WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepared rhubarb roots

  1. Effect of Prepared Rhubarb on Insulin Resistance in Patients With Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZi-fen; SHIShao-lan; 等

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of prepared rhubarb on insulin resistance in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH)and its mechanism.Methods:All the 92 patients accepted 75 g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT)and insulin release test before and after treatment.These patients were divided into two groups(treated group and control group).Prepared rhubarb and nifedipine were given to the treated group,while nifedipine was given to the control group alone.Circulating endothelial cell(CEC),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6)were measured and glucose area under curve(GAUC),insulin area under curve(IAUC),insulin sensitivity index(ISI)were calculated.And 30 normal pregnant women were selected as the healthy group.Results:CEC,TNF-α,IL-6,GAUC and IAUC of PIH patients were significantly higher than those of the normal healthy group; while ISI of PIH patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy group.ISI was significantly negatively correlated to CEC, TNF-α and IL-6.After treatment,CEC,TNF-α,IL-6,GAUC decreased and ISI increased sig-nificantly in the treated group;while in the control group,all above-mentioned parameters showed no change.Conclusion:Prepared rhubarb can improve insulin resistance of PIH by reducing vascular endothe-lial cells damage.

  2. Effect of Prepared Rhubarb on Insulin Resistance in Patients With Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子芬; 石绍兰; 宋海翔

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of prepared rhubarb on insulin resistance in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and its mechanism. Methods: All the 92 patients accepted 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test before and after treatment. These patients were divided into two groups (treated group and control group). Prepared rhubarb and nifedipine were given to the treated group, while nifedipine was given to the control group alone. Circulating endothelial cell (CEC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and glucose area under curve (GAUC), insulin area under curve (IAUC), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. And 30 normal pregnant women were selected as the healthy group. Results: CEC, TNF-α, IL-6, GAUC and IAUC of PIH patients were significantly higher than those of the normal healthy group; while ISI of PIH patients was significantly lower than that of the healthy group. ISI was significantly negatively correlated to CEC, TNF-α and IL-6. After treatment, CEC, TNF-α, IL-6, GAUC decreased and ISI increased significantly in the treated group; while in the control group, all above-mentioned parameters showed no change. Conclusion: Prepared rhubarb can improve insulin resistance of PIH by reducing vascular endothelial cell's damage.

  3. Treatment of menopausal symptoms by an extract from the roots of rhapontic rhubarb: the role of estrogen receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zierau Oliver

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dry extract from the roots of rhapontic rhubarb (extract Rheum rhaponticum (L.; ERr has been commercially available in Germany for over two decades to treat menopausal symptoms. However, the molecular basis of its clinical effectiveness remains obscure. This article reviews the in vitro and in vivo data of its estrogenic actions, particularly those mediated by estrogen receptor-β (ERβ.

  4. Effect of gavage of rhubarb preparation on immune function in patients with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao YIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To study the effect of nasointestinal infusion of rhubarb preparation on general inflammatory reaction and immune function in sepsis patients. Methods  The patients with sepsis admitted to our hospital from August 2012 to November 2014 was randomized to placebo group (n=36 and treatment group (n=32. The placebo group was treated conventionally, while the treatment group received the rhubarb preparation through nasal tube. The differences in the clinical symptoms, inflammatory cytokines, immunological indexes were compared between two groups. Results  There was no significant difference in clinical indexes between two groups before the treatment (P>0.05. The time of gastric retention, first defecation, bowel sounds recovery, abdominal pain, and abdominal distension relief were shortened (P<0.05. The contents of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were reduced significantly on day 8 and 28 after therapy (P<0.01 in the treatment group, but the level of IL-10 was elevated obviously on days 3 and 8 after therapy (P<0.01. Significant improvements in CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ and HLA-DR/ CD14+ were observed at days 3, 8 and 28 after therapy (P<0.05, though the improvement of HLA-DR/CD14+ was seen only on day 8 after therapy (P<0.05. Conclusion  Rhubarb can improve the gastrointestinal function and immune function, and reduce release of inflammatory cytokines in sepsis patients, thus producing the positive role in the treatment of sepsis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.15

  5. Rhubarb root and rhizome-based Chinese herbal prescriptions for acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Li, Hui-qin; Fu, Deng-lei; Zheng, Guo-qing; Fan, Ji-ping

    2014-12-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine has been using in stroke victims for thousands of years, and the rhubarb root and rhizome (RRR)-based Chinese herbal prescription is one of the principle treatments for stroke. The objective of this study is to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and safety of RRR-based prescriptions for acute ischemic stroke. A systematic literature search in six databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared RRR-based prescriptions with western conventional medicine (WCM) for acute ischemic stroke. The methodological quality of RCTs was assessed independently based on the 12 criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. A total of 968 participants were included in 12 eligible studies. All trials were deemed to have high a risk of bias. RRR-based prescriptions have a significant effect on the improvement of the clinical efficacy rate (n=10), Barthel Index scores (n=5), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (n=2), Glasgow Coma Scale scores (n=1), and neurological deficit scores (n=5) when compared with WCM controls (pacute ischemic stroke because methodological flaws undermine the strength of our findings. However, this work identifies an area, which is worthy of improvement and development for further research. Larger sample-sizes and rigorously designed RCTs are required in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  7. Establishment of microbial limit test method for five Rhubarb prepara-tions%5种大黄制剂微生物限度检查法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思; 方李; 吴晶晶; 陆崟; 苏华; 王曙东

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立5种大黄制剂(保肾片、新保肾片、肾炎宁片、新肾炎胶囊、炎黄保肾胶囊)的微生物限度检查方法。方法按照《中国药典》(2010年版)微生物限度检查法的规定,采用常规法、培养基稀释法、薄膜过滤法对5种大黄制剂的细菌、霉菌和酵母菌进行回收率测定,通过回收率试验测定制剂的抑菌性;采用直接接种法对制剂控制菌进行测定。结果5种大黄制剂均有抑菌作用,均不可用常规法进行细菌、霉菌和酵母菌测定;2种大黄制剂(保肾片、新保肾片)对枯草芽孢杆菌有较强的抑菌作用,可采用培养基稀释法(0.2 mL/皿)进行细菌数测定,霉菌和酵母菌可采用常规法检查;1种大黄制剂(肾炎宁片)对枯草芽孢杆菌和白色念珠菌有较强的抑菌作用,可采用培养基稀释法(0.2 mL/皿)进行细菌、霉菌和酵母菌数测定;2种大黄制剂(新肾炎胶囊、炎黄保肾胶囊)对枯草芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌有很强的抑菌作用,需采用薄膜过滤法对细菌数进行测定,对白色念珠菌有较强的抑菌作用,可采用培养基稀释法(0.2 mL/皿)进行霉菌和酵母菌数测定。结论大黄具有明显的抑菌性,严格按照《中国药典》(2010年版)规定,建立合理适用的5种大黄制剂微生物限度检查方法,以有效控制其质量。%Objective To establish a method of microbial limit test for five Rhubarb preparations (Baoshen Tables, Xinbaoshen Tablets, Shenyannin Tablets, Xinshenyan Capsules, Yanhuangbaoshen Capsules). Methods According to the microbial limit test method set forth in Chinese Pharmacopoeia of 2010 edition, the conventional method, medium dilution method and membrane filtration method were used for the recovery determination of bactria, mould and yeast of five Rhubarb preparations, the antibacterial property of drugs were tested through the recovery determination, and con-trol bacteria

  8. Effects of rhubarb on isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Yu; Ya-Li Luo; Jun-Wei Zheng; Yong-Hui Ding; Wei Li; Tian-Zhen Zheng; Song-Yi Qu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of rhubarb (dried root of Rheum officinale Baill.) on contractile activity of isolated gastric muscle strips of guinea pigs and its possible mechanism.METHODS: A total of 48 guinea pigs were killed to remove the whole stomach. Then, the stomach was opened and the mucosal layer was removed. Parallel to the circular fibers, muscle strips were cut from the body. Each isolated gastric muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution, constantly warmed by water jacket at 37 ℃ and bubbled continuously with a mixed gas of 950 mL/L O2 and 50 mL/L CO2. After being incubated for 1 h with 1 g tension, rhubarb of varied concentrations (1%, 2%, 7%, 20% and 70%) was added cumulatively into the tissue chamber at intervals of 2 min. Atropine (10-6 mol/L) or isoptin (5×10-8 mol/L) orhexamethonium(10-5 mol/L) was given 2 min before the administration of rhubarb. The isometrical response was measured with an ink-writing recorder.RESULTS: Rhubarb dose dependently increased the resting tension of gastric body circular muscle(CM)(r = 0.726, P<0.05). Atropine (r= 0.829, P<0.05), isoptin (r = 0.764,P<0.05) and hexamethonium (r = 0.797, P<0.05) did notaffect its action in a dose-related manner. Atropine apparently reduced the increasing action of 1%, 3%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Isoptin inhibited the effect of 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Hexamethonium reduced the increasing action of 1%, 10%, 30% and 100% rhubarb on the resting tension of gastric body CM. Rhubarb increased the contractile frequency of CM of body. While atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not inhibit the contractile frequency of gastric body CM in comparison with rhubarb at the same concentration, rhubarb at the highest concentration (100%) decreased the meancontractile amplitude of gastric body CM. Atropine, isoptin and hexamethonium did not affect the mean contractile

  9. Effects of rhubarb and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in INTMNC of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Zhen Lin; De Lu Ma; Zhi Qing Cui; Yi Kang

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The recent studies have shown that rhubarb has not only the effect of removing stasis by purgation, but also intestinal barrier effects[1,2]. In order to further clarify the intestinal barrier mechanism of rhubarb, we studied the effects of rhubarb decoction and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in isolated intestinal mononuclear cells (INT-MNC)

  10. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2001-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  11. The quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end cavity preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, MK; de Schwartz, FBC; van der Sluis, LWM; Wesselink, PR

    2001-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the quality of root fillings remaining in mandibular incisors after root-end resection and root-end cavity preparation. Methodology Roots of 40 mandibular incisors. 12 mm in length. were divided into two groups and instrumented using a balanced force techni

  12. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  13. Evaluation of torque within manual preparation with root canal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Used root canal instruments are often deformed; they can fracture, persist and reinfect teeth. There are no evident studies consulting torque and manual preparation of root canals. Thus, the purpose of this study is the evaluation of torque within manual preparation in connection with its impact on file deformation. With the aid of torque measurement a change in dental education could potentially be achieved.

  14. [Rationality of commercial specification of rhubarb based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Xueru; Xiao, Xiaohe; Chu, Xiaohui; Zhou, Canping; Jin, Cheng; Yan, Dan

    2010-02-01

    The differences of 34 rhubarb samples collected on the market and at producing area were investigated by chemical analysis on the contents of anthraquinones and chromatographic fingerprints, in order to assess the rationality of the commercial specification of rhubarb. The results indicated that the commercial specification of rhubarb was not correlated to the contents of anthraquinones as well as the price. The chromatographic fingerprints of rhubarb samples from different producing area were dissimilar, while the commercial specifications were difficult to be separated. Generally, the rhubarb samples produced in famous-region contained more anthraquinones. This demonstrated rationality on the traditional records of the famous-region of rhubarb from a chemical view. In this study, it was firstly reported that rhubarb could be categorized into two types, chrysophanol-type and rhein-type, based on the proportion of the two constituents in the total anthraquinones after acid hydrohysis. It was found that the rhubarb samples of rhein-type were mostly produced in famous-regions, such as Qinghai, Xizang, West Sichuan and Gansu. The literatures reported that rhein was superior to chrysophanol at many pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetic properties. Hence, we primarily considered that rhein-type rhubarb might be high-quality. These results were helpful to improve the commercial specification of rhubarb from a view of chemical information.

  15. The effect of root preparation technique and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Carlos G; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Forty extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were randomly selected and mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The teeth were divided into four groups of 10 teeth each for different canal preparation techniques and instrumentation lengths: group A: step-back preparation (SB) with stainless steel files (SF) using root canal length (RCL) to guide instrumentation length; group B: SB using RCL - 1 mm; group C: crown-down preparation (CD) with Profile using RCL; and group D: CD with PF using RCL - 1 mm. Digital images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of instrumentation length (p 0.05) on the development of apical cracks.

  16. Temperature variation on root surface with three root-end cavity preparation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrumlu Emre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thermal changes can occur on the external root surface when root-end cavity preparation is performed, which may damage periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone. Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes during preparation of the root-end cavities at 1 and 3 mm to the sectioned apical root surfaces when either tungsten carbide round bur, diamond round bur or ultrasonic diamond tip was used. Methods. Root-end resection was performed at 90° to the long axis of the root, 3 mm from the apex. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 12 teeth each for three different root-end cavity preparation techniques to be used, i.e. tungsten carbide bur, diamond bur and ultrasonic diamond retro tip. Thermocouples were used to measure temperature changes at 1 mm (T1 and 3 mm (T2 to the cutting plane during the preparations. Results. For T1, the lowest and the highest mean temperature increases of 3.53°C and 4.34°C were recorded for the carbide and diamond burs, respectively. For T2, the lowest and the highest mean temperature increases of 2.62°C and 4.39°C where recorded for the carbide and diamond burs, respectively. The mean temperatures with the ultrasonic tip were 3.68 and 3.04 ºC at T1 and T2 region, respectively. For root-end preparation, the ultrasonic preparation technique took the shortest preparation time (10.25 sec and the diamond bur took the longest time (28.17 sec. Conclusion. Ultrasonic retro tips and burs caused temperature to rise from 2.62° to 4.39°C, and these rises were within safety levels.

  17. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Zhao; Xiao-Hong Liu; Tetsuhide Ito; Jia-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats.METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection.The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level,local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin.RESULTS: In the Cerulein+Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed,the pancreatic wet weight (11.60±0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490±43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P<0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P<0.01). PBF dropped to 38%(93±5 Ml/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein+Stressgroup and partly recovered in the Cerulein+Stress+Rhubarb 150 mg group (135±12 Ml/min per 100 g) (P<0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats.The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb treated group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas,improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion.

  18. [Therapeutic potential of ginseng root preparations in treating diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, E B

    2009-01-01

    Biologically active substances of some medicinal plants (ginseng, rhodiola, eleutherococcus, etc.) classified as adaptogens possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. In additional to influencing the central nervous system (antistressor, psychotonic, and nootropic effects), these substances also affect various internal organs. The present review of published data shows that, in particular, ginseng root preparations possess pronounced antidiabetic properties and, hence, can be more widely used in clinical endocrinology.

  19. Data fusion of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra for identification of rhubarb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoyong; Zhu, Ruohua

    2017-01-01

    Rhubarb has different medicinal efficacy to official rhubarb and may affect the clinical medication safety. In order to guarantee the quality of rhubarb, we established a method to distinguish unofficial rhubarbs. 52 official and unofficial rhubarb samples were analyzed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for classification. The feature vectors, which were selected by wavelet compression (WC) and interval partial least squares (iPLS) from NIR, MIR spectra, were fused together for identifying rhubarb samples. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were compared for classifying rhubarb. The use of data fusion strategies improved the classification model and allowed correct classification of all the samples.

  20. Mechanisms of therapeutic effects of rhubarb on gut origin sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN De-chang; WANG Lü

    2009-01-01

    @@ It is proposed that gut-liver-lung axis plays an important role in the pathophysiologic development of the critical illness, and it induces excessive inflammatory response in vivo and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The mechanisms of therapeutic effects of rhubarb on critical patients are studied based on the theory of Chinese traditional medicine.

  1. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Liang Cui

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein, at a low concentration, antagonized the MMP9-induced HUVEC monolayer permeability by promoting HUVEC proliferation and reducing extracellular VE-cadherin concentrations.

  2. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Liang Cui; Sheng Zhang; Zhao-Tao Tian; Zhao-Fen Lin; De-Chang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background:Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis.Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies.In a previous study,we showed that rhubarb,a traditional Chinese medicine,protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia.In this study,we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability.Methods:Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches.The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),carbon-13 NMR,and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy.We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert.We measured the HUVEC permeability,proliferation,and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay,3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,respectively,in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers.Results:A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified.MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer,which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin,3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid,1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose,daucosterol linoleate,and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer).Mechanistically,the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation.In addition,MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium,which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture.Conclusions:The rhubarb mixture of emodin,3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid,1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl

  3. Assessment of three root canal preparation techniques on root canal geometry using micro-computed tomography: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikha M Al-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effects of three root canal preparation techniques on canal volume and surface area using three-dimensionally reconstructed root canals in extracted human maxillary molars. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted Human Maxillary Molars having three separate roots and similar root shape were randomly selected from a pool of extracted teeth for this study and stored in normal saline solution until used. A computed tomography scanner (Philips Brilliance CT 64-slice was used to analyze root canals in extracted maxillary molars. Specimens were scanned before and after canals were prepared using stainless steel K-Files, Ni-Ti rotary ProTaper and rotary SafeSiders instruments. Differences in dentin volume removed, the surface area, the proportion of unchanged area and canal transportation were calculated using specially developed software. Results: Instrumentation of canals increased volume and surface area. Statistical analysis found a statistically significant difference among the 3 groups in total change in volume (P = 0.001 and total change in surface area (P = 0.13. Significant differences were found when testing both groups with group III (SafeSiders. Significant differences in change of volume were noted when grouping was made with respect to canal type (in MB and DB (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current study used computed tomography, an innovative and non destructive technique, to illustrate changes in canal geometry. Overall, there were few statistically significant differences between the three instrumentation techniques used. SafeSiders stainless steel 40/0.02 instruments exhibit a greater cutting efficiency on dentin than K-Files and ProTaper. CT is a new and valuable tool to study root canal geometry and changes after preparation in great details. Further studies with 3D-techniques are required to fully understand the biomechanical aspects of root canal preparation.

  4. Sealing ability of retrofilling materials following various root-end cavity preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Aktuna, Serkan; Görücü, Jale; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the sealing efficacy of the retrograde cavity preparations prepared and filled with different equipment and materials. In the study, low speed burs, ultrasonic or Er, Cr:YSGG laser devices were used for cavity preparations and ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus as filling materials. Seventy-eight single-rooted teeth were instrumented, root filled, and grouped. Root-end cavities were prepared and filled by using the following: Group 1: Low-speed carbide bur + ProRoot MTA; Group 2: Low-speed bur + MTA-Angelus; Group 3: Ultrasonic retrotips + ProRoot MTA; Group 4: Ultrasonic retrotips + MTA-Angelus; Group 5: Er, Cr:YSGG laser tips + ProRoot MTA; Group 6: Er, Cr:YSGG laser tips + MTA-Angelus. Microleakage was measured using a fluid filtration technique. Differences in the fluid movement among groups were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and LSD test. The results showed a significant difference between the groups prepared with laser and carbide bur (p  0.05). According to the results of the study, the cavities prepared with Er, Cr:YSGG laser demonstrated significantly lower microleakage in all the filling materials considered.

  5. Clinical and Experimental Study of Effects of Rhubarb on Gastrointestinal Blood Flow Perfusion in Critical Illness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rhubarb on gastrointestinal blood perfusion in critical illness and hemorrhagic shocked rats.Methods: Clinical Study: Sixty-four septic patients, who suffered from stress ulcer, were treated with rhubarb at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Twenty-five non-septic patients were taken as control. The gastrointestinal perfusion was evaluated by intramural pH (pHi). Animal study: SD rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood-letting were performed in the animals. Blood pressure reduced to 5.32 kPa and maintained for 120 mins. They were resuscitated at the end of shock by reinfusing all of the shed blood. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control, shock group, therapeutic group (shocked rats were treated with 50 mg/kg rhubarb at the end of shock) and rhubarb group (normal rats were treated with rhubarb). Laser Doppler was applied to estimate the gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Results: Clinical Study: The gastrointestinal pHi in septic patients was much lower than that in the control, whereas rhubarb could obviously elevate gastrointestinal pHi (P<0.001). In addition, rhubarb also had good effect on gastric hemorrhage caused by stress ulcer. Animal Study: Although the shocked rats were resuscitated completely, their gastrointestinal blood perfusion was much lower than that in the control. Rhubarb could significantly improve the blood perfusion in gastrointestinal mucosa and mesentery (P<0.01). Furthermore, rhubarb also increase the gastrointestinal perfusion in normal rats. Conclusion: Rhubarb could improve gastrointestinal blood perfusion in critical illness and shocked rats.

  6. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  7. Root Canal Anatomy Visualization using Three-Dimensional Computed- Tomography and Transparent Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Silin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT is used to analyze the topography of the root canal anatomy in order to make a decision in choosing root canal preparation method. There is a method that make extracted teeth transparent maintaining its anatomical shape and size. It is important to compare the accuracy of the two visualization methods. Objective: To compare the transmission accuracy of root canals anatomy by two visualization methods, three-dimensional CT and transparent tooth preparation. Methods: Mandibular third molar was used as sample. The three-dimensional CT scan was performed before extracting the teeth. Then teeth were extracted and placed in solutions that made them transparent. Results: Despite the fact that the character of dental origin in terms of the angle of the crown, the curvature of the crown, the deviation of the root showed in three-dimensional CT, other tooth anatomical parameters were equally well detected using a transparent tooth preparation. Overall, the curvature of the root canals is more clearly shown by transparent tooth preparation. Conclusion: Transparent tooth preparation provides superior visualization of real root canal anatomy compared to three-dimensional CT, however the later could give us more information about the relation of the tooth within the jaw.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.152

  8. Comparison of Curved Root Canals Prepared with Various Chelating Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Dental ,  Philadelphia,  PA,  USA). After instrumentation, lengths were re-measured and all the teeth were re-scanned. Using computer software... teeth , intra-operative complications were shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of initial treatment (2). In teeth where the canal anatomy ...is altered during retreatment, healing is significantly decreased compared to when canal anatomy is respected (3). Teeth with complex root canal

  9. Inhibitory effect of rhubarb on intestinal α-glucosidase activity in type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Type 1 diabetes, α-Glucosidase activity, Acarbose®, Rhubarb, Postprandial glucose level ... intestinal absorption of carbohydrates [3]. Type 1 diabetes, which is caused by insulin deficiency ... novel drugs with high activity and low.

  10. Push-out bond strength of two root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or ultrasonic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Razmi, Hasan; Fekrazad, Reza; Asgary, Saeed; Neshati, Ammar; Assadian, Hadi; Kheirieh, Sanam

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new endodontic cement (NEC) as root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic technique (US) or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (L). Eighty single-rooted extracted human teeth were endodontically treated, apicectomised and randomly divided into four following groups (n = 20): US/MTA, US/NEC, L/MTA and L/NEC. In US/MTA and US/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared with ultrasonic retrotip and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. In L/MTA and L/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared using Er,Cr:YSGG laser and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. Each root was cut apically to create a 2 mm-thick root slice for measurement of bond strength using a universal testing machine. Then, all slices were examined to determine the mode of bond failure. Data were analysed using two-way anova. Root-end filling materials showed significantly higher bond strength in root-end cavities prepared using ultrasonic technique (US/MTA and US/NEC) (P ultrasonically prepared cavities. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  11. Influence of root curvature’s initial position on apical deviation occurrence after oscillatory preparation in simulated root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago André Fontoura de Melo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of root curvature’s initial position on apical deviation occurrence after oscillatory system preparation. Material and methods: For this purpose, we used twenty simulated root canals with 21 mm length and 30 degree angle, which were divided into two experimental groups according to curvature’s initial position: 8 mm (group A and 12 mm (group B short of the canal orifice. The canals were prepared using crown-down technique, and memory instrument was size #30. For apical deviation analysis, before and after preparation, canals were filled with Indian ink and standardly photographed with the aid of a platform. After that, the images were manipulated by Adobe Photoshop® software, through superimposing pre- and post-operative images. Deviation occurrence was measured 1 mm short of working length and at the middle of the curvature by using the ruler tool. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. Results: Although group B showed a significantly greater deviation mean than group A, no significant interaction was verified between the analysis site and the experimental group. Conclusion: According to the present data, it could be observed that the smaller the curvature radius, the greater the deviation. Concerning to the analysis site, it could be noted that the area 1 mm short of working length presented a higher deviation than the point at the middle of the curvature.

  12. The protective and toxic effects of rhubarb tannins and anthraquinones in treating hexavalent chromium-injured rats: the Yin/Yang actions of rhubarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Lin-dong; Li, Rui-sheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Li, Qi; Jiang, Bing-qian; Pu, Shi-biao; Lü, Yang; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-02-15

    Chromium nephrotoxicity (CrNT) is thought to occur through the oxidant lesion mechanism. There is still a lack of specific remedies against CrNT. We primarily screened Chinese herbal medicines with a potential protective effect against CrNT, e.g., rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.). However, the active constituents in rhubarb and its mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the total rhubarb extract (TR) was successively separated into three parts: total anthraquinone extract (TA), total tannin extract (TT) and remaining component extract (RC). The effects of each extract on the potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7))-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were comparatively assessed. The results showed that only the administration of TT protected the kidney function in K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-injured rats. Besides, TT showed significant activity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, which is considered to be the dominant lesion product generated by hexavalent chromium. TT also showed a reduced ability to transform toxic high valence chromium ions into non-toxic low valence ions. And TT was able to further precipitate chromium ions. These results suggested that rhubarb tannins treat CrNT as a free radical scavenger, reductant, and metal precipitant. The multiple protective routes of the plant tannins reveal a superior option for development into a promising natural remedy against CrNT. In addition, the opposite effects of rhubarb anthraquinones in treating CrNT were observed compared to rhubarb tannins, which suggested the duo-directional effects (Yin and Yang) of herbal medicines should be addressed.

  13. [Studies on purgative activity of rhubarb extracts by different technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhihua; Zhu, Chenchen; Gui, Shuhua; Lin, Chaozhan

    2002-08-01

    To study on purgative activity of rhubarb extracts by solvent extraction, SFE-CO2 and SFE-CO2 & residue resin purification. The effects of the extracts by the three technologies on creepage of mouse small intestine and rat large intestine were studied by injecting charcoal ink into the intestines. And the volume of the mouse small intestine was observed. The effects of the extracts were also studied on water absorption of mouse small intestine and large intestine by weighing the intestines. The purgative activity of the extracts by the three technologies was SFE-CO2 & residue resin purification > solvent extraction > SFE-CO2. Extracting different polar components separately might get a good result.

  14. Comparison of the effect of various irrigants on apically extruded debris after root canal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Jalali, Shahrzad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Abbott, Paul Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Several factors can influence the amount of apically extruded debris. The aim was to quantitatively compare the amount of debris extruded apically from root canals when 3 different irrigants were used during canal preparation with rotary instruments. Ninety-one extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth with straight root canals were used. The teeth were randomly divided into 1 control group (group 1, n = 4) and 3 experimental groups of 29 teeth each. Hero 642 instruments were used for root canal preparation in all teeth, and 3 different irrigants were used (group 2, 2% chlorhexidine; group 3, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite; group 4, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite). Seven Eppendorf tubes served as a second control group. Debris extruded from the apical foramen during root canal preparation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data obtained were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference. Group 3 (sodium hypochlorite 5.25%) had the highest amount of extruded debris, which was significantly different from the other groups (P irrigant used can affect the amount of apically extruded debris. The 5.25% solution of sodium hypochlorite had the greatest amount of debris. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. Materials and Methods The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Conclusions Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation. PMID:28194361

  16. Effect of dexamethasone, anisodamine and rhubarb therapy on rats with acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zheng'an; Ji Zongzheng; Wang Zhidong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of dexamethasone, anisodamine and rhubarb (DAR) on endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and pancreatic damage in rat models of acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods: The AP rat models were prepared and randomly assigned to AP group (n=10) and DAR group (n=10), while other healthy rats were assigned to the sham-operated group (n=10). The rats were euthanized at 6 h after operation, and then the serum levels of endotoxin, TNF-a, IL-6 and histology of pancreas were determined as the indexes of therapeutic effects. Results: At 6 h after operation, serum levels of endotoxin, TNF-a and IL-6, and pancreatic damage were significantly increased in AP group compared with those in sham-operated group (P

  17. Rhubarb extract has a protective role against radiation-induced brain injury and neuronal cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kui; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Wenjun; Zhou, Min; Tang, Yamei; Peng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress caused by ionizing radiation is involved in neuronal damage in a number of disorders, including trauma, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals, which cause neuronal apoptosis and have important roles in the development of some types of chronic brain disease. The present study evaluated the effects of varying concentrations (2, 5 and 10 µg/ml) of ethanolic rhubarb extract on the neuronal damage caused by irradiation in primary neuronal cultures obtained from the cortices of rat embryos aged 20 days. Brain damage was induced with a single dose of γ-irradiation that induced DNA fragmentation, increased lactate dehydrogenase release in neuronal cells and acted as a trigger for microglial cell proliferation. Treatment with rhubarb extract significantly decreased radiation-induced lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation, which are important in the process of cell apoptosis. The rhubarb extract exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase release and neuronal cell apoptosis that were induced by the administration of ionizing radiation. The effect of a 10 µg/ml dose of rhubarb extract on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by radiation was also investigated. This dose led to significant inhibition of ROS generation. In conclusion, the present study showed a protective role of rhubarb extract against irradiation-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ROS generation.

  18. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared w...

  19. Comparison of Dentinal Crack Formation With Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper Root Canal Preparation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Instrumentation with rotary instruments could potentially cause dentinal cracks possibly leading to tooth fracture. Reciproc files require a single file to finalize the root canal preparation and the effect of this procedure has not been compared with other systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro-cracks following root canal preparations with ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc files. Materials and Methods In an experimental in vitro trial, 80 maxillary and mandibular first molars were selected and their crowns and distal roots were cut. The roots were then examined to remove any previous cracks and defects. An impression polyether material was used to simulate teeth periodontal ligament (PDL. The teeth were divided to four experimental groups (n = 20 and prepared using Reciproc, Mtwo and ProTaper or remained unprepared as a control group. The specimens were then sectioned horizontally on 3, 5 and 9 mm from the apex and number of micro-cracks was determined by stereomicroscope. The incidence of dentinal cracks on different systems or sections were statistically analyzed by means of the chi-square test. Results Dentinal defects on 3-mm, 5-mm and 9-mm sections from the apex were noted in 10 (5.6%; 7 (3.9% and 9 (5.0% samples of all, respectively. Following canal preparation using Reciproc, ProTaper and Mtwo systems, the defects were observed in 7 (3.9%, 12 (6.7% and 7 (3.9% the sections, respectively. No significant differences were observed regarding the defect incidence on the studied instrumentation files or sections. Conclusions Regarding the study limitations, dentinal cracks were observed in all files and distances from the apex. Although there was more crack incidence in ProTaper files, no significant differences were noted regarding the studied systems and sections from the apex.

  20. Clinical Study on Rhubarb Extract Tablet in Treating Simple Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical efficacy of Jinghuang tablet (Rhubarb extract tablet, RET) in treating simple obesity. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-two simple obesity patients were randomly divided into 3 pairs of groups: (1) RET-2 treated group (50 cases): treated with RET vs western drug fenfluramine control group (50 cases). (2) RET treated group vs Chinese patent drug Xiaopangmei (XPM) control group with 50 cases randomly divided into each. (3) RET-1 treated group with 137 cases vs blank control of 135 cases. The aim was to observe markedly effective rate, effective rate and side-effect of RET group and fenfluramine and XPM control groups. At the same time, the slimming efficacy of RET-1 treated group and the blank control group were observed. Results: The slimming effective rate of RET is similar to that of fenfluramine (P<0.05), and better than domestically well accepted slimming Chinese patent drug XPM (P<0.05). In comparing RET-1 group with blank control group, the difference of weight loss of the 2 groups after 1 week treatment was 0.93 kg on average, which was significant. Conclusion: The efficacy of RET in treating simple obesity was similar to that of fenfluramine, but the side-effect was obviously less than that of fenfluramine, while the markedly effective rate and effective rate in slimming were significantly better than that of XPM.

