was involved in the suppression of the native language during a picture naming task. Furthermore, this inhibitory process was also involved in suppressing grammatical gender when it was a source of competition between the languages.

  3. Lost in translation: using bilingual simulated patients to improve consulting across language barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escott, Sarah; Lucas, Beverley; Pearson, David

    2009-03-01

    In the light of rapid demographic change and increased globalisation of health, ways to consult effectively across language barriers are increasingly important. This article describes the development, organisation and evaluation of a UK workshop designed to develop the skills of undergraduate medical students consulting with patients with limited English proficiency, using specially recruited and trained bilingual simulated patients. The authors discuss the advantages and areas for development of the approach, before considering possible future developments.

  4. 产业经济学双语教学的调查与分析%An Analysis on the Survey of Bilingual Education of Industrial Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原小能

    2011-01-01

    Bilingual education is widespread in the colleges and universities. Its purpose is to enable students to acquire specialized knowledge, while improving English proficiency. The paper investigates the bilingual teaching effects on students' English proficiency, professional knowledge, as while as the factors to affect the effectiveness of bilingual education and students' views on bilingual teaching process, through the questionnaire survey method on the basis of the bilingual teaching practice in industrial economics. The results show that bilingual education can be a way to improve English proficiency and professional vo- cabulary of students ,teaching models and teaching methods are important factors to affect the effectiveness of bilingual education. So we should improve the ability of the students' listening and speaking English, change the bilingual education models and teaching methods to improve bilingual teaching.%针对产业经济学双语教学的实践,通过问卷调查的方式,考察双语教学对学生英语水平、专业知识的影响,以及影响双语教学效果的因素和学生对双语教学过程的看法。结果表明,双语教学可以在某种程度上提高学生的英语水平和专业词汇掌握量,学生英语基础、教学模式和教学方法对双语教学效果有重要影响,提出应提高学生听说能力,改革双语教学模式和教学方法,提高双语教学效果。

  5. A Bilingual Education Program for Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Donald M.

    1975-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is conducting a bilingual education program for Micronesia to confront the problems of a multilingual, multicultural society. The program has produced dictionaries and grammars and has enrolled Micronesian students in education training courses. (CK)

  6. Literature Review on Bilingual Mental Lexicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳佳; 徐慧洁

    2012-01-01

    In the past 50 years, psychologists and linguists have put forward various theoretical hypothesis as to bilingual conceptual representations.This paper provides a review of theories concerning bihngual mental lexicon.

  7. The "Section Bilingue" Experiment at Haygrove School

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ann

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in bilingual education whereby two classes, one selective in ability and the other representing varying degrees of ability, were taught Georgraphy through French, as a first step toward French-medium instruction for other subjects. (AM)

  8. The concept of a bilingual dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The term bilingual dictionary is widely used, not only by librarians and dictionary users en general but also by professional lexicographers dedicated to the theory and practice of dictionary making. For this reason it should be expected that there were a common and well-established definition...... of the concept of a bilingual dictionary. It is evident that most people has an intuitive idea of what is meant by «bilingual dictionary». But science-based lexicographic theory - at least if it wants to be considered as such - must go beyond intuition and furnish precise definitions of the concepts used...... chapters, various definitions will be discussed and related to dictionary practice and, subsequently, the very concept of a bilingual dictionary will be examined in the light of a dictionary typology based upon the modern theory of lexicographic functions....

  9. The Montaigne’s Essays bilingual subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Ramos Lopes Neto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lord of Montaigne is positioned positively to the practice of bilingualism in his post-Renaissance’s Essays. Based on the contemporary literature of Languages in Contact, this paper proposes a dialogue between an excerpt of this masterpiece and myths and beliefs related to the individual bilingual. Thus, it is suggested that the plurilinguism predominates instead of monolingualism since the Fifteenth Century. 

  10. A case for bilingual learners' dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; Adamska-Sałaciak, Arleta

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for bilingual learners’ dictionaries. These dictionaries are very different from traditional bilingual dictionaries, being attuned to the productive needs of learners who are speakers of a specific L1. Although they have been around for some time now, teachers of English remain largely unaware of their benefits (or, possibly, their existence), continuing to promote the one-size-fits-all monolingual English learners’ dictionaries (MELDs) as the best choice for their s...

  11. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a “bilingual advantage” on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities. PMID:25400594

  12. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a "bilingual advantage" on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  13. The making of a bilingual science educator: An autobiographical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Hugo Alejandro

    This qualitative study explores the journey of a Latino educator in becoming a bilingual high school science teacher and university professor. It focuses on discovering how the practice of teaching and learning is shaped through social, psychological, and cultural factors. Through the use of an autobiographical method known as currere, the researcher recounts personal and educational experiences that address important issues in education related to language, science, culture, and social class through the perspective of one doing the work. The study reviews the literature on autobiographical forms of research in the field of education and suggests how autobiography in education, an emerging genre, holds the promise for creating new meanings of the self while at the same time attempts to develop a theory of autobiography that acknowledges the importance of people of color and other marginalized groups. Data collected include 22 hours of audiotaped recordings, conversations, and educational artifacts including notes from innovative classroom projects, lesson plans, conference presentations, computer files, graduate coursework, classroom videotaping, university course evaluations, and department memos. Findings of this study revealed that: (a) the process of becoming a transformative educator involves critical self-reflection on one's cultural/ethnic identity and linguistic heritage; (b) the importance of self-reflection on one's teaching is a critical component in moving towards a more culturally and linguistically responsive curriculum; (c) the bilingual educator can achieve a greater understanding of the important role in the maintenance, implementation, and promotion of minority language education through a reflective practice; and (d) the development of the underrepresented voice in education and the awakening to one's personal and philosophical worldviews is as important as the preparation one receives in becoming a bilingual teacher.

  14. Becoming Bilingual: A View Towards Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Musyahda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of foreign language mastery shall always be the main issue in the pedagogy since it has numerous advantages in human life, especially in terms of economic value. The definition of bilingualism is connected with the speaking of two languages or expression in two languages and it can be used to describe societies or individuals (Lyon, 1995. The way that a bilingual adapts to a certain condition leads to a certain phenomenon, which is quite interesting to analyze. The texture of the bilingual's creativity is essentially the result of the process of translation and transcreation, and insightful approaches to stylistics-its theory and methodology must be take into consideration. When people speak more than one languages, they may have different levels of proficiency in each of the languages, and use them for very different social purposes and in different situations. The languages that a bilingual speaks affect each other in various ways, so much that there is a regular study of what happens when one language comes into contact with another. In educational setting, it is important to know how a bilingual's first language may affect the function of other languages. The paper will discuss the phenomenon of bilingual and the implication towards communicative competence which would consists, minimally, of four areas of knowledge and skills; grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence.

  15. Becoming Bilingual: A View Towards Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Musyanda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The phenomenon of foreign language mastery shall always be the main issue in the pedagogy since it has numerous advantages in human life, especially in terms of economic value. The definition of bilingualism is connected with the speaking of two languages or expression in two languages and it can be used to describe societies or individuals (Lyon, 1995. The way that a bilingual adapts to a certain condition leads to a certain phenomenon, which is quite interesting to analyze. The texture of the bilingual's creativity is essentially the result of the process of translation and transcreation, and insightful approaches to stylistics-its theory and methodology must be take into consideration. When people speak more than one languages, they may have different levels of proficiency in each of the languages, and use them for very different social purposes and in different situations. The languages that a bilingual speaks affect each other in various ways, so much that there is a regular study of what happens when one language comes into contact with another. In educational setting, it is important to know how a bilingual's first language may affect the function of other languages. The paper will discuss the phenomenon of bilingual and the implication towards communicative competence which would consists, minimally, of four areas of knowledge and skills; grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence.