  1. Assessment of the Centralization of Root Canal Preparation with Rotary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Daniela Siqueira; Pessoa, Mariana Albuquerque Veiga

    2016-01-01

    Objective Apical deviations are important factors in endodontic therapy, since they can cause the treatment failure. The aim of the present study was to determine the centering capacity of ProTaper Universal™, Twisted File™ and Revo-S® rotary systems using cone beam computed tomography analysis before and after the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods Thirty mesiobuccal roots from human lower first molars were divided into three groups of ten: Group 1 - ProTaper Universal™ Rotary System; Group 2 - Twisted File™ Rotary System; and Group 3 - Revo-S® Rotary System. All teeth were scanned using computed tomography to determine the condition of the root canal before and after instrumentation (4mm, 3mm and 2mm from the root apex). Images were made using ICAT VISION software for both instrumented and non-instrumented canals. Results The results were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test for quantitative variables. Comparisons were made with two groups (Mann-Whitney - abnormal) and with more than two groups (Kruskal Wallis - abnormal). The level of significance was set at pProTaper Universal” and “Twisted File” systems. For the Twisted File system, a statistically significant difference was recorded between the measurements of 4mm and 3 mm. Conclusion None of the assessed instruments was completely effective in terms of the biomechanical preparation of root canals since all created deviation from the original anatomy of the canal. PMID:27847398

  2. Comparison of the effect of Er, Cr-YSGG laser and ultrasonic retrograde root-end cavity preparation on the integrity of root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid R; Shahi, Shahriar; Zand, Vahid; Shakoui, Sahar; Reyhani, Mohammad F; Pirzadeh, Ahmad

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Waterlase laser and ultrasonic root end cavity preparation on the integrity of root end in extracted human teeth. The canals of 60 extracted maxillary central incisors were cleaned, shaped, obturated and 3 mm of the root end was resected and examined for the presence of any cracks. Class I root-end cavities were then prepared using an ultrasonic unit or Waterlase laser. In the ultrasonic group, KIS 2D tip and medium intensity and in the laser group, 600 mum laser tips and an output power setting of 4 W with 55% water and 65% air were used to prepare the cavity which was studied for the presence of any cracks or chippings. One crack was found in the ultrasonic group, while no cracks were observed in the laser group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). As for the chipping effect, seven cases (23%) had chipping after cavity preparation in the ultrasonic group but no chipping was found in the specimens of the laser group and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). According to the results of this in vitro study, laser preserves the integrity of root-end cavities better than ultrasonic devices from the standpoint of producing chipping.

  3. Evaluation of dentinal defects during root canal preparation using thermomechanically processed nickel-titanium files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesim, Bertan; Sagsen, Burak; Aslan, Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of root cracks after root canal instrumentation with thermomechanically processed nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files with different instrumentation kinematics. A total of 150 extracted mandibular premolars with mature apices and straight root canals were divided into five groups and used in this study. In Group 1, 30 teeth were prepared using hand K-files and assigned to control group, Group 2 was instrumented using K3XF Rotary files (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA) with continuous rotary motion. The teeth in Group 3 were instrumented by ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) rotary files which make asymmetric rotary motion, In Group 4, teeth were instrumented by RECIPROC (VDW, Munich, Germany) with reciprocation motion and in Group 5, teeth were instrumented by Twisted File (TF) Adaptive (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) files that use combination of continuous rotation and reciprocation motion (n = 30/per group). All the roots were horizontally sectioned 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex with a low speed saw under water cooling. Then, the slices were examined through a stereomicroscope to determine the presence of dentinal microcracks. For the apical (3-mm) and coronal (9-mm) sections, the ProTaper Next and TF Adaptive produced significantly more cracks than the hand files, RECIPROC, and K3XF (P 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, all thermal-treated Ni-Ti instruments and hand files caused microcracks in root canal dentin.

  4. Effect of rhubarb on contractile response of gallbladder smooth muscle strips isolated from guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Luo; Jun-Wei Zeng; Mei Yu; Yu-Ling Wei; Song-Yi Qu; Wei Li; Tian Zhen Zheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of rhubarb on contractile response of isolated gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pigs and its mechanism.METHODS: Guinea pigs were killed to remove the whole gallbladder. Two or three smooth muscle strips (8 mm×3mm) were cut along the longitudinal direction. The mucosa on each strip was carefully removed. Each longitudinal muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing 5 mL Krebs solution (37 ℃), bubbled continuously with 950 mL/L O2 and 50 mL/L CO2. The resting tension (g), mean contractile amplitude (mm),and contractile frequency (waves/min) were simultaneously recorded on recorders. After 2-h equilibration, rhubarb (10, 20, 70, 200, 700, 1 000 g/L) was added cumulatively to the tissue chamber in turns every 2 min to observe their effects on gallbladder.Antagonists were given 3 min before administration of rhubarb to investigate the possible mechanism.RESULTS: Rhubarb increased the resting tension (from 0 to 0.40±0.02, P<0.001), and decreased the mean contractile amplitude (from 5.22±0.71 to 2.73±0.41,P<0.001). It also increased the contractile frequency of the gallbladder muscle strips in guinea pigs (from 4.09±0.46to 6.08±0.35, P<0.001). The stimulation of rhubarb on the resting tension decreased from 3.98±0.22 to 1.58±0.12by atropine (P<0.001), from3.98±0.22 to 2.09±0.19 by verapamil (P<0.001) and from 3.98±0.22 to 2.67±0.43by phentolamine (P<0.005). But the effect was not inhibited by hexamethonium (P>0.05). In addition, the action of mean amplitude and frequency was not inhibited by the above antagonists.CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can stimulate the motility of isolated gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pigs. The stimulation of rhubarb might be relevant with M receptor,Ca2+ channel and α receptor partly.

  5. Irrigation of human prepared root canal – ex vivo based computational fluid dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnjarić, Damir; Čarija, Zoran; Braut, Alen; Halaji, Adelaida; Kovačević, Maja; Kuiš, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Aim To analyze the influence of the needle type, insertion depth, and irrigant flow rate on irrigant flow pattern, flow velocity, and apical pressure by ex-vivo based endodontic irrigation computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Methods Human upper canine root canal was prepared using rotary files. Contrast fluid was introduced in the root canal and scanned by computed tomography (CT) providing a three-dimensional object that was exported to the computer-assisted design (CAD) software. Two probe points were established in the apical portion of the root canal model for flow velocity and pressure measurement. Three different CAD models of 27G irrigation needles (closed-end side-vented, notched open-end, and bevel open-end) were created and placed at 25, 50, 75, and 95% of the working length (WL). Flow rates of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL/s were simulated. A total of 60 irrigation simulations were performed by CFD fluid flow solver. Results Closed-end side-vented needle required insertion depth closer to WL, regarding efficient irrigant replacement, compared to open-end irrigation needle types, which besides increased velocity produced increased irrigant apical pressure. For all irrigation needle types and needle insertion depths, the increase of flow rate was followed by an increased irrigant apical pressure. Conclusions The human root canal shape obtained by CT is applicable in the CFD analysis of endodontic irrigation. All the analyzed values –irrigant flow pattern, velocity, and pressure – were influenced by irrigation needle type, as well as needle insertion depth and irrigant flow rate. PMID:23100209

  6. Reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of canal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Moshari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in curved root canals after various sizes and tapers of the canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars (n = 103 with curved mesiobuccal canals were divided into one control (n = 5 and 7 experimental (n = 14 groups, were inoculated with E. faecalis (ATTC 29212 and prepared with the following RaCe files (FKG Dentaire as master apical file: Groups: 25.04, 25.06, 30.04, 30.06, 35.04, 35.06 and 40.06. All the experimental groups were irrigated with 2 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation and finally rinsed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (2 mL followed by 5.25% NaOCl (2 mL and sterile distilled water. Colony counting was performed after incubation. Statistical Analysis Used: Resulting data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey′s post-hoc test, (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: All the experimental groups showed significant bacterial reduction (P < 0.001. Although the greater the size/taper or both led to more decreased amount of bacteria, differences between the groups with the identical size and different tapers, and among the groups with the same taper and different sizes were not significant. Based on this study, 25.04 along with using 2 mL of 1% NaOCl during instrumentation, and using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl as final rinse successively after the termination of preparation, can effectively reduce intra-canal bacteria and preserve root structure.

  7. Geometric analysis of root canals prepared by four rotary NiTi shaping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Ghoneim, Angie Galal; Lutfy, Reem Ahmed; Foda, Manar Yehia; Omar, Gihan Abdel Fatah

    2012-07-01

    A great number of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems with noncutting tips, different cross-sections, superior resistance to torsional fracture, varying tapers, and manufacturing method have been introduced to the market. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 4 rotary NiTi preparation systems, Revo-S (RS; Micro-Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), Twisted file (TF; SybronEndo, Amersfoort, The Netherlands), ProFile GT Series X (GTX; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProTaper (PT; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), on volumetric changes and transportation of curved root canals. Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from 25° to 40° were divided according to the instrument used in canal preparation into 4 groups of 10 samples each: group RS, group TF, group GTX, and group PT. Canals were scanned using an i-CAT CBCT scanner (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA) before and after preparation to evaluate the volumetric changes. Root canal transportation and centering ratio were evaluated at 1.3, 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mm from the apex. The significance level was set at P ≤ .05. The PT system removed a significantly higher amount of dentin than the other systems (P = .025). At the 1.3-mm level, there was no significant difference in canal transportation and centering ratio among the groups. However, at the other levels, TF maintained the original canal curvature recording significantly the least degree of canal transportation as well as the highest mean centering ratio. The TF system showed superior shaping ability in curved canals. Revo-S and GTX were better than ProTaper regarding both canal transportation and centering ability. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinones in rhubarbs by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shao-yin; Yao, Wen-xin; Ji, Wen-yuan; Wei, Jia-qi; Peng, Shi-qi

    2013-12-01

    Rhubarb is well known in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) mainly due to its effective purgative activity. Anthraquinones, including anthraquinone derivatives and their glycosides, are thought to be the major active components in rhubarb. To improve the quality control method of rhubarb, we studied on the extraction method, and did qualitative and quantitative analysis of widely used rhubarbs, Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. and Rheum palmatum L., by HPLC-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-mass spectrum (HPLC-MS) on a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). Amount of five anthraquinones was viewed as the evaluating standard. A standardized characteristic fingerprint of rhubarb was provided. From the quantitative analysis, the rationality was demonstrated for ancestors to use these two species of rhubarb equally. Under modern extraction methods, the amount of five anthraquinones in Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. is higher than that in Rheum palmatum L. Among various extraction methods, ultrasonication with 70% methanol for 30 min is a promising one. For HPLC analysis, mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water with a gradient program, the detection wavelength at 280nm for fingerprinting analysis and 254 nm for quantitative analysis are good choices.

  9. Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: measuring cyclic fatigue and other physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ove A; Kappeler, Stefan; Bucher, Willi; Barbakow, Fred

    2002-04-01

    An increasing number of engine-driven rotary systems are marketed to shape root canals. Although these systems may improve the quality of canal preparations, the risk for instrument fracture is also increased. Unfortunately, the stresses generated in rotary instruments when shaping curved root canals have not been adequately studied. Consequently, the aim of an ongoing project was to develop a measurement platform that could more accurately detail physical parameters generated in a simulated clinical situation. Such a platform was constructed by fitting a torque-measuring device between the rotating endodontic instrument and the motor driving it. Apically directed force and instrument insertion depth were also recorded. Additional devices were constructed to assess cyclic fatigue and static fracture loads. The current pilot study evaluated GT rotary instruments during the shaping of curved canals in plastic blocks as well as "ISO 3630-1 torque to fracture" and number of rotations required for fatigue fracture. Results indicated that torques in excess of 40 Nmm were generated by rotary GT-Files, a significantly higher figure than static fracture loads (less than 13 Nmm for the size 20. 12 GT-File). Furthermore, the number of rotations needed to shape simulated canals with a 5 mm radius of curvature in plastic blocks was 10 times lower than the number of rotations needed to fracture instruments in a "cyclic fatigue test". Apical forces were always greater than 1 N, and in some specimens, scores of 8 N or more were recorded. Further studies are required using extracted natural teeth, with their wide anatomical variation, in order to reduce the incidence of fracture of rotary instruments. In this way, the clinical potential of engine-driven rotary instruments to safely prepare curved canals can be fully appreciated.

  10. [Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: a platform to assess physical parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, O A; Kappeler, S; Bucher, W; Barbakow, F

    2001-01-01

    The number of engine-driven rotary instruments available on the market is steadily increasing. These instruments enable clinicians to prepare better shaped root canals, however, rotary instruments have a higher risk for fracture than hand instruments. Unfortunately, the stresses placed on engine-driven rotary instruments in curved canals are insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to develop a device which could measure more accurately the physical parameters influencing rotary instruments in curved canals. For this purpose, a specially designed machine was constructed to measure the torque which develops between the rotary instrument and the motor. Apical forces and penetration depths could also be directly measured in real time. A variety of other measurements was also possible because of other special set-ups integrated into the device. In the current study torque was assessed for GT-Files, size 35 with a .12 and sizes 20 with a .12 to .06 taper. In additions to preparations in simulated canals in plastic blocks, the "ISO 3630-1 specification for fracture moment" and "number of cycles till fatigue fracture" was measured. The findings indicated that when instruments were used for preparations, torques up to 40 Nmm were present. This exceeded the static fracture load, which was less than than 13 Nmm for the size 20 with .12 taper. In contrast, the number of rotations were more than 10 times lower when shaping canals in plastic blocks with a 5 mm radius of curvature than the number of rotations to fracture in the "cyclic fatigue test". This suggests that a GT-instrument could be used in ten canals. The apical force was always greater than 1 N and occasionally, 8 N or more was recorded. Further studies on natural teeth with varying canal geometries are required using the specially developed torsional machine to reduce the incidence of instrument fracture. In this way an efficient clinical potential can be confirmed for engine-driven rotary instruments in

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  12. Protective Effect of Rhubarb on Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 周景; 桂培春; 何新华

    2001-01-01

    To approach the mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in causing acute lung injury (ALI) and the protective effect of rhubarb and dexamethasone, lung specimens were examined with macroscopy, microscopy, electron microscopy and the biological markers of ALI including lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary capillary permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index were observed. The mechanism of the ALI is mainly due to direct injury of alveolar epithelium and pulmonary vascular endothelium. Rhubarb and dexamethasone could significantly reduce the edema of the lung tissue, decrease the red blood cell exudation, neutrophil infiltration and plasma protein exudation in the alveoli and all the biological markers in comparison with the ALI model rats, indicating they have protective action on vascular endothelium and alveolar epithelium.

  13. [Delphi-based study on scientificity of organoleptic evaluation for rhubarb commercial specification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabo; Zhang, Xueru; Chu, Xiaohui; Huang, Mingjin; Jin, Cheng; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe; Liu, Tasi

    2010-10-01

    In this study the reliability and scientificity of organoleptic evaluation for the commercial specification of Chinese medicinal materials (CMM) was investigated with Delphi method, using rhubarb as an example. The consensus panel of panelists being expert in organoleptic evaluation for CMM was cogitatively selected, with high average authority index of 0.81. The average individual repeatability of selected panelists was 85%, while the group repeatability was above 70%. It was found that the career time of the expert had significant influence on the evaluation result (P specification of rhubarb. In conclusion, we firstly demonstrated the organoleptic evaluation is an objective and repeatable approach to judge the commercial specification of CMM; and we recommend Delphi method to do validation and standardization for the conventional experiences of traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Koutstaal, B.P.

    2000-01-01

    Root length and diameter distribution are important characteristics to be considered when describing and comparing root systems. Root length and root-diameter distribution may be obtained in two ways: by microscopical measurements, which are laborious, or by computerised analysis, which is fast but

  15. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenor, Sandro [COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); LAQUE, Universite Quisqueya d' Haiti, Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Carene, Betty [COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); Emmanuel, Evens [LAQUE, Universite Quisqueya d' Haiti, Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, UMR 7564 CNRS-Nancy Universities, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F 54600 Villers-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Gaspard, Sarra, E-mail: sgaspard@univ-ag.fr [COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France)

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X{sub P} (g H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m{sup 2}/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm{sup 3}/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) and the normalized standard deviation {Delta}q (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse

  16. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  17. Rhubarb Anthraquinones Protect Rats against Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2-Induced Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg causes severe nephrotoxicity in subjects with excess exposure. This work attempted to identify whether a natural medicine—rhubarb—has protective effects against mercuric chloride (HgCl2-induced acute renal failure (ARF, and which of its components contributed most to the treatment. Total rhubarb extract (TR were separated to the total anthraquinones (TA, the total tannins (TT and remaining component extract (RC. Each extract was orally pre-administered to rats for five successive days followed by HgCl2 injection to induce kidney injury. Subsequently, renal histopathology and biochemical examinations were performed in vitro to evaluate the protective effects. Pharmacological studies showed that TR and TA, but not TT or RC manifested significant protection activity against HgCl2-induced ARF. There were also significant declines of serum creatine, urea nitrogen values and increases of total protein albumin levels in TR and TA treated groups compared to HgCl2 alone (p < 0.05. At last, the major components in TA extract were further identified as anthraquinones by liquid chromatography coupled mass spectroscopy. This study thus provides observational evidences that rhubarb could ameliorate HgCl2-induced ARF and its anthraquinones in particular are the effective components responsible for this activity in rhubarb extract.

  18. Quality and flavour stability of coffee substitute prepared by extrusion of wheat germ and chicory roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, H H M; Abdel Mageed, M A; Lotfy, S N

    2008-02-01

    A mixture of roasted chicory roots and wheat germ (1:1 w/w) was subjected to extrusion processing for preparation of coffee substitute. Comparative studies concerning sensory characteristics and headspace volatiles were carried out between genuine coffee and a freshly prepared coffee substitute. The sensory evaluation revealed similarities between the two samples. The comparative odour profile analysis showed that the sweetish/caramel-like note scored higher in our coffee substitute sample than in real coffee, whereas the other odour quality attributes showed an opposite trend. The high quality of the fresh coffee substitute was correlated to the presence of volatiles that are responsible for the fresh coffee aroma, such as: 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylfuran and 2,3-butanedione in high concentration. Storage of coffee substitute samples revealed a noticeable decrease in concentration of the Strecker aldehydes and diketones and a remarkable increase in phenolic compounds, whereas pyrazine and furan derivatives showed no linear changes during storage. The ratio of 2,3-butanedione/2-methylfuran (B/M) was used as an indicator for aging of coffee substitute samples. The variation in this ratio (B/M) during storage for 6 months was consistent with that of the odour profile analysis.

  19. Rhubarb extract partially improves mucosal integrity in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Juliana E; Eden, Georgina L; Lampton, Lorrinne S; Cheah, Ker Y; Lymn, Kerry A; Pei, Jinxin V; Yool, Andrea J; Howarth, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of orally gavaged aqueous rhubarb extract (RE) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in rats. METHODS Female Dark Agouti rats (n = 8/group) were gavaged daily (1 mL) with water, high-dose RE (HDR; 200 mg/kg) or low-dose RE (LDR; 20mg/kg) for eight days. Intestinal mucositis was induced (day 5) with 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection. Intestinal tissue samples were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination. Xenopus oocytes expressing aquaporin 4 water channels were prepared to examine the effect of aqueous RE on cell volume, indicating a potential mechanism responsible for modulating net fluid absorption and secretion in the gastrointestinal tract. Statistical significance was assumed at P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS Bodyweight was significantly reduced in rats administered 5-FU compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01). Rats administered 5-FU significantly increased intestinal MPO levels (≥ 307%; P < 0.001), compared to healthy controls. However, LDR attenuated this effect in 5-FU treated rats, significantly decreasing ileal MPO activity (by 45%; P < 0.05), as compared to 5-FU controls. 5-FU significantly reduced intestinal mucosal thickness (by ≥ 29% P < 0.001) as compared to healthy controls. LDR significantly increased ileal mucosal thickness in 5-FU treated rats (19%; P < 0.05) relative to 5-FU controls. In xenopus oocytes expressing AQP4 water channels, RE selectively blocked water influx into the cell, induced by a decrease in external osmotic pressure. As water efflux was unaltered by the presence of extracellular RE, the directional flow of water across the epithelial barrier, in the presence of extracellular RE, indicated that RE may alleviate water loss across the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal health in chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis. CONCLUSION In summary, low dose RE improves selected parameters of mucosal integrity and reduces ileal

  20. Conversion of dechlorodauricumine into miharumine by a cell-free preparation from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Rieko; Sugimoto, Gen; Matsui, Miharu; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Takikawa, Hirosato; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-02-01

    Dechlorodauricumine (5) and dechloroacutumine (6) were converted to miharumine (7) and dechloroacutumidine (8), respectively, by a cell-free preparation from cultured roots of Menispermum dauricum in the presence of FAD. The structures of 7 and 8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical conversion.

  1. The effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow in root canals evaluated using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Gogos, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Kastrinakis, E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To evaluate the effect of apical preparation size on irrigant flow inside a root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two different needles types, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methodology  A validated CFD model was used to simulate the irrigant flow from either

  2. Clinical results with two different methods of root-end preparation and filling in apical surgery: mineral trioxide aggregate and adhesive resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Hänni, Stefan; Jensen, Simon Storgård

    2010-01-01

    The aim of apical surgery is to hermetically seal the root canal system after root-end resection, thereby enabling periradicular healing. The objective of this nonrandomized prospective clinical study was to report results of 2 different root-end preparation and filling methods, ie, mineral triox...... trioxide aggregate (MTA) and an adhesive resin composite (Retroplast)....

  3. Preparation of Graphene Oxide and Its Mechanism in Promoting Tomato Roots Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jingzhi; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Xuekun; Xie, Lingli; Li, Zhiyang; Yuan, Chengfei; Xu, Benbo; Zhang, Liming

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide is a new kind of nanomaterial. The graphene oxide was prepared and its quality detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), for better understanding of effects of the nanomaterial on plants. Wild type. (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) germplasm 'New Yorker' and corresponding transgenic plants (Prd29A::LeNCED1) were treated with prepared graphene oxide. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is a key gene for ABA biosynthesis and overexpression of the NCED resulted in ABA accumulation and higher drought tolerance. Seminal root length in the WT tomato was longer than that in the control samples when the seedlings were treated with 20 mg/L graphene oxide for 15 days. In contrast, the same treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length in the transgenic plants compared with control samples. The graphene oxide treatments led to lower Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the WT and transgenic plants. 20 mg/L graphene oxide treatment also affected the transcript levels of IAA7, IAA4 and IAA10 but the effect on the wild type and corresponding transgenic plants was different. IAA4 transcription level decreased both in the WT and Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants while the IAA7 transcription level decreased in the transgenic plants and increased in the WT tomato. The IAA10 transcription level decreased in the WT tomato and increased in the Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants. Graphene oxide treatments resulted in higher transcription level of ABCG25 and ABCG40 in the WT plants but had no significant effect on transgenic plants. The transcription level of NCED in the WT and Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants treated with graphene oxide increased significantly, however, it was higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT tomato after 15 d treatment, indicating that the graphene oxide activated the rd29A promoter as does drought and salt. The HD

  4. Clinical and Experimental Study of Effects of Rhubarb on Gastrointestinal Blood Flow Perfusion in Critical Illness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; De-chang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Border JR. Multiple system organ failure. Ann Surg 1992;216(2)∶111-116.[2]Schiessel R, Feil W, Wenzel E. Mechanisms of stress ulceration and implications for treatment. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1990;19(1)∶101-120.[3]CHEN DC, YANG JD, YANG XY, et al. The effects of rhubarb on permeability of intestinal mucosa and blood vessel in shocked rats. Chin Crit Care Med 1997;9(7)∶385-387.[4]CHEN DC, JING BW. The effects of rhubarb on the protection of gut barrier. Chin Crit Care Med 1994;6(6)∶329-331.[5]American College of Chest Physician/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992;20(6)∶864-874.[6]CHEN DC, JING BW, YANG XY, et al. Therapeutic effects of rhubarb on gastrointestinal failure. Med J Chin PLA 1996;21(1)∶24-26.[7]Nakayama SE. Infusion of very hypertonic saline to bled rats: membrane potential and fluid shifts. J Surg Res 1985;38(2)∶180-186.[8]Bulkley GB. Relationship of blood flow and oxygen consumption to ischemic injury in the canine small intestine. Gastroenterology 1985;89(4)∶852-857.[9]Marshall JC, Christon NV, Meakins JL, et al. The gastrointestinal tract: The “undrained abscess” of multiple organ failure. Ann Surg 1993;218(2)∶111-119.[10].Fiddiann-Green RG, McGough E, Pittenger G, et al. Predictive value of intramural pH and other risk factors for massive bleeding from stress ulceration. Gastroenterology. 1983;85(3)∶613-620.[11].ZHU L, YANG ZC, LI A. Changes and significance of the ability of gastric acid excretion during burn shock in rats. Chin Crit Care Med 1997;9(7)∶398-399.[12].JIAO DH, CHEN SX, ZHANG GH, et al. Clinical study of the effects of rhubarb on peptic ulcer with hemorrhage. CJITWM 1984;10(10)∶597-599.[13].YU JD, GONG LS. Effects of rhubarb on thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in circulation blood in healthy people and acute myocardial

  5. Dentinal damage and fracture resistance of oval roots prepared with single-file systems using different kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El Nasr, Hend Mahmoud; Abd El Kader, Karim Galal

    2014-06-01

    Vertical root fracture is a common finding in endodontically treated teeth, notably oval roots. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of instrumentation kinematics and the material of instrument construction of single-file systems on dentin walls and fracture resistance of oval roots. Sixty-five roots with oval canals were allocated into a control group (n = 5) and 3 experimental groups of 20 roots each. Group WO was instrumented with the WaveOne primary file (Dentsply Maillefer, Baillagues, Switzerland), group PT-Rec was prepared with F2 ProTaper files (Dentsply Maillefer, Baillagues, Switzerland) used in a reciprocating motion, and group PT-Rot was prepared with F2 ProTaper files used in a rotation motion. For crack evaluation, half of the samples (n = 30) were embedded in acrylic resin, and the blocks were sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex. The sections were examined under a stereomicroscope and scored for crack presence. The other half of the specimens (n = 30) were obturated using lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AdSeal sealer (Meta Biomed Co, Ltd, Chungbuk, Korea). The specimens were then subjected to a load of 1 mm/min to determine the force required to fracture the roots. WaveOne instruments induced the least amount of cracks and exhibited greatest resistance to fracture compared with ProTaper F2 files whether used in reciprocating or rotating motions. The alloy from which the material is manufactured is a more important factor determining the dentin damaging potential of single-file instruments than the motion of instrumentation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple preparation of lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO₂ and their DSSC performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Yeon; Bae, Sang-Eun; Won, Yong Sun; Huh, Seong

    2015-06-15

    In pursuit of superior TiO2 photoanode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), we prepared lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO2. The lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO2 was easily prepared by using a cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (CTAOH) template in aqueous solution. The crystallization of the as-prepared amorphous lotus-root shaped TiO2 was performed at 700 °C in air. Crystalline anatase phase with a very small portion of rutile phase was generated after the heat treatment at 700 °C and the BET surface area of crystalline lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO2 material (LR-700) was 30.0 m(2) g(-1). The wall of LR-700 displayed well-developed mesoporosity with a pore dimension of 28.3 nm. Periodically arranged microscale one-dimensional (1D) macropores were also observed in the particles. The photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (η) of LR-700 photoanodes in Grätzel type DSSCs were examined. The conversion efficiency of DSSC prepared by mixing nanoparticulate Evonik P25 and LR-700 (ratio=85:150 by mass) was 28% greater compared to the reference electrode using P25. Incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) of the DSSCs were dramatically improved by employing the photoanodes composed of a mixture of P25 and LR-700 but impedance analysis indicated that P25/LR-700 mixed cells have resistances similar to the standard P25 reference cell. Thus, photovoltaic performances could be improved mainly due to the increases of dye uptake and external quantum efficiency by using a mixed photoanode composed of LR-700 and nanocrystalline P25 particles.

  7. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina [University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil); Meurer, Maria Ines [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa, E-mail: silvio@foar.unesp.b [Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 +- 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 +- 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  8. CBCT Assessment of Root Dentine Removal by Gates-Glidden Drills and Two Engine-Driven Root Preparation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Azade; Mohammadpour Maleki, Fatemeh; Moudi, Ehsan; Ehsani, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the dentine removing efficacy of Gates-Glidden drills with hand files, ProTaper and OneShape single-instrument system using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 39 extracted bifurcated maxillary first premolars were divided into 3 groups (n=13) and were prepared using either Gates-Glidden drills and hand instruments, ProTaper and OneShape systems. Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were obtained. The dentin thickness of canals was measured at furcation, and 1 and 2 mm from the furcation area in buccal, palatal, mesial and distal walls. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for two-by-two comparisons. Results: Gates-Glidden drills with hand files removed significantly more (P0.05). Conclusion: The total cervical dentine removal during canal instrumentation was significantly less with engine-driven file systems compared to Gates-Glidden drills. There were no significant differences between residual dentine thicknesses left between the various canal walls. PMID:28179920

  9. Radionuclide content of selected root vegetables as influenced by culinary preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriano, D.C.; Doswell, A.C.; Ciravolo, T.G.; Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study involving root vegetables (carrot, red beet, and turnips) was conducted primarily to evaluate the effect of culinary processing (light washing, scrubbing, and peeling) on the radionuclide content of the edible portions. In terms of concentration ratio of the radionuclides left in roots after peeling, the trend follows: {sup 90}Sr>{sup 137}Cs>>{sup 234}U congruent with {sup 238}U{>=}{sup 238}Pu. The actinide contents in the roots were apparently due to surface adherence of the contaminated soil particulates as indicated by the diminution of the contents upon brushing the surface, which were further decreased by peeling the skin. Rigorous culinary processing of roots, such as scrubbing or peeling, could substantially diminish the contents of the actinides, but not of the more mobile {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs.

  10. Determination of root canal curvatures before and after canal preparation (part II): A method based on numeric calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, D; Stachniss-Carp, S; Stachniss, C; Stachniss, V

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new method based on numeric calculus to provide data on any type of root canal curvature at any point of the long axis of the canal. Twenty severely curved, simulated root canals were prepared with rotary FlexMaster and Profile instruments in the crown-down technique and manually in the step-back technique. The inner and outer curvatures were registered in a system of coordinates before and after preparation in increments of 0.5 mm. Using an equalising function, the curvatures were first represented in graphic and algebraic form. The maximum and the mean curvature as well as the length of the arc from the apical foramen to the point of maximum curvature were determined mathematically. An increase in maximum curvature was registered for all four shaping systems investigated. The radius of the inner curvature decreased by 0.5-1.2 mm in the manual systems as a result of the preparation. The Profile system displayed the smallest changes in radius (-0.9 mm) even with the outer curvature, and manual preparation with stainless steel files the most pronounced change (-1.8 mm). The point of maximum curvature at the inner curvature was displaced by 1.6 mm to the apical foramen through manual preparation with Ni-Ti files. At the outer curvature, the maximum displacement (1.8 mm) recorded was also the result of preparation with Ni-Ti hand files, while a displacement of only 0.3 mm to the apical foramen was recorded with the other systems. The method offers a means of determining curvatures precisely without random specification of reference points. The method is also capable of registering only minor changes in curvature in the two-dimensional long axis of the canal.

  11. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 桂培春; 何新华

    2000-01-01

    Objeaive. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury. Methods. Lipopolysaeeharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasoue group.Macroscopic and histopathological e~aminatiom were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimem. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA. Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P < 0.01),demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasoue and rhubarb emfld decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P< 0.01, P < 0.05) ; the correslxmding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were simifieantlv decreased or ameliorated. Conclusions. The increase of the expression d ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI.The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM-1 m

  12. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE IN LUNG TISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND THE AFFECT OF RHUBARB ON IT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To approach the relation and the possible mechanism between the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA and acute lung injury (ALI) and the mechanisms of rhubarb in the prevention and treatment of the lung injury.Methods. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. The rats were divided into 4 groups: LPS group, control group, rhubarb group and dexamethasone group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed and biological markers were measured for the lung specimens. The markers included lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index. Molecular hybridization method was used to determine the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA.Results. In the lung tissues, the ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased in the endothelial cells of pulmonary veins and capillaries, rhubarb and dexamethasone had the action of decreasing the expression. The light reflex value in the gray scale scanning showed that in the comparison between the LPS and the control group, the gray scale value of the lung tissues in ALI was significantly increased, thus the light reflex value was markedly decreased (P<0.01), demonstrating the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA was increased. In comparison with the LPS group, dexamethasone and rhubarb could decrease the gray scale value of the lung tissue significantly, thus the light reflex value was elevated (P<0.01, P<0.05); the corresponding pathologic changes of lung tissues and the biological markers of the lung injury were significantly decreased or ameliorated.Conclusions. The increase of the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA in the lung tissues of ALI plays the roles in ALI. The application of rhubarb and dexamethasone can decrease the expression and ameliorate the lung damage; its mechanism is possibly via the inhibition of ICAM

  13. Effects of ultrasonic root-end cavity preparation with different surgical-tips and at different power-settings on glucose-leakage of root-end filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Gunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different ultrasonic surgical-tips and power-settings on micro-leakage of root-end filling material. Materials and Methods: The root canals were instrumented using rotary-files and were filled with tapered gutta-percha and root canal sealer using a single-cone technique. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected and the roots were divided into six experimental groups; negative and positive control groups. Root-end cavities were prepared with diamond-coated, zirconum-nitride-coated and stainless-steel ultrasonic retro-tips at half-power and high-power settings. The time required to prepare the root-end cavities for each group was recorded. Root-end cavities were filled with Super-EBA. Leakage values of all samples evaluated with glucose penetration method on 7, 14, 21 and 28 th days. The results were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Hollander-Wolfe tests. Results: The mean time required to prepare retro cavities using diamond-coated surgical tip at high-power setting was significantly less than other groups (P 0.01. Diamond-coated surgical tip showed the least leakage at high-power setting at 3 rd and 4 th weeks (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, cavity preparation time was the shortest and the leakage of the root-end filling was the least when diamond-coated retro-tip used at high-power setting.

  14. [Effect of adaptogenic preparations on Na+/H+-antiporter function in plasma membrane of corn root cells under salinity conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, N O; Bilyk, Zh I; Palladina, T O

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a hard stress factor for plant organisms which negative effect is caused chiefly by sodium toxic for plants. Plant cells try to remove Na+ from their cytoplasm outside and to vacuolar space by secondary active Na+/H+-antiporters. Their functions can be intensified by gene engineering methods however we try do it with the help of non-toxic bioactive preparations. A comparison of their effect on the plasma membrane of Na+/H+-antiporters was carried out on corn seedling roots of Zea mays L. exposed at 0.1 M NaCl. Before we have established that Methyure used by seed pretreating possesses a high salt protective ability as against Ivine. It was found that without NaCl exposition Na+/H+-antiporter activity in root plasma membrane was nearly unnoticeable but increased slightly with seedling age. Methyure and Ivine did not influence its activity in control root seedling. One day 0.1 M NaCl exposition evoked a considerable increasing of Na+/H+-antiporter activity and its gene expression but these effects disappeared at 10 day NaCl exposition. Methyure use reinforced Na+/H+-antiporter activity and prolonged it at NaCl exposition without effect on its gene expression whereas Ivine effects on these indexes were insignificant. Obtained results showed that the salt protective capability of Methyure is connected with plasma membrane Na+/H+-antiporter activation which is realized on molecular level.

  15. [Radial basis function networks and IR spectrometry applied for identification of official rhubarb samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-min; Liu, Si-dong; Zhang, Zhuo-yong; Fan, Guo-qiang

    2005-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIRS) and radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) have been applied to develop classification models for identifying official and unofficial rhubarb samples. The original data were compressed from 775 variables to 49 variables by using wavelet transformation method. The compressed spectra with reduced variables maintain the characteristics of the IR spectra and speed up the network training process. The effects of network parameters including error goal and spread constant, were investigated. The rate of correct classification is up to 97.78% at optimized conditions. Results show that the combination of IRS and ANN can be used as fast and convenient tool for identification of Chinese herbal samples.

  16. Effect of wine processing and acute blood stasis on the serum pharmacochemistry of rhubarb: a possible explanation for processing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Fu, Jinfeng; Lv, Mengying; Tian, Yuan; Xu, Fengguo; Song, Rui; Zhang, Zunjian

    2014-09-01

    As a specific item mentioned in traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can fulfill different requirements of therapies. Crude and wine-processed rhubarbs are used as drastic and mild laxatives, respectively. In this study, a practical method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed to screen and analyze multiple absorbed bioactive components and metabolites in the serum of both normal and acute blood stasis rats after oral administration of crude or wine-processed rhubarbs. A total of 16 compounds, mainly including phase II metabolites, were tentatively identified. Possible explanations for the processing-induced changes in pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines were first explored at serum pharmacochemistry level.

  17. Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xia, Xinhua; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Dong; Zuberi, Aamir; Ye, Jianping; Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity.

  18. Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.

  19. Efficacy of Different Root Canal Irrigants on Smear Layer Removal after Post Space Preparation: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirseifinejad, Rahele; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Davari, Abdolrahim; Mehravar, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Effective durable adhesion between post material and dentine using resin cements is essential for longevity of restoration. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different irrigants on smear layer removal after post space preparation. A total of 75 extracted anterior human teeth were selected. The canals were instrumented by rotary system and then were filled. After preparing the post space, teeth were divided into 5 groups according to irrigants: 17% EDTA; 17% EDTA+2% CHX; 5.25% NaOCl; 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl; and saline. The canals were irrigated with 5 cc of each irrigants for 1 min. Specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hulsmann's score was used for marking of smear layer removal at coronal, middle and apical thirds of post space. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results revealed that subsequent use of 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl was more effective than the other groups in smear layer removal. No statistical difference was found among different levels of root canal within each group. It can be concluded that 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl could be an effective irrigant for smear layer removal after post space preparation.

  20. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cabanillas; Manuel Monterde; Antonio Pallarés; Susana Aranda; Raquel Montes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after inst...

  1. Primary Exploration of Cultural Technique of Chinese Rhubarb Gardenia in Jinggu County%景谷县大黄栀子种植技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢萍

    2013-01-01

    在景谷县大黄栀子多年来的种植基础上,探讨了景谷县大黄栀子的主要技术措施,内容包括:采种、育苗、选地、整地、定植、初植、密度、病虫害、抚育管理,为进一步推动景谷县发展山区经济、增加农民收入、调整产业结构提供科学和实践依据。%This article introduces major technique measures of Chinese rhubarb gardenia in Jinggu County ,Yunnan Province .The research content covers seed collecting ,nursery stock growing ,field selecting ,soil preparing ,field planting ,initial planting ,plant density ,plant disease ,and nurture management .Based on the above studies ,this article provides scientific and practical basis for Jiinggu County to further promote the development of mountainous area economy ,increase the income of farmers ,and adjust the industrial structure .

  2. The effectiveness of syringe irrigation and ultrasonics to remove debris from simulated irregularities within prepared root canal walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-J; Wu, M-K; Wesselink, P R

    2004-10-01

    To compare the ability of syringe irrigation and ultrasonic irrigation to remove artificially placed dentine debris from simulated canal irregularities within prepared root canals. After canal enlargement, twelve canines were split longitudinally into two halves. On the wall of one half of each root canal a standard groove of 4 mm in length, 0.2 mm in width and 0.5 mm in depth was cut, 2-6 mm from the apex, to simulate uninstrumented canal extensions. On the wall of the other half, three standard saucer-shaped depressions of 0.3 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in depth were cut at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex to simulate uninstrumented canal irregularities. Each groove and depression were filled with dentine debris mixed with 2% NaOCl to simulate a situation when dentine debris accumulates in uninstrumented canal extensions and irregularities during canal preparation. Each tooth was re-assembled by reconnecting the two halves, using wire and an impression putty material. Two per cent NaOCl was then delivered into each canal either using syringe irrigation (n = 8) or using ultrasonic irrigation (n = 8). Before and after irrigation, images of the two halves of the canal wall were taken, using a microscope and a digital camera, after which they were scanned into a PC as TIFF images. The amount of remaining dentine debris in the grooves and depressions was evaluated by using a scoring system between 0-3: the higher the score, the more the debris. The data were analysed by means of the Mann-Whitney U-test. Both forms of irrigation reduced the debris score significantly. The debris score was statistically significantly lower after ultrasonic irrigation than after syringe irrigation (P = 0.002 for grooves, P = 0.047 for depressions). Ultrasonic irrigation ex vivo is more effective than syringe irrigation in removing artificially created dentine debris placed in simulated uninstrumented extensions and irregularities in straight, wide root canals.

  3. Study on Corydalis Yanhusuo Rhubarb Curcuma and Dragon's Blood in Pain -Restraining Medicinal Membrane by Thin -layer Chromatography%克痛药膜中元胡大黄姜黄血竭的薄层色谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢浩洋; 丁关生

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究克痛药膜中的元胡、血竭、姜黄、大黄4味中药的薄层色谱.方法:采用薄层色谱法,在硅胶G薄层板上,以环己烷-丙酮(8∶2)为展开剂,鉴别元胡;以石油醚( 60 ~ 90℃) -乙醚(3∶2)为展开剂,鉴别大黄;以三氯甲烷-甲醇-甲酸(96∶4∶0.7)为展开剂为展开剂,鉴别姜黄;以三氯甲烷-甲醇(19∶1)为展开剂,鉴别血竭.结果:依据正文所述方法,薄层展开后,色谱斑点显色清晰,分离效果好,与对照药材显色一致.结论:依据正文所述方法,针对元胡、血竭、姜黄、大黄4味中药,其薄层色谱图的检出成分消除了其它成分的干扰,专属性强,重现性好,方法简便,可以作为该制剂质量控制的检测标准.%Objective: To research corydalis yanhusuo,rhubarb,curcuma and dragons blood in pain - restraining medici-nal membrane by thin - layer chromatography. Methods: Adopting the thin - layer chromatography, on the thin layer of the silicon G, identified corydalis yanhusuo using cyclohexane - acetone (8 : 2 ) as the developing agent; identified rhubarb using petroleum ether(60 ~90℃ ) -aether(3 : 2)as the developing agent;identified curcuma using chloroform -methanol -meth-anoic acid(96 :4 : 0.7) as the developing agent; identified dragons blood using chlorqform -methanol (19 : l)as the develo-ping agent. Results :According to the related method,after the thin layer expanded,every main fleck was clearly colored, well disparted and have the same color with the respective contrast medicinal materialss main flecks. Conclusions: Accord-ing to the related method,the thin - layer chromatography clearly showed the component of corydalis yanhusuo,rhubarb,cur-cuma and dragons blood which were distinctly detected without the interference of other elements. The related method was specific, repeatable, simple, and could be taken as the standard to control the quality of this preparation.

  4. Effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the apical seal of root canals obturated with different sealers and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Aydemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During mechanical preparation of the post space, the root canal filling may be twisted or vibrated, depending on several factors associated with the preparation technique and quality of filling. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the integrity of the apical seal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four extracted human incisors were biomechanically prepared using the step-back technique. Sixty roots were randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups of 10 teeth each and the remaining 4 roots served as positive and negative controls (n=2. The root canals in the different groups were obturated with cold lateral and warm vertical condensation of gutta-percha and one of two sealers (Sealapex and Diaket. Post space was prepared either individually or simultaneously. An insulated copper wire was cut into 10-cm-long pieces. In each canal, one piece was inserted to maintain contact with gutta-percha and extended to the outside as one of two working electrodes. A stainless steel wire with the same dimensions of those of the copper wire, used as the other working electrode, was immersed into the background electrolyte from the center of the bottle. The electrical current between standard and experimental electrodes in canals was measured over a period of 10 days applying a conductivity meter. The Kruskal-Wallis test (p=0.05 determined whether there was a significant difference in microleakage among the groups and the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01 was used for multiple comparison grouping variables. RESULTS: The results suggest that only the differences between the root canal filling techniques were statistically significant (p0.01. CONCLUSION: The quality of the root canal filling is important for the integrity of the apical seal.

  5. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kaiwar, A.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Hou, B.; Wu, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Methods Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodonta

  6. Microbial leakage of Cavit, IRM, and Temp Bond in post-prepared root canals using two methods of gutta-percha removal: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Hanan; Al-Nazhan, Saad; Al-Mansour, Khulood; Al-Otaibi, Moneera; Siddiqu, Yunus

    2005-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrity of the coronal seal of Temp-Bond and compare it to Cavit and IRM after post space preparation using S. faecalis as a microbial tracer. In addition, the affect of two methods of gutta percha removal on the apical seal of root canal fillings was also evaluated. Forty extracted human single rooted teeth were prepared chemomechanically and obturated with gutta percha and AH26 sealer cement using the lateral cold condensation technique to a standardized working length of 15 mm. About 10 mm of the coronal gutta-percha was removed with either Peeso-reamer or a hot plugger. The roots were divided into three experimental groups of 10 roots and a control group. Each experimental group was subdivided equally into two groups of 15 each according to the method of post space preparation. Cavit, IRM, and Temp-Bond were used to seal the access opening. Each root was fixed in a cuvette containing Tryptic Soya Broth which, covered 2 mm of the root apex. Bacterial suspension was introduced through pipette. Fresh bacterial suspension was added every week, and the system was monitored daily for the growth of microorganisms for a period of one month. The results showed there was no significant difference in terms of coronal leakage between the three coronal materials used (P=0.478), but the methods of gutta-percha removal did have an impact on the apical leakage (P=0.047). The mean value showed the Peeso-reamer provided less leakage compared to using a hot plugger during the 30-day experimental time period. It was concluded the temporary type of coronal seal of endodontically treated teeth will not prevent coronal leakage if left for a long period of time. In addition, permanent cementation of the post with the coronal restoration should be carried out as soon as possible to prevent recontamination of the root canal.

  7. Light-emitting Diode Assessment of Dentinal Defects after Root Canal Preparation with Profile, TRUShape, and WaveOne Gold Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcelo Santos; Card, Steven J; Tawil, Peter Z

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to use light-emitting diode (LED) transillumination to assess the presence of dentinal defects in roots instrumented with 3 different root canal preparation systems: ProFile (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), TRUShape (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), and WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties). Eighty mesial roots of mandibular molars presenting 2 canals were randomly divided into 4 different groups (n = 20) as follows: the control group, no root canal preparation was performed; the ProFile group, root canals were prepared with nickel-titanium ProFile sizes 20.06 and 25.06; the TRUShape group, root canals were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary TRUShape instrument sizes 20.06 and 25.06; and the WaveOne Gold group, root canals were prepared with the reciprocating WaveOne Gold instrument #25.07. The specimens were sliced at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex with a low-speed saw under water cooling. Microscopic pictures of the specimens were taken with the aid of LED; the root canal space was masked, and 2 independent evaluators assessed the images for the assessment of dentinal defects. The number of dentinal defects was recorded, and the chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (P < .05). The number of specimens presenting dentinal defects was as follows: the control group = 10, the ProFile group = 10, the TRUShape group = 13, and the WaveOne Gold group = 10. Using the novel LED method, no difference in the visualization of dentinal defects was found among the ProFile, TRUShape, and WaveOne systems and the control group. Previous studies using the traditional sectioning method lack proper control and should be evaluated with caution. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison between root canal deviations after root preparation using two kinds of nickel-titanium instruments%两种镍钛器械预备根管后根管偏移的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗微铭; 王元银; 韩晓兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:以锥束CT( CBCT)为研究工具评价TF和Pro-taper在预备离体牙弯曲根管中所产生的根管偏移。方法将按纳入标准收集的40个离体牙随机分为两组,用冠向下( crown-down)法预备,TF组预备至0.06/#25;Protaper组预备至F2。预备前后均用CBCT对离体牙近中、远中根管壁的厚度进行测量,然后利用Gambill 提出的公式进行根管偏移和轴中心率的计算。结果 TF组较Protaper组所需预备时间短,效率较高( P<0.05);TF组和Protaper组器械在预备平均5个根管后都出现变形,无器械折断;在距根尖3、5、7 mm的内外侧壁所测得的根管偏移量比较中,TF组预备产生的根管偏移量小于Protaper组,而其轴中心率大于Protaper组,更接近于1。结论 TF在预备弯曲根管时能较好地维持根管原始形态,具有更高的效率;CBCT可在无创情况下评价预备器械对根管的成形能力。%Objective To evaluate the root canal deviations in vitro teeth curved root with TF and Protaper instru-ments by cone beam computer tomography( CBCT) . Methods 40 teeth in vitro in the standard collection were ran-domly assigned to two groups, prepared with the crown-down method, the TF group ready to 0. 06/#25; the Pro-taper group ready to F2 . CBCT scans were taken to measure the mesial and distal thicknesses of the tube wall in vitro teeth before and after preparation. The root canal deviation and the rate of shaft center were measured with ref-erence to the formula proposed by Gambill. Results The TF group need less time in preparation and has more effi-ciency(P<0. 05) than the Protaper group; both TF and Protaper devices appeared deformation after 5 root canal preparations in average, no instruments broken. Comparing the offset of the internal and external wall of root canal in 3, 5, 7 mm from the apex, the root canal deviation prepared by the TF group was less than the Protaper group, and its rate of axis center was greater than the

  9. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, France received an application from the company Syngenta Agro SAS to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery and cardoon. In order to accommodate for the intended use of azoxystrobin, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 15 mg/kg for spinach and similar, lettuces and other salad plants, celery and cardoon. Germany received an application from the plant protection service Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau des Landes Sachesen-Anhalt to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in spices. In order to accommodate for the intended use Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.3 mg/kg for spices/seeds and spices/fruits and berries. Belgium compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for the azoxystrobin in rhubarb. In order to accommodate for the intended use Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.5 mg/kg. France, Germany and Belgium drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for lettuce, spinach and similar, cardoon, celery, rhubarb and spices. For other crops belonging to the group of lettuce and other salad plants the data were not sufficient to propose a MRL. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of azoxystrobin on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of azoxystrobin on lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  10. 大黄4种饮片水提液体外肠道菌群转化比较研究%Comparison of transformation of four processed rhubarb aqueous extracts in intestinal bacteria in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞; 田媛; 张尊建

    2012-01-01

    . Conclusion: The preparations change composition and proportional relationship of ingredients contained in rhubarb and thus impacting their transformation effect in intestinal bacteria.

  11. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in <7 h, and it can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research.

  12. 2种不同根管预备技术与牙根纵折的原因分析%Analysis of vertical root fracture with two different techniques of root canal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小洁; 徐维宁

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨根管治疗术后牙根纵折的发生与不同根管预备技术的相关性为临床治疗提供依据.方法:对2年间共1702颗(例)牙根管治疗术后病例进行调查,将其按根管预备技术分为镍钛旋转预备技术组(643例)和手用不锈钢预备技术组(1059例).通过临床症状体征和影像学结果进行评估.采用SPSS11.5软件包对数据进行统计学分析.结果:共发生牙根纵折32 例(1.88%);镍钛旋转器械预备组牙根纵折率显著高于于用不锈钢器械预备组(P<0.01);镍钛旋转器械预备组根管再治疗的牙根纵折率显著高于手用不锈钢器械预备组(P<0.01),但2组的根管桩核修复病例的牙根纵折率无显著差异(P>0.05).结论:镍钛旋转器械预备技术与术后根折并发症密切相关如合并根管再治疗史和(或)根管内桩核修复,牙根纵折的风险更大.%PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of vertical root fracture (VRF) after root canal treatment with two different technique of root canal shaping and provide clinical reference. METHODS: 1702 teeth treated with root canal treatmeni during recent 2 years. All teeth were divided into two groups according to different techniques of root canal shaping: 643 teeth were prepared with NiTi rolary preparation technique (NRPT) and 1059 teeth were prepared with stainless steel hand K-files preparation technique (SSPT). The clinical symptoms and signs, radiological findings were estimated. The data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software package. RESULTS: There were 32 teeth with vertical root fracture, the VRF rate was 1.88%. The VRF rate in NRPT group was significantly higher than in SSET group (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS: NiTi rotary preparation technique (NRPT) was closely related with vertical root fracture (VRF). And the VRF risk would be even higher if the tooth underwent root canal retreatment case or a pnst-cre was placed in the root canal.

  13. Reciproc单支锉预备磨牙弯曲根管疗效观察%Clinical effect of Reciproc single file in preparing molar curved root canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郅洁云; 王芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability to keep the original root canal anatomy flow by Reciproc single file in preparing molar curved root canals. Methods Patients aged from 18 to 59 years old who were newly diagnosed with pulp disease were selected. Ac⁃cording to Schneider measurement, 100 first molar curved root canals (20°~30°) and 200 canals (cheek, tongue curved root canals) were randomly divided into Reciproc group of 50 cases with 100 canals, and Protaper group of 50 cases with 100 canals. Then root ca⁃nals were prepared, followed by the measurement of root canal curvature of the dental film chip in first root canal file, the final root ca⁃nal file, and the trial point root canal file. The apical transportation of root canals in two groups were compared, and the effects of root canal formation as well as root tip closure were evaluated. Results Success rate in Reciproc group was 99%, while success rate in Protaper group was 92%, and the difference was significant ( P<0.05) . Conclusion With its innovative design, the Reciproc single file enables the preparation molar curved root canals to have fine formation, light reaction, good closure in the apex, quickness and high efficiency, making a single file take place of a set of files.%目的:评价往复运动式Reciproc单支锉预备磨牙弯曲根管,保持原根管解剖走向的能力。方法选择年龄18~59岁牙髓病初诊病例,按 Schneider 测量法,第一磨牙弯曲根管(20°~30°)100例,200个根管(颊,舌弯曲根管),随机分为Reciproc组50例,100个根管,Protaper组50例,100个根管,进行根管预备。测量术前片、插针片、主尖片的根管弯曲度,比较根管偏移率,评价根管成形和根尖封闭效果。结果2组机用镍钛锉备根成功率:Reciproc组99%,Protaper组92%,有显著性差异( P<0.05)。结论 Reciproc的创新设计,使预备磨牙弯曲根管成形佳,反应轻,根尖封闭好,快捷

  14. [Study on mechanism for anti-hyperlipidemia efficacy of rhubarb through assistant analysis systems for acting mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Bai-xia; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Rhubarb is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), wildly used in treating the disease of hyperlipidemia. However, its components are complicated, so that it is still difficult to clear the specific roles of its various components in blood lipids regulation in. So we decide to systematically study the anti- hyperlipidemia mechanism of rhubarb. We integrated multiple databases, based on entity grammar systems model, constructed molecular interaction network between the chemical constituents of rhubarb and hyperlipidemia. The network includes 231 nodes and 638 edges. Thus we infer the interactions of active targets and disease targets to clarify the anti-hyperlipidemia mechanism. And find that rhubarb can promote excretion of cholesterol; inhibit clotting factors and improve blood circulation; inhibit the release of inflammatory cytokines and maintain fat metabolism balance; inhibit cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis; and other ways to achieve lipid-lowering effect. Thus this study provides reference for novel drug development and component compatibility, and also gives a new way for the systematically study of acting mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy vegetable

  16. Curative effect observation of two kinds of root canal preparation for root canal filling on posterior teeth%两种根管预备方法对后牙根管充填的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 张恺

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价机用ProTaper镍钛锉根备后对根管充填(简称根充)的影响。方法将30例磨牙、30例前磨牙的牙髓炎和根尖炎患者平均分为两组,A组30例用机用Pro T aper镍钛锉进行根管预备,B组30例用普通K锉改良的逐步后退法进行根管预备。比较两组器械根备对根充的影响,分别从根充的时间、根备的主尖锉和根充的主牙胶尖的匹配度、根充的恰填率、根充的术后反应进行比较。结果在根充时间上A组平均前磨牙为1分30秒,磨牙为4分25秒;B组平均前磨牙为5分30秒,磨牙为11分41秒,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。A组前磨牙主尖锉和主牙胶尖的匹配度为86.37%,磨牙为88.89%;而B组前磨牙为62.50%,磨牙为26.67%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。根充恰填率在X线片上前磨牙A组为72.73%,B组为70.83%;磨牙A组为80.00%,B组为77.78%,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);根充的术后疼痛反应上两者都很低且弱,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论机用ProTaper镍钛锉根备后能加快根充速度,提高主尖锉和主牙胶尖的匹配度,简化根充治疗程序。%Objective To evaluate the influence of ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium files root preparation on root canal filling . Methods 30 cases of molars pulpitis and 20 cases of premolars pulpitis or periapical periodontitis were equally divided into two groups .The group A(30 cases) used the ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium files in root canal preparation and the group B (30 cases) adopted the common K files modified step-back technique for root canal preparation .The influence of the root preparation by 2 sets of apparatus on the effect of root canal filling ,and the several aspects of the root canal filling time ,the matching degree of main root canal file and master gutta-percha ,proper filling rate ,postoperative reaction of root canal

  17. Comparison of three root canal preparation methods in root canal filling%三种根管预备方式对根管充填封闭性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金生; 徐俊峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较机用镍钛旋转锉Protaper、手用镍钛旋转锉Protaper、手用不锈钢K锉3种根管预备方式对根管充填封闭性的影响。方法将45例患者,共56颗患牙(148个根管)随机分为A、B、C 3组,每组15例,分别应用机用镍钛旋转锉Protaper、手用镍钛旋转锉Protaper、手用不锈钢K锉3种方式进行根管预备后,常规进行冷牙胶侧压充填,应用锥体束CT(CBCT)观察3种根管预备方式对患牙根管充填后封闭情况的影响。结果所有患牙根管治疗均顺利进行,A组恰填率最高,B组、C组其次;在恰填根管中,A组根管密合程度最优。结论机用镍钛旋转Protaper锉根管成形效果最好,根管充填质量高,根管充填材料封闭性最优,较少出现台阶、根管偏移情况,其余两组效果不如机用镍钛旋转锉Protaper,其中手用镍钛旋转锉Protaper次之,而手用不锈钢K锉较差。%Objective To compare the efficacy of three root canal preparation methods in root canal fil ing. Methods Forty five patients (56 teeth and 148 root canals) were randomly assigned to receive root canal preparation with rotary nickel tita-nium Protaper (group A, n=15), hand used nickel titanium Protaper(group B, n=15), or stainless steel K file (group C, n=15), then root canal fil ing was finished with gutta pertscha. The impaction on root canal fil ing in the apical 3mm- 5mm was observed with CBCT. Results Al root canal treatments were carried out smoothly. Group A had the highest exactly fil ing rate, fol owed by groups B and C and group A also had the highest close contact. Conclusion Rotary nickel titanium Protaper is best in root canal shaping and root canal fil ing close contact, less likely steps and root canal offsets, fol owed by hand used nickel titanium Protaper and stainless steel K file.

  18. Effects of Different Processing and Boiling Time for Rhubarb Settlement Potency%不同炮制和煎煮时间对大黄沉降药性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昱波

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同炮制方法和煎煮时间对大黄沉降药性的影响。方法随机取健康小鼠80只,将其随机分为两组,炮制组与煎煮组,每组再次随机分组,分为四组,将炮制组分为生理盐水组、生大黄组、醋大黄组以及酒大黄组;煎煮组分为生理盐水组、5 min生大黄组、10 min生大黄组以及30 min生大黄组,使用不同方法处理大黄并制成水煎液,对相应小鼠进行灌注,持续一周后对小鼠胃排空及小肠推进的进行观察记录,探讨不同炮制方法和煎煮时间对大黄沉降药性的影响。结果5 min生大黄组和生理盐水组相比,胃残留率以及小肠推进率相差较大,与生理盐水组和生大黄组相比,酒大黄组、醋大黄组小鼠的胃残留率均低于生理盐水组,P0.05,差异不具有统计学意义。结论大黄采用煎煮的时间在5 min时,其沉降药性最好,醋和酒均能提高大黄的沉降药性,因此在中医用药时,要考虑不同炮制方法和煎煮时间对大黄沉降药性的影响。%Objective To study the effect of medicinal rhubarb settlement processing methods and boiling time. Methods Eighty randomly selected healthy mice were randomly divided into two groups,group processing and boiling groups again randomly divided into four groups,wil concocted group was divided into normal saline group,rhubarb group,wine vinegar and rhubarb rhubarb group group,decoction group was divided into normal saline group,five minutes rhubarb group,ten minutes and thirty minutes rhubarb group rhubarb group. Using different methods and made rhubarb decoction process,the corresponding mouse perfusion,a week after gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion in mice were observed and recorded,to explore the effects of different processing methods and boiling time for rhubarb settlement potency. Results Five minutes rhubarb group and normal saline group compared to the gastric residual rate and

  19. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  20. Effect of glide path and apical preparation size on the incidence of apical crack during the canal preparation using Reciproc, WaveOne, and ProTaper Next systems in curved root canals: A stereomicroscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Düzgün, Salih; Akpek, Firdevs; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of creating a glide path and apical preparation size on the incidence of apical cracks during canal preparation in mandibular molar teeth with curved canals. One hundred and forty extracted teeth were used. The teeth were randomly assigned to one control group or six experimental groups (n = 20 per group) for canal preparation. No preparation was performed on teeth in the control group. In three of the six experimental groups, a glide path was not created; a glide path was created on the curved mesial canals of all teeth in the remaining three experimental groups. All teeth in experimental groups were then instrumented with the following systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (WO), and ProTaper Next (PTN). Digital images of the apical root surfaces of these teeth were recorded before preparation, after instrumentation with size 25 files, and after instrumentation with size 40 files. The images were then inspected for the presence of any new apical cracks and propagation. There was no significant difference between the experimental groups during canal preparation using size 25 files (p > 0.05). Reciproc and WO caused more new apical cracks than did PTN during canal preparation using size 40 files (p canal preparation using size 40 files did not cause propagation of existing cracks (p > 0.05). Performing a glide path prior to canal preparation did not change the incidence of apical crack during preparation. Additionally, increasing apical preparation size may increase the incidence of apical crack during canal preparation. SCANNING 38:585-590, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effects of scaling and root planing on the marginal gap and microleakage of indirect composite crowns prepared with different finish lines: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerame, D; Sorrentino, R; Cettolin, D; Zarone, F

    2012-01-01

    The present in vitro study aimed to assess the effects of root surface mechanical instrumentation on the marginal integrity and adaptation of resin composite crowns. The following null hypotheses were tested: no differences exist between finish line and 1) marginal gap or 2) marginal microleakage before and after manual mechanical periodontal maintenance. A total of 56 intact human mandibular molars were randomly distributed into four groups and subjected to standardized tooth preparations for indirect composite crowns with different marginal finish lines (90° shoulder, beveled 90° shoulder, feather edge, chamfer). One-half of the specimens was used as a control and remained untreated, and the remaining half was subjected to root surface procedures simulating five years of semestral mechanical supportive periodontal treatment. The marginal gap and microleakage were evaluated and statistically analyzed. The specimens used as controls showed lower mean marginal gaps than those subjected to the simulated periodontal treatment, whereas the latter showed lower microleakage than the control crowns. Statistically significant differences were recorded for both the experimental variables. The root surface procedures resulted in altered surfaces of the composite crowns. The marginal gap increased after the treatment, whereas the marginal microleakage was reduced. The 90° shoulder and the chamfer preparation could be considered a viable option to fabricate composite crowns, but the beveled 90° shoulder and the feather edge should not be recommended.