  16. The bilingual brain: cerebral representation of languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F

    2001-11-01

    The present article deals with theoretical and experimental aspects of language representation in the multilingual brain. Two general approaches were adopted in the study of the bilingual brain. The study of bilingual aphasics allows us to describe dissociations and double dissociations between the different subcomponents of the various languages. Furthermore, symptoms peculiar to bilingual aphasia were reported (pathological mixing and switching and translations disorders) which allowed the correlation of some abilities specific to bilinguals with particular neurofunctional systems. Another approach to the study of the bilingual brain is of the experimental type, such as electrophysiological investigations (electrocorticostimulation during brain surgery and event-related potentials) and functional neuroanatomy studies (positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging). Functional neuroanatomy studies investigated the brain representation of languages when processing lexical and syntactic stimuli and short stories. Neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies evidenced a similar cerebral representation of L1 and L2 lexicons both in early and late bilinguals. The representation of grammatical aspects of languages seems to be different between the two languages if L2 is acquired after the age of 7, with automatic processes and correctness being lower than those of the native language. These results are in line with a greater representation of the two lexicons in the declarative memory systems, whereas morphosyntactic aspects may be organized in different systems according to the acquisition vs learning modality.

  17. The long-term effects of bilingualism on children of immigration: student bilingualism and future earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agirdag, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets,

  18. Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : A bilingual perceptual lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested

  19. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Bilingual Word Translation: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J. Michael; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between…

  20. Bilingual Teacher Training Is the Premise to the Starting of Bilingual Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaChanglong

    2004-01-01

    A lot of teachers or would-be teachers are interested in becoming bilingual teachers, but most of them are worried about either their depth of subject knowledge or their level of English. What is worse is that they are finding it hard to gain a place on initial bilingual teacher training, as in fact it is truly difficult to find such a place.

  1. Bilingualism/Second-Language Research and the Assessment of Oral Proficiency in Minority Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges that researchers working in the fields of bilingualism and second-language acquisition (SLA) and in the field of language testing face in developing comparable and culturally and cognitively appropriate data collection and language assessment tools for bilingual children from rural minority-language…

  2. Creating a Bilingual Pre-School Classroom: The Multilayered Discourses of a Bilingual Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Åsa; Mård-Miettinen, Karita

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have an agentive role as they interpret, evaluate and develop language policies and practices. In the current study we interviewed a bilingual pre-school teacher in Finland during the first year of implementing a new way of working bilingually with a class of monolingual children. Applying nexus analysis, we explored the teacher…

  3. La Educacion Bilingue y los Estudios Culturales. (Bilingual Education and Cultural Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinias, Miguel

    1976-01-01

    Bilingual education is not only a social and educational corrective, it is above all a means for maintaining and strengthening certain cultures which are in danger of disappearing. Therefore, teachers in bilingual programs must be more than masters of reading and writing, they must also be sources of culture for their students. (Written in…

  4. El Nuevo Aspecto de la Educacion Bilingue. [The New Aspect of Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rafael M.

    1976-01-01

    The scope of legal issues regarding bilingual education is analyzed. The article emphasizes the need for bilingual educators to increase their efforts to: (1) promote active community involvement in education, (2) encourage young minority people to become teachers, (3) awaken the sensibility of educators for what is really valuable in the…

  5. Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program; Programa De Educacion Bilingue/ Bicultural, 1975-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Dept. of Educational Research and Program Assessment.

    A description and evaluation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded Bilingual/Bicultural Education Program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is provided in this report. A developmental system of bilingual education enabled kindergarten through twelfth grade pupils to learn all subject content in both English and Spanish in the…

  6. Through the Lens of Teachers in Two Bilingual Programmes: A Look at Early Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Wee Koh, Poh; Xi Chen, Becky; Sinke, Mark; Geva, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Educators and researchers increasingly recognise the impact of language policies on bilingual education. The present study examined the similarities and differences in how the teachers and principals in two different contexts, a Mandarin-English bilingual programme in a Canadian kindergarten and elementary school and a Russian-Hebrew bilingual…

  7. Interactions between Bilingual Effects and Language Impairment: Exploring Grammatical Markers in Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny P; Restrepo, María Adelaida; Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Gray, Shelley; Holmes, Paul; Gail, Daniel; Chen, Ziqiang

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the interaction between language impairment and different levels of bilingual proficiency. Specifically, we explore the potential of articles and direct object pronouns as clinical markers of primary language impairment (PLI) in bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The study compared children with PLI and typically developing children (TD) matched on age, English language proficiency, and mother's education level. Two types of bilinguals were targeted: Spanish-dominant children with intermediate English proficiency (asymmetrical bilinguals, AsyB), and near-balanced bilinguals (BIL). We measured children's accuracy in the use of direct object pronouns and articles with an elicited language task. Results from this preliminary study suggest language proficiency affects the patterns of use of direct object pronouns and articles. Across language proficiency groups, we find marked differences between TD and PLI, in the use of both direct object pronouns and articles. However, the magnitude of the difference diminishes in balanced bilinguals. Articles appear more stable in these bilinguals and therefore, seem to have a greater potential to discriminate between TD bilinguals from those with PLI. Future studies using discriminant analyses are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings.

  8. The long-term effects of bilingualism on children of immigration: student bilingualism and future earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agirdag, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets,

  9. The Long-Term Effects of Bilingualism on Children of Immigration: Student Bilingualism and Future Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets, i.e. the National Education Longitudinal…

  10. Formation des enseignants et education bilingue en Suisse (Teacher Training and Bilingual Education in Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Anne-Claude; Gajo, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of bilingual education teacher training in Switzerland begins with an introduction to the unique and complex linguistic situation of the country, the political and policy context for bilingual education, and the organization of teacher training in general. A more detailed description of both pre-service and in-service training of…

  11. Interactions between Bilingual Effects and Language Impairment: Exploring Grammatical Markers in Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny P.; Restrepo, María Adelaida; Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Gray, Shelley; Holmes, Paul; Gail, Daniel; Chen, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between language impairment and different levels of bilingual proficiency. Specifically, we explore the potential of articles and direct object pronouns as clinical markers of primary language impairment (PLI) in bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The study compared children with PLI and typically developing children (TD) matched on age, English language proficiency, and mother’s education level. Two types of bilinguals were targeted: Spanish-dominant children with intermediate English proficiency (asymmetrical bilinguals, AsyB), and near-balanced bilinguals (BIL). We measured children’s accuracy in the use of direct object pronouns and articles with an elicited language task. Results from this preliminary study suggest language proficiency affects the patterns of use of direct object pronouns and articles. Across language proficiency groups, we find marked differences between TD and PLI, in the use of both direct object pronouns and articles. However, the magnitude of the difference diminishes in balanced bilinguals. Articles appear more stable in these bilinguals and therefore, seem to have a greater potential to discriminate between TD bilinguals from those with PLI. Future studies using discriminant analyses are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings. PMID:27570320

  12. The Bilingual and Compensatory Education Program of the Dearborn Schools, Michigan: A Model for Systemic Change and Integration of Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraf, Shereen

    1996-01-01

    Overviews a bilingual program serving urban schoolchildren who come from Arabic-speaking homes. The article describes the mission of the program as the preparation of students, in close cooperation with their families, to become contributing citizens in a changing society by providing a challenging curriculum to develop knowledge and a sense of…

  13. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  14. Canciones en la clase: The Why and How of Integrating Songs in Spanish by English-Speaking and Bilingual Artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Bruce Dean; Mason, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Instructors are prepared to use Spanish versions of English-speaking and bilingual artists' recordings to teach language structures and enhance the five skill areas. This article reviews the literature and pedagogical use of songs and also provides a list of recordings, recommendations for classroom use, and two sample lesson plans. (Contains 20…

  15. Canciones en la clase: The Why and How of Integrating Songs in Spanish by English-Speaking and Bilingual Artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Bruce Dean; Mason, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Instructors are prepared to use Spanish versions of English-speaking and bilingual artists' recordings to teach language structures and enhance the five skill areas. This article reviews the literature and pedagogical use of songs and also provides a list of recordings, recommendations for classroom use, and two sample lesson plans. (Contains 20…

  16. PROPOSING A LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE AND SELF-ASSESSMENT OF PROFICIENCY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR BILINGUAL BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE/PORTUGUESE HEARING TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid FINGER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a language experience and self-assessment of proficiency questionnaire for hearing teachers who use Brazilian Sign Language and Portuguese in their teaching practice. By focusing on hearing teachers who work in Deaf education contexts, this questionnaire is presented as a tool that may complement the assessment of linguistic skills of hearing teachers. This proposal takes into account important factors in bilingualism studies such as the importance of knowing the participant’s context with respect to family, professional and social background (KAUFMANN, 2010. This work uses as model the following questionnaires: LEAP-Q (MARIAN; BLUMENFELD; KAUSHANSKAYA, 2007, SLSCO – Sign Language Skills Classroom Observation (REEVES et al., 2000 and the Language Attitude Questionnaire (KAUFMANN, 2010, taking into consideration the different kinds of exposure to Brazilian Sign Language. The questionnaire is designed for bilingual bimodal hearing teachers who work in bilingual schools for the Deaf or who work in the specialized educational department who assistdeaf students.