  2. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  3. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cabanillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was compared before and after instrumenting and the section of untouched canal wall was measured using AutoCAD software. The data was analysed by means of Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In the apical third, 100% of the canals were prepared with all the systems. In the middle third, a p value of 0.5989 in the Kruskal-Wallis test was obtained, which indicates no significant difference between the groups. At the coronal third level, the results obtained revealed that Wave One had a significantly lower mean average than the rest (p<0.05. Conclusions. There are no differences between the various root canal instrument systems in the apical and middle thirds. At the coronal third level, Wave One system showed performance significantly worse than the rest, among which there were no differences.

  4. Sealing ability of three root-end filling materials prepared using an erbium: Yttrium aluminium garnet laser and endosonic tip evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, A Salin; Ponnappa, KC; Nanjamma, KK; Ponappa, MC; Girish, Sabari; Nitin, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (1) To compare the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and Chitra-calcium phosphate cement (CPC) when used as root-end filling, evaluated under confocal laser scanning microscope using Rhodamine B dye. (2) To evaluate effect of ultrasonic retroprep tip and an erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser on the integrity of three different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 80 extracted teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha. The apical 3 mm of each tooth was resected and 3 mm root-end preparation was made using ultrasonic tip (n = 30) and Er:YAG laser (n = 30). MTA, Biodentine, and Chitra-CPC were used to restore 10 teeth each. The samples were coated with varnish and after drying, they were immersed in Rhodamine B dye for 24 h. The teeth were then rinsed, sectioned longitudinally, and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc Tukey's test at P ultrasonics, the difference was found to be statistically significant (P ultrasonics. PMID:26180420

  5. Acute kidney injury after ingestion of rhubarb: secondary oxalate nephropathy in a patient with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albersmeyer Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxalosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by deposition of oxalate crystals in various organs including the kidney. Whereas primary forms result from genetic defects in oxalate metabolism, secondary forms of oxalosis can result from excessive intestinal oxalate absorption or increased endogenous production, e.g. after intoxication with ethylene glycol. Case presentation Here, we describe a case of acute crystal-induced renal failure associated with excessive ingestion of rhubarb in a type 1 diabetic with previously normal excretory renal function. Renal biopsy revealed mild mesangial sclerosis, but prominent tubular deposition of oxalate crystals in the kidney. Oxalate serum levels were increased. Conclusion Acute secondary oxalate nephropathy due to excessive dietary intake of oxalate may lead to acute renal failure in patients with preexisting renal disease like mild diabetic nephropathy. Attention should be payed to special food behaviors when reasons for acute renal failure are explored.

  6. Comparison of the Effect of Canal Preparation by Step Back Technique Using Hand Instruments and Gates Glidden Drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary System on the Root Resistance to Vertical Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbaszadegan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system with an efficient and safe technique are the major goals of root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional root canal preparation technique by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary system on the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to two groups. In group I, apical preparation was performed with k-files up to #40 utilizing step back technique and coronal flaring was done with Gates Glidden drills. In group II, ProTaper Universal Rotary instruments were used up to the file F4. All teeth were obturated with lateral compaction technique using gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. A simulated periodontal ligament was fabricated, and the teeth were mounted. A stainless steel finger spreader #35 was mounted in an Instron testing machine and the necessary load to cause a root fracture was inserted and recorded. The obtained data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Results: The force required to fracture was significantly lower for the roots prepared by ProTaper instruments in comparison with the specimens prepared by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Canal preparation with ProTaper rotary instruments can make the roots more susceptible to vertical fracture than traditional instrumentation with k-files and Gates Glidden drills.

  7. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate and polymethylmethacrylate bone cements on root ends prepared using an Erbium: Yttriumaluminium garnet laser and ultrasonics evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, C Sabari; Ponnappa, Kc; Girish, Tn; Ponappa, Mc

    2013-07-01

    Surgical endodontic therapy comprises of exposure of the involved root apex, resection of the apical end of the root, preparation of a class I cavity, and insertion of a root end filling material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is now the gold standard among all root end filling materials. MTA is however difficult to handle, expensive and has a very slow setting reaction. (1) To compare the sealing ability of MTA, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and CHITRA Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) when used as root end filling material using Rhodamine B dye evaluated under a confocal laser scanning microscope. (2) To compare the seal of root ends prepared using an ultrasonic retroprep tip and an Er: YAG laser using three different root end filling materials. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA and a two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and Scheffe's post hoc test using SPSS Version 16 for Windows. All the three materials, namely MTA, PMMA BONE CEMENT and CHITRA CPC, showed microleakage. Comparison of microleakage showed maximum peak value of 0.86 mm for MTA, 0.24 mm for PMMA bone cement and 1.37 mm for CHITRA CPC. The amount of dye penetration was found to be lesser in root ends prepared using Er: YAG laser when compared with ultrasonics, but the difference was found to be not statistically significant. PMMA bone cement is a better material as root end filling material to prevent apical microleakage. MTA still continues to be a gold standard root end filling material showing minimum microleakage. Er: YAG laser is a better alternative to ultrasonics for root end preparations.

  8. Histopathological Study of Periapical Inflammation Following Preparation of the Root Canal with Conventional and Profile Rotary Instrumentation in Teeth of Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bidar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Various factors are involved in causing inflammation following root canal treatment. Controlling these factors may relieve the related pain. One of these factors is extrusion of debris beyond the apex. Although debris extrusion happens in all instrumentation techniques, researchers have declared that in coronal flaring technique,there is minimum debris extrusion.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inflammation of periapical area following root canal therapy, using conventional and profile rotary instrumentation in cats' teeth, from a histopathological point of view.Materials and Methods: This experimental study conducted on thirty Persian one year old cats. Three groups of samples were chosen and treated with different methods. First group were prepared by step-back instrumentation technique using stainless steel Ktypefiles. Second group were prepared by crown down technique using Ni-Ti files.Third group were prepared using profile GT rotary system at 150-rpm speed. Animals were subjected to vital perfusion at 8, 24 & 48 hour intervals after instrumentation. The canine teeth were separated from the jaw along with some of the supporting structures.Then decalcification and laboratory processing were carried out and samples were evaluated histologically. Collected data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: The results showed that in vital teeth with no evidence of periapical pathosis,the inflammation following various instrumentation methods was not statistically different.Conclusion: In vital teeth, the periapical inflammation following various methods of instrumentation is not statistically different.

  9. A Comparison of Different Techniques for Preparating Root Canals%根管预备技术对根管充填效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳平; 刘安东

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过比较逐步后退与逐步深入法两种不同预备方法预备根管后的牙胶充填面积百分数来评价两种预备方法的效果。方法选取人离体单根管前磨牙20颗(正畸治疗拔除的牙齿),分别手用K锉严格按着逐步后退法预备根管。机用镍钛器械Mtwo严格按着逐步深入法预备根管。预备后随机分为两组,分别用冷牙胶侧方充填法、热牙胶充填法,然后分别在距根尖3、7、10 mm处截断,计算出牙胶充填面积百分数,以评价何种预备方法效果最佳。结果在根尖3 mm处,两种预备充填法的牙胶充填面积百分数无显著性差异(P>0.05);而在根尖7 mm、10 mm处,逐步后退与逐步深入法有显著性差异(p<0.05)。结论在根尖7 mm、10 mm水平,逐步深入法效果明显好于逐步后退法,而在3 mm水平,两种预备的的效果无明显差别。%Objective The aim of the study was to comparae step-back technique and step-down technique achived in root canals fil ed with the percentage of gut a-percha-fil ed area (PGFA) to evaluate the ef ect of two kinds of preparation methods.Methods Two groups of extracted human premolars (orthodontic treatment of pul ing teeth) and single root canals (total y 20) were instrumented,which K files strictly according to step-back technique to prepare the root canal, which nickel-titanium instrument Mtwo strictly according to step-down technique prepare the root canal, after root canal preparation randomly divided into two groups, respectively, then the root canals were fil ed as fol ows:cold lateral condensation, and continuous wave of condensation. sections of each tooth was made 3,7 and 10mm from the apex to evaluate best two kinds of preparation methods.Results No significant dif erences were found between the 2 dif erent techniques at 3mm (P>0.05);At 7mm and 10mm from the apex, step-down technique produced significantly higher than the step-back technique (P<0

  10. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  11. Expression of the difference between the Cold (Han) and Hot (Re) natures of traditional Chinese medicines (Strobal and Rhubarb) based on the cold/hot plate differentiating assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, HaiPing; Zhao, YanLing; Wang, JiaBo; Li, HanBing; Ren, YongShen; Zhou, CanPing; Yan, Dan; Xiao, XiaoHe

    2009-12-01

    In this study, objective differences between the Cold (Han) and Hot (Re) nature of traditional Chinese medicines, e.g. Strobal and Rhubarb, are determined by using a cold/hot plate differentiation technology. A novel, self-designed cold/hot plate differentiating instrument, with methodological study, was used to investigate the intervention of Strobal and Rhubarb on the temperature tropism of mice. Compared with the ICR and BALB/c mice, it was found that KM mice on the cold/hot plate were more sensitive to the change of temperature, within the tolerant temperature range of 15-40 degrees C. The temperature tropism behavior of mice is influenced by treatment with Rhubarb and Strobal, as is the activity of ATPase in liver tissue. These trends are consistent with the definition of the Cold/Hot nature of Chinese medicines based on traditional Chinese medicinal theory. This study showed that the differences of the Cold/Hot nature of traditional Chinese medicines. might be objectively represented by the temperature tropism of animal by means of cold/hot differentiating assay.

  12. Sonic versus ultrasonic activation for the cleaning of the root canal after post space preparation: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Carrasco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy of 3 intracanal cleaning protocols used before cementation of prosthetic posts. Material and Methods: 40 anterior teeth received endodontic treatment in hand, using lateral condensation technique. After two weeks, gutta-percha was appropriately removed from the teeth to get the necessary space to install a post. Then, teeth were randomly divided into groups; root surface was treated with chlorhexidine (CHX activated by ultrasound (US (group I, with chlorhexidine activated by sonic instrumentation (S (group II, chlorhexidine without activation (group III and without treatment (group IV. All teeth were fractured longitudinally getting 2 sections. The middle third of the root canal was microphotographed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM and the contaminated surface was measured using detritus with ImageJ 1.47. It was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis-test using GraphPad Prism 5.01. Results: The median percentage of contaminated area of Group I was 20.06%, Group II, 19.3%; Group III, 36.05%; and Group IV, 56.45%. Conclusion: There are significant differences among different intracanal cleaning protocols in the removal efficiency of detritus from the root canal, being the activated protocols the most effective ones.

  13. 蕨根抗性淀粉的制备工艺研究%Preparation Technology of Fern Root Resistant Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟耕; 陈恋; 郑红艳; 张运芳

    2009-01-01

    压热法制备蕨根抗性淀粉的过程中,淀粉乳质量分数、压热温度、pH、压热时间和老化时间对蕨根抗性淀粉质量分数有不同程度的影响.通过三因素二次正交旋转组合设计,得出淀粉乳质量分数、pH、压热时间对蕨根抗性淀粉质量分数的影响大小次序为:淀粉乳质量分数>pH>压热时间.压热法制备蕨根抗性淀粉的最佳工艺条件为:淀粉乳质量分数28.7%,pH7.8,121℃压热处理38 min,4℃老化24 h,得到的蕨根抗性淀粉质量分数为10.94%.%Fern Root starch was used to prepare resistant starch.The starch concentration,autoclaving temperature,pH value,autoclaving time and retrogradation time showed different influence on fern root resistant starch yield.An experiment of three-factor and two-dimensional revolving orthogonal combinatorial design was carried out to optimize the reaction conditions.Results:The rank order of the influence factors is starch concentration>pH values>autoelaving time.The optimum preparation process for fern root resistant starch is starch concentration 28.7%,pH 7.8,heated at 121℃ for 38min,then retrograded at 4℃ for 24 h.The resistant starch content of the product is 10.94%.

  14. Effect of rhubarb powder on diabetic foot ulcer%大黄粉对糖尿病足溃疡创面的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成威; 杨忠丽; 胡慧玲; 朱卫华; 石璇; 贺丹; 左喜阳

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较大黄粉、碘伏对糖尿病足溃疡创面的疗效。方法:随机将52例糖尿病足1级的患者均分为观察组(使用大黄)及对照组(使用碘伏)。在严格控制血糖基础、改善循环、改善基础病情的情况下,分别采用大黄粉或碘伏外用并用无菌纱布覆盖糖尿病足,观察两种方法的疗效。结果:观察组有效26例,愈合时间(5.2±2.3)d;对照组有效23例,愈合时间(8.3±2.5)d,两组有效率(愈合时间)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:大黄粉可缩短糖尿病足I级创面愈合时间。%Objective:To investigate therapeutic effect of rhubarb powder on diabetic foot ulcer. Methods:Fitfy-two patients with diabetic foot at Level I were divided into 2 groups:A rhubarb group and a control group. Atfer the strict control of blood sugar, improving circulation, improving the basic situation, we used rhubarb powder or iodine topically on the diabetic foot with sterile gauze. The therapeutic effect was observed atfer 14 days treatment. Results:Twenty-six patients were effective in the rhubarb group, and healing time was (5.2 ± 2.3) d. Twenty-three patients were effective in the control group and healing time was (8.3 ± 2.5) d. There were signiifcant difference between 2 groups (P<0.01). Conclusion:Rhubarb can shorten the time of wound healing of diabetic foot at Level I.

  15. Clinical analysis of TF and Protaper NiTi instruments in root canal preparation%TF和Protaper镍钛器械在预备根管中的临床应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚娟; 张敬; 沙晶晶; 姜宪娇

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较2种机用镍钛根管预备器械TF和Protaper在根管预备中的临床应用效果。方法将2013年3月至2014年5月宁夏医科大学总医院口腔内科门诊就诊患者需进行根管治疗的82颗患牙随机分成TF组(42颗)和Protaper组(40颗)。TF组患牙采用TF锉,Protaper组患牙采用Protaper锉,分别测量两组患牙各根管的弯曲度,比较两组不同程度弯曲根管的根管预备时间、并发症和根管成形及充填效果。结果 TF组根管预备时间[(24.50±9.49)s]明显短于Protaper组[(46.31±26.08)s],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组根管预备时器械损伤情况、根管预备术后疼痛发生情况、根管成形及充填效果比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组根管预备时间均随着根管弯曲度的增加而增长。结论TF和Protaper 锉预备根管时根管成形效果均较好,与Protaper锉相比,TF锉根管预备时间更短,切割效率更高;TF和Protaper锉预备根管时,随着根管弯曲度的增加,根管预备时间增长。%Objective To compare the TF and Protaper two nickel-titanium root canal preparation system in the clinical effect of root canal preparation. Methods A total of 82 offending teeth required root canal treatment were randomly divided into two groups,ie,TF group(42) with TF filing and Protaper group(40) with Protaper filing. The root canal curvature degree of each root canal teeth in the two groups was measured. The different degrees of curved root canal root canal preparation time ,complica-tions and results were compared. Results Root canal preparation time TF group[(24.50±9.49)s] was obviously shorter than that of Protaper group[(46.31±26.08)s],which had statistically different significance;Two sets of equipment damage,the root canal preparation postoperative pain occurrence,the root canal shaping and filling effects were not significantly different(P>0.05). The root canal

  16. Micro-computed Tomography Assessment of Dentinal Micro-cracks after Root Canal Preparation with TRUShape and Self-adjusting File Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuolo, Mario Luis; De-Deus, Gustavo; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Souza, Erick Miranda; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the percentage frequency of dentinal micro-cracks observed after root canal preparation with TRUShape and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) systems by means of micro-computed tomography imaging analysis. A conventional full-sequence rotary system (BioRace) and a single-file reciprocation system (Reciproc) were used as reference techniques for comparison because of their known assertive cutting efficiency. Forty anatomically matched mandibular incisors were selected, scanned at a resolution of 14.25 μm, and assigned to 4 experimental groups (n = 10), according to the preparation protocol: TRUShape, SAF, BioRace, and Reciproc systems. After the experimental procedures, the specimens were scanned again, and the registered preoperative and postoperative cross-section images of the roots (n = 70,030) were screened to identify the presence of dentinal micro-cracks. Overall, dentinal defects were observed in 28,790 cross-section images (41.11%). In the TRUShape, SAF, BioRace, and Reciproc groups, dentinal micro-cracks were visualized in 56.47% (n = 9842), 42.38% (n = 7450), 32.90% (n = 5826), and 32.77% (n = 5672) of the slices, respectively. All dentinal defects observed in the postoperative data sets were already present in the corresponding preoperative images. None of the preparation systems induced the formation of new dentinal micro-cracks. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutinous rice amylopectin can adjust the plasma gut-regulated peptide levels in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo

    2016-02-01

    The pharmacological effects of glutinous rice (GR) and GR amylopectin (GRA) on the gastrointestine were investigated in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats by determining the levels of gastrointestinal hormones such as the peptides serum gastrin, amylase motilin, and somatostatin. GR and GRA were given by gavage at various doses of GR (7.5, 15, and 30 g per kg body weight) and GRA (3.8, 7.6, and 15 g per kg body weight) every day for 4 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the final body weight of rats in the highest-dose GR (GRH) group and all the GRA groups significantly (P GRH and highest-dose GRA (GRAH) groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower somatostatin contents compared with the MC group. Meanwhile, the somatostatin contents were negatively correlated with the motilin levels (r = -0.964, P < 0.01) and amylase contents (r = -0.981, P < 0.01). The GRAH treatment group had the highest final body weight, gastrin contents, motilin levels, and amylase contents and the lowest somatostatin contents, which demonstrated that GRA might play the most important role in the spleen-regulating activities of GR.

  18. Comparison of Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Preparation with Two Reciprocating and Rotary Single-File Systems: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollashahi, Narges Farhad; Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Havaei, Seyed Rohollah; Sabeti, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Root canal preparation techniques may cause postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to compare the intensity of postoperative pain after endodontic treatment using hand files, single file rotary (OneShape), and single file reciprocating (Reciproc) systems. Methods and Materials: In this single-blind, parallel-grouped randomized clinical trial a total of 150 healthy patients aged between 20 to 50 years old were diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of one maxillary or mandibular molars. The teeth were randomly assigned to three groups according to the root canal instrumentation technique: hand files (control), OneShape and Reciproc. Treatment was performed in a single visit by an endodontist. The severity of the postoperative pain was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) after 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The patients in control group reported significantly higher mean postoperative pain intensity at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h compared to the patients in the two other groups (P0.05). Conclusion: The instrumentation kinematics (single-file reciprocating or single-file rotary) had no impact on intensity of postoperative pain. PMID:28179917

  19. Clinical study on root canal preparation immediately after root canal treatment%根管治疗术后即刻桩核预备并冠修复的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鸿旭; 王毅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of root canal preparation for post-core immediately after root canal obtu-ration. Methods A total of 106 cases of mutilated coronal tooth structure, after endodontic therapy, indicated for post-core and crown, collected from dental outpatients in our hospital during 1st Oct 2011-30th Sep 2013, were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group. The experimental group were prepared for post space 7 days after root obturation, and then the teeth were prepared for retention of crowns; while in control group, post space was made 7 days after obturation. The two groups were observed in intervals of every half a year after treatment to examine the integrity, masticatory function and retention. Meteyards were established to evaluate its clinical effects. Results During follow-up visiting patients half a year to 2 years, in control group, there was 1 patient with splitting along buc-clingual direction and 4 patients with fracture of coronal structure before preparation;after restoration there were 3 pa-tients with periodontitis in the 1st year, 4 patients with periodical periodontitis, and 1 patient with loosening of post in the 2nd year, all of which were failure cases. In experimental group, before preparation there were no fracture case;after restoration there were 2 patients with periodical periodontitis in the 2nd year and 1 patient with periodontitis in 1 year. All the 3 cases counted as failure cases. The total successful rate in control group was 76.36%, and 94.12% in experimental group. The successful rate in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Root canal preparation for post-core immediately after obturation is more successful than the usual way with better apical sealing,less complication and frequency of teeth fracture .%目的 观察根管充填术后即刻进行桩核预备的临床疗效. 方法 选取我院2011年10月1日~2013年9月30日门诊93

  20. 三种器械预备弯曲根管成形效果的比较%Shaping efficacy of three instruments in curved root canal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄沛林; 叶剑涛; 黄卓珊; 余艳崧; 伍虹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the shaping efficacy of K files , Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files in curved root canal preparation of human teeth in vitro. Methods Sixty mandibular premolars with curved root canal were divided into three groups randomly, and prepared by K files, Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files respectively. Compound meglumine diatrizoate was injected into root canals and X-ray graphs of teeth were taken before and after instrumentation . The amount of dentin removed from inner and outer walls , centering ability and degree of straightening of root canal after preparation were analyzed. Results Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files removed less dentin from inner and outer walls than K files at all measuring points (P 0.05). The use of K files resulted in more straightening of root canal after instrumentation compared to other instruments (P 0.05). Conclusions K files, Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files caused transportation when preparing curved root canals . Safesiders files and HERO Shaper files showed less transportation and better shaping efficacy .%目的:评价K锉、Safesiders锉和HERO Shaper锉预备离体牙弯曲根管的成形效果。方法60颗根管弯曲的离体下颌前磨牙随机分为3组,分别用K锉、Safesiders锉和HERO Shaper锉进行根管预备,根管预备前后分别往根管内注入复方泛影葡胺并拍摄X线片,分析根管预备后根管弯曲内外侧壁牙本质去除量、中心定位能力及根管直化角度。结果在根管弯曲内外侧壁所有观测点,Safesiders锉组和HERO Shaper锉组牙本质去除量均少于K锉组(P均>0.05)。 Safesiders锉组牙本质去除量多于HERO Shaper锉组,但仅在根管弯曲内侧壁3和4 mm观测点处差异有统计学意义(3 mm:t=3.72,P<0.05;4 mm:t=7.62,P<0.05)。在距根尖孔5 mm以下观测点,Safesiders锉组和HERO Shaper锉组中心定位能力优于K锉组(1 mm:F=7.45,P<0.05;2 mm

  1. The resistance to fracture of tooth after root canal preparation with two different rotary nickel-titanium systems%两种镍钛器械预备后牙根管抗折强度的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧艳君; 王佳; 周磊; 王香兰

    2016-01-01

    s: Objective Comparison of 2 root canal preparation system ProTaper and TFA root canal preparation before the root canal preparation, analysis of root canal preparation and taper on the root fracture resistance.Methods Sixty pairs of maxillary and mandibullar premolars were selected which extracted from orthodontic. The teeth were non-carious and intact and were randomly divided into four groups. One of each pair was an experiment,the other was used as the control . which instrumented with nickel titanium ifles, namely A group: ProTaper\\ TFA,B group: TFA\\Complete teeth, C group: ProTaper\\Complete teeth, D group:ProTaperF3\\ ProTaperF1. Then the samples were tested after root canal filling with Universal Testing Machine. T tests was used to compare the results.Results Fracture resistance of A group of ProTaper in preparation of the premolar was signiifcantly lower than that in the preparation of TFA, B group and C group root canal preparation premolar fracture resistance was signiifcantly lower than that of intact teeth and group D ProTaper prepared to F3 fracture resistance was signiifcantly lower than the ProTaper prepared to F1.Conclusion The fracture resistance of premolar teeth reduced after root canal preparation. Taper on the root canal preparation of the impact of the impact of the taper,the greater the taper, the lower the fracture resistance.%目的:比较分析两种根管预备系统ProTaper和TFA进行根管预备离体前磨牙后,根管预备以及锥度对牙根抗折性的影响。方法:选用因正畸拔除的无龋、无损伤、完整的前磨牙,左右同名牙配对,共60对,分为四组。每对配对牙中,一个做实验,另一个做对照。A组:ProTaper预备\\ TFA预备,B组:TFA预备\\完整牙,C组:ProTaper预备\\完整牙,D组:ProTaper锉预备到F3\\ ProTaper锉预备到F1,完成根管充填后置于万能实验机上测试每对牙的最大载荷。用t检验比较各实验组与对照组抗折

  2. Metabolism and enzyme kinetics of five anthraquinones in rhubarb in rat liver microsomes%大黄5种蒽醌类成分在大鼠肝微粒体中的代谢及酶促反应动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯素香; 王蒙蒙; 吴兆宇; 李先; 郝蕊; 徐艳华

    2015-01-01

    To study the metabolic kinetics of anthraquinones in rhubarb and participate in the metabo-lism of cytochrome P450 isoforms in rat liver microsomal enzyme.Rat liver microsomes were prepared by using ultra-centrifugation method.anthraquinones in rat concentration in the incubation pool was deter-mined by RP-HPLC method.The Michaelis-Menten parameters Km and Vmax in rat liver microsomes were initially estimated by analyzing Lineweave-Brurk plot.The clearance (Clint )was calculated for in vitro enzyme to anthraquinones in rhubarb.Various selective CYP inhibitors were used to investigate their in-hibitory effects on the metabolism of anthraquinones in rhubarb and the principal CYP isoforms involved in anthraquinones in rhubarb metabolic ring.The Km,Vmax,and CLint of aloe emodin,rhein,emodin, chrysophanol,and physcion were(18.97 ±1.89),(2.50 ±0.11),(15.68 ±1.09),(183.41 ±1.90), (1.37 ±0.14)mg·L -1;(0.52 ±0.015),(0.066 ±0.003),(0.41 ±0.009),(5.22 ±0.09),(0.036 ±0.0034)mg·L -1 ·min -1;(2.69 ±0.12),(2.56 ±0.16),(2.61 ±0.20),(2.81 ±0.10),(2.63 ±0.18)min -1 ·10 -2 .After the induction of DEX,PB,β-NF,the anthraquinones in rhubarb metabolic rate of PB group and DEX group were higher than that of CMC-Na group,with a significant difference (P 0.05),both acetophenetidine,fonazole and ketoconazole's Dixon diagram were linears intersects the second quadrant.After induced by PB,DEX,the metabolism of anthraquinones in rhubarb were increase in rat liver microsomes.It was shown that CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 are involved in the metabolism of anthra-quinones in rhubarb,Both Acetophenetidine,Fluconazole and Ketoconazole were competitive inhibitors of anthraquinones in rhubarb.%研究大黄5种蒽醌类成分在大鼠肝微粒体中的代谢特征和参与代谢的细胞色素 P450亚型.超速离心法制备大鼠肝微粒体,采用反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)测定孵育液中大黄5种蒽醌类成分的质量浓度,研究大黄蒽醌类成分的酶促动力

  3. Clinical Evaluation of the Combined Application of Pathfile and Mtwo in Preparing Curved Root Canals%Pathfile和Mtwo联合应用于预备弯曲根管的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊; 高恒; 潘卫红

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价联合使用Pathfile和 Mtwo预备弯曲根管的临床效果。方法选择2013年12月至2014年2月期间因牙髓炎或根尖周炎需进行根管治疗的90颗患牙,313个根管,随机分为3组。A组联合使用 Pathfile和 Mtwo 镍钛锉进行根管预备,B组联合使用Pathfile和ProTaper进行根管预备,C组单独使用ProTaper进行根管预备。3组均采用热牙胶连续波垂直加压充填。记录3组在根管预备时间、器械分离数、根尖偏移和充填效果方面的差异。结果 A组预备时间最短,为(6.01±1.12)min,未见器械分离和根尖偏移,恰填率高。与 B组及 C 组比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论 Pathfile和 Mtwo联合应用于预备弯曲根管快速安全,根管充填效果佳,适合临床推广应用。%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of combined use of Pathfile and Mtwo in the preparation of curved root canals.Methods This study enrolled a total of 90 teeth(313 root canals)that need root canal therapy because of pulpitis or apical periodontitis from December 2013 to February 2014.All root canals were randomly divided into three groups.In group A,both Pathfile and Mtwo NiTi files were used in root canal preparation.In group B,Pathfile and ProTaper were used.ProTaper was employed alone in root canal preparation in group C.The high temperature thermaplasticized inj ectable ver-tical condensation technique was applied in all the three groups.The time of root canal preparation,the number of separated de-vices,root canal transportation and the quality of root canal filling were obtained and compared among the 3 groups.Results In group A,the time of root canal preparation was shortest,(6.01±1.12)min ;there were no instrument separation and ledge for-mation,and the filling rate was highest in group A.The differences were significantly noted in these indexes between group A and groups B,C.Conclusion Combined use of Pathfile and Mtwo for preparation of curved root

  4. 大黄敷脐治疗便秘的Meta分析%Meta analysis of umbilical area applying with rhubarb in treatment of constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉娇; 陈璇; 王洋; 吴心雨

    2016-01-01

    [目的]评价大黄敷脐对便秘治疗效果的影响。[方法]计算机检索PubMed、The Cochrane Library、EMBASE、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库(WanFang Data)、维普数据库(VIP)和中国生物医学数据库(CBM),检索时限均为建库至2015年5月关于大黄敷脐治疗便秘的随机对照试验,并追溯纳入研究的参考文献。由两名研究员对文献质量进行评价。应用 RevMan 5.2进行Meta分析,采用 Cochrane 系统评价员手册5.0.2推荐的工具评价其方法学质量。[结果]共纳入10个治疗便秘的随机对照试验,涉及850例病人,纳入的所有文献均为中文文献。Meta分析结果表明:大黄敷脐治疗便秘总有效率高于对照组[RR=1.59,95%CI (1.29,1.95),P<0.00001];与常规护理措施相比,大黄联合薄荷脑能有效治疗便秘[RR=2.77,95%CI(1.54,4.98),P<0.0006]。所有试验均无严重不良事件报道。[结论]大黄敷脐治疗便秘安全有效,但因缺乏高质量的研究,目前还不能得到较为可靠的结论。%Objective:To evaluate the influence of umbilical area applying with rhubarb on curative effect of con-stipation.Methods:It searched PubMed、The Cochrane Library、EMBASE、CNKI、WanFang Data、VIP and CBM from inception to May 2015 on the rhubarb umbilical area applying for constipation in randomized controlled tri-als,and traced references of included studies.The literature quality was evaluated by two researchers.RevMan 5.2 version was used for Meta analysis.Cochrane system evaluation manual 5.0.2 recommended tool was used to evaluate the quality of its methodology.Results:10 randomized controlled trials for treatment of constipation with 850 patients were included.All the included literatures were Chinese literature.Meta analysis results showed that the total effective rate of rhubarb umbilical area applying was higher than that of control group[RR=1.59,95%CI(1.29,1.95),P<0.000 01].Compared with the conventional nursing measures,rhubarb

  5. Clinical evaluation of rotary ProTaper and Mtwo instruments in curved root canals preparation%机动ProTaper和Mtwo器械用于弯曲根管预备的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦谦益; 张晓玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价机用ProTaper和Mtwo对弯曲根管的预备效果.方法:将临床需行根管治疗的171颗磨牙随机分为三组,分别采用ProTaper、Mtwo及不锈钢K锉对磨牙弯曲根管进行预备,比较器械折断、根管预备时间、术后反应及根管成型及充填情况.结果:根管预备时间:Mtwo的操作时间5.4 min比ProTaper的6.8 min和不锈钢K锉的13.6min短,ProTaper和Mtwo器械预备的根管锥度和流畅度均好,术后疼痛发生少.结论:ProTaper和Mtwo器械用于预备磨牙弯曲根管,效率高,成形能力佳.Mtwo器械应用常规预备法简单,预备时间短且有效.%Objective:To evaluate ProTaper and Mtwo Instruments in curved Root CanaJs Preparation. Method: A total of 171 molars treated by root canal therapy were randomly assigned to three groups: ProTaper group,Mtwo group and K group. Wearing and tearing degree of equipment, preparation time and postoperative pain of 3 groups were also compared. Result:The average root canal preparation time of the Mtwo group was 5.4 min. significantly less than the ProTaper (6.8 min) group and the K (13.6 min).In three groups.root canals of ProTaper group and Mtwo group.could maintain the root canal anatomy in early form.and achieved good preparation results. Conclusion:Two nickel-titanium systems tested in this study are effective in the curved root canal preparation. The Mtwo instrument is much easier and faster during preparation with routine preparation technique.

  6. Analysis clinical lifespan of Protaper Universal nickel-titanium root canal preparation instruments%Protaper Universal镍钛根管预备器械临床使用寿命分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗剑; 童庆春

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the factors affecting clinical lifespan of Protaper Universal nickel-titanium root canals preparation instruments.MethodsThe numbers of root canals prepared by 43 sets of Protaper Universal nickel-titaniumfiles within service life were recorded. Meanwhile, the serial number of broken or unwinding of files was also recorded. The reason was analyzed based on the preparation process, resistance position and whether the equipment broken.Results964 root canals was prepared by 43 sets of Protaper Universal nickel-titanium root canals instruments, the average number of each set prepared were 22.4 root canals. Only 5 sets was capable of prepared over 25 root canals (inclusive) without broken or unwinding, which accounted for 11.63%.ConclusionBoth fatigue fracture from stress and obstruction from calcified root canal are the main factors affecting torsional fracture of Protaper Universal nickel-titanium root canals preparation instruments. Thus, the numbers of root canal prepared by each Protaper Universal conventional root canalfile in clinical should be controlled within 22 times.%目的:探讨Protaper Universal镍钛根管预备锉临床使用寿命及其影响因素。方法对43套用于临床根管制备的机用Protaper Universal镍钛根管预备锉进行使用次数的计数,记录折断或解螺旋的扩大锉的号数。根据根管预备过程中顺畅性、阻力部位和器械是否折断来分析原因。结果43套机用Prota-per Universal镍钛根管预备锉共制备了964个根管,平均每套锉根管制备数为22.4个根管,其中只有5套(占11.63%)能制备25个根管及以上,未出现任何锉折断或解螺旋并被及时丢弃。结论影响Protaper Universal镍钛根管预备锉临床使用寿命的主要因素是镍钛合金的应力疲劳折断和根管钙化阻塞不畅造成器械的扭转断裂。建议临床根管预备过程中常规每套Protaper Universal根管锉制备根管数目控制在22次左右。

  7. Clinical analysis of diabetic nephropathy by rhubarb-based medicine enema%大黄为主中药灌肠治疗2型糖尿病肾病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊; 陈莉明; 常宝成; 郑妙艳; 温娟娟; 孙红喜

    2011-01-01

    of type 2 diabetic patients with renal insufficiency by rhubarb-based medicine enema and analyze the related factors affecting the therapeutic effect. Methods 140 type 2 diabetic patients with both type 2 diabetic nephropathy and chronic renal insufficiency were randomly divided into four groups,conventional treatment group(32 cases) sconventional oral drug treatment,rhubarb enema group 1 (38 cases): conventional therapy plus rhubarb enema two times per day,rhubarb enema group 2 (33 cases):conventional therapy plus rhubarb enema once per day, mixed enema group (37 cases) : conventional therapy plus rhubarb enema once per day and an enema of medicinal carbon tablets per day. Results The total effective rate of rhubarb enema group 1 .mixed enema group, rhubarb enema group 2 was 84. 2%, 78. 4% , 66. 6% , respectively, the total effect of rhubarb enema group 1 was significantly greater than the conventional treatment group( P <0. 05). After treatment,BUN in rhubarb enema group 1 and mixed enema group were lower than that in conventional treatment group, rhubarb enema group 1 (8. 54±3. 02) mmol/L vs mixed enema group (9. 04±2. 77) mmol/L vs conventional treatment group (10. 85 ±3. 79) mmol/L,respectively) 24 urine total protein was lower in rhubarb enema group 1, mixed enema group and rhubarb enema group 2 than that in conventional treatment group,rhubarb enema 1 and mixed enema group less than rhubarb enema 2,rhubarb enema groupl (1.66±0.46) g vs mixed enema group (1.81±0.43) g vs rhubarb enema group 2 (2. 05±0. 53) g vs conventional treatment group (2. 35±0. 57) g. Glomerular filtration rate which in rhubard enema group 1 and mixed enema group more than rhubarb enema group 2,rhubard enema group 1 (45. 83±8. 43) ml/min vs mixed enema group ( 39. 68 ± 7. 95) ml/min vs rhubarb enema group 2 ( 37. 53 ± 7. 85 ) ml/min vs conventional treatment group (35. 23 ± 8. 82) ml/min, respectively ( P <0.01). Multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis

  8. 19世纪穆氏家族与俄罗斯商人在恰克图交易大黄情况%The Murat Family and the Russian Merchant trade rhubarb in Kyakhta in the nineteenth century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士铭

    2013-01-01

    氏家族换购大黄。%Since the Age of Discovery ,Europeans believed rhubarb from Gansu ,Shanxi had positive efficacy on organs in the western medicine tradition .Therefore ,they hope to obtain rhubarb from various sources .After signing the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727 ,the Qing court permitted the Mu family to transport rhubarb from Gansu and Shanxi to Kyakhta for selling ;the Russians also sent merchants to Kyakhta to fur switch rhubarb .In 1738 ,when Russian officials monopolized the rhubarb business ,they appointed the Mu family as the only contracted rhubarb agent .They also dispatched deputies to trade Rhubarb with fur and other substances .The profits of rhubarb trade are very much high ,so that the Mu family must pay a lot of brokerage for the Kyakhta officials .And the grand minister superintendent of Kulun usually mediates that the Mu family members dispute the profits of rhubarb trade . Chinese and Russian contacts are affected by many factors such as economic ,and diplomatic .For in-stance ,the Kyakhta market was closed on several in the 18th Century ;and the merchant only smuggle the rhubarbs for the European market's demand .And the Russian merchant buy Chinese rhubarb quantity , price by the European market impact .Official Monopoly rhubarb trade in Russia during the Smuggle often face competitive pressures ,On several managed to sanctions smuggling .Since 1782 after the liberalization of the Russian free trade rhubarb ,Moscow ,Vologda and Kursk and other merchants monopolize the rhu-barb trade gradually .In the 19th Century ,the Russian handicraft gradually flourished ,and it is excessive hunting animals in Siberia ,led to fur gradually shortages .So that the Russian merchant must replace com-modities such as wool textiles ,cotton textiles ,and leather ,to exchange the Mu family’s rhubarb .

  9. 机用镍钛器械 ProTaper 预备磨牙根管的临床评价%Clinical evaluation on the preparation of molar root canals with ProTaper rotary instruments X

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志亮

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价机用 ProTaper 镍钛根管器械行磨牙根管预备的临床疗效。方法2011年1月至2013年12月选取患有磨牙牙髓炎或根尖周炎的患者99例,共116颗磨牙;随机分为实验组(49例,58颗牙)和对照组(50例,58颗牙)。对照组用不锈钢 K 型锉预备根管,实验组用机用镍钛器 ProTaper 根管锉预备根管。充填根管过程两组患者均采用侧向加压法。根据 X 线片评价根管预备和充填效果,且记录每颗患牙的单个根管预备所用时间、术后不良反应及远期疗效。结果与对照组相比,机用 ProTaper 镍钛器械预备单根管所耗时间短,根管预备后疼痛发生率低,根管适充率高,根管治疗术后1年疗效好。结论使用机用 ProTaper 器械进行恒磨牙根管预备快速、高效,根充效果好,术后疼痛少,值得临床推广。%Objective To evaluate the quality of molar root canal preparation using ProTaper rotary instruments. Methods From January 2011 to December 2013,99 adult patients with 116 affected molars who were diagnosed to receive root canal treatment were divided into two groups based on the randomly - paired principle. There were 58 teeth in each group. In group A,root canals were prepared with rotary ProTaper files in crown - down mode,and in group B root canals were prepared with traditional stainless steel K files by hand. All root canals were obturated with lateral condensation method. The time consumed in preparation of each canal was recorded. The outcome of root filling and side effects occurred af-ter the operation were also noted. 1 year later all the cases were revisited and the therapeutic results were verified. Results Time consumed in the preparation of group A was significantly less than group B. Exact filling rate of canals prepared with rotary ProTaper files was higher than with k files and side effects after the operation such as tooth ache and swelling less occurred. One year

  10. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  11. Impact of Immediate and Delayed Post Space Preparation on Coronal Leakage along Root Fillings%桩腔预备的不同时机对两种根管糊剂根尖封闭效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the sealing ability of filling materials through measuring the volume of canal microleakage. Methods 70 extracted mandibular premolars each with single canal were selected. The Sealite Ultra paste or AH Plus paste and lateral pressure rubber pointed teeth filling root canal, immediately or after α week post space was prepared, the dye determination method was used to test leakage,and statistical analysis was done. Results Neither of the two pastes completely closed root canal, with no significant differences between two paste fillings ; immediate post space preparation compared to delayed pile cavity preparation, the leakage was significantly reduced. Conclusion The delayed post space preparation can reduce the root canal sealing ability of filling materials.%目的 探讨桩腔预备的不同时机对两种常用根管糊剂根尖封闭效果的影响.方法 选取70颗单根管上颌前牙,采用Sealite Ultra糊剂或AH Plus糊剂和牙胶尖侧向加压充填根管,即刻或1周后进行桩腔预备,采用染料渗透法测定根尖渗漏量,进行统计分析.结果 两种糊剂都无法完全封闭根管,用两种糊剂充填组间微渗量比较差异无统计学意义,而即刻进行桩腔预备组与延迟桩腔预备组相比,微渗漏显著减少.结论 延迟桩腔预备可以削弱充填材料封闭根管的能力.

  12. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  13. Effects of Rhubarb on Whole Genome Expression Profiles of Liver in Fever Syndrome Model Rats%大黄对实热证模型大鼠肝基因表达谱的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发艳; 王世军; 韩冰冰; 赵海军

    2012-01-01

    目的:利用基因芯片技术研究寒性中药大黄对2,4-二硝基苯酚致实热证模型大鼠肝脏全基因表达谱的影响,从基因水平分析大黄作用机制.方法:SPF级Wistar大鼠24只,随机分为空白对照组、模型对照组和大黄治疗组.造模后6h取肝组织,应用RatRef-12基因芯片检测各组大鼠肝脏基因表达,筛选差异表达基因,进行基因功能分类.结果:大黄水煎液组与实热模型组比较有177条差异表达基因.其中可注释基因113条,查询到29项显著性基因功能.其中生物学过程24项,主要为代谢过程功能包含59(52.21%)条差异基因;分子功能2项,主要涉及催化活性包含61(53.98%)条差异基因,其中氧化还原酶活性包含26(23%)条差异基因.结论:寒性中药大黄可调节代谢相关的基因降低机体代谢水平,实现其“清热泻火”作用.%Objective: To study the effects of Rhubarb on whole genome expression profiles of liver in fever syndrome model rats induced by 2 ,4 - dinitrophenol based on gene chip technology, and analyze the mechanism of Rhubarb on gene level. Methods : Twenty-four Wistar rats of SPF level were randomly divided into control group, fever syndrome model group and Rhubarb group. Rats in fever syndrome model group and Rhubarb group received 2 ,4 - dinitrophenol 2. 5mg/Ml by hypodermic injection, half an hour later Rhubarb group was given 10mL/kg Rhubarb decoction and the other two groups were given the same volume distilled water. After 6 hours,the livers of each group were taken out to detect the gene expression by using Illuminas RatRef-12 gene array. Results:There were 177 strips of gene differential expression between the Rhubarb group and the fever syndrome model group,113 of which could be annotated. Among the 113 genes,52. 21% were related to the metabolism,53. 98% to catalytic activity. Conclusion :Rhubarb can decrease the expression of genes related to metabolism to achieve its functions of clearing

  14. Effects of root canal preparation techniques on root canal stress level and distribution: A 3D finite element analysis%不同根管预备方法对根管应力大小和分布影响的三维有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲; 尹新芹; 林志勇; 孟德廷; 孙晓东; 石晓婷

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of different root canal preparation techniques on the root canal stress values and distribution, and to compare the stress change under the different loading. METHODS:30 extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n = 10). The root canals were prepared with standard system using Ni-Ti Mtwo instrument ( G1) , crown-down technique using Ni-Ti Protaper instrument (G2) and step-back technique using conventional stainless steel K-files (G3) respectively. The prepared canals were then filled with warmhearted gutta pertscha and restored with composite resin. CT scan and Abaqus 6. 10 software were used to establish 3D finite element models. The stress magnitude and distribution of the models were analyzed under the loading of 150 N vertically and at 45° linguoclination respectively. RESULTS: After root canal preparation, high stress area was mainly concentrated in the crown 1/3 of the canals, the stress value decreased gradually from the root canal orifice to the apical foramen. The average peak root canal stress under lateral loading was significantly higher than that under vertical loading(P 0. 05 ) , but the stress of G3 was higher than that of Gl and G2 (P 0. 05). CONCLUSION: All three root canal preparation methods were safe and feasible. Preparation with Protaper and Mtwo nickel titanium may result in more balanced root canal stress distribution.%目的:研究不同根管预备方法对根管应力大小和分布的影响,并比较不同加载状态下根管应力的改变.方法:选取30个离体下颌第一前磨牙,随机分成3组(n=10)∶G1组(标准法)用镍钛器械Mtwo预备;G2组(冠向下法)用镍钛器械Protaper预备;G3组(逐步后退法)用不锈钢K锉预备.预备后的根管经热牙胶充填和复合树脂修复后,应用CB-CT技术与Abaqus 6.10软件等相结合建立各组牙齿三维有限元模型,分析比较模型在垂直和舌侧倾斜45°不同载荷条件下的应力大小

  15. Colonization of Potato Rhizosphere by GFP-Tagged Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, Pseudomonas sp. P482 and Ochrobactrum sp. A44 Shown on Large Sections of Roots Using Enrichment Sample Preparation and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jafra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to colonize the host plants’ rhizospheres is a crucial feature to study in the case of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs with potential agricultural applications. In this work, we have created GFP-tagged derivatives of three candidate PGPRs: Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, Pseudomonas sp. P482 and Ochrobactrum sp. A44. The presence of these strains in the rhizosphere of soil-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. was detected with a classical fluorescence microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM. In this work, we have used a broad-field-of-view CLMS device, dedicated to in vivo analysis of macroscopic objects, equipped with an automated optical zoom system and tunable excitation and detection spectra. We show that features of this type of CLSM microscopes make them particularly well suited to study root colonization by microorganisms. To facilitate the detection of small and scattered bacterial populations, we have developed a fast and user-friendly enrichment method for root sample preparation. The described method, thanks to the in situ formation of mini-colonies, enables visualization of bacterial colonization sites on large root fragments. This approach can be easily modified to study colonization patterns of other fluorescently tagged strains. Additionally, dilution plating of the root extracts was performed to estimate the cell number of MB73/2, P482 and A44 in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants.

  16. Expression of the difference between the Cold(Han) and Hot(Re) natures of traditional Chinese medicines(Strobal and Rhubarb) based on the cold/hot plate differentiating assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this study, objective differences between the Cold (Han) and Hot (Re) nature of traditional Chinese medicines, e.g. Strobal and Rhubarb, are determined by using a cold/hot plate differentiation technology. A novel, self-designed cold/hot plate differentiating instrument, with methodological study, was used to investigate the intervention of Strobal and Rhubarb on the temperature tropism of mice. Compared with the ICR and BALB/c mice, it was found that KM mice on the cold/hot plate were more sensitive to the change of temperature, within the tolerant temperature range of 15-40 ℃ . The temperature tropism behavior of mice is influenced by treatment with Rhubarb and Strobal, as is the activity of ATPase in liver tissue. These trends are consistent with the definition of the Cold/Hot nature of Chinese medicines based on traditional Chinese medicinal theory. This study showed that the differences of the Cold/Hot nature of traditional Chinese medicines. might be objectively represented by the temperature tropism of animal by means of cold/hot differentiating assay.

  17. 大黄总蒽醌大鼠在体胃肠吸收%Study on in situ rats stomach and intestinal absorption of the total anthraquinones of rhubarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜纲; 崔英慧; 陈大为; 李忠思; 常金花; 刘翠哲

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究大黄总蒽醌在大鼠胃、肠的吸收性质.方法:采用大鼠在体胃、肠吸收模型,以高效液相色谱法测定胃、肠灌注液中大黄总蒽醌的含量,并考察离子浓度增加对吸收的影响.结果:大黄总蒽醌在大鼠小肠2 h累积吸收率为66.99%,在结肠中2 h累积吸收率为23.54%,增加离子强度对吸收没有影响.结论:大黄总蒽醌在大肠吸收相对较少.提示根据其泻下作用机制,可以将大黄总蒽醌制备成口服结肠定位给药形式.%OBJECTIVE To observe of the study was to observe the absorption of total anthraquinones of rhubarb extract (TARE) in the rats stomach and intestine. METHODS In situ perfusion was carried out by using the perfusion solution of the TARE (total anthraquinones content over 50%). The concentrations of total anthraquinones (TA) in the perfusion samples were determined by HPLC. RESULTS The results demonstrated that the absorption rate constants (Ka) of TA had no significant difference when its concentration varied between 0. 95 - 3. 8 mg·L-1. The absorption quantity of TA was proportional to its concentration respectively and the saturate absorption phenomenon was not observed. These suggested that the absorption of TA was a passive diffusion process. The results showed that in small bowel and colon the mechanism of absorption was the passive transport and the first order kinetics. TA could be absorbed in the whole intestinal sections. CONCLUSION The absorption rate of TA was higher in small bowel than that in colon. TA was poor absorbed in the colon, and was suitable to be prepared as oral colon-specific drug delivery system.

  18. Pharmacological equivalence research on intestinal propulsion of Rhubarb ultra-fined dispensing-granule%超微粉碎大黄配方颗粒小肠推进药理等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵自明; 陈玉兴; 杜铁良; 曾晓会; 黄雪君

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨超微粉碎制备大黄配方颗粒(颗粒)与大黄标准煎剂(煎剂)、大黄细粉剂(细粉)和大黄超微粉剂(超微粉)促小肠推进的药理等效性.方法:同批次中药饮片制备的大黄煎剂、细粉、超微粉和颗粒以不同剂量组灌胃给药一次,计算小鼠小肠墨汁推进率(CPRI).结果:大黄煎剂、细粉、超微粉和颗粒所有剂量组CPRI较对照组均有不同程度的显著性增加(P超微粉>细粉>煎剂.%objective: To investigate the pharmacological equivalences of the four different formulations of Rhubarb:ultra-fined-dispensing-granule (uDG), standard-decoction (SD), fine powder (FD) and ultrafine powder (UP). Methods: Both the positive control drug and the four different formulations of Rhubarb which came from the same batch, were orally administered to mice only once with different doses, and the carbo propulsion rate of intestine (CPRI) was calculated. Results: Compared with the control group, propulsion rate of intestine in the positive control drug group and in all dose groups of the four formulations of Rhubarb were significantly increased (P<0.05). Exponential curve were used to fitting the dose-response curve of Rhubarb ultrafine-powderm, but the compound curve were selected for the others'formulations of Rhubarb. Potency of uDG (mg/ kg)=34.354+0.055×SD(CPRI:45.28-50.09%)=40.765+0.103×FD(45.28-54.18%%)=60.088+0.532×UP(CPRI:45.28-68.63%); in 121.88-3900 mg/kg dose ( 2-5-20 times clinic equivalent dosage ) range, effects of uDG(% )=- 14.243+ 1.762×SD=- 11.939+ 1.578 ×FD=1.550+1.055×UP. Conclusion: Pharmacological equivalent of uDG>UP>FD >SD.

  19. Protective effects on brain of water extract of rhubarb after epilepsy by pentylenetetrazol in rats%大黄水提液对戊四唑癫痫大鼠的脑保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧杰; 张文风; 杨焱

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the protective effects on brain of rhubarb after epilepsy by pentylenetetrazol. Meth-ods A epilepsy model on rats was establ-ished by injecting pentylenetetrazol,the rats were respectively treated with rhubarb 4 g / kg,2 g / kg and 1 g / kg,one time a day. Observing the frequency of convulsions attacking on rats,the incu-bation time and behavioral changes. The brain tissue superoxide(SOD),malondialdehyde( MDA)and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)activity were measured. Results Rhubarb could extend the incubation period of rats abou 1 minute after Epilepsy by pentylenetetrazol,reduce the duration of about 2 minutes,increase the activity of SOD of 10 U/ mg,GSH-Px of 10 U/ mg and decrease MDA content of 1 nmol/ mg. Conclusion Rhubarb could fight epilepsy by pentylenetetrazol in rats and oxidation of brain tissue. It is proved that rhubarb can obviously prevent and cure epilepsy.%目的:观察大黄对戊四唑(pentylenetetrazol,PTZ)癫痫大鼠的脑保护作用。方法采用戊四唑复制癫痫大鼠模型,给予大黄4、2、1 g / kg,灌胃1次/ d。观察大鼠的惊厥发作频率、发作潜伏时间及行为变化。测定脑组织超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide,SOD)、丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)、谷光甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-PX)活性。结果大黄可延长戊四唑癫痫大鼠发作潜伏期,大约1 min,缩短持续时间2 min 左右。提高脑组织 SOD 含量10 U/ mg、GSH-PX 活性10 U/ mg,降低 MDA 水平1 nmol/ mg。结论大黄可以对抗戊四唑大鼠癫痫发作及脑组织氧化,对癫痫有一定的防治作用。

  20. Application of Rhubarb in severe acute pancreatitis%中药大黄在急性重症胰腺炎中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光友; 沈世英

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨中药大黄在急性重症胰腺炎临床治疗中的应用.方法 选取2009年2月~2011年2月来重庆市南川区第二人民医院接受急性重症胰腺炎治疗的患者100例,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各50例.对照组使用奥曲肽进行治疗,观察组患者在对照组治疗基础上,使用中药大黄进行治疗.以两组患者的临床疗效、治疗后C-反应蛋白(CRP)浓度、血尿淀粉酶、白细胞及肝功能变化作为临床观察指标.使用SPSS 13.0统计学软件对各观察指标进行统计学比较分析.结果 观察组患者的各项临床指标(临床疗效、治疗后CRP浓度、血尿淀粉酶、白细胞及肝功能变化)均明显优于对照组患者(P < 0.05、P < 0.01).两组总有效率比较(88.0%比74.0%),差异有统计学意义(χ2 = 6.527,P = 0.038).结论 中药大黄可有效地提高急性重症胰腺炎的临床治疗效果.%Objective To investigate the application of Rhubarb in the treatment of acute severe pancreatitis. Methods 100 patients with severe acute pancreatitis treated in our hospital from February 2009 to February 2011 were selected and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, each group had 50 cases. The control group was given Octreotide treatment and the observation group was given additional Rhubarb treatment on the basis of the control group. The clinical efficacy, post-treatment C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, urine amylase, white blood cell and liver function changes served as clinical observation indicators. The SPSS 13.0 statistical software was used for the statistical comparative analysis of various observational indicators. Results The observation group was significantly superior to the control group in various clinical indicators (clinical efficacy, post-treatment CRP concentraion, urine amylase, white blood cells and liver function changes) (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared between tow groups of total effect rate (88.0% vs 74

  1. 大黄与姜黄配伍对实验性高脂血症小鼠降血脂作用研究%Study on the hypolipidemic effects of rhubarb and curcuma in experimental mice with hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨耀光

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of single rhubarb ethanol extract , single curcuma ethanol extract , compatibility application on the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of mice with hyperlipidemia in order to explore the differences of hypolipidemic effects of the two kinds of drugs between single application and compatibility application .Mtehods Seventy male Kunming mice weighted 20~25 g were randomly divided into five groups:control group,model group,rhubarb group, curcuma group,rhubarb +curcuma (1∶1 compatibility) group.The mice in the five groups were given 0.9%sodium chloride solution,fat emulsion,rhubarb ethanol extract suspension ,curcuma ethanol extract suspension ,rhubarb +curcuma (1∶1) ethanol extract suspension,respectively by gavage at the same time ,after 28 days,the blood fat levels were detected for all the mice.Results The single rhubarb ethanol extract ,single curcuma ethanol extract ,compatibility application of two drugs had hypolipidemic effects,as compared with those in control group and model group ( P <0.05).Conclusion The single rhubarb ethanol extract , single curcuma ethanol extract, compatibility application of two drugs can reduce blood fat levels in experimental mice with hyperlipidemia,moreover,the hypolipidemic effect of compatibility application of two drugs (1∶1)is superior to that of single drug extract.%目的:观察大黄乙醇提取物与姜黄乙醇提取物单味应用与伍用对实验性高脂血症小鼠血清中TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C的影响,探索2种提取物单用与伍用降血脂作用的差异。方法选体重20~25 g昆明种雄性小鼠,分为5组,对照组、模型组、大黄组、姜黄组、大黄姜黄1∶1伍用组,5组在同一时间开始灌胃0 W.9%氯化钠溶液、脂肪乳剂、大黄乙醇提取物混悬液,姜黄乙醇提取物混悬液,大黄姜黄1∶1

  2. Análise comparativa entre instrumentação rotatória (GT, manual e associação de ambas no preparo de canais achatados Comparative analysis of rotatory (GT and manual root canal preparation and association of both techniques in instrumentation of flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beltrami Gonçalves

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A instrumentação do canal radicular tem sido considerada uma das fases mais importantes do tratamento endodôntico, portanto muitas técnicas e instrumentos têm sido desenvolvidos para esse fim. O propósito desse estudo foi avaliar a limpeza de canais radiculares instrumentados com três diferentes técnicas. Foram selecionados trinta incisivos inferiores, onde a abertura coronária foi realizada. Posteriormente, os canais foram preenchidos com tinta nanquim (corante, previamente acondicionada em tubetes anestésicos, sendo a mesma levada ao interior do canal radicular com auxílio de uma seringa carpule e uma agulha para anestesia. Após 48 horas, tempo esperado para que o corante secasse no canal, os dentes foram divididos em três grupos: G1 - instrumentação rotatória com GT; G2 - instrumentação manual e G3 - associação de ambas (mista. Após a instrumentação, os dentes foram seccionados longitudinalmente e realizada a avaliação da limpeza dos canais, através da remoção de corante nos terços cervical, médio e apical. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na limpeza do canal entre as três técnicas de instrumentação estudadas, nos três terços avaliados.Root canal preparation has been considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy, thus many techniques and instruments have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning of the root canal through three different instrumentation techniques. Thirty mandibular incisors were selected and submitted to lingual access cavities. Afterwards, the canals were filled with India ink dye previously stored in carpules, which was inserted into the root canal by means of anesthetic syringe and anesthetic needles. After 48 hours, during which the dye was allowed to dry inside the root canal, the teeth were divided in three groups: G1- GT rotatory instrumentation; G2- manual instrumentation; G3- association

  3. Effects of Free Anthraquinones Extract from the Rhubarb on Cell Proliferation and Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix in High Glucose Cultured-Mesangial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyun; Fang, Hui; Dong, Bingzheng; Wang, Dongdong; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Lijuan; Wei, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage failure of the kidney, but the efficacy of currently available strategies for the prevention of DN remains unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effects of free anthraquinones (FARs) extract, which was extracted from the rhubarb and purified by macroporous resin DM130 with gradient mixtures of ethanol/water as the lelution solvents, in high glucose-cultured glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). The cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay, the levels of TGF-β1, CTGF, ColIV and FN proteins in the supernatant of MCs were measured by ELISA assays, and the mRNA levels of these four genes were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the increased proliferation of MCs, the mRNA levels and protein expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, ColIV and FN induced by high glucose were inhibited after the treatment with the FARs extract. This indicated that FARs extract could inhibit cell proliferation and the expression of main extracellular matrix induced by high glucose in MCs. The FARs extract exhibited potential values for prophylaxis and therapy of DN. PMID:26557014

  4. A clinical evaluation of the incidence of endodontic interappoint emergencies after root canal preparation by different methods%不同预备方法对根管预备后约诊间痛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 朱敏; 葛久禹

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价不同预备方法预备根管对约诊间痛(EIAE)发生率的影响.方法 临床选取前磨牙103颗,随机分成两组,分别采用冠-根向法(大锥度K3机用镍钛器械,实验组)和常规法(02锥度手用不锈钢器械,对照组)预备,比较两组根管预备后,患牙约诊间痛(EIAE)发生的情况.结果 实验组根管预备后EIAE发生率为7.55%,对照组为22.00%,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 冠-根向预备法比常规法能有效降低EIAE的发生.%Objective To evaluate the effects of different methods on the endodontic interappoint emergencies happened to the patients after premolar root canal preparation. Methods 103 premolars were selected from the patients and divided into two groups which were treated with crown-down technique and routine preparation technique respectively. The incidence of endodontic interappoint emergencies in the two groups was compared. Results In the test group,the incidence of endodontic interappoint emergencies was 7.55% , and in the control group, the incidence was 22%. There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions Using crown-down technique in the root canal preparation can decrease the incidence of endodontic interappoint emergen

  5. Preparative isolation and analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root using ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and effective assay based on ultrafiltration combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography was developed for screening and purifying alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extract. Experiments were carried out to optimize binding conditions including alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. By comparing the chromatograms, three compounds were found possessing alcohol dehydrogenase binding activity in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. Under the target-guidance of ultrafiltration combined with the high-performance liquid chromatography experiment, liquiritin (1), isoliquiritin (2), and liquiritigenin (3) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography using ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:1:4) as the solvent system. The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitory activities of these three isolated compounds were assessed; compound 2 showed strongest inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 8.95 μM. The results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using ultrafiltration, high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography could be widely applied for the rapid screening and isolation of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  6. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  7. ProTaper机用镍钛锉根管预备的临床效果分析%Clinical evaluation of ProTaper NiTi instruments in root canal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹芳; 徐天舒; 路和平

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价ProTaper机用镍钛锉根管预备的临床效果.方法 选择300颗患牙(638个根管)随机分为ProTaper组和K锉组,分别用ProTaper机用镍钛锉和K锉进行根管预备,采用x2检验比较根管预备后的疼痛反应、根管充填效果及器械分离情况.结果 ProTaper组根管预备后疼痛发生率为6.00%,较K锉组的根管预备后疼痛发生率(26.67%)少(P<0.01),ProTaper组根管恰填率为93.77%,较K锉组(88.64%)高(P<0.05),两组间的器械分离则无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 ProTaper机用镍钛锉能有效降低根管预备后疼痛的发生和提高根管充填质量,而且较为安全.%Objective To assess the clinical effects of ProTaper NiTi instruments in root nanal preparation. Methods A total of 300 teeth which needed endodontie treatment were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups. The root canals were prepared with Pro-Taper NiTi instruments in ProTaper group and with K-files in K-files group respectively. The incidence of endodontie interappointraent emergences ( EIAE) ,the effects of canal obturation and incidence of the instrument fracture were compared by x2 test. Results The incidence of EIAE (6. 00% ) in ProTaper group were significantly lower than that in the K-files group (26. 67%) ( P < 0. 01 ) . The rate of adequate root canal filling (93. 77% ) in ProTaper group were significantly higher than that in K-files group (88. 64% ) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of instrument fracture between ProTaper group and K-files group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions Using ProTaper NiTi instruments can reduce the incidence of EIAE and improve the effects of canal obturation. It is safe to use ProTaper NiTi instruments in root canal therapy.