  17. The Source of Enhanced Cognitive Control in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Luk, Gigi; Pyers, Jennie E.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on nonverbal tasks that require resolving conflict from competing alternatives. The regular need to select a target language is argued to enhance executive control. We investigated whether this enhancement stems from a general effect of bilingualism (the representation of two languages) or from a modality constraint that forces language selection. Bimodal bilinguals can, but do not always, sign and speak at the same time. Their two languages involve distinct motor and perceptual systems, leading to weaker demands on language control. We compared the performance of 15 monolinguals, 15 bimodal bilinguals, and 15 unimodal bilinguals on a set of flanker tasks. There were no group differences in accuracy, but unimodal bilinguals were faster than the other groups; bimodal bilinguals did not differ from monolinguals. These results trace the bilingual advantage in cognitive control to the unimodal bilingual’s experience controlling two languages in the same modality. PMID:19121123

  18. Bilingual Vocational Education for Youths with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Mary Jo

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Bilingual Vocational Education Program for Refugee Youth in Richmond, Virginia. Presents data that support the concept of mainstreaming refugee youth with limited English proficiency into public vocational education programs using the assistance of bilingual aides. (Author)

  19. Special Populations in Gifted Education: Working with Diverse Gifted Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Jaime A.

    This book provides 13 readings on special populations in gifted education. It is based on the premise that gifted and talented students transcend (1) cultural, ethnic, and linguistic ties; (2) conditions that are disabling; (3) sexual orientation; (4) poverty; and (5) geography. Chapters are: (1) "Casting a Wider Net: Linking Bilingual and Gifted…

  20. An Analysis of Modern Bilingualism Currently Existing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces two kinds of conceptions of bilingualism existing in China. One is traditional bilingualism, and the other refers to using a foreign language-English as an instrument to teach specialist subjects, which is called modern bilingual-ism. Then the emphasis is put on the latter to analyze the current circumstances in China, and its own affective factors and diffi-culties confronting it have been taken into account.

  1. Una Crisis para la Educacion Bilingue en Nuevo Mexico. (A Crisis for Bilingual Education in New Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Ezequiel

    1976-01-01

    Written in Spanish and English, this article briefly reviews the bilingual picture in New Mexico. If New Mexico is to succeed in attracting Federal monies for bilingual education, it must strive for unity in its efforts and objectives. (NQ)

  2. Una Crisis para la Educacion Bilingue en Nuevo Mexico. (A Crisis for Bilingual Education in New Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Ezequiel

    1976-01-01

    Written in Spanish and English, this article briefly reviews the bilingual picture in New Mexico. If New Mexico is to succeed in attracting Federal monies for bilingual education, it must strive for unity in its efforts and objectives. (NQ)

  3. The Influence of Bilingualism on Speech Production: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Helen; Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who are bilingual and have speech sound disorder are likely to be under-referred, possibly due to confusion about typical speech acquisition in bilingual children. Aims: To investigate what is known about the impact of bilingualism on children's acquisition of speech in English to facilitate the identification and treatment of…

  4. Bilingualism and Cognition: Informing Research, Pedagogy, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Nanez, Jose E., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 7% to 10% of children are raised in bilingual households. Despite inherent advantages to bilingualism, some bilingual children experience a significant lag in academic success relative to other groups. Bridging the fields of cognitive psychology and education, this volume presents research-based knowledge on…

  5. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  6. Assessing multilingual children: disentangling bilingualism from language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armon-Lotem, S.; de Jong, J.; Meir, N.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of tools for assessing the linguistic abilities of bilingual children. It aims to disentangle effects of bilingualism from those of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), making use of both models of bilingualism and models of language impairment.

  7. A Working Memory, Not Bilingual Advantage, in Controlled Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mahchid; Thordardottir, Elin

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relationship between working memory (WM) and visually controlled attention (CA) in young bilingual and monolingual children. Previous research has shown that balanced bilingual children outperform monolinguals in CA. However, it is unclear whether this advantage is truly associated with bilingualism or whether potential WM and/or…

  8. Cognitive advantages of bilingual children in different sociolinguistic contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Boerma, T.; Bosma, E.; Cornips, L.M.E.A.; Everaert, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that bilingual children outperform monolinguals on tasks testing executive functioning, but other studies have not revealed any effect of bilingualism. In this study we compared three groups of bilingual children in the Netherlands, aged 6–7 years, with a monolingual control

  9. Acquisition of Literacy in Bilingual Children: A Framework for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research that contributes to understanding how bilingual children become literate is not able to isolate the contribution of bilingualism to the discussion of literacy acquisition for these children. This article begins by identifying three areas of research that are relevant to examining literacy acquisition in bilinguals, explaining…

  10. Conciencia Con Compromiso: Aspirantes as Bridges for Latin@ Bilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of culture on the desire of a group of six aspirantes (Spanish/English bilingual education teacher candidates) from Texas to become bilingual education teachers of Latin@ bilingual learners. Chicana/Latina feminist thought is utilized as a lens to understand the role teacher education programs can play in helping…

  11. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  12. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  13. Understanding Bilingualism and Its Impact on Speech Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2002-01-01

    This tutorial reviews auditory research conducted with monolingual and bilingual speakers of Spanish and English. Based on a functional view of bilingualism and on auditory research findings showing that the bilingual experience may affect the outcome of auditory research, it discusses methods for improving descriptions of linguistically diverse…

  14. Guia Bibliografica del Bilinguismo (Bibliographic Guide for Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Norman G.

    This paper presents a comprehensive, annotated guide to bibliographic materials related to bilingualism, with a particular focus on Spanish-English bilingualism. It is written in Spanish, to meet the needs of the student of language and literature who approaches the study of bilingualism with little prior contact with the research and literature…

  15. Finding Diego: A Bilingual Student Integrates School, Language, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzak, Robin L.; Wilkinson, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-methods case study of Diego, a bilingual teen who completed public school in Florida. During adolescence, Diego negotiated multiple identities: successful student, Mexican American, bilingual, and typical U.S. teenager. Diego provided interviews and bilingual (English/Spanish) writing (narrative/expository) in 2008…

  16. Interaction in Bilingual Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from Phonetic Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…

  17. Conceptual Representation Changes in Indonesian-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Suárez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated conceptual representations changes in bilinguals. Participants were Indonesian-English bilinguals (dominant in Indonesian, with different levels of English proficiency) and a control group composed of English-dominant bilinguals. All completed a gender decision task, in which participants decided whether English words…

  18. Conceptual Representation Changes in Indonesian-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Andree; Suárez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated conceptual representations changes in bilinguals. Participants were Indonesian-English bilinguals (dominant in Indonesian, with different levels of English proficiency) and a control group composed of English-dominant bilinguals. All completed a gender decision task, in which participants decided whether English words…

  19. Facing Bilingual Education: Kindergarten Teachers' Attitudes, Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; Leikin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how majority-language teachers coping with additive education view their roles in a bilingual framework, how they perceive issues of culture and language in young bilingual children, and how they understand the term "bilingual education" in an L2 non-additive context. The study has been conducted in the context of…

  20. Crisis in the Southwest: Bilingual Education Program Inconsistencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Yadira; Garcia, Martha; Pinuelas, Lucia; Youngs, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Staff development is too often inadequate or overlooked in bilingual education. Rather, bilingual educators are forced to seek outside resources and strategies because of inconsistencies in school district bilingual programs. These authors offer a "crash" course for other teachers who may be looking for solid information about bilingual…

  1. Bilingual Education in Colleges and Universities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuanlian

    2011-01-01

    At present, there are many problems in the bilingual teaching of colleges and universities. Because of these problems, the bilingual education looks so difficult that it doesn't achieve wanted goals. Sometimes the colleges and universities have to give up the bilingual teaching halfway. This paper argues that the key manner to improve…

  2. Code-Mixing as a Bilingual Instructional Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yih-Lin Belinda; García, Georgia Earnest; Willis, Arlette Ingram

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated code-mixing practices, specifically the use of L2 (English) in an L1 (Chinese) class in a U.S. bilingual program. Our findings indicate that the code-mixing practices made and prompted by the teacher served five pedagogical functions: (a) to enhance students' bilingualism and bilingual learning, (b) to review and…

  3. Le bilinguisme chez les enfants: bibliographie (Child Bilingualism: a Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren-Turiaf, Simone

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography on child bilingualism in France contains 82 entries distributed among three sections: 1) psychosociologic and cultural aspects of migrant worker children, learning conditions; 2) bilingual-bicultural education, experiences and methodological problems; and 3) bilingualism in the countries of origin. (Text is in French.) (TL)

  4. Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual

  5. Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual

  6. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  7. Changing Teachers' Perceptions about the Writing Abilities of Emerging Bilingual Students: Towards a Holistic Bilingual Perspective on Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Escamilla, Kathy; Hopewell, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the application of a holistic bilingual view to assess the writing of emerging bilingual children. The study is part of a 5-year longitudinal research and intervention project that explores the biliteracy development of Spanish-English emerging bilingual students who are receiving instruction in both languages. Participants…

  8. No Child Left Bilingual: Accountability and the Elimination of Bilingual Education Programs in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, Kate; Solorza, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Although educational policies for emergent bilinguals in New York City schools have historically supported the provision of bilingual education, the past decade has borne witness to a dramatic loss of bilingual education programs in city schools. This study examines the factors that determine language education policies adopted by school…

  9. No Child Left Bilingual: Accountability and the Elimination of Bilingual Education Programs in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, Kate; Solorza, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Although educational policies for emergent bilinguals in New York City schools have historically supported the provision of bilingual education, the past decade has borne witness to a dramatic loss of bilingual education programs in city schools. This study examines the factors that determine language education policies adopted by school…

  10. Proyecto Bilingüe: Constructing a Figured World of Bilingual Education for Latina/o Bilingual Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Lucila D.; Chávez, Guadalupe Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of figured worlds, we demonstrate how Proyecto Bilingüe, a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction program, constructs a figured world of bilingual education for Latina/o bilingual teachers. We drew from a larger qualitative study to conduct a thematic analysis of interviews with Latina/o bilingual teachers, their written…

  11. Proyecto Bilingüe: Constructing a Figured World of Bilingual Education for Latina/o Bilingual Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Lucila D.; Chávez, Guadalupe Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of figured worlds, we demonstrate how Proyecto Bilingüe, a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction program, constructs a figured world of bilingual education for Latina/o bilingual teachers. We drew from a larger qualitative study to conduct a thematic analysis of interviews with Latina/o bilingual teachers, their written…

  12. Les designations de la personne bilingue: approche linguistique et discursive (Designations of a Bilingual Person: Linguistic and Discursive Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Alexandre

    2000-01-01

    How people define themselves or others as bilingual or not depends on their notions and social representations of bilingualism. Language provides different possibilities in order to make such designations: the use of lexical words (like "bilingual" in English), but also paraphrasing or other discursive strategies. This article examines…

  13. Preparing English Language Learners for Complex Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janice; Delleman, Paul; Phesia, Andria

    2013-01-01

    Although the Common Core state standards' goal of ensuring that every student leaves high school prepared to meet the demands of college and career is laudable, it's daunting for teachers who serve English language learners. The authors, educators at a private bilingual school in Mexico, describe how they used short excerpts of longer works giving…

  14. Metalinguistic filters within the bilingual language faculty: a study of young English-Chinese bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kenneth Keng Wee; Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2010-06-01

    This study reports two metalinguistic parameters that constitute the schematic control of lateral inhibitory links between translation equivalents within the bilingual lexico-semantic system of Green's (Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1:67-81, 1998a, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1:100-104, 1998b, The bilingualism reader, Routledge, London, 2007) inhibitory control (IC) model. Building on Green's postulation that the bilingual lexico-semantic system is controlled by a hierarchy of schemas under a supervisory attentional system, the bilingual unconsciously filters activated lemmas during fluent spontaneous codeswitching, such that lemmas that are semantico-syntactically versatile or morphosyntactically transparent are likely to reach a threshold of activation first while other lemmas are inhibited. To investigate the issue, we collected code-paired naturalistic and elicited data with a focus on code-switched determiner phrases from 140 Mandarin-English simultaneous bilinguals who were post-secondary students in Singapore. We found that the semantico-syntactic and morpho-syntactic dissimilarities between Mandarin and English activated both filters. As most Mandarin determiners are economical vis-à-vis their English counterparts, their lemmas were selected frequently while English lemmas were largely inhibited. It was also found that our participants preferred English nouns in filling the lexical category for their interpretable feature of number, a feature that is normally absent in Mandarin nouns.

  15. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages’ lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns. PMID:27242575

  16. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flexible learning of multiple speech structures in bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda; Mehler, Jacques

    2009-07-31

    Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have become more flexible at learning speech structures than monolinguals. When given the opportunity to simultaneously learn two different regularities, bilingual infants learned both, whereas monolinguals learned only one of them. Hence, bilinguals may acquire two languages in the time in which monolinguals acquire one because they quickly become more flexible learners.

  18. Bilingual advantage language, literacy and the US labor market

    CERN Document Server

    Callahan, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The Bilingual Advantage draws together researchers from education, economics, sociology, anthropology and linguistics to examine the economic and employment benefits of bilingualism in the US labor market, countering past research that shows no such benefits exist. Collectively, the authors draw on novel methodological approaches and new data to examine the economics of bilingualism for the new generation of bilinguals entering a digital-age globalized workforce. The authors also pay considerable attention to how to best capture measures of bilingualism and biliteracy, given the constraints of

  19. 采用特殊的相反转乳化剂制备水基环氧固化剂分散体%Preparation of aqueous dispersion of epoxy curing agent with specially synthesized phase inversion emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继亮; 涂伟萍; 胡剑青

    2005-01-01

    Generally, the curing agents for aqueous ambient-temperature-cured epoxy resin systems are epoxy-polyamine adduct, which are rendered water-soluble by salting with organic acids,while these acids have adverse influence on film property.It is a trend to develop aqueous dispersion of epoxy curing agent free of organic acids.The conventional surfactants are not suited to act as phase inversion emulsifiers to prepare aqueous dispersion of epoxy-polyamine adduct. So a special phase inversion emulsifier TETA-DGEPG-EPON834 was synthesized in two steps.Firstly, diglycidyl ether of polyglycol(DGEPG) was used as the chain extender to react with triethylenete tramine(TETA) in propylene glycol methyl ether (PM) at 70℃ for about 4 h.Secondly, epoxy resin(EPON834) was used as the chain extender to react with the adduct of TETA-DGEPG in PM at 65℃ for about 3 h.Then the special phase inversion emulsifier was used to prepare aqueous dispersion of EPON828-TETA adduct terminated by E10. In circumstances of low emulsifier concentration (5%), phase inversion was not completed at phase inversion point (PIP) (0.35). While the phase inversion has completely finished at PIP (0.45) in the circumstances of high emulsifier concentration (10%).A stable aqueous dispersion of EPON828-TETA adduct terminated by E10 was prepared in circumstances of high emulsifier concentration (10%).

  20. Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development*

    OpenAIRE

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2008-01-01

    How does age of first bilingual language exposure affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2–3, ages 7–9) in bilingual Spanish–English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An...

  1. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  2. Is There a Relation between Onset Age of Bilingualism and Enhancement of Cognitive Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; de Sa, Eric; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Young English-speaking monolingual and bilingual adults were examined for English proficiency, language use history, and performance on a flanker task. The bilinguals, who were about twenty years old, were divided into two groups (early bilinguals and late bilinguals) according to whether they became actively bilingual before or after the age of…

  3. Bilingual Effects on Cognitive and Linguistic Development: Role of Language, Cultural Background, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A total of 104 six-year-old children belonging to 4 groups (English monolinguals, Chinese-English bilinguals, French-English bilinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals) were compared on 3 verbal tasks and 1 nonverbal executive control task to examine the generality of the bilingual effects on development. Bilingual groups differed in degree of…

  4. Political-pedagogical unfoldings of bilingualism for deaf people: reflexions and directing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Fernandes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article talks about bilingualism for deaf people, it’s implications in the educational process, as well as in some of the inclusive linguistic politics unfoldings proposed officially from the end of the decade of 1990 for this segment. The sociocultural and linguistic characteristics of the Brazilian deaf people communities are argued and also the importance of the same ones to be known and socially valued. Some lines of direction and challenges are pointed for the access and remaining of the deaf students in the school educational process. Finally, the text reflects about the bilingual education programs for deaf students, considering that these are complex, specially because it crosses economic ideological, cultural contradictory and heterogeneous interests.