  8. 不同炮制和煎煮时间对大黄沉降药性的影响研究%The Effects of Different Processing and Boiling Time for Rhubarb Settle-ment Potency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贵林

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察在大黄的炮制与煎煮过程中,炮制方法及煎煮时间的选取对其药性的影响,为中医的临床治疗奠定基础。方法选取80只小鼠作为研究对象,随机分为各10只的8组。分别各取4组进行炮制实验和煎煮实验,炮制实验分别选取不同的炮制方法,对比炮制后的药性情况;煎煮实验分别煎煮不同的时间,对比小鼠灌胃水煎液的情况。结果经过不同炮制方法的煎煮液连续7d的灌胃饲养后,对比4组小鼠的胃排空及小肠推进情况,结果发现,生大黄组及经醋或酒炮制的大黄组,其胃残留率显著低于生理盐水组(P<0.05),其小肠推进率均分别显著高于生理盐水组(P<0.05)。对比不同的煎煮方法下4组小鼠的胃排空及小肠推进情况,结果发现,短大黄组胃残留率显著低于生理盐水组(P<0.05)。结论在大黄的炮制与煎煮过程中,适时的延长煎煮时间可以使大黄沉降的药性趋于缓和,醋制及酒制可增强药性。%Objective To observe the rhubarb cooked with boiling process, the processing methods and select the boiling time of its impact potency for clinical treatment of Chinese medicine to lay the foundation. Methods 80 mice as research subjects were randomly divided into eight groups of 10 each. From each of the four groups were concocted experiments and boiling experiment, experiment concocted different processing methods were selected, compared to the case of herbs con-cocted; boiling experiments were boiling a different time, compared to mice fed conditions decoction. Results After a decoc-tion of different processing methods of gavage feeding for 7 days, compared to four groups of mice gastric emptying and in-testinal propulsion, the results found, rhubarb group and by vinegar or wine cooked rhubarb group, its stomach The residue was significantly lower than the saline group (P<0.05), small intestine propulsion rate was significantly

  9. 手用ProTaper镍钛器械预备弯曲根管的临床研究%Clinical study of the curved root canal preparation by using hand ProTaper nickei-titanium instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁永良

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of Hand ProTaper nickel-titanium instruments in root curved canal preparation. Method: 117 patients were divided into two groupB randomly: 59 cases were prepared with hand ProTaper CPT group):58 cases were prepared with hand stainless steel K file (SS group). The preparation time.the number of broken instrument,apical transportation!the incidence of post operative pain, and effect of root canal obturation was recorded. Re-SulttThe preparation time was (5.59±1.66)min in the PT group and (11.88±2.36)min in the SS group. The rate of broken instrument was 3.39 % in PT group and 0 in SS group. The incidence of apical transportation was 3.39 % in PT group and 17.24 % in SS group. The incidence of post operative pain was 5.08 % in PT group and 20.69 % in SS group. Conclusion: The hand ProTaper NiTi instruments could prepare curved root canals quickly which could maintain the original direction and curve of the canal. The canals prepared with hand ProTaper possessed excellent taper and flow characteristics. It was an efficient instrumentation method for curved canals and deserved to be recommended for clinical application. Meanwhile, the problem of instrument seperation due to many reasons such as variations in canal anatomy and cyclic fatigue of instruments should be prevented.%目的:观察手用ProTaper镍钛器械预备弯曲根管的临床效果.方法:117例患者分为两组,手用ProTaper镍钛(PT)组59例,采用手用ProTaper镍钛器械预备根管,不锈钢K型根管锉(SS)组58例,采用改良双敞法预备根管.记录操作时间、器械折断情况、根管偏移发生情况、术后疼痛的发生、根管充填效果.结果:根管预备时间 PT组为(5.59±1.66) min,SS组为(11.88±2.36) min;断针率PT组为3.39%,SS组为0;根管偏移率PT组为3.39%,SS组为17.24%;根充术后疼痛率PT组为5.08%,SS组为20.69%.结论:用手用ProTaper预备弯曲根管成形效果好,操作时间短,能很

  10. Metaphorical Roots of Beliefs about Teaching and Learning Science and Their Modifications in the Standard-Based Science Teacher Preparation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs are psychological constructs potentially driving a teacher to make pedagogical decisions and act. In this study, the metaphor construction task (MCT) was utilised to uncover beliefs about teaching and learning science held by 110 pre-service science teachers participating in the standard-based teacher preparation programme. Overall, the…

  11. Anti-bacteria function of compound ornidazole-rhubarb buccal film%复方奥硝唑大黄口腔膜抑菌作用的实验室观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许岩; 路伟琦

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察复方奥硝唑大黄口腔膜的抑菌、缓释和解吸附功能.方法:选择与牙周及龋病相关致病菌,用杯碟法进行复方奥硝唑大黄口腔膜的细菌敏感试验;用附着板法观察抑菌作用及解吸附作用.结果:复方奥硝唑大黄口腔膜对牙龈卟啉单胞菌等菌有明显抑菌作用;对变形链球菌有抗附着作用.结论:复方奥硝唑大黄口腔膜对牙周致病菌有稳定的抑制作用.%OBJECTIVE To observe the antibacterial function of compound ornidazole-rhubarb buccal film(CORBF), its local delivery and desorption. METHODS Caries and periodontitis-associated bacteria were chosen. Paper-disc assay was used to test the sensitivity of bacteria to the buccal film, and lamina aflixa assay was applied to analyze the anti-bacteria action and des-orpdon of the buccal film. RESULTS Compound ornidazole-rhubarb buccal film had significant anti-bacteria action on P. G and other bacteria. And it could inhibit the absorption of S. Mutans. CONCLUSION Compound ornidazole-rhubarb buccal film has a stable inhibitory effect on caries and periodontal bacteria.

  12. Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor-Fernández, Alejandro; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2003-07-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations derived from natural sources such as vegetables often contain compounds that contribute to the antioxidant defence system and apparently play a role in the protection against degenerative diseases. In the present study, commercial preparations containing extracts of turmeric, artichoke, devil's claw and garlic or salmon oil were investigated. The products were divided into fractions of different polarity, and their antioxidant activity was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. This test is based on the efficacy of the test material to scavenge 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) derived radicals. Total phenols were determined in all fractions as well as specific carotenoids in the most lipophilic fraction to assess their contribution to the antioxidant activity. For comparison, the radical scavenging effect of selected constituents of the extracts such as curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, harpagoside, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol was investigated and compared with that of Trolox. Curcumin, luteolin, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid and beta-carotene showed an antioxidant activity superior to Trolox in the TEAC assay; harpagoside was barely active. All fractions of the turmeric extract preparation exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity, which was assigned to the presence of curcumin and other polyphenols. The antioxidant activity corresponding to the artichoke leaf extract was higher in the aqueous fractions than in the lipophilic fractions. Similarly, devil's claw extract was particularly rich in water-soluble antioxidants. Harpagoside, a major compound in devil's claw, did not contribute significantly to its antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity of the garlic preparation was poor in the TEAC assay. That of salmon oil was mainly attributed to vitamin E, which is added to the product for stabilization. In all test preparations, the antioxidant

  13. Preparative isolation and purification of harpagoside and angroside C from the root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsley by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinfeng; Ye, Xiaoli; Shang, Yuanhong; Deng, Yafei; He, Kai; Li, Xuegang

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the bioactive component harpagoside and angroside C in the root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsley was simultaneously separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A two-phase solvent system containing chloroform/n-butanol/methanol/water (4:1:3:2, v/v/v/v) was selected following consideration of the partition coefficient of the target compound. The crude extract (200 mg) was loaded onto a 280-mL HSCCC column and yielded 22 mg harpagoside and 31 mg angroside C with the purity of higher than 98 and 98.5%, respectively. It is feasible to isolate active compounds harpagoside and angroside C from S. ningpoensis using HSCCC.

  14. Preparation of novel curcumin-imprinted polymers based on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the rapid extraction of curcumin from ginger powder and kiwi fruit root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Chen, Xing; Rao, Wei; Long, Fang; Yan, Liang; Yin, Yuli

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer based on magnetic phenyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes was synthesized using curcumin as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The phenyl groups contained in the magnetic imprinted polymers acted as the assisting functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption studies demonstrated that the magnetic imprinted polymers possessed excellent selectivity toward curcumin with a maximum capacity of 16.80 mg/g. Combining magnetic extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography technology, the magnetic imprinted polymer based on magnetic phenyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes was applied for the rapid separation and enrichment of curcumin from ginger powder and kiwi fruit root successfully.

  15. Influence of the glide path on various parameters of root canal prepared with WaveOne reciprocating file using cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Dhingra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instrumentation carries a risk of fracture, mainly as a result of flexural (fatigue fracture and torsional (shear failure stresses. This risk might be reduced by creating a glide path before NiTi rotary instrumentation. The aim of this study was to compare various root canal parameters with the new WaveOne single-file reciprocating system in mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without glide path using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: One hundred mandibular molar teeth with canal curvature between 20° and 30° were divided into two groups of 50 teeth each. In Group 1, no glide path was created, whereas in Group 2, a glide path was created with PathFiles at working length (WL. In both groups, canals were shaped with WaveOne primary reciprocating files to the WL. Canals were scanned in a CBCT unit before and after instrumentation. Postinstrumentation changes in canal curvature, cross-sectional area, centric ability, residual dentin thickness, and the extent of canal transportation were calculated using image analysis software and subjected to statistical analysis. Data were analyzed using Student′s t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test (P < 0.05. Results: The mean difference of root canal curvature, cross-sectional area, centric ability, and residual dentin thickness increased, whereas it reduced significantly for canal transportation in Group 2. Conclusion: WaveOne NiTi files appeared to maintain the original canal anatomy and the presence of a glide path further improves their performance and was found to be beneficial for all the parameters tested in this study.

  16. 三种器械用于磨牙弯曲根管预备的临床评价%A Clinical study of three instruments in preparation of curved root canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天; 李桂红

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价不锈钢K锉、机用ProTaper和机用Safe-Sider预备磨牙弯曲根管的临床疗效.方法:选取因牙髓炎或根尖周炎需要进行根管治疗的磨牙180颗(413个根管),随机分为K-file组、ProTaper组和Safe Sider组,每组60颗牙.分别用不锈钢K锉、机用ProTaper和机用Safe Sider进行根管预备.三组均采用冷牙胶侧方加压技术充填根管.记录三组病例根管预备时间和术后并发症发生情况,根据治疗前、中、后的X线片评价根管预备和充填效果.结果:机用ProTaper、机用Safe Sider分别与不锈钢K锉在根管预备时间、根管成形以及充填效果方面在统计学上有显著性差异(P0.05).结论:机用ProTaper和机用Safe Sider预备磨牙弯曲根管时能较好地保持原有根管形态,省时省力,术后反应少.%Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of K-file 、 ProTaper and SafeSider in preparation of curved molar root canals. Method: A total of 180 teeth which needed endodontic treatment were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups with 60 teeth in each group:K-file group、ProTaper group and SafeSider group. The root canals were prepared with 3 instruments respectively. All canals were obturated using lateral condensation technique. The efficacy of canal preparation and obturation by X-ray before, during and after operation was analyzed.Result: Statistically significant difference was found in mean working time, shaping curved molar canals and exact root canal obturation between K-file group、ProTaper group or SafeSider group. No Statistically significant difference was found in mean working time, shaping curved molar canals and exact root canal obturation between ProTaper group and SafeSider group. Conclusion: ProTaper and SafeSider tested in this study are effective and time-saving in shaping curved molar canals, it also caused less post-operative pain. The results indicated both ProTaper and SafeSider were comparable to optimally enlarge root

  17. Application Value of Different Processing Methods in the Genetic Toxicity of Rhubarb%不同炮制方法在大黄遗传毒性减毒中的应用价值探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南香兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究不同炮制方法在大黄遗传毒性减毒中的应用价值。方法分别使用醋蒸法、醋炒法炮制生大黄,建立污染物致突变性检测(AMES)实验检测其效果,比较结果差异性。结果醋蒸[TA97的S9阴性、阳性值分别为(244.5±9.1)、(250.1±8.0)]的大黄样品除醋蒸样品在代谢非活化条件下呈阳性外,菌株TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102的致突变性都呈现阴性结果,醋炒大黄结果仍呈阳性。结论醋蒸法炮制后能有效降低大黄毒作用,醋炒法炮制后大黄减毒效果不明显。%ObjectiveTo explore the application value of different processing methods in the genetic toxicity reduction of rhubarb.Methods Using vinegar steamed method,vinegar fried method of raw rhubarb,the establishment of polutant mutagenicity test experiment to detect its effect,compare the difference between the results.Results Steaming with vinegar[TA97 S9 negative and positive values respectively(244.5±9.1),(250.1±8.0)] of Rhubarb Samples from vinegar steamed samples in non metabolic activation is positive,strains TA97,TA98,TA100 and TA102 induced mutagenicity showed negative results,vinegar fried rhubarb results is stil positive.ConclusionWith vinegar steaming method can effectively reduce the large effect of vinegar fried by pornography,vinegar fried method of the effect is not obvious.

  18. 乌司他丁联合大黄对创伤后急性肺损伤的治疗效果%Curative Effect of Ulinastatin Combined with Rhubarb in Treatment of Post-traumatic Acute Lung Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子彬; 丰浩荣; 王祥和

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乌司他丁联合大黄在创伤后急性肺损伤( ALI)中的治疗效果。方法选取2011年2月—2013年12月收治的ALI 84例,按治疗方法分为乌司他丁组、大黄组、联合用药组及对照组,每组21例,4组均给予常规治疗,乌司他丁组给予乌司他丁微泵静脉注射,大黄组给予大黄胶囊鼻饲,联合用药组给予乌司他丁联合大黄治疗。观察治疗前、后呼吸频率、机械通气时间及总住院时间,呼吸相关指标,血白细胞及细胞因子变化。结果4组共死亡10例,病死率为11.9%。乌司他丁组、大黄组、联合用药组机械通气时间、总住院时间短于对照组,急性呼吸窘迫综合征发生率低于对照组,且联合用药组疗效更显著(P<0.05)。4组治疗后与治疗前比较,呼吸频率减缓,二氧化碳分压、氧和指数增高,白细胞、C反应蛋白、白介素-2、白介素-6、肿瘤坏死因子-α水平明显下降,且均以联合用药组变化最明显(P<0.05)。结论乌司他丁联合大黄治疗ALI具有协同作用,并可抑制炎性因子释放,疗效确切。%Objective To investigate the curative effect of Ulinastatin combined with Rhubarb in treatment of post-traumatic acute lung injury ( ALI) . Methods A total of ALI 84 patients admitted during February 2011 and De-cember 2013 were divided into the Ulinastatin group (n=21), the Rhubarb group (n=21), the Ulinastatin combined with Rhubarb group (n=21) and the control group (n=21). Based on the conventional treatment, the Ulinastatin group was given Ulinastatin with intravenous injection through a micro pump, and the Rhubarb group received nasal feeding with Rhubarb capsules, while Ulinastatin combined with Rhubarb group was given Ulinastatin combined with Rhubarb treat-ment. The changes of respiratory rate ( RR) , duration of mechanical ventilation, total hospitalization time, respiratory re-lated indexes, white blood cells ( WBC) count and blood cytokines before and after

  19. Effects of Compound Rhubarb Pill on Plasma D-lactate and Procalctionin Expressions in Patients with Sepsis%复方大黄片对脓毒症患者血浆 D-乳酸及前降钙素表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施伟民

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the compound big porn plasma D-lactic acid in patients with sepsis and the former ex-press the effect of calcitonin .Methods:February 2013 to February 2014 ,our hospital surgical of 55 patients with sep-sis ,rhubarb treatment group (30 cases) and non rhubarb treatment group (25 cases) .Rhubarb treatment group given compound rhubarb ,3g/second ,1/8h ,with routine therapy and routine therapy including antibiotics ,shope deep ,Sin-gapore and Thailand can cure;assure the normal supply of water and electrolyte ,and nutrition .The rhubarb treatment group given conventional treatment .Two groups of cases before and after treatment 1d ,4d to determine patients plasma D-lactic acid and calcitonin level changes .Results:The treatment group before treatment the patient’s level of plasma D-lactic acid and calcitonin level before ,with the rhubarb treatment group ,there was no significant difference (P>0.05) , 1d ,4d after treatment plasma D-lactic acid levels rhubarb treatment group was lower than that of rhubarb treatment group (P0.05) .4 days after treatment of two groups of cases before the plasma calcitonin level comparison results of rhubarb treatment group significantly below the rhubarb treatment group as a result ,there is significant difference (P<0.01) . Conclusion:The compound rhubarb could improve intestinal permeability in patients with sepsis ,reduce bacteria trans-location .%目的:研究复方大黄片对脓毒症患者血浆D-乳酸及前降钙素表达的影响。方法:2013年2月-2014年2月入住我院外科的脓毒症患者55例,分为大黄治疗组(30例)和非大黄治疗组(25例)。大黄治疗组给予复方大黄片3g/次,1次/8h服用,附带常规治疗,常规治疗包括抗生素、舒普深、特治星、泰能;保证水和电解质以及营养的正常供给。非大黄治疗组只给予常规治疗。两组病例治疗前和治疗后1d、4d测定血浆D-乳酸和前降钙素水平变化情况。结

  20. Preparative Isolation of Two Prenylated Biflavonoids from the Roots and Rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi by Sephadex LH-20 Column and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prenylated biflavonoids, podoverines B–C, were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi using a Sephadex LH-20 column (SLHC and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. The 95% ethanol extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate in water. Target compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were further enriched and purified by the combined application of SLHC and HSCCC. n-Hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (3.5:5:3.5:5, v/v was chosen as the two phase solvent system. The flow rate of mobile phase was optimized at 2.0 mL·min−1. Finally, under optimized conditions, 13.8 mg of podoverine B and 16.2 mg of podoverine C were obtained from 200 mg of the enriched sample. The purities of podoverines B and C were 98.62% and 99.05%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. For the first time, podoverins B and C were found in the genus Sinopodophyllum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC. Their absolute configurations were elucidated by comparison of their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. The separation procedures proved to be practical and economical, especially for trace prenylated biflavonoids from traditional Chinese medicine.

  1. Preparative Isolation of Two Prenylated Biflavonoids from the Roots and Rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi by Sephadex LH-20 Column and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Jun; Pei, Li-Xin; Wang, Kai-Bo; Sun, Yin-Shi; Wang, Jun-Min; Zhang, Yan-Li; Gao, Mei-Ling; Ji, Bao-Yu

    2015-12-23

    Two prenylated biflavonoids, podoverines B-C, were isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi using a Sephadex LH-20 column (SLHC) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The 95% ethanol extract was partitioned with ethyl acetate in water. Target compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were further enriched and purified by the combined application of SLHC and HSCCC. n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3.5:5:3.5:5, v/v) was chosen as the two phase solvent system. The flow rate of mobile phase was optimized at 2.0 mL·min(-1). Finally, under optimized conditions, 13.8 mg of podoverine B and 16.2 mg of podoverine C were obtained from 200 mg of the enriched sample. The purities of podoverines B and C were 98.62% and 99.05%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. For the first time, podoverins B and C were found in the genus Sinopodophyllum. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (HR-ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC). Their absolute configurations were elucidated by comparison of their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The cytotoxic activities were evaluated against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines. The separation procedures proved to be practical and economical, especially for trace prenylated biflavonoids from traditional Chinese medicine.

  2. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for separation of a mixture of coptis alkaloids, scute flavonoids, and rhubarb anthraquinones and bianthrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin-Chau; Sun, Shao-Wen

    2006-01-23

    Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Rhei Rhizoma are three common Chinese herbs. There are many herbal formulas which contain either two or all three of the herbs mentioned above. Their bioactive components have already been identified, respectively. However, there is no report about separation of the 13 bioactive constituents of the three herbs at the same time. In order to assess these constituents of related Chinese herbal preparations, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed. While buffer pH and surfactant concentration affected the resolution of separation, acetonitrile percentage was found to significantly influence the resolution, peak shape, and elution window. Optimum separation of 13 compounds was achieved at pH 7.3 using a buffer mixture of 70% (v/v) 3 mM di-sodium tetraborate, 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and 50 mM sodium deoxycholate with 30% (v/v) acetonitrile. When applying the developed method to analyze a model preparation, San-huang-xie-xin-tang, which contains all three herbs, 8 of the 13 bioactive constituents, could be determined. The present study proposed a method to assess San-huang-xie-xin-tang within short analysis time and also provided a possible starting point to evaluate related herbal preparations containing Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Rhei Rhizoma.

  3. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  4. Root canal treatment of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In endodontics, several anatomic variations occur in teeth, both externally and in the internal root morphology, which play a very significant role in the diagnosis and treatment outcome. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy, careful interpretation of the angled radiographs, proper endodontic access cavity preparation, and exploration of the root canal are the prerequisites for endodontic success. In a maxillary first premolar, it is rare to find extra roots and canals, and the aim of the present article is to report a case about the successful diagnosis and clinical management of bilateral three-rooted maxillary first premolars, with three independent root canals.

  5. Clinical analysis of EDTA effect on reducing the fracture of ProTaper Nickel titanimn mechanical files during root canal preparation%EDTA润滑剂在减缓机用镍钛锉疲劳方面的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 杜毅; 李纾

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过记录根管预备操作中ProTaper机用镍钛锉折断前使用次数,探讨乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)在根管预备中减缓机用镍钛器械疲劳方面的的应用价值.方法收集大量离体磨牙和新ProTaper机用镍钛锉40套(S1-F2)共200支,ProTaper机用镍钛锉随机分为两组,对照组使用ProTaper机用镍钛锉+双氧水预备根管,实验组用EDTA+ProTaper机用镍钛锉根管预备,比较两组器械折断前不同使用次数情况.结果实验组折断前使用次数均高于对照组,两组折断前使用次数差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在熟练掌握正确的使用技术后,在根管预备中应用EDTA润滑剂可减缓机用镍钛器械疲劳程度,从而减少断针的机率.%Objective To study the effect of EDTA on reducing the fracture of ProTaper Nickel titanium mechanical files during root canal preparation by recording the times of application. Methods 40 sets of new ProTaper Nickel titanium mechanical files ( S1-F2, totally200 files) were collected ,20 sets of the new ProTaper Nickel titanium mechanical files and EDTA in test group were used during root canal preparation, and the other 20 sets took routine preparation in control group. To observe the difference of times of application before they were broken during root canal preparation. Results The times of application of ProTaper Nickel titanium mechanical files before they were broken during root canal preparation in control group were less than those in the test group, the difference of times of application before they were broken during root canal preparation between two groups was significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions The application of EDTA has good clinical effect on reducing the fracture of ProTaper Nickel titanium mechanical files during root canal preparation and should be adopted in root canal preparation.

  6. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P propagation (P = .0004). The other procedures had no significant effects on crack initiation and propagation (P > .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  8. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  9. Involvement of Rhizobium leguminosarum nodulation genes in gene expression in pea root hairs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Moerman, M.; Brussel, van T.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1989-01-01

    The mRNA population in pea root hairs was characterized by means of in vitro translation of total root hair RNA followed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. Root hairs contain several mRNAs not detectable in total RNA preparations from roots. Most of these root hair-spe

  10. Effects of rhubarb navel therapy on the functions of colostomy in rectal cancer patients with colostomy%生大黄脐疗对直肠癌患者结肠造口功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应立英; 梅小杨; 马小琴; 吴婉英; 童敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨生大黄脐疗对直肠癌患者结肠造口功能的影响.方法 将60例接受永久性结肠造口的直肠癌患者随机分为对照组和实验组各30例.对照组给予常规护理及健康宣教;实验组在此基础上于术后15 d开始给予生大黄脐疗,共30 d.比较2组术后3个月的结肠造口功能及排便规律情况.结果 2组患者人工肛门评分均有所改善,但实验组患者评分明显高于对照组;实验组排便规律形成19例,显著高于对照组的4例.结论 生大黄脐疗能有效地改善直肠癌患者结肠造口的功能,且有利于患者术后排便规律的形成.%Objective To explore the effects of rhubarb navel therapy on fecal continence in rectal cancer patients with colostomy.Methods 60 patients with colostomy were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group with 30 patients in each group.Patients in the control group received routine therapy and health education whereas the experimental group received 30-day extra rhubarb navel therapy started on the 15th day after the operation.The two groups were compared in postoperative 3 months with the following factors:the functions of colostomy and the formation of bowel regularity.Results The scores of the scale about the functions of permanent abdominal colostomy were improved in both groups.However,the score in the experimental group was much higher than that in the control group.The number of patients forming bowel regularity in the experimental group was more than that in the control group (19 and 4 cases respectively).Conclusions Rhubarb navel therapy is beneficial to rectal cancer patients with colostomy to improve the functions of colostomy and form the bowel regularity.

  11. Protective effect of Rhubarb to acute lung injury induced by endotoxin in rats%大黄对内毒素诱导急性肺损伤大鼠的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盛; 桂培春; 何新华; 周景

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in acute lung injury (ALI) and protective effect of Rhubarb to them. LPS was injected into the sublingual vein of male Wistar rats to perform ALI animal model. Histopathological examinations were performed; Biological markers and NO, iNOs were measured for the lung specimens. Results showed under light microscope in the LPS group, there were edema of lung interspace and a large amount of erythrocytes and neutrophils and plasma protein in the alveolar cavities. Pulmonary vascular endothelium was injuryed under electron microscope. Lung wet/dry weight, the rate of neutrophils and protein content in the pulmonary alveolar lavage fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary alveolar permeability index as well as NO and iNOs were correspondingly significantly high. In the groups with dexamethasone and Rhubarb treatment, these indexes of lung injury were significantly lower than in the group with LPS. Main mechanism of ALI induced by LPS is that it directly damaged pulmonary alveolar epithelium and vascular endothelium. Rhubarb and dexamethasone have protective effects to pulmonary vascular endothelium and alveolar epithelium in ALI induced by LPS and their therapeutic mechanism is possibly through inhibiting the activities of NO and iNOs.%探讨脂多糖(LPS)致急性肺损伤(ALI)的作用机制及大黄的保护作用。用Wistar大鼠复制ALI的动物模型,观察组织病理学变化,测定ALI生物学指标及NO和iNOs。结果显示:LPS组肺间质水肿,肺泡腔内可见大量细胞浸润和血浆蛋白渗出;肺血管内皮细胞损伤。肺湿干重比,肺泡灌洗液中中性粒细胞比例,蛋白含量及肺泡通透指数,肺毛细血管通透性均显著升高,NO和iNOs也显著升高。地塞米松和大黄组,上述指标均较LPS组显著下降。LPS致ALI的机制主要是直接损伤肺泡上皮和血管内皮细胞。大黄及地塞

  12. Clinical Observation on Rhubarb Decoction Retention Enema in Treatment of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy%大黄煎剂保留灌肠治疗轻微肝性脑病临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春; 姚凡; 谢武; 何燕; 韦玉仙; 付蕾

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察大黄煎剂保留灌肠对轻微肝性脑病患者内毒素、血氨及数字连接试验(NCT)、肝功能的影响.方法:共选取80例乙肝肝硬化并发轻微肝性脑病患者,随机分为空白对照组(A组)、中药组(B组)、乳果糖组(C组)、安慰剂组(D组),每组各20例,4组均采用基础治疗,B、C、D组在基础治疗的基础上分别加用大黄煎剂(大黄、乌梅)、乳果糖、安慰剂保留灌肠.结果:中药组在降低内毒素、血氨、NCT及改善肝功能方面均优于其他3组(P<0.01).结论:大黄煎剂保留灌肠治疗轻微肝性脑病安全、有效.%Objective; To observe the retention enema with Rhubarb decoction in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis endotoxin, blood ammonia and number connection test ( NCT) ,and liver function. Methods-.A total of 80 cases of liver cirrhosis complicated with minimal hepatic encephalopathy were randomly divided into control group (group A) , Chinese medicine group( group B) ,lactulose group( group C) ,the placebo group( D group) ,20 cases in each group. The 4 groups were given the basic treatment, besides, B, C and D groups were treated with retention enema by Rhubarb decoction, lactulose, placebo respectively. Results;Traditional Chinese medicine group was better than the other three groups in the reduction of endotoxin, blood ammonia, NCT and improvement of hepatic function ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion; Rhubarb decoction retention enema in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is safe and effective.