  5. Construction of English-Chinese bilingual interaction environment in virtual space teleconferencing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongmei; Qi, Yue; Wang, Ting; Chen, Huowang

    2003-04-01

    Virtual Space Teleconferencing System (VST), which based on video teleconferencing system, is a combination of Virtual Reality and several other techniques, such as Network Communication and Natural Language Processing. Participants appear in computer-generated virtual spaces as avatars in VST, and these avatars can locate, view, manipulate virtual objects, communicate with others face to face, so participants could share 'the same space' and do cooperative work. When participants use different kinds of natural language to communicate, language barrier would arise in interaction. So, besides the basic natural language processing, VST should provide translation service based on Machine Translation. First, this paper introduces the features of VST. Second, it describes the techniques of English-Chinese Bi-directional Machine Translation. Third, it analyzes the special requirements of English-Chinese bilingual interaction environment in VST. Finally it discusses the key issues of English-Chinese bilingual interaction environment and proposes a method of construction.

  6. Bilingual and multilingual language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, Ulrike

    2006-06-01

    This chapter addresses the interesting question on the neurolinguistics of bilingualism and the representation of language in the brain in bilingual and multilingual subjects. A fundamental issue is whether the cerebral representation of language in bi- and multilinguals differs from that of monolinguals, and if so, in which specific way. This is an interdisciplinary question which needs to identify and differentiate different levels involved in the neural representation of languages, such as neuroanatomical, neurofunctional, biochemical, psychological and linguistic levels. Furthermore, specific factors such as age, manner of acquisition and environmental factors seem to affect the neural representation. We examined the question whether verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system or by distinct cortical areas. Subjects were Finnish-English adult multilinguals who had acquired the second language after the age of ten. They were PET-scanned whilst either encoding or retrieving word pairs in their mother tongue (Finnish) or in a foreign language (English). Within each language, subjects had to encode and retrieve four sets of 12 visually presented paired word associates which were not semantically related. Two sets consisted of highly imaginable words and the other two sets of abstract words. Presentation of pseudo-words served as a reference condition. An emission scan was recorded after each intravenous administration of O-15 water. Encoding was associated with prefrontal and hippocampal activation. During memory retrieval, precuneus showed a consistent activation in both languages and for both highly imaginable and abstract words. Differential activations were found in Broca's area and in the cerebellum as well as in the angular/supramarginal gyri according to the language used. The findings advance our understanding of the neural representation that underlies multiple language functions. Further studies are needed to

  7. Agricultural Programs at the Post High School Level; Special Report Prepared for the Pacific Regional Seminar in Agricultural Education (Olympia, May 15-19, 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, James W.

    A general overview of post-high school education in agriculture is presented to show the wide variety of programs and their curricular structure for use by school administrators. Representative agricultural programs in community colleges, junior colleges, vocational and technical schools, area schools, and in specialized technical training…

  8. Improvement of the technique of performance of the main course by sportsmen in acrobatic rock'n'roll by means of choreography at the stage of the specialized basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove experimentally the technique of improvement of technique of performance of the main course by sportsmen in acrobatic rock'n'roll by means of choreography at the stage of the specialized basic preparation. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: theoretical analysis and synthesis of data of special scientific and methodical literature; pedagogical supervision; pedagogical testing; methods of mathematical statistics. 28 sportsmen (14 male partners and 14 female partners are tested before and after the pedagogical experiment. Results: the estimated results of the method of execution of the main course are received on the basis of the rating scale (The rule of WRRC, 2016. The dynamics of level of technical skill of execution of the main course is defined by each sportsman separately. Conclusions: it is established that the additional resources of choreography influence significantly the level of performance of the main course by sportsmen in acrobatic rock'n'roll.

  9. Comprehension of Ironic Utterances by Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates verbal irony comprehension by 6-year old bilingual children speaking Polish and English and living in the USA. Researchers have predominantly focused on monolingual populations when examining non-literal language in young children. This is the first exploratory study of how irony is comprehended by children growing up in a bilingual setting. Results suggest that 6-year olds from this population score high in decoding the intended meaning behind an ironic utterance and that there is a relation between this ability and the development of their theory of mind (ToM. Interestingly, the data suggests that in the tested sample, no difference could be observed between comprehension of sarcastic irony (i.e., irony containing the element of blame directed towards the addressee and non-sarcastic irony (irony without criticism towards the interlocutor. The results may be a basis for assuming that irony comprehension may be different in bilingual, compared to monolingual, samples.

  10. The dilemma of simultaneous or successive bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Furlan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study starts from the definition of bilingualism, according to which a person is considered to be bilingual, if she had started to learn (in natural situations two languages from her birth or from early childhood on. The aim of this research work was to assess the existence of any personality differences among "simultaneous" (children exposed to both languages from birth on or at least before the first birthday and "successive" (children exposed to the first language from birth on and to the second language from the toddler period through early childhood bilingual adolescents. The participants were adolescents from secondary schools from the Slovenian coast and from Trieste. Results show that simultaneousness/successiveness of acquisition of the two languages in question doesn't have any impact on personality traits of tested adolescents.

  11. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy...... was perceived as a bi-product that would come about as a result of the equal amount of time and resources allocated to both Arabic and Hebrew in the curriculum. However, there are a number of challenges such as the hegemony and dominance of Hebrew, the imbalance in knowledge of the two languages among...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  12. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  13. El aula especializada de inglés para la autopreparación de los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina Veterinaria - The specialized classroom of English for the self-preparation of the students of Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Vega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl aula especializada de inglés para la autopreparación de los alumnos de la carrera de Medicina Veterinaria resulta una propuesta innovadora para viabilizar el trabajo con el aprendizaje de este idioma a través de laserie At your Pace.AbstractThe specialized classroom of English for the self-preparation of the students of Veterinary Specialty is a novel proposition to make viable the work with the learning of this language with the course At your Pace.

  14. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Kindergarten level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of six lessons covering the senses of touch and sight, the sense of smell, how to distinguish living and non-living things, cell structures, the skeletal system, and the significance of food groups. 8 figs.

  15. Translation lexicon acquisition from bilingual dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doermann, David S.; Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Oard, Douglas W.

    2001-12-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation and cross-language information retrieval. In this work we describe a system for extracting term lexicons from printed copies of bilingual dictionaries. We describe our approach to page and definition segmentation and entry parsing. We have used the approach to parse a number of dictionaries and demonstrate the results for retrieval using a French-English Dictionary to generate a translation lexicon and a corpus of English queries applied to French documents to evaluation cross-language IR.

  16. Opinions of Students Enrolled in an Andalusian Bilingual Program on Bilingualism and the Program Itself

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Ministry of Education of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia, an autonomous community in the South of Spain, has established several bilingual programs to improve language proficiency of its student population. The programs, which undertake second languages as vehicular languages at the classroom, encourage student’s bilingualism, academic development and positive attitudes toward other groups. The following paper examines opinions given by a group of students enrolled ...

  17. Evidence-based safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic herbo-metallic preparations containing gold, iron, and mercury with special reference to pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul K Shingadiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safety and efficacy of herbo- metallic or mineral formulations in Ayurvedic therapeutics is subject of great concern in present era. Especially in paediatrics in which, a number of herbo-metallic formulations are found in practice for prevention as well as for the treatment of paediatric disorders. Among various herbo-metallic preparations mentioned in Ayurveda, gold, iron and mercurial formulations are more popular in paediatric practices. Present study has been conducted to highlight an evidence based safety and efficacy of metallic preparations in paediatrics. Material and Method: Subject related published research articles from reputed journals were searched through four online search engines Pubmed, Google scholar and Ayush research portal and DHARA online. The data of the articles were analysed to confirm their safety and efficacy in paediatrics. Results: Total 10 clinical studies showing safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic herbo-metallic preparations in paediatric disorders were compiled, which included 3 formulations of gold, 4 of iron and 3 mercurial formulations. Children suffering from Chronic tonsillitis, Iron deficiency anaemia, Sickle cell anaemia and Bronchial asthma were treated with significant effect and positive changes in haematological parameters. No any adverse or toxic effect of any of these formulations was noticed. Conclusion: Metallic preparations of gold, iron and mercury are found quite safe to the use in pediatric disorders with proper dose and adjuvant. They are also found effective in the diseases which are chronic and diffi cult to treat such as sickle cell anemia, seizure, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  18. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lexicography in West Africa: Preparing a Bilingual Kisi~English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    als. The exceptions are the more widely spoken languages such as Fula, Wolof, and Temne. For the .... vant reference materials and provided advice on the technical side of computer work in the ..... M.S. University of Chicago: Departments of ...

  20. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  1. Exploring Connections between Emergent Biliteracy and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iliana

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which young emergent bilingual children begin to develop literacy in two languages, Spanish and English. Three case studies of four-year-old Mexican-background children and their families living in southern Arizona are presented from a qualitative socio-psycholinguistic perspective. The children's home and…

  2. Bilingual Education for Deaf Children in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartholm, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In 1981, Swedish Sign Language gained recognition by the Swedish Parliament as the language of deaf people, a decision that made Sweden the first country in the world to give a sign language the status of a language. Swedish was designated as a second language for deaf people, and the need for bilingualism among them was officially asserted. This…

  3. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  4. Leveraging Bilingualism to Accelerate English Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how fourth-grade Spanish-English speaking bilingual students in the USA participated differently in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) literature groups when they were invited to use all of their linguistic resources vs. when they were restricted to communicate in English only. The theoretical underpinning…

  5. Does Bilingualism Matter for Early Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Herman, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three areas of development that have been shown to be fundamental to the acquisition of literacy: experience with stories and book reading, concepts of print, and phonological awareness. Research is reviewed in each area, comparing the development of these skills by bilingual and monolingual children. Research has been contradictory…

  6. Enhancing Science Learning through Dynamic Bilingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Leanne M.; Avila, Antonieta

    2016-01-01

    Language is one of the most important drivers of children's socialization and development of a sense of belonging within their school, community, and culture. For bilingual and multicultural children in particular, language plays a critical role in the development of their identity. If emergent language learners do not feel confident in their…

  7. Wole Soyinka's Poetry as Bilingual's Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakwe, Mabel I.

    1999-01-01

    Examines features that make Wole Soyinka's poems bilingual and bicultural. Four linguistic strategies revealing features used in Yoruba poetic discourse are identified across Soyinka's four anthologies: literal translation, creative translation, transference, and stylistic translation. The study reveals that the native language and literary…

  8. Bilingual Dictionary and Meaning Discrimination in Venda*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with .... Lexicographical research has to lay the .... In example (4), the entry ape is a noun and a verb at the same time. Al- though the ...

  9. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to "fast map" new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool…

  10. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  11. Code Mixing in a Young Bilingual Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raquel; Brice, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples of a bilingual Spanish-English speaking child were collected during a period of 17 months (ages 6-8). Data revealed percentages and rank ordering of syntactic elements switched in the longitudinal language samples obtained. Specific recommendations for using code mixing in therapy for speech-language pathologists are…

  12. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  13. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  14. Heritage/Culture Preservation Model Bilingual Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Our first generation children face a loss of heritage in today's public schools. Unfortunately, the assets that one's bilingual ability brings into the classroom are difficult for educators to fully understand. Often this may happen because professionals in the field of education lack the knowledge about the need for children to maintain their…

  15. Bilingual Curriculum Construction and Empowerment in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mejia, Anne-Marie; Tejada, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)

  16. Transmigrant Families: Intercultural and Bilingual Competences Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Barea, Eva Ma.; Garcia-Cano Torrico, Maria; Marquez Lepe, Esther; Ruiz Garzon, Francisca; Pozo Llorente, Ma. Teresa; Dietz, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research project concerned with analysing and identifying the discourses and related strategies used by Spanish-German trans-migrant families to support and develop bilingual and intercultural competences stemming from their transmigratory experiences. Using the biographical-narrative approach, we reconstruct…

  17. Bibliography of ESL/Bilingual Teaching Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Herb

    Four hundred and six books, articles, and instructional realia published between 1945 and 1968 are listed in this bibliography for teachers and students of Spanish-speaking and bilingual students. While emphasis is placed on English as a second language textual materials for all levels of education from primary to adult, lists of materials such as…

  18. Building Bridges to Better Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This information dissemination report presents a brief introduction to the Building Bridges to Better Bilingual Education Program of the Central Board of Education of the City of New York. The primary aim of the program is to promote the linguistic and academic progress of those Title I eligible Spanish-speaking children whose achievement levels…

  19. Bilingual Education: Reviving an American Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Claude; Wagner, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, bilingual education continues to provoke fierce debate. It seems that nearly everyone--from educators to policymakers to parents with school-age children to those without children--has a strong opinion on whether children with little fluency in English should be taught academic content in their home language as they learn…

  20. Partial Immersion Program for Saudi Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Sumayyah Qaed

    2017-01-01

    English is taught as a foreign language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Although the government tries gradually to integrate teaching English in all grades: secondary, intermediate and elementary, learning English is still limited and need more developing. This essay is a brief review about bilingualism in Saudi education. This essay will be divided…

  1. Enhancing Science Learning through Dynamic Bilingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Leanne M.; Avila, Antonieta

    2016-01-01

    Language is one of the most important drivers of children's socialization and development of a sense of belonging within their school, community, and culture. For bilingual and multicultural children in particular, language plays a critical role in the development of their identity. If emergent language learners do not feel confident in their…

  2. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  3. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  4. Educating for Bilinguals in Mexican Transnational Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Martinez-Leon, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    Describes the educational situation facing "retornado" families and children, Mexican transnational immigrants moving between New York City and Puebla, Mexico. Examines factors underlying the current lack of first language and second language instruction for the Spanish-English bilinguals returning to live in Mexico. Offers suggestions…

  5. Language Differentiation by the Bilingual Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    1985-01-01

    Examines the lexical and syntactic development of a bilingual child and the cognitive developments that coincided with the child's linguistic processes. Concludes that it is the development of self-awareness and sensitivity to standards in the second year which provides the motive for the child to avoid mixed-language utterances. (SED)

  6. Souls in Exile: Identities of Bilingual Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei

    2007-01-01

    In this discussion, the author highlights the relationship between language and identity by discussing notions such as language as a symbolic resource (Heller, 1995) and language as a badge of identity (Buruma, 2003) in a society. The reasons why a number of bilingual writers have decided to write in their second languages are explored, and issues…

  7. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  8. Vietnamese Parent Attitudes toward Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Russell L.; Tran, MyLuong T.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 106 Vietnamese parents in San Diego found that most wanted Vietnamese to be included in their children's classroom, regardless of the child's level of English proficiency. In addition, most parents agreed with the main principles that are the foundations of bilingual education. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/SV)

  9. Good Intentions, Bad Advice for Bilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlin, Rebecca; Paneque, Oneyda M.

    2006-01-01

    Quite often, educators tell families of children who are learning English as a second language to speak only English, and not their native language, at home. Although these educators may have good intentions, the authors argue that the educators' advice to families is misguided and stems from misunderstandings about the nature of bilingualism and…

  10. Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the big shortcomings in several bilingual school dictionaries, including Twee- ... Luckily, during the last few years lexicographers have become more and more aware ... The important thing is not the source of the example, but ... The next important criterion that the lexicographer has to keep in mind when .... on the internet.

  11. Pragmatics, Bilingualism, and the Native Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosangela Souto

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of the compound view for second language acquisition, which suggests that two languages coexist in the bilingual mind and does not agree with the linguistic transfer process. Using a metapragmatic judgment task and a post-interview, this study examined pragmatic transfer of 207 Brazilians and Americans from their first…

  12. Are Bilingual Dictionaries Useful Linguistic Tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducroquet, Lucile

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the value of bilingual dictionaries. Using a list of common words drawn from several broad categories, the author attempted to find these words in the Collins-Robert and the Harraps dictionaries. Both dictionaries have very similar results although the Harraps performs slightly better in terms of correct entries. The proportion of words…

  13. Bilingual Education: An Experience in Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mildred L., Ed.; Davis, Patricia M., Ed.