  13. 镍钛器械不同运动方式根管预备后牙根微裂的体外研究%Dentinal crack formation during root canal preparations using reciprocating and rotary files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于飞; 杨欣

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较Waveone与ProTaper Universal镍钛器械采用不同运动方式根管预备后牙根微裂的发生。方法:40颗离体下颌切牙随机分成4组(n=10),实验组分别使用Waveone Primary单支锉往复式运动、ProTaper Universal F2单支锉往复式运动、ProTaper Universal全序列至F2连续旋转运动模式预备根管,对照组不进行根管预备。根管预备后,距根尖孔3 mm、6 mm、9 mm处进行水平切盘,体视显微镜下观察牙根不同横截面牙根微裂的发生情况。结果:对照组未观察到牙根微裂。实验组中,Waveone Primary单支锉往复式运动组、ProTaper Universal F2单支锉往复式运动组和ProTaper Universal全序列连续旋转运动组产生根裂的比例分别为20%、30%和60%。往复式运动组和连续旋转运动组之间差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:机用镍钛器械采用往复式运动可减少牙根微裂的发生。%Objective:To compare the incidence of dentinal cracks after root canal preparation with instruments working in continuous rotation and reciprocating motion. Method:40 extracted mandibular central incisors with mature apices and straight root canals (5°~10°)were selected and kept in saline. Group A samples were prepared with WaveOne primary files,group B samples with single F2 ProTaper working in reciprocating motion,group C samples with sequential ProTaper until F2 working in continuous rotation motion,and group D samples were the negtive control. Roots were then horizontally sectioned 3,6,and 9 mm from the apex. The slices were viewed through a stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. The samples were photographed with a camera to determine the presence of dentinal cracks. Result:The control group had no cracks. Waveone,single F2 ProTaper in reciprocating motion,and continuous ProTaper groups caused cracks in 20 %,30 %,and 60 % of samples,respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between 2

  14. 根管显微镜在开髓术及髓腔预备操作教学中的应用%Study of Root Canal Microscope Used in Open Experiment on Pulp and Pulp Cavity Preparation in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建玲; 董茜茜; 侯铁舟; 刘忠奇; 邓晓红; 刘青

    2014-01-01

    Objective The research of the application of root canal microscope aims at examining the ad‐vantages of improving the opening pulp and pulp cavity preparation technology in teaching ,and explo‐ring the root canal microscope application prospect in experimental teaching of dental pulp disease . Method The research object is thirty students and were randomly divided into three groups ,no‐micro‐scope group ,microscope teaching group and microscope operation group ,recording pith and pith cavi‐ty preparation operation time with self‐made‘open pith and pith cavity preparation skills score table’ and‘attitude of students evaluation form’ ,to quantitatively evaluate student mastery of the skills and learning attitude .Result There were no significant differences between the three groups in operation time (P>0 .05) .No microscopic group and microscopy teaching groups and no microscopic group and microscope operating group’s operation skill score have significant difference(P<0 .05) ,microscope teaching group and microscope operating group scores are higher than the group without microscope . Between group and microscope operation microscope group and teaching group and the microscope op‐eration between groups ,attitude of students test scores have the difference of statistics P<0 .05 ,mi‐croscope operation group scoring higher than those without microscope group and microscope teaching group .Conclusion The application of root canal microscope can effectively be improved in the teaching quality of this technology in the open pulp and pulp cavity preparation teaching ,helping to improve the students’ interest in learning the technique .Recommendations can develop application root canal microscope in teaching in conditional units .%目的:通过应用根管显微镜对提高开髓术和髓腔预备技术的教学效果探讨,探索其在根管治疗术实验教学中的应用前景。方法将西安交大口腔医学五、七年制学生30

  15. 三种根管预备器械预备根管根尖碎屑推出量和根管清理能力的比较%Self-adjusting files, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal:a comparative study of root canal cleanness and the amount of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍婉翠; 陈广盛

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Amount of debris extruded apicaly is an important indicator to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation instrument. Studies have shown that debris extruded apicaly can cause post-treatment pain, and thus, reducing the amount of debris extruded apicaly can decrease the incidence of post-treatment pain. OBJECTIVE:To compare the root canal cleanness and the amount of apicaly extruded debris during root canal preparation with Self-adjusting files, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal. METHODS:Forty-five premolars with single canal were divided into three groups randomly, and then prepared by Self-adjusting files, ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal, respectively. Debris extruded apicaly was colected, dried and weighed. Then roots were longitudinaly sectioned and observed under scanning electronic microscope to evaluate the cleanness of the root canal. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The amount of apicaly extruded debris in the ProTaper Universal group was significantly higher than that in the Self-adjusting files group and ProTaper Next group (P 0.05). Scores on debris and smear layer were lower in the group of Self-adjusting files than the groups of ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal (P 0.05). These findings indicate that the Self-adjusting files and ProTaper Next can extrude less debris beyond the apical foramen, which may decrease the incidence of post-treatment pain. Cleaning ability of Self-adjusting files is better than ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal.%背景:根尖碎屑推出量是评价根管预备器械预备效果的一项重要指标。研究表明,推出根尖孔的碎屑将引起根管治疗后疼痛,减少根尖区碎屑的推出可降低术后疼痛发生率。目的:比较新型镍钛器械自调节根管锉、ProTaper Next和传统镍钛器械ProTaper Universal预备人下颌单根管前磨牙的根尖碎屑推出量和根管清理能力。方法:将45颗离体人下颌单根管前磨牙随机均分为3组,分别使用新

  16. Research on the Mechanism of Intervening Renal Fibrosis by Astragalus and rhubarb%黄芪、大黄的抗肾纤维化作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶; 张博华

    2011-01-01

    事实上,肾纤维化是肾衰的必经途径.目前尚无良策治愈肾衰,但是肾纤维化却可以被阻止.肾纤维化包括肾小球硬化和肾间质纤维化,严重威胁人类健康,肾间质纤维化与肾衰关系更密切.肾纤维化是由多种病理机制造成.黄芪和大黄可通过干预其中一种或多种途径发挥抗肾纤维化的作用.黄芪、大黄是临床用于肾纤维化治疗中的重要药物.对黄芪、大黄中这两种中药做一综述是很有必要的.%In fact, renal fibrosis is the necessary way which leads to renal failure. There is no good way to cure renal failure. However,renal fibrosis can be prevented. Renal fibrosis includes glomerular sclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis, and severe cases threaten the human health seriously. There is a more close relation betneen renal interstitial fibrosis and renal failure. Renal fibrosis involves several pathological mechanisms. Astragalus and rhubarb can resist or lighten renal fibrosis by intervening one way or more. Astragalus and rhubarb are important drugs for the treatment of renal fibrosis. A review is important to study these two Chinese herbal medicine.

  17. Evaluation of bacterial leakage of four root- end filling materials: Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA, Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabian M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Today several materials have been used for root- end filling in endodontic surgery. Optimal properties of Pro Root MTA in in-vitro and in-vivo studies has been proven. On the other hand, based on some studies, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA and Portland cement are similar to Pro Root MTA in physical and biologic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial leakage (amount and mean leakage time of four root- end filling materials. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro study, seventy six extracted single- rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups for root-end filling with gray Pro Root MTA, white Pro Root MTA, Root MTA (Iranian Pro Root MTA, Portland Cement (type I and positive and negative control groups. Root canals were instrumented using the step- back technique. Root- end filling materials were placed in 3mm ultra sonic retro preparations. Samples and microleakage model system were sterilized in autoclave. The apical 3-4 mm of the roots were immersed in phenol red with 3% lactose broth culture medium. The coronal access of each specimen was inoculated every 24h with a suspension of Streptococcus sanguis (ATCC 10556. Culture media were observed every 24h for colour change indicating bacterial contamination for 60 days. Statistical analysis was performed using log- rank test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: At the end of study 50%, 56.25%, 56.25% and 50% of specimens filled with Gray Pro Root MTA, White Pro Root MTA. Root MTA and Portland Cement (type I had evidence of leakage respectively. The mean leakage time was 37.19±6.29, 36.44±5.81, 37.69±5.97 and 34.81±6.67 days respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed no significant difference among the leakage (amount and mean leakage time of the four tested root- end filling materials (P=0.9958. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, there were no significant differences in leakage among the four

  18. Assessment of root surfaces of apicected teeth: A scanning electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-15

    May 15, 2014 ... Many dental root canal systems have unreachable fields like isthmi, lateral ... root resection and ultrasonic root‑end preparation, when compared with root ... irrigation with 5 ml of 15% EDTA (Wizard, Rehber Kimya. San. ve Tic ...

  19. Comparison of Machine-used Rotary Nickel-titanium Files K3 and ProTaper in Molar Root Canal Preparation%机用镍钛锉K3和ProTaper预备磨牙根管的临床应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪莉; 钟素兰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of machine-used rotary nickel-titanium files K3,ProTaper and hand-used stainless steel files K in molar root canal preparation. Methods 136 patients which received root canal treatment in the hospital from September 2013 to August 2015 were enrolled. And 150 molars in the 136 patients were randomized into experi-mental K3 group (50 molars,168 root canals),experimental ProTaper group (50 molars,165 root canals) and control stainless steel K group (50 molars,160 root canals). Patients in the three groups received root canal preparation using rotary nickel-titani-um files K3,root canal files ProTaper and stainless steel files K respectively. Lateral condensation was used during root canal fill-ing process in three groups. X-ray was used to evaluate the effect of root canal preparation and filling. Preparation time of every single root canal,instrument fracture,postoperative adverse events and long-term effect were recorded. Results Compared with the stainless steel files,using nickel-titanium files K3 and ProTaper for root canal preparation had shorter preparation time,lower inci-dence rate of postoperative pain,better root canal filling and 6-month clinical efficacy. There was no instrument fracture in the K3 group during root canal preparation,while 1 pair of files broke respectively in the ProTaper group and stainless steel K group. Con-clusion Nickel-titanium files K3 and ProTaper could be used for fast and efficient root canal preparation with better root canal filling,less postoperative pain. Nickel-titanium files K3 and ProTaperwere more suitable for molar root canal preparation.%目的:比较机用镍钛锉K3、ProTaper和手用不锈钢K挫对磨牙根管预备临床应用效果。方法将2013年9月至2015年8月期间在我院口腔科就诊的患者需要行根管治疗的磨牙的患者136例,共150颗磨牙,随机分实验组K3组(50颗,168个根管)、ProTaper组(50颗,165个

  20. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  1. Effect of rhubarb and Glauber's salt cathartic intervention on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%大黄加芒硝导泻治疗有机磷农药中毒的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱茄英; 陈茶花; 鄢小莲; 肖玲; 黄敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of nasal tube feeding of rhubarb solution and umbilical compress of Glauber's salt for purgation in the treatment of patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP).Methods A retrospective study was conducted.Eighty patients with severe AOPP were dividedinto two groups according to different treatment,with 40 patients in each group.A thorough gastric lavage was done,followed by cholinesterase complex agent and atropine were given for all the patients.On the base of this treatment,one group of patients were given nasogastric feeding of rhubarb solution (200 ml) and Glauber's salt solution ( 100 g) for umbilical compress (rhubarb plus Glauher group),and another group of patients were fed with 20% mannitol (200 ml)as a control group (mannitol group).The time of first defecation,number of passing stools,the time of normalization of cholinesterase (ChE) activity,time of atropinization,dosage of atropinization,and total amount of atropine given,incidence of adverse reactions,and hospital stay in two groups were observed,a statistical analysis of the data was conducted.Results In rhubarb plus Glauber group,all the conditions were improved better than those of mannitol group [first defecation time (minutes):134.13 ± 31.31 vs.154.35 ± 34.78,the number of stools (times/d):2.60 ±0.81 vs.2.14 ± 0.63,time of ChE activity returned to normal (days):9.65 ± 1.42 vs.10.66 ± 1.74,atropinization time ( hours ):3.00 ± 0.73 vs.3.56 ± 1.02,dosage of atropinization (mg):51.43 ± 7.03 vs.57.65 ± 7.74,the total amount of atropine given (mg):229.78 ± 28.96 vs.248.41 ± 31.45,the incidence of adverse reactions:abdominal pain 0 vs.17.5%,abdominal distention 0 vs.20.0%,hospital stay (days):10.43 ± 1.68 vs.11.59 ± 2.121,and all the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.01).Conclusion Combination usage with aqueous rhubarb solution and Glauber's salt in AOPP patients could yield quick clearance of toxin

  2. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  3. Mandibular second premolar with four roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefika Nur Akyuz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of normal and abnormal variation in tooth anatomy is essential for clinical success. It is generally well known that the mandibular second premolar teeth have a single root and canal. However, the mandibular second premolar teeth have sometimes more than one root and root canal. The endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with four roots which separated at different levels along the middle third of the root is presented in this case report. Preoperative radiographs appeared radiolucency and different root anatomy in the region of the mandibular second premolar. The root canals were prepared using Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany and obturated laterally condensed gutta percha and AH plus (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany. After the completion of root canal treatment, the tooth was restored with a posterior composite filling material. On follow-up, the tooth was clinically and radiographically asymptomatic for two years. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of careful clinical and radiographic examination of mandibular premolars during the endodontic treatment. Radiographs exposed at two different horizontal angles and their careful interpretation facilitates the search of additional root canals.

  4. 大黄加芒硝对危重病患者胃肠功能障碍的疗效观察%Clinical effect of rhubarb combined with sodium sulfate on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critical care patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈凌鸿; 郑贵军; 王君梅; 袁亚松; 蒋佳维

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨大黄加芒硝对危重病患者胃肠功能保护和治疗作用.[方法]纳入研究的患者均满足消化功能障碍和慢性健康状况评分系统(APACHEⅡ)≥16分并排除有器质性胃肠疾病的患者.治疗组:用生大黄50 g,开水100 mL浸泡15 min至深褐色,经胃管缓慢鼻饲,每8h1次,外用芒硝100 g,双层敷料包裹,平敷于肚脐处,待纱布袋潮湿后及时更换,每日更换2~3次;对照组:枸橼酸莫沙必利片10 mg,鼻饲,每8h1次.观察两组腹胀缓解时间、开始排便时间、肠内营养开始时间及消化道出血的发生率.[结果]治疗组在腹胀缓解的时间,顺利开始给予肠内营养的时间及开始排便时间均短于对照组,P<0.05或P<0.01.消化道出血发生率,治疗组显著低于对照组.[结论]大黄加芒硝能明显保护危重病患者胃肠功能,减少消化道出血的发生率,明显改善患者的预后.%[Objective] To observe the protective and treatment effects of rhubarb combined with sodium sulfate in critical care patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. [Methods] The enrolled patients in the study had digestive disorders and APACHE II ≥ 16 scores and the patients with organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded. In treatment group: the 50 mg of crude rhubarb was inserted in 100 mL of water at 100 t for 15 minutes till dark brown was found. After that the drug was infused into the treatment patients by stomach tube feeding slowly, 3 times a day. At the same time 100 g of sodium sulfate in double dressing package was flatly masked on belly button, changed a time when the gauze bag became wet and changed 2-3 times a day. In control group: 10 mg of mosanpride tablets was given by nasal feeding, 3 times a day. The time of abdominal distension relieving, time of beginning to defecate, time of starting enteral nutrition and the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding were observed in both groups. [Results] In treatment group the time of

  5. Effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of ;organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%两组用药清除有机磷农药中毒肠道毒物的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄、思密达与硫酸镁、漂白土在治疗急性有机磷农药中毒的疗效。方法将76例口服有机磷中毒的重度患者随机均分2组。两组均给予彻底洗胃、适量应用长托宁及阿托品解毒,氯磷定复能剂等综合常规治疗。A组(治疗组)应用大黄导泻、思密达吸附;B组(对照组)应用硫酸镁导泻、漂白土吸附。观察首次排便时间,胃肠功能不全发生率及严重程度评分;观察胃肠功能恢复时间、阿托品化时间、意识恢复时间、胆碱酯酶活力恢复50%以上时间、阿托品和长托宁用量、药物耐受、中毒反跳、中间综合征、迟发性神经病、住院时间和死亡情况。结果治疗组各指标均优于对照组,均差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论思密达、大黄是目前彻底清除AOPP患者胃肠道残留毒物较好的导泻、吸附联合用药,减少了药物用量和并发症、缩短了住院时间。%Objective investigate the effects of Chinese rhubarb combined with Smecta in treatment of organopjophorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Seventy-six patients with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning underwent conventional treatment including thorough gastric lavage, muscular injection of penehyckiine hydrochloride, intravenous injection of atropine through micropumping, and intravenous drip of pyraloxime methylchloride. The patients were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group A underdoing catharsis with 200 ml of Chinese Rhubarb powder and then suspension of Smecta through gastric tube 2h later as a cycle per 4 hours for 48 hours, and Group B undergoing irrigation of magnesium sulphate solution and suspension of Fuller's earth per 4 hours as a cycle for 48 hours. The effects were observed. Results The first defecation yime, recovery time of gastrointestinal tract, time of atropinization time, consciousness recovery time, recovery time of cholinesterase activity, and length

  6. The mechanism of action of rhubarb Chinese medicine enema treatment of chronic renal failure%大黄中药灌肠治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective Explore the rhubarb the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema treatment of chronic renal failure.Methods Kidney disease in a hospital treated 92 cases of chronic renal failure patients as the research object, with the method of grouping study, its according to different treatment can be divided into control group and observation group, control group for clinical routine treatment, observation group based on the given rhubarb is given priority to the traditional Chinese medicine enema treatment, two groups of patients were 4 weeks treatment, compared two groups of patients at the end of the treatment of therapeutic effect.Results Treatment the total effective rate was 95.7%, the observation group was obviously higher than that of control group 75.1%(P<0.05); Group of clinical symptoms was observed is better than that of control group(P<0.05); Urea nitrogen, creatinine, two groups of patients was improved, the but the observation group after treatment to improve the situation of urea nitrogen, creatinine, was better than control group, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Rhubarb Chinese medicine enema in the treatment of chronic renal failure clinical curative effect significantly, mainly by improving blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine is to protect the patient's kidney function, can improve the patient's quality of life and prolong the survival period.%目的 探讨大黄中药灌肠治疗慢性肾功能衰竭的临床疗效.方法 以某院肾病科收治的92例慢性肾功能衰竭患者为研究对象,采用分组研究的方式,将其根据治疗方式不同分为对照组与观察组,对照组给予临床常规治疗,观察组在此基础上给予大黄为主的中药灌肠治疗,两组患者均治疗4周,在治疗结束后对比分析两组患者的治疗效果.结果 观察组治疗总有效率为95.7%,明显高于对照组的75.1%(P<0.05);观察组临床症状

  7. 大黄水灌肠对急性胰腺炎患者肠道功能恢复的影响%Effect of rhubarb water enema on the recovery of bowel function in patients with acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章昱; 刘朝晖; 俞晶; 陈素钻

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨大黄水灌肠对急性胰腺炎患者早期肠道功能恢复的影响。方法收集汕头大学医学院第一附属医院住院治疗的急性胰腺炎患者118例,随机分为两组,对照组给予常规胰腺炎治疗,治疗组在常规治疗的基础上加用大黄水灌肠,对比两组患者腹部胀痛持续时间及首次排便时间,比较两组APACHE II评分、中转手术率、病死率、住院天数及住院费用。结果治疗组与对照组腹部胀痛持续时间分别为(4.0±1.5)d、(6.0±1.8)d,首次排便时间分别为(7.0±2.1)d、(10.0±2.6)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05);治疗后治疗组 A-PACHEⅡ积分、中转手术率、病死率、住院天数及住院费用均明显低于对照组(P﹤0.05)。结论大黄水灌肠可以明显缩短患者因肠道功能衰竭引起的腹部胀痛及首次排便时间,改善各项临床指标,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To study the effect of rhubarb water enema on the early recovery of bowel function in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients with acute pancreatitis in the first affiliated hospital of Shantou university medical college were randomly divided into two groups,the patients in control group received conventional pancreatitis treatment,and the patients in treatment group were added with rhubarb water enema based on the conventional treatment. The duration of abdominal pain and the first defecation time were compared between the two groups,and APACHE Ⅱscore,operation rate,mortality,hospital stay and hospital costs were also compared between the two groups. Results The duration of abdominal pain was( 4. 0 ± 1. 5 )d in the treatment group and (6. 0 ± 1. 8 )d in the control group,the first defecation time was( 7. 0 ± 2. 1 )d in the treatment group and(10. 0 ± 2. 6)d in the control group,there were significant differences(P﹤0. 05);The A-PACHE

  8. Quality of root fillings performed with two root filling techniques. An in vitro study using micro-CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, L.; Wenzel, A.; Wegge-Larsen, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of voids in root fillings performed in oval and ribbon-shaped canals with two root filling techniques, lateral compaction technique (LCT) or hybrid technique (HT), a combination of a gutta-percha masterpoint and thermoplastic...... gutta-percha. Furthermore, the obturation time for the two techniques was evaluated. Materials and methods. Sixty-seven roots with oval and ribbon-shaped canals were prepared using Profile Ni-Ti rotary files. After preparation, the roots were randomly allocated to two groups according to root filling...... technique. All roots were filled with AH plus and gutta-percha. Group 1 was filled using LCT (n = 34) and group 2 was filled using HT (n = 33). The obturation time was measured in 30 cases evenly distributed between the two techniques. Voids in relation to the root canal fillings were assessed using cross...

  9. Comparing root architectural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  10. An unusual case of root perforation caused by surgical trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosti, E; Molyvdas, I; Lambrianidis, T

    2008-06-01

    To present the diagnosis and management of an unusual case of root perforation caused by surgical trephination. A root perforation caused by surgical trephination on a maxillary lateral incisor with diagnosis of symptomatic chronic periradicular periodontitis was managed with standard root canal preparation and filling with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. Recall radiographs up to 1 year revealed healing of the periapical lesion. *During surgical trephination, there is risk of damaging anatomical structures surrounding the tooth as well as the tooth itself. *Root perforation caused by trephination was successfully managed by standard canal preparation and filling with thermoplasticized gutta-percha.

  11. Antibacterial effect of root canal preparation and calcium hydroxide paste (Calen intracanal dressing in primary teeth with apical periodontitis Efeito antibacteriano do preparo biomecânico e do curativo de demora com pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen em dentes decíduos com lesão periapical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Faria

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial action of root canal mechanical preparation using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite as the irrigating solution and a calcium hydroxide paste as the antibacterial intracanal dressing in human primary teeth root canals with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis by means of microbial culture. A total of 26 root canals of human primary teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were used. Samples were collected before, 72h after biomechanical treatment and 72h after removal of the intracanal dressing. Comparison by Wilcoxon test showed that root canal mechanical preparation effectively eliminated all microorganisms in 20% of the root canals, and the intracanal dressing in 62.5%; however, the cumulative action of biomechanical treatment and intracanal dressing eliminated the microorganisms of 70% of the root canals (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, por meio de cultura bacteriológica, a ação antibacteriana do preparo biomecânico utilizando como solução irrigadora o hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% e da pasta Calen utilizada como curativo de demora em canais radiculares de dentes decíduos de humanos com necrose pulpar e lesão periapical. Foram selecionados 26 dentes decíduos de humanos portadores de necrose pulpar e lesão periapical. As colheitas microbiológicas foram efetuadas antes e 72 horas após o preparo biomecânico e 72 horas após a remoção do curativo de demora. A comparação por meio do teste de Wilcoxon mostrou que o preparo biomecânico foi eficaz na eliminação dos microrganismos dos canais radiculares em 20% dos casos e o curativo de demora em 62,5%, enquanto que a ação cumulativa do preparo biomecânico e do curativo de demora eliminou os microrganismos em 70,0% dos casos (p<0.001. Pôde-se concluir que o preparo biomecânico, isoladamente, apresentou resultados microbiológicos inferiores àqueles obtidos quando o mesmo foi associado ao curativo de demora

  12. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  13. Efficacy observation on treating 57 cases of hyperlipidemia with rhubarb plus simvastatin%大黄联合辛伐他汀治疗高脂血症57例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱旻

    2012-01-01

      Hyperlipidemia is a common disease of abnormal lipid metabolism, more common in the elderly, along with diet and lifestyle changes, however, hyperlipidemia occur in younger. Therefore, adjustment of lipid metabolism is important to the prevention of coronary heart disease. TCM rhubarb powder plus simvastatin give full play to the advantage of both on treating hyperlipidemia, play Tiaozhi effect and made significant efficacy.%  高脂血症是常见脂质代谢异常的病症,以中老年多见,然而随着饮食结构和生活习惯的改变,有年轻化趋势。因此,调整脂质代谢对防治冠心病有重要意义。用中药生大黄粉加辛伐他汀治疗高脂血症,能充分发挥两者的优势,协同发挥调脂作用,取得显著疗效。

  14. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  15. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  16. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  17. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  18. Enhanced MRI in compressed lumbosacral nerve root; Alteration of vascular peameability in nerve root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tomofumi; Yoshizawa, Hidezo; Nakai, Sadaaki; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Hachiya, Hiromichi; Nakagawa, Masato; Nishimoto, Satoshi (Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-04-01

    The study was undertaken to assess how enhanced MRI reflects pathophysiology of the nerve root. In fundamental study, the seventh left lumbar nerve root was compressed by a clip for one hour in 10 mongrel dogs. Thirty min after removal of mechanical compression, gadolinium and Evans blue albumin (EBA) were iv injected. Then, the dogs were killed 10 min later. A mass of lumbosacral nerve root was removed for MR imaging. In addition, nerve root slices were prepared to examine changes in vascular permeability of EBA under microscopy. The compression area of nerve root was seen as hyperintensity on enhanced MRI, corresponding to extravascular leakage of EBA that resulted from the damaged blood-nerve barrier, i.e., edema within the root on microscope. In a clinical setting, 27 patients with lumbar disc herniation underwent MRI for the observation of the nerve root. In 8 of these 27 patients, the nerve root was seen as hyperintensity. This suggests that approximately one third of such patients may have edema within the nerve root. (N.K.).

  19. Clinical evaluation of two different materials for retrograde root filling

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Kovacevska, Ivona; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Georgiev, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Retrograde root filling is indicated when periapical inflammation cannot be resolved by conventional endodontic therapy. A retrograde filling should prevent flow of microorganisms and bacterial endotoxins from the root canal into periapical tissues. The aim was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic treatment outcome of two different materials for retrograde root filling (dentin-bonded resin nano composite and glass ionomer cement) using special preparation performance of re...

  20. DMA thermal analysis of yacon tuberous roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahovec, J.; Lahodová, M.; Kindl, M.; Fernández, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Specimens prepared from yacon roots in first two weeks after harvest were tested by dynamic mechanical analysis thermal analysis at temperatures between 30 and 90°C. No differences between different parts of roots were proved. There were indicated some differences in the test parameters that were caused by short time storage of the roots. One source of the differences was loss of water during the roots storage. The measured modulus increased during short time storage. Detailed study of changes of the modulus during the specimen dynamic mechanical analysis test provided information about different development of the storage and loss moduli during the specimen heating. The observed results can be caused by changes in cellular membranes observed earlier during vegetable heating, and by composition changes due to less stable components of yacon like inulin.

  1. Damage to root dentin during retreatment procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Roeleveld, A.C.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of retreatment procedures on the appearance of defects on the root canal walls. Methods: Two hundred mandibular premolars were divided into 4 groups. One group was left unprepared. The rest of the teeth were prepared with ProTaper file

  2. Rooting success using IBA auxin on endangered Leucadendron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... plant species for reintroduction into the natural habitat, using IBA liquid hormone preparations and four ..... cuttings of some plant species and may reduce cell differentiation in the tissues and finally affect the rooting.

  3. Honey mangxiao, rhubarb topical god tone hole remove pure compartmentallized.the thoracolumbar fractures abdominal distension nursing observation%蜜调芒硝、大黄外敷神阙穴解除单纯胸腰椎骨折腹胀的护理观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚惠华; 李润香; 刘华; 张强; 彭天忠

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the honey mangxiao, rhubarb topical god tone hole remove pure compartmentallized.the thoracolumbar fractures abdominal distension nursing effect. Methods: Random 60 patients were divided into treatment group and control group each 30 cases. The treatment group mangxiao, rhubarb with honey adjustable compartmentallized.the acupuncture point;god topical Were treated by fasting, massaging, oral desulfurate agent. Results: The total effective rate of the treatment group 76.6% group and 93.3%, two groups was statistically significant difference (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Honey adjustable mangxiao,rhubarb topical god que acupuncture. point remove pure thoracolumbar fractures abdominal distension has good curative effect.%目的:观察蜜调芒硝、大黄外敷神阙穴解除单纯胸腰椎骨折腹胀的护理效果.方法:随机将60例患者分为治疗组和对照组各30例.治疗组用蜜调芒硝、大黄外敷神阙穴;对照组采用禁食、腹部按摩、口服缓泻剂.结果:治疗组的总有效率为93.3%,对照组为76.6%,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:蜜调芒硝、大黄外敷神阙穴解除单纯胸腰椎骨折腹胀有良好的疗效.

  4. Observation of Shenque (CV8) Pasting with Rhubarb Capsule Powder Mixed Alcohol in Pattents with Abdominal Distension in the Mechanical Ventilation%大黄胶囊粉外敷神阙穴治疗机械通气患者腹胀临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡喜燕; 黄丽霞; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察大黄胶囊粉外敷神阙穴治疗机械通气患者腹胀的临床疗效.方法 患者60例随机分为观察组及对照组,两组均使用抗生素、解痉、化痰、胃肠减压等常规治疗,观察组加用大黄粉调和酒精外敷神阙穴,治疗72h后评定疗效.结果 观察组患者腹胀及肠鸣音的改善及胃幽门十二指肠压力的降低均优于于对照组:结论 大黄胶囊外敷神阙穴能有效减轻机械通气患者的腹胀.%Objective: To observe the abdominal distension in the mechanical ventilation patients treated with pasting the Shenque(CV8) with rhubarb capsule powder mixed alcohol. Methods: 60 cases of abdominal distension patients were randomly divided into trial group (n=30) and control group (ra=30). Both groups were treat with antibiotics, spasmolysis, eliminating phlegm, gastrointestinal tract decompression and mechanical ventilation. The trial group was added with rhubarb capsule powder mixed alcohol paste the Shenque (CV8). Results: Compare with the control group, the abdominal distention and the bowel sound were better than those of the control group. The pressure of the pylorus and the duodenum was lower than that of the control group. Conclusion: The treatment of pasting the Shenque (CV8) with rhubarb capsule mixed alcohol can reduce the abdominal distension.

  5. Rooting of yellow native Passionfruit by semi-hardwood cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this estudy was to evaluate the influence of cuttings related to their position in the branch (basal, middle and apical and presence of leaves on rooting native yellow passionfruit (Passiflora actinia. Cuttings with two nodes were prepared 80-10 cm long, and his was planted inplastic pots containing vermiculite, maintained in a greenhouse under intermittent mist for 90 days. We evaluated the percentage of rooted cuttings, number of roots, dry weight and length of roots. The statistical design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments, each treatment consisted of four replications with 12 cuttings each. We performed analysis of variance and Tukey’s test to the data interpretation. It was concluded that the presence of leaves on the basal cuttings showed the highest rooting percentage, the greater number of roots higher dry weight and greater length of roots.

  6. 4种煎煮方法下大黄中没食子酸含量及小肠推进作用比较研究%Gallic acid contents of Rhubarb's decoctions used by four different decocting time and their effect on intestinal propulsion in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌华

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨不同煎煮时间下大黄水煎液中没食子酸的含量及对小鼠小肠推进作用。方法采用HPLC法测定水煎液中没食子酸的含量,采用墨汁推进度试验考察它们对小鼠小肠的推进作用。结果煎煮时间越长,没食子酸含量越高;与空白对照组相比,生大黄煎煮15 min及25 min的水煎液对小鼠小肠推进作用显著(P<0.05),生大黄煎煮35及45 min的水煎液对小肠无显著推进作用。结论大黄水煎液中没食子酸含量越高,其对小鼠小肠的推进作用越弱;生大黄煎煮15~25 min的水煎液对小鼠小肠推进作用最好。%Objective To discuss the contents of gallic acid of Rhubarb in decoctions which used by different decocting time and the effect of decoctions on intestinal propulsion in mice. Methods Contents of gallic acid in decoctions was determined by HPLC,the effect of decoctions on intestinal propulsion in mice was determined by Chinese ink rate test. Results Decocting time and contents of gallic acid were positively correlated. Compared with the blank group,there was significant differencein intestinal propulsion induced by Rhubarb decocting for 15 and 25 min in mice(P<0.05),no difference was found for 35 and 45 min. Conclusion Decocting time and contents of gallic acid of Rhubarb were negative correlation,the best propulsion of Rhubarb in mice is found in decoctions which the decocting time was between 15 and 25min.