    This book reports on an experimental bilingual education program conducted in Peru by Peruvian educators and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) linguists. Sections of the book discuss: (1) the historical perspective of the program; (2) program aspects such as teacher training, goals, and curriculum; (3) what this program may contribute to the…

  14. Transmigrant Families: Intercultural and Bilingual Competences Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Barea, Eva Ma.; Garcia-Cano Torrico, Maria; Marquez Lepe, Esther; Ruiz Garzon, Francisca; Pozo Llorente, Ma. Teresa; Dietz, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research project concerned with analysing and identifying the discourses and related strategies used by Spanish-German trans-migrant families to support and develop bilingual and intercultural competences stemming from their transmigratory experiences. Using the biographical-narrative approach, we reconstruct…

  15. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  16. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  17. The current situation of the special wax and preparation methods%特种蜡发展现状及制备方法展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧珍; 陈文艺; 刘莹; 姚二伟

    2016-01-01

    Reviews the current development status of special wax at home and abroad,and introduces some chemical modification methods of special wax,such as the oxidation of paraffin,chlorination of paraffin, cracking of paraffin,graft copolymerization of paraffin,fermentation,nitrification of paraffin and so on,and some by adding natural low molecular polyethylene wax,natural wax,functional additives,physical modifi-cation methods of synthetic wax,etc.And briefly points out that the applications of modified waxes with different modification methods in today's society and the outlook for the future development of paraffin wax in our country.%综述了当今国内外特种蜡的发展现状,并介绍了当今国内外特种蜡的一些化学改性方法,如石蜡的氧化、石蜡的氯化、石蜡的裂解、石蜡的接枝、发酵、硝化改性等,和一些通过添加低分子聚乙烯蜡、天然蜡、功能添加剂、合成蜡等的物理改性方法.并简要指出不同改性方法制备出的改性蜡在当今社会的一些应用以及对我国石蜡未来发展的展望.

  18. 独立学院土木工程专业课双语教学的探索与实践%On exploration of bilingual teaching in specialized course for civil engineering major in independent colleges and their practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭东

    2015-01-01

    基于独立学院学生特点及教学实际情况,对土木工程学科专业课程的双语教学提出了切实可行的教学方式,通过实践表明,学生可有效适应该教学方式,并从中获益,且学生的国际视野和专业兴趣均有所提高。%Based on the characteristics of the students and current teaching circumstances in independent colleges,a practical teaching method is proposed for the bilingual teaching of professional courses in civil engineering. Results show that students adapt to the new teaching method and benefit from it well. Both the international vision and the interest for professional courses are improved.

  19. Multiple levels of bilingual language control: evidence from language intrusions in reading aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Gomez, Joanne; Murillo, Mayra; Rayner, Keith

    2014-02-01

    Bilinguals rarely produce words in an unintended language. However, we induced such intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of he) in 32 Spanish-English bilinguals who read aloud single-language (English or Spanish) and mixed-language (haphazard mix of English and Spanish) paragraphs with English or Spanish word order. These bilinguals produced language intrusions almost exclusively in mixed-language paragraphs, and most often when attempting to produce dominant-language targets (accent-only errors also exhibited reversed language-dominance effects). Most intrusion errors occurred for function words, especially when they were not from the language that determined the word order in the paragraph. Eye movements showed that fixating a word in the nontarget language increased intrusion errors only for function words. Together, these results imply multiple mechanisms of language control, including (a) inhibition of the dominant language at both lexical and sublexical processing levels, (b) special retrieval mechanisms for function words in mixed-language utterances, and (c) attentional monitoring of the target word for its match with the intended language.

  20. Reasoning about other people's beliefs: bilinguals have an advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has been observed with bilingual children. Using a traditional false-belief task coupled with an eye-tracking technique, we found that adults in general suffer interference from their own perspective when reasoning about other people's beliefs. However, bilinguals are reliably less susceptible to this egocentric bias than are monolinguals. Moreover, performance on the false-belief task significantly correlated with performance on an executive control task. We argue that bilinguals' early sociolinguistic sensitivity and enhanced executive control may account for their advantage in false-belief reasoning.

  1. The impact of bilingualism on working memory in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Amy L; Riley, Jeffrey D; Barrett, Lauren E; Muhonen, Michael G; Zupanc, Mary; Romain, Jonathan E; Lin, Jack J; Mucci, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Impairments in executive skills broadly span across multiple childhood epilepsy syndromes and can adversely affect quality of life. Bilingualism has been previously shown to correlate with enhanced executive functioning in healthy individuals. This study sought to determine whether the bilingual advantage in executive functioning exists in the context of pediatric epilepsy. We retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological data in 52 children with epilepsy and compared executive function scores in monolingual versus bilingual children with epilepsy while controlling for socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Bilingual children performed significantly better on the Working Memory Index than did monolingual children. There were no significant differences on the remaining executive function variables. The bilingual advantage appears to persist for working memory in children with epilepsy. These findings suggest that bilingualism is potentially a protective variable in the face of epilepsy-related working memory dysfunction.

  2. The effects of bilingualism on toddlers' executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Blaye, Agnes; Coutya, Julie; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals' extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined whether this advantage is observed in 24-month-olds who have had much less experience in language production. A battery of executive functioning tasks and the cognitive scale of the Bayley test were administered to 63 monolingual and bilingual children. Native bilingual children performed significantly better than monolingual children on the Stroop task, with no difference between groups on the other tasks, confirming the specificity of bilingual effects to conflict tasks reported in older children. These results demonstrate that bilingual advantages in executive control emerge at an age not previously shown.

  3. A multi-site review of policies affecting opportunities for children with developmental disabilities to become bilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesco, Diane; MacLeod, Andrea A A N; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia; Trudeau, Natacha; de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Cain, Kate; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; Colozzo, Paola; Stahl, Hillary; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    This review of special education and language-in-education policies at six sites in four countries (Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Netherlands) aimed to determine the opportunities for bilingualism provided at school for children with developmental disabilities (DD). While research has demonstrated that children with DD are capable of learning more than one language (see Kay Raining Bird, Genesee, & Verhoeven, this issue), it was not clear whether recent policies reflect these findings. The review, conducted using the same protocol across sites, showed that special education policies rarely addressed second language learning explicitly. However, at all sites, the policies favoured inclusion and educational planning based on individual needs, and thus implied that students with DD would have opportunities for second language learning. The language-in-education policies occasionally specified the support individuals with special needs would receive. At some sites, policies and educational options provided little support for minority languages, a factor that could contribute to subtractive bilingualism. At others, we found stronger support for minority languages and optional majority languages: conditions that could be more conducive to additive bilingualism.

  4. Contents and features of forming students' culture of health of special medical group in the process of theoretical preparation on physical education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribok N.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forming valued attitude is considered toward own health for students with the presence of diseases. New vision of maintenance of theoretical preparation is found on physical education of students at which rejections are marked in a state of health. An experimental on-line tutorial is offered, on the basis of analysis of the existent program, on physical education for the students of task medical force. It is set that the offered on-line tutorial is directed not only on liquidation of diseases but also on forming, strengthening and maintenance of own health in spiritual, psychical and physical aspects.

  5. 大型运输容器减震用改性木材的研制%Preparation and Characterizationo f Special Shock Abos rp tion Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文华; 郑雅娴; 柴宇博; 刘君良

    2015-01-01

    为了筛选大型运输容器减震器用木材,对泡桐、柳杉、杨木、落叶松、杉木等多种人工林木材进行了大变形抗压测试及减震性能分析。结果表明:仅密度达0.4 g/cm3的杉木,能满足大型运输容器减震材料要求,其资源极其有限;通过对低密度人工林杉木进行树脂浸渍增强改性,提高其减震性能,使其能满足大型运输容器减震材料要求,从而可充分利用人工林杉木资源。%We studied the shock absorption performance of several plantation woods of Paulownia wood, Sugi wood, Poplar wood, Larch wood, Chinese-fir wood in China by the large deformation compression testing to find out the suitable wood to make the large shock absorber.Only Chinese-fir wood with a density up to 0.4 g/cm3 could meet the special needs with lim-ited natural resource.Through resin impregnation modification the shock absorption performance of low density Chinese-fir wood could be improved and also met the material requirements of the special large shock absorber for full use of the plan-tation wood.

  6. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    OpenAIRE

    Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...

  7. Influence of Bilinguism on Socio-Cognitive Personality Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives an overeview of foreign studies devoted to bilinguism and its influence on socio-cognitive personality development. Experimental research conducted in the recent years has broken the myth of negative influence of childhood bilinguism. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis, the present research shows the advantages of children and adults grown up in the bilingual environment. Their advantages compared with the monolingual peers include the well-developed meta-lingual abil...

  8. Current Situation of University Bilingual Teaching and Countermeasures Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有为

    2012-01-01

      The development of education in China has become increasingly international. Therefore, carrying out bilingual teach⁃ing in Universities is of great significance to cultivating international talents. However, the current bilingual teaching in Universities of our country is not optimistic, facing many difficulties and challenges. In order to provide students with advanced international and dynamic culture, educators should continue to explore research and analyze bilingual teaching rationally and work out effective measures.

  9. Bimodal bilingualism and the frequency-lag hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A F; Gollan, Tamar H

    2013-01-01

    The frequency-lag hypothesis proposes that bilinguals have slowed lexical retrieval relative to monolinguals and in their nondominant language relative to their dominant language, particularly for low-frequency words. These effects arise because bilinguals divide their language use between 2 languages and use their nondominant language less frequently. We conducted a picture-naming study with hearing American Sign Language (ASL)-English bilinguals (bimodal bilinguals), deaf signers, and English-speaking monolinguals. As predicted by the frequency-lag hypothesis, bimodal bilinguals were slower, less accurate, and exhibited a larger frequency effect when naming pictures in ASL as compared with English (their dominant language) and as compared with deaf signers. For English there was no difference in naming latencies, error rates, or frequency effects for bimodal bilinguals as compared with monolinguals. Neither age of ASL acquisition nor interpreting experience affected the results; picture-naming accuracy and frequency effects were equivalent for deaf signers and English monolinguals. Larger frequency effects in ASL relative to English for bimodal bilinguals suggests that they are affected by a frequency lag in ASL. The absence of a lag for English could reflect the use of mouthing and/or code-blending, which may shield bimodal bilinguals from the lexical slowing observed for spoken language bilinguals in the dominant language.

  10. Verbal abilities in low and highly proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros

    2004-09-01

    The study investigated native language verbal skills among low and highly proficient bilinguals, using the WISC III verbal subtests. Highly proficient bilinguals showed a superiority for almost all verbal subtests. This finding lends support to Threshold Theory which maintains that bilinguals need to achieve high levels of linguistic proficiency before bilingualism can promote cognitive development. Our study also shows that verbal ability underlying proficiency in the native language can be generalized to a foreign language, revealing a causal connection between native and foreign language learning.

  11. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  12. Crosslinguistic semantic and translation priming in normal bilingual individuals and bilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Lebel, Keith R

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined lexical representation in early Spanish-English bilinguals using an unmasked semantic and translation priming paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into two groups based on performance (more-balanced bilinguals, MB and less-balanced bilinguals, LB) on the experimental task. In Experiment 2, four patients with bilingual aphasia (BA) performed the same experiment. Results from both experiments revealed that all groups were more accurate for English targets (S-E direction) than Spanish targets (S-E direction). In Experiment 1, semantic priming was observed from English to Spanish in both the LB and MB groups although the effect was greater for the LB group. Further, only the LB group showed priming from Spanish to English. For both normal groups, there was no difference between translation and semantic priming effects. In Experiment 2, patients with bilingual aphasia demonstrated different patterns of activation with no clear trends. Two participants demonstrated greater priming from Spanish to English whereas two participants demonstrated the opposite effect.

  13. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed.

  14. Preparation for teacher collaboration in inclusive classrooms - stress reduction for special education students via acceptance and commitment training: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pülschen, Simone; Pülschen, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The education system in Germany is beginning to witness a sea change, lately, owing to the country's ratification of the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The enactment is aiming at making provision for special education teachers to share the same teaching platform and institution with other teachers for teaching children from all backgrounds, irrespective of their needs. While promoting the benefits of collaborative teaching, this provision would also effectively establish role demarcation among teachers. However, the level of participation and adaptiveness displayed by individual teachers would play a major role in determining the success or failure of the intended collaborative framework. Collaboration also becomes challenging due to the level of stress involved in the teaching profession. The fact that only 65 % of teachers in Germany reach retirement age while still in service, primarily due to psychiatric illness, has posed questions on adopting the collaborative framework for teachers from diverse backgrounds. In other words, it can be stated that the process of collaborating with teachers from different professional backgrounds and with varying levels of skills will potentially lead to further stress. The stress-related psychological states, developed through the collaborative processes, might affect the biological stress-response systems of the participating teachers. With stress-response contributing directly to the pathogenesis of stress-related diseases and disorders in the long term, it would be important to contain the ripple effect of collaborative framework that the enactment intends to establish between SEN (special educational needs) teachers and others. In addition to impacting the long-term health of teachers, the collaborative framework is also suggestive of having similar effects on students studying special education (SEN students). A study was conducted to examine the stress levels associated with the

  15. Bilingualism and Attention: A Study of Balanced and Unbalanced Bilingual Deaf Users of American Sign Language and English

    OpenAIRE

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hannay, H. Julia; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2010-01-01

    Early deafness is thought to affect low-level sensorimotor processing such as selective attention, whereas bilingualism is thought to be strongly associated with higher order cognitive processing such as attention switching under cognitive load. This study explores the effects of bimodal-bilingualism (in American Sign Language and written English) on attention switching, in order to contrast the roles of bilingual proficiency and age of acquisition in relation to cognitive flexibility among d...

  16. Intercultural bilingual education in Nicaragua: Contextualisation for improving the quality of education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente Catter, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    For the past 35 years, various models of intercultural bilingual education (IBE) have been implemented in Latin American schools and adult education. While Spanish is the official language in Nicaragua, many indigenous languages, such as Miskito and Sumo-Mayangna, are also spoken - especially in the Atlantic coastal region. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport recognises the need for a flexible curriculum that reflects individual local and regional linguistic and socio-cultural characteristics, through the use of mother tongue and second language learning. The contextualisation model applied in the Atlantic coastal region of Nicaragua is therefore based on the use of a languages strategy in preparing textbooks and basic technical materials with an IBE approach, as part of the process of improving the quality of education. Thus intercultural communication is enhanced, and the need to strengthen the systematic teaching of languages, differentiating between mother tongue, second language and foreign language, is recognised. As well as explaining the contextualisation process in detail, this article discusses the conceptual differences between intercultural bilingual education (IBE) and bilingual intercultural education (BIE). The paper concludes with several recommendations for the further development of BIE in Latin America.

  17. Dilemma and breakthrough in the preschool bilingual education in Tibetan areas%藏区学前双语教育的困境及突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    捌马阿末

    2013-01-01

    One of special and prominent problem of the preschool education in Tibetan areas is the lack of Chinese-Tibetan bilingual education. In this regard, the bilingual education in Tibetan areas should implement the "immersive". While the construction of bilingual teachers is the key factor in the decision of bilingual education quality, therefore, take practical measures to strengthen the adaptation of Tibetan preschool bilingual teachers team construction, to accelerate the development of preschool education in Tibetan areas.%  藏区学前教育特殊而突出的问题之一是汉藏双语教育严重缺失。对此,藏区应实施“沉浸式”的汉藏双语教育。而双语师资队伍的建设情况是决定双语教育质量的关键因素,因此,要采取适应藏区实际的措施来加强学前双语师资队伍建设,以加快推动藏区学前教育事业的发展。

  18. Bilingualism and identity: a dual construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Alves Lehmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a brief discussion about the constitution of bilingual subjects’ identity. We do not aim to present data from field research, neither to make a deep analysis of the discussed concepts. Our goal, therefore, is to think, under the perspective of Cultural Studies, about the complexity and the tensions involved in the issue of bilingual’s identity. 

  19. Language in Action. Bilingualism and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Mihaela Kantor; Alexandra Scridon

    2013-01-01

    Languages are the medium through which communication takes place in politics, commerce, academia, the media, technology and most aspects of life. Languages are, therefore, central to our international world, to globalization and the accelerating process of European unification. The aim of this study is to address multilingualism and bilingualism as universal norms, as societal rather than individual phenomena. The study will focus on the importance of acquiring competence in more than one lan...

  20. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.