  7. 不同根管预备方法对老年人根管再治疗术后疼痛的影响%Effects of different root canal preparation techniques on postoperative pain of elderly retreated patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任辉; 雷志红; 李尔涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比ProTaper镍钛系统冠向下预备法和采用不锈钢手用锉逐步后退技术两种根管预备方法对老年人根管再治疗术后疼痛的影响。方法:选择106颗首次根管治疗失败再治疗患牙随机分为实验组与对照组,实验组使用ProTaper Universal再治疗器械(D1、 D2、 D3)去除根管内充填物后, ProTaper(F1、 F2、 F3)进行根管预备,对照组采用不锈钢手用锉去除牙胶后以逐步后退法预备根管,观察两组术后1h、6h、12h、24h、48h、7d VAS自评分值,24h与7d临床评定的疼痛发生率。结果:两组术后疼痛在6h出现,12h达到峰值,此后呈下降趋势,7d时已完全缓解;实验组在疼痛发生期间(6、12、24、48h 4个时间点)VAS自评分值均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P值分别为0.000、0.000、0.000、0.004, P<0.05);24h临床评定疼痛发生率实验组为11.1%,对照组为34.6%,差异有统计学意义(P=0.042, P<0.05);7d时临床评定疼痛发生率实验组为1.85%,对照组为3.85%,差异无统计学意义(P=0.807, P<0.05)。结论:两种根管预备方法均会引起再治疗术后疼痛,使用ProTaper镍钛系统能有效降低老年人根管再治疗术后疼痛的发生。%Objective:To assess effects of root canal preparation via Protaper Nickel-Titanium system using crown-down technique and stainless steel hand files with step-back technique on postoperative pain of endodontic retreatment in elderly patients. Methods:A total of 106 molars for retreatment were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Molars in experimental group were treated with ProTper Universal instruments, while stainless steel instruments were used in the control group. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure pain 1h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 7 days after endodontic retreatment, and clinical pain assessment 24h and 7d after endodontic retreatment were also performed in both groups. Results

  8. Exploration of safe clinical use court of using ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium instruments during root canal preparation%ProTaper机用镍钛锉预备根管的临床安全使用次数探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 陈玉荣; 路和平; 徐天舒; 范琳; 储殷佳

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对ProTaper机用镍钛锉(后简称ProTaper锉)预备根管流程的改良,在确保临床疗效的同时,提高临床安全使用次数.方法 选取患牙162颗,其中前牙、前磨牙和磨牙分别为23颗、28颗和111颗,按照探查根管、确定工作长度、初步疏通根管、GG钻预敞开根管上段以及ProTaper锉扩大成形的流程预备根管,侧方加压充填根管,通过术前、中、后X片来评价根管预备和充填的效果.结果 ProTaper锉能很好的维持根管的形态,术后反应少而轻.使用的9套ProTaper锉最多预备51个根管,最少预备35个根管,平均预备41个根管;SX、S1、S2、F1、F2、F3分别平均用了19.4、43.3、43.3、43.2、38.3、6.7个根管;有2套锉最终出现F1折断,2套出现S1和F1解螺旋,其余5套表现为锉柄、锉刃的老化.结论 根管预备流程的改良、熟练的操作、详细的使用记录和妥善保管是提高ProTaper锉安全使用次数的保障,建议使用ProTaper锉混合预备前后牙根管总数不超过35个.%Objective To increase clinical use times of ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium instruments by improvement of root canal preparation,which ensuring clinical effect at the same time. Methods A total of 162 human teeth including 23 front teeth, 28 premo-lars and 111 molars were mainly managed with ProTaper rotary instruments followed by the sequence of root canal exploration,working length measurement,root canal dredging with hand file,coronal preflaring on the third of root canal with GG rotary files. Lateral condensation was used for root canal obturation. The effect of preparation and obturation were analyzed with radiographs before, during and after operation. Results ProTaper rotary instruments kept original shape of root canal very well, and endodontic flare-up seldom occurred. The most, lest and average root canal numbers prepared by all 9 series of ProTaper rotary instruments were 51, 35 and 41 respectively. TypeSX, S1, S2, F1

  9. 结合锥形束CT评价两种镍钛器械预备老年人磨牙弯曲根管的效果%Clinical evaluating of Twisted Files (TF) and ProTaper nickel-titanium rotary instruments in preparation of molar curved root canals in the elder combining with cone beam computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀琴; 王楠; 孟敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较镍钛器械Twisted Files(TF)和ProTaper 在老年人磨牙弯曲根管预备中的临床应用效果。方法:选择2011年8月至2013年8月在我科门诊就诊的有弯曲根管的牙髓炎或根尖周炎的老年患者磨牙90颗,随机分成三组,每组30颗, T 组和P 组分别采用机用镍钛器械Twisted Files(TF)和ProTaper 以冠向下技术预备根管, K 组采用手用不锈钢K 锉以逐步后退法预备根管,全部患牙均采用冷牙胶侧方加压技术充填。记录三组病例根管预备时间和器械折断数,根据治疗前、中、后的X 线片评价根管预备和充填情况,通过锥形束CT 记录预备前后距离根尖3mm 处根管偏移值。结果: T 组、P 组均能保持原根管的弯曲和走向,根管预备的锥度和流畅度好,根管充填质量高, T 组的偏移量比P 组和K 组的偏移量小,三组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。T 组的操作时间比P 组和K 组短,三组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。预备过程中T 组未发生器械折断, P 组3例发生器械折断。结论: TF 相对与Protaper 用于预备老年人磨牙弯曲根管,效率较高,成形效果佳,较安全,更适合于狭窄弯曲的老年根管。%Objective:To study and evaluate clinical application of Twisted File (TF) and ProTaper , two nickel-titanium instruments, during molar root canal preparation in elderly people.Methods:A total of 90 teeth with curved root canals , collected from August 2011 to August 2013 in Department of Stomatology, Affliliated Hospital of Jining Medical College, were prepared by TF(group t) ,ProTaper( groups p) with crown down technique in test groups and by stainless steel K files with Step-back technique in control group (group k).All root canals were filled with cold lateral condensation technique. The root canal preparation time and the numbers of broken equipment were recorded. The evaluation of preparation and root canal therapy

  10. Root canal irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-10-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were 'root canal irrigants' and 'endodontic irrigants.' The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  11. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  12. Effects of Rhubarb on Laying Performance of the Hens and Egg Quality%大黄对蛋鸡产蛋性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of rhubarb on laying performance of the hens and egg quality. Methods : 430 - day - old 48 healthy Roman layer hens which weight and laying performance were similar were selected and randomly di- vided into two groups, each group with four replicates, every replicate with six laying hens. Group A was the control group which hens fed with the basal diet, and Group B was the treatment group which hens fed with the basal diet added 1% rhu- barb. Pretest period was a week, and the test period was six weeks. Results:The experiment results showed that two groups of egg production, egg shell color, the average egg weight, egg shape index, the index of egg yolk, the rate of soft and bro- ken egg shell, feed conversion ratio,intake and HF unit differences were not significant ( P 〉 0.05 ). Compared with group A, the egg density of group B was increased significantly (P 〈 0.05), however, egg shell thickness was increased, but the difference was not significant ( P 〉0.05 ). Egg yolk color was improved significantly ( P 〈0.01 ) ,and the content of ash was also decreased significantly ( P 〈 0.01 ), and the content of fat was decreased significantly ( P 〈 0.05), then the content of protein was increased, but the difference was not significant ( P 〉 0.05 ). Conclusion : Adding 1% rhubarb in the layer diet performance is not significant impact, but it can significant improve the physical characteristics of the egg.%目的:研究中药大黄对蛋鸡产蛋性能及蛋品质的影响。方法:选择体重及生产性能相近的430日龄健康罗曼蛋鸡48只,随机分为对照组和试验组2组,每组设4个重复,每个重复6只鸡。其中A组为对照组,饲喂基础日粮,B组为试验组,在基础日粮中添加1%的中药大黄。预试期1周,正试期为6周。结果:试验结果表明2组间的产蛋率、蛋壳颜色、平均蛋重、蛋形指数、蛋黄指数、

  13. Determination of five constituents in Rhubarb powder by HPLC%大黄末中芦荟大黄素等5种蒽醌类成分含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗小楼; 潘虎; 尚小飞; 李宏胜

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for the determination of five constituents in Rhubarb powder. Methods: The content of five constituents were determined by RP-HPLC with Photodiode Array (PDA) detector (wavelength of 435 nm at 25℃) on the conditions of Hypersil ODS-2 C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm), Kromasil ODS guard column(4.6 mm×10 mm, 5 μm)with mobile phase of methanol-0.1% phosphoric acid (85:5) and flow rate of 1.0 mL'min-1. Results: The average recovery of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion was 96.5%. 98.2%, 96.9%, 95.1% and 98.6% with RSD of 1.91%, 2.78%, 1.72%, 2.04% and 2.76% at linear range of 6.8-680,8.8-880,6.2-620,7.1-710 and 6.0-600 μg, respectively, Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the quality control of Rhubarb powder.%目的:采用RP—HPLC法测定大黄末中5种成分的含量。方法:Waters2695HPLC,PDA检测器,检测波长435nm,柱温25℃,色谱柱:HypersilODS-2C18柱(250mmx4.6mm,5txm),Kromasil ODS保护柱(4.6mm×10mm,5μm),流动相:甲醇-0.1%磷酸(85:15),流速1.0mL/min。结果:芦荟大黄素、大黄酸、大黄素、大黄酚、大黄素甲醚回归方程分别为:Y=1.37×10^4-X-3.52×10^4,r=0.9998;Y=8.22^4-4.19×10^4,r=0.9999;Y=1.11×10^5 X-3.24×10^4,r=0.9999;Y=1.85×10^5X-5.36×10^4,r=0.9999;Y=7.17×10^4-2.41×10^4,r=0.9999,线性范围分别为6.8—680、8.8—880、6.2-620、7.1-710、6.0-600μg。结论:该法准确灵敏、分离度好,可用于大黄末的质量控制。

  14. Thermal analysis of different application techniques on Nd:YAG laser after root canal preparation of single-rooted teeth; Analise termica de diferentes tecnicas de utilizacao do laser de Nd:YAG apos o preparo quimico-cirurgico de dentes unirradiculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archilla, Jose Ricardo de F

    2001-07-01

    The experiment objective is to analyze temperature variation, by means of three different application techniques of Nd:YAG laser in the root canals of singlerooted anterior teeth. Three root canals were instrumented, irrigated, X-rayed to measure the remaining dentin in the apical area and submitted to laser irradiation techniques used by Gutknecht, Matsumoto and a new technique with oscillatory movement. The used laser parameters were: pulse energy 250 mJ, frequency 5 Hz, pulse fluency 354 J/cm{sup 2}, average potency 1,25 W, pulse width 300 {mu}s, fiber core diameter 300 {mu}s and interval of thermal relaxation of 20 s. After temperature evaluation and interpretation of the obtained data, it was concluded: 1) the oscillatory technique provided a better heat distribution during the laser application, when analyzing the graphs separately; 2) all the used techniques are within a pattern of safety, analyzing the average and highest temperatures of the apical area and the middle third, even so, disrespecting the last application day and the middle third of root 'C'.(author)

  15. 桩腔预备的不同时机对两种根管封闭剂根尖封闭性的影响%Effect of different space preparation time on the apical sealing by two kinds of root canal sealers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊

    2011-01-01

    通过比较根尖微渗漏的长度来观察即刻桩腔预备和延迟桩腔预备对两种根管封闭剂根尖封闭性的影响.方法:将120颗上颌单根管牙齿以ProTaper手用镍钛根管锉逐步深入法根管预备,随机分为A、B两组,每组60颗.分别用Ahplus糊剂、Cortisomol糊剂加牙胶尖热侧向加压法进行根管充填,根充后根据桩腔预备情况将A、B两组随机再分为A1、A2、A3和B1、B2、B3 3个亚组,每组20颗.A1、B1组即刻行桩腔预备,A2、B2组1周后行桩腔预备,A3、B3组为对照组未行桩腔预备.染料渗透法测量微渗漏距离并进行统计学分析.结果:两组牙齿根尖部均有微渗漏产生.采用单因素方差分析各实验组间微渗漏差异有统计学意义(F=19.2033,P<0.01),LSD-t检验对组间进行两两比较:两种根管封闭剂根充后延迟桩腔预备组和即刻桩腔预备组、对照组微渗漏差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).延迟桩腔预备不同封闭剂充填组之间微渗漏差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).其余各组之间微渗漏差异无统计学意义.结论:即刻桩腔预备对两种根管封闭剂的根尖封闭能力没有影响,延迟桩腔预备降低了根管封闭剂的根尖封闭能力;延迟桩腔预备中Ahplus的根尖封闭性比Cortisomol好.%Objective To study the effects of immediate and delayed post space preparation on the apical sealing by two kinds of root canal sealers by comparing the length of apical micro-leakage. Methods 120 extracted maxillary teeth each with a single canal were selected.AII canals were prepared by manual ProTaper instrument using crown-down technique and then were randomly divided into Group A and Group B.each with 60 teeth.They were then filled with gutta -percha point of the kind as AH -Plus paste and Cortisomol paste respectively in lateral pressure way.Then according to the post-space-preparation time,group A was randomly divided into 3 groups.which were A1,A2,A3,and then the same was

  16. Influence of root canal preparation on fidelity of electronic apical locator (EAL) in clinical application%临床根管预备对电子根尖定位仪精确性影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思逸; 梅陵宣; 曹寅; 白锡才; 赵晓花

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨根管预备对电子根尖定位仪(Electronic Apical Locator,EAL)精确性的影响.方法 采用数字随机法把根管分为4组:①初尖锉组:使用初尖锉取得手感法的根管工作长度并使用EALs(Root ZX and Raypex-5)测量根管工作长度;②扩一组:比初尖锉大1号的锉预备根管并使用EALs测量根管工作长度;③扩二组:扩至比初尖锉大2号的锉并用EALs测得根管工作长度;④扩三组:扩至比初尖锉大3号的锉并用EALs测得根管工作长度.将各组测量值与拔牙后直视状态下测得的根管长度进行比较.结果 初尖锉组测量根管工作长度的准确率为:手感法55%,Root ZX 85%,Raypex-590%;扩一组、扩二组和扩三组依次分别为:Root ZX 90%、90%、95%,Raypex-5 95%、100%、100%.结论 电测法测定根管工作长度准确率高,临床根管预备不会降低EAL的精确性.

  17. 高速逆流色谱对大黄蒽醌类成分的分离研究%Separation of Anthraquinone from Rhubarb by High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁萍; 周东斌; 林顺权; 高俊飞; 何浏; 袁晓

    2011-01-01

    利用高速逆流色谱对大黄中的5个蒽醌活性成分进行了分离,当两相溶剂系统的组成是石油醚∶乙酸乙酯∶甲醇∶水=8∶2∶8∶1时,分离出大黄素;当两相溶剂比为3∶4∶3∶2时,分离出大黄酸和芦荟大黄素;当溶剂比为12∶2∶12∶1时,分离出大黄酚和大黄素甲醚;经高压液相色谱检测大黄素、大黄酸和芦荟大黄素、大黄酚和大黄素甲醚的含量分别为98.81%、99.15%、98.51%、98.89%和98.16%.%Five anthraquinones from Rhubarb were separated by high speed countercurrent chromatography. When two-phase solvent system composition was petroleum ether;ethyl acetate:methanol: water (8:2:8:1) ,emodin was obtained. Rhein and aloe emodin were separated when the proportion of solvents was 3:4:3:2,while chrysophanol and rheochrysi-din were separated at the proportion of solvents 12:2:12: 1. The purities of emodin, rhein, aloe emodin, chrysophanol and rheochrysidin are 98.81% ,99.15% ,98.51% ,98.89% and 98.16% respectively by HPLC.

  18. Effects of Rhubarb on Microinflammation State in Non-uremic Patients with Chronic Renal Failure%大黄对非尿毒症慢性肾衰竭患者微炎症状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娲; 涂卫平; 杨丽萍; 秦晓华; 傅缨; 卢玲; 房向东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of rhubarb on microinflammation state in non-ure-mic patients with chronic renal failure. Methods Sixty non-uremic outpatients and inpatients with chronic renal failure treated from Out-patients and Hospitallization of the Second Affiliated Hos-pital of Nanchang University and Jiangxi Province Tumor Hospital from January 2010 to March 2011 were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 patients in each group. All patients were routinely offered antihypertensive drugs, erythropoietin and heteropathy. In addition,patients in treatment group were additionally given rhubarb decoction (10 g once daily). Treatments were maintained for 2 weeks. Thirty healthy subjects from the Out-patients De-partment of Physical Examination of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University were selected as normal controls. The levels of serum creatinine(Scr) ,amyloid A(SAA) and high sensi-tivity C-reative protein(hs-CRP) were detected before and after treatment, and creatinine clear-ance rate(Ccr) was calculated. Results No significant changes in levels of Scr and Ccr were found in patients after therapy (all P>0. 05). Compared with normal controls, levels of SAA and hs-CRP obviously increased in patients before treatment(all P0. 05) ,but obvious-ly decreased in treatment group after therapy(Prhu-barb, which has no obvious influence on renal function.%目的 探讨大黄对非尿毒症慢性肾衰竭(chronic renal failure,CRF)患者微炎症状态的影响.方法 选择2010年1月至2011年3月在南昌大学

  19. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  20. Resistance to Fracture of Dental Roots Obturated with Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkan Celikten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled. Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled. The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 root/group and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system; in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system; and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system. All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots.

  1. Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Jase; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tremblay, Julien; Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Edgar, Robert C.; Eickhorst, Thilo; Ley, Ruth E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tringe, Susannah Green; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2014-01-01

    Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing therhizosphere(immediately surroundingthe root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation1-3. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system4,5, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plantmicrobe interactions derived from complex soil communities. PMID:22859206

  2. 大黄对大鼠肠缺血再灌注所致肺损伤的作用%Effect of rhubarb on pulmonary injury of rats induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新宇; 景炳文; 陈德昌; 郭昌兴; 杨兴易

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal tract factors, especially intestinal ischemiareperfusion, can induce the injury of remote organ. Chinese herb, rhubarb,can clear oxygen free radical to promote the proliferation of beaker cell in intestinal mucous membrane, inhibit excessive multiplication of bacterium and endotoxin absorption in the intestinal tract, activate blood circulation and remove blood stasis, improve microcirculation and other ways to protect intestinal mucous membrane barrier, so as to prevent and treat pulmonary injury.OBJECTIVE: To observe the preventing and treating effect of rhubarb on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced pulmonary injury and the effect of rhubarb on tumor necrosis factor and phospholipase A2 (PLA2).DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Emergency, Urumqi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from February to July 2003. Totally 80SD rats were selected and randomly divided into intestinal ischemia/reperfusion group (n=24), sham operation group (n=46), treatment group (n=24) and normal saline group (n=16).METHODS: In the intestinal ischemia-reperfusion group, rats were fasted before operation. They were anesthetized and given a median abdominal incision. Superior mesenteric artery was isolated and occluded by vascular clamp without wound, and then the incision was sutured; 45 minutes later,vascular clamp was taken out to recover blood supply. For the treatment group, modeling was the same as that in the intestinal ischemia/reperfusion group, 600 mg/kg suspension of rhubarb extract was gastrointestinally perfused into the rats 30 minutes before recovering blood supply. For the normal saline group, modeling was the same as that in the intestinal ischemia/reperfusion group; same dosage of normal saline was gastrointestinally perfused into the rats 30 minutes before recovering blood supply. For

  3. 不同根根管预备方法和不同根管充填技术组合对根尖微渗漏的影响%Effects of root canal preparation and filling methods on apical microleakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价不同根管预备方法和不同根管充填技术组合时的根尖封闭效果.方法:选择180个离体单根管前牙,随机分为A、B两组(每组90个).分别用ProTaper以逐步深入法、K锉以逐步后退法预备根管后,再各随机分为3个亚组,分别用GuttaFlow常温流动牙胶、Cortisomol加热牙胶垂直加压、Cortisomol加冷牙胶侧方加压充填根管.各样本置微渗漏检测装置中,分别于1、2、4、7、14、21、28 d以GOD比色法检测葡萄糖渗出浓度.结果:微渗漏试验1 ~4d,各组葡萄糖渗出浓度无显著差异(P>0.05).7~28 d各时间点,相同充填方法下,逐步深入法组葡萄糖浓度均明显低于后退法(P<0.05);相同预备方法下,常温流动牙胶组葡萄糖浓度明显低于热牙胶垂直加压和冷牙胶侧方加压组(P<0.05),而后两组无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:ProTaper镍钛锉逐步深入法预备根管,并以GuttaFlow常温流动牙胶充填系统进行充填较其他方法能更有效降低根尖微渗漏程度.%AIM:To evaluate the effects of different root canal preparation and filling methods on apical microleakage.METHODS:180 extracted teeth with single canal were divided randomly into group A,B(n =90).For root canal preparation of step-down method with ProTape was used in group A and step-back with K file in group B.After preparation,the root canals were filled with GuttaFlow,cortisomol heated guttapurcha vertical pressure and cortisomol lateral pressure respectively(n =30).The glucose concentration of the groups were measured by glucose oxidose method 1,2,4,7,14,21 and 28 d after root-filling respectively.RESULTS:No significant difference of microleakage was observed among the groups 1-4 d after filling (P > 0.05).With the same filling method,glucose concentration in step-down preparation groups was significantly lower than that in step-back groups (P <0.05).With the same preparation method,glucose concentration in GuttaFlow group was

  4. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  5. Effect of biomechanical preparation and calcium hydroxide pastes on the antisepsis of root canal systems in dogs Ação do preparo biomecânico e de pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio na anti-sepsia do sistema de canais radiculares de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janir Alves Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the endodontic treatment of root canals with necrotic pulps associated with periapical radiolucent areas, one of the main objectives of treatment consists in eliminating the microorganisms spread throughout the ramifications of the root canal system. The scope of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of biomechanical preparation and two calcium hydroxide-based pastes, in dogs' teeth with experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions. After initial microbiological sampling, instrumentation of the root canals was undertaken using the conventional technique, using K type files used in conjunction with a solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. After ninety-six hours, further microbiological sampling was undertaken and Calen/CPMC or Calasept pastes were applied for 15 and 30 days. Ninety six hours after the removal of the medication, the third microbiological sampling was undertaken and finally histomicrobiological analysis followed using Brown & Brenn staining. The results were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis test, with a level of significance established at 5% (p0.05, characterized by an elevated incidence of cocci, bacilli and filaments, predominantly gram-positive, in root canals, secondary canals and accessories, apical cementoplasts and dentinal tubules, but with a low incidence of microorganisms in areas of cementum resorption and the periapical lesion. The biomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing based on calcium hydroxide were important in the antisepsis of the root canal; however, both procedures did not produce significant changes in the microbiological aspects of the root canal system.No tratamento endodôntico dos canais radiculares com polpa necrótica associados à áreas radiolúcidas periapicais, um dos principais objetivos consiste em eliminar os microrganismos situados em todo o sistema de ramificações. Por conseguinte, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia anti-séptica do preparo

  6. 机用ProTaPer和机用SafeSider用于磨牙弯曲根管预备的临床评价%A Clinical Study of Rotary ProTaper and Rotary SafeSider in Preparation of Curved Root Canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天; 李桂红

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the clinical effect of K-Reamer,ProTaper and SafeSider in the preparation of curved molar root canals.[Methods] A total of 180 teeth which needed endodontic treatment were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups with 60 teeth in each group:K-Reamer group,ProTaper group and SafeSider group.The root canals were prepared with 3 instruments respectively.All canals were obturated using lateral condensation technique.The efficacy of canal preparation and obturation were examined by X-ray before,during and after operation and analyzed.[Results] Statistically significant difference was found in mean working time,shaping curved molar canals and exact root canal obturation between K-Reamer group,ProTaper group or SafeSider group.No Statistically significant difference was found in mean working time,shaping curved molar canals and exact root canal obturation between ProTaper group and SafeSider group.[Conclusion] ProTaper and SafeSider tested in this study are effective and time-saving in shaping curved molar canals,it also cause less post-operative pain.The results indicate that both ProTaper and SafeSider are comparable to optimally enlarge root canal.%[目的]评价不锈钢K型扩大针、机用ProTaper和机用SafeSider预备磨牙弯曲根管的临床疗效.[方法]选取因牙髓炎或根尖周炎需要进行根管治疗的磨牙180颗(根管413个),随机分为3组,K-Reamer组、ProTaper组和SafeSider组,每组各60颗.分别用不锈钢K型扩大针、机用ProTaper和机用SafeSider进行根管预备.3组均采用冷牙胶侧方加压技术充填根管.记录3组根管预备时间和术后并发症出现情况,根据治疗前、中、后的X线片评价根管预备和充填的效果.[结果]机用ProTaper和机用SafeSider在根管预备时间、根管成形以及充填效果三方面均优于不锈钢K型扩大针,差异有显著性(P<0.05);机用ProTaper与机用SafeSider在上述方面比较,差异不明显(P>0.05).[结论]机

  7. Evaluation of germination capacity and selected biometric parameters (length and dry weight of roots and coleoptile of sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus after application of preparations containing effective microorganisms (EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SEKUTOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and early growth microbiotest PhytotoxkitTM was used in the experiment, which consisted of 3 independent laboratory experimental series with one month intervals each and 3 replications. The aim of this study was to evaluate germination dynamics and capacity as well as selected biometric parameters after seed treatment with two preparations containing effective microorganisms: EM Farma (EMF and EM Farma Plus (EMFP. Sunflower seeds (H. annuus were chosen as the experimental material. Seeds soaked in distilled water were control objects (K in these experiment. Apart from control (K, reference material was prepared in the form of two biostimulants: Kelpak SL (KSL and gibberellic acid (GA3. The effect of the two biopreparations EM Farma (EMF and EM Farma Plus (EMFP was beneficial related to germination capacity and biometric parameters of sunflower (H. annuus.

  8. In vivo microbiological evaluation of the effect of biomechanical preparation of root canals using different irrigating solutions Avaliação microbiológica in vivo do efeito do preparo biomecânico dos canais radiculares utilizando diferentes soluções irrigadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Tanomaru Filho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of biomechanical preparation using different irrigating solutions. Seventy-eight root canals from premolars of four dogs were used. After experimental induction of periapical lesions, the root canals were prepared using the following solutions for irrigation: Group 1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; Group 2 2% chlorhexidine (CHX; Group 3 saline solution and Group 4 control group with no biomechanical preparation. The microbiological evaluation of the root canals was performed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs using different culture mediums. Two absorbent paper cones were used in each root canal in order to collect the microbiological samples before, and thirty days after the biomechanical preparation. The culture plates were incubated in aerobic, anaerobic and microaerophilic environment. Statistical evaluation was carried out using analysis of variance, Tukey and Student tests. The results demonstrated that there was reduction in the number of microorganisms in the NaOCl and CHX groups (pO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano do preparo biomecânico com diferentes soluções irrigadoras. Foram utilizados 78 canais radiculares de pré-molares de 4 cães. Após indução experimental das lesões periapicais, os canais radiculares foram preparados utilizando as seguintes soluções irrigadoras: grupo 1 hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% (NaOCl; grupo 2 clorexidina a 2% (CHX; grupo 3 soro fisiológico. No grupo 4 (controle não foi realizado preparo biomecânico. A avaliação microbiológica do canal radicular foi realizada pela contagem de unidades formadoras de colônia, em ufc, nos diferentes meios de cultura. Foram utilizados 2 cones de papel absorvente em cada canal radicular para a realização da colheita microbiológica antes e 30 dias após o preparo biomecânico. As placas de cultura foram incubadas em ambiente de aerobiose, anaerobiose e

  9. Uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in curved root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retsas, A.; Koursoumis, A.; Tzimpoulas, N.; Boutsioukis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of file type and activation time on the uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in prepared curved root canals. Methods: Seventy-two curved mesial root canals of human mandibular molars were prepared

  10. Uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in curved root canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retsas, A.; Koursoumis, A.; Tzimpoulas, N.; Boutsioukis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of file type and activation time on the uncontrolled removal of dentin during in vitro ultrasonic irrigant activation in prepared curved root canals. Methods: Seventy-two curved mesial root canals of human mandibular molars were prepared

  11. ROOT User Workshop 2013

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Since almost two decades, ROOT has established itself as the framework for HENP data processing and analysis. The LHC upgrade program and the new experiments being designed at CERN and elsewhere will pose even more formidable challenges in terms of data complexity and size. The new parallel and heterogeneous computing architectures that are either announced or already available will call for a deep rethinking of the code and the data structures to be exploited efficiently. This workshop, following from a successful series of such events, will allow you to learn in detail about the new ROOT 6 and will help shape the future evolution of ROOT.

  12. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  13. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.

    1990-10-01

    It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  14. Time-lapse fluorescence imaging of Arabidopsis root growth with rapid manipulation of the root environment using the RootChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Guido; Meier, Matthias; Cartwright, Heather N; Sosso, Davide; Quake, Stephen R; Ehrhardt, David W; Frommer, Wolf B

    2012-07-07

    The root functions as the physical anchor of the plant and is the organ responsible for uptake of water and mineral nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate and trace elements that plants acquire from the soil. If we want to develop sustainable approaches to producing high crop yield, we need to better understand how the root develops, takes up a wide spectrum of nutrients, and interacts with symbiotic and pathogenic organisms. To accomplish these goals, we need to be able to explore roots in microscopic detail over time periods ranging from minutes to days. We developed the RootChip, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)- based microfluidic device, which allows us to grow and image roots from Arabidopsis seedlings while avoiding any physical stress to roots during preparation for imaging(1) (Figure 1). The device contains a bifurcated channel structure featuring micromechanical valves to guide the fluid flow from solution inlets to each of the eight observation chambers(2). This perfusion system allows the root microenvironment to be controlled and modified with precision and speed. The volume of the chambers is approximately 400 nl, thus requiring only minimal amounts of test solution. Here we provide a detailed protocol for studying root biology on the RootChip using imaging-based approaches with real time resolution. Roots can be analyzed over several days using time lapse microscopy. Roots can be perfused with nutrient solutions or inhibitors, and up to eight seedlings can be analyzed in parallel. This system has the potential for a wide range of applications, including analysis of root growth in the presence or absence of chemicals, fluorescence-based analysis of gene expression, and the analysis of biosensors, e.g. FRET nanosensors(3).

  15. Aflatoxins in ginseng roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Horn, Erin; McIntosh, Marla; Bean, George

    2006-02-01

    Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2), a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed with antibodies specific for aflatoxins. The purified extract was then derivatized with a mixture of water, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid. Aflatoxins were then separated and quantified by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of total aflatoxins at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/g added to toxin-free 4 to 5-year old dried sliced Wisconsin ginseng were 92, 77, 91 and 83% respectively; and relative standard deviations were 3.6, 8.0, 6.9 and 2.0% respectively. A total of 11 wild simulated and 12 cultivated ginseng root samples were analysed for aflatoxins. All cultivated roots were found to be free of aflatoxin contamination. Two of the wild simulated roots contained total aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) at 15.1 and 15.2 ng/g. One moldy ginseng root purchased from a grocery store was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins at 16 ng/g.

  16. Modeling root reinforcement using root-failure Weibull survival function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schwarz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root networks contribute to slope stability through complicated interactions that include mechanical compression and tension. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of root distribution and the dynamic of root turnover, the quantification of root reinforcement on steep slope is challenging and consequently the calculation of slope stability as well. Although the considerable advances in root reinforcement modeling, some important aspect remain neglected. In this study we address in particular to the role of root strength variability on the mechanical behaviors of a root bundle. Many factors may contribute to the variability of root mechanical properties even considering a single class of diameter. This work presents a new approach for quantifying root reinforcement that considers the variability of mechanical properties of each root diameter class. Using the data of laboratory tensile tests and field pullout tests, we calibrate the parameters of the Weibull survival function to implement the variability of root strength in a numerical model for the calculation of root reinforcement (RBMw. The results show that, for both laboratory and field datasets, the parameters of the Weibull distribution may be considered constant with the exponent equal to 2 and the normalized failure displacement equal to 1. Moreover, the results show that the variability of root strength in each root diameter class has a major influence on the behavior of a root bundle with important implications when considering different approaches in slope stability calculation. Sensitivity analysis shows that the calibration of the tensile force and the elasticity of the roots are the most important equations, as well as the root distribution. The new model allows the characterization of root reinforcement in terms of maximum pullout force, stiffness, and energy. Moreover, it simplifies the implementation of root reinforcement in slope stability models. The realistic quantification of root

  17. 丁香、大黄中草药保鲜剂对康乃馨鲜切花保鲜效果的应用研究%Preservative effect of cloves and rhubarb formula on fresh cut carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童红梅

    2013-01-01

    以康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’‘凯旋’为试验材料,选用95%乙醇超声波提取丁香、大黄等10种市售中草药中的抑菌成分,通过对致病菌黑曲霉、灰绿青霉的抑菌试验筛选适宜康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’与‘凯旋’保鲜用的中草药配方。结果表明:中草药丁香、大黄的抑菌效果与对照多菌灵相当。以中草药丁香和大黄浸提液、蔗糖、氯化钙、水扬酸4种成分经正交试验筛选出了两种中草药保鲜剂,其中保鲜剂1号对康乃馨‘黄莺’保鲜效果好,而保鲜剂2号更适宜于康乃馨‘凯旋’的保鲜。两种保鲜剂均可延长康乃馨鲜切花寿命6~8 d,保鲜效果显著。%Taking 1 0 kinds of chinese herbal medicine 9 5% ethanol ultrasonic extracts as antibacterial ingredient,the chinese herbal medicine formula to Aspergillusniger and Peniciliumglaucus were screened on fresh cut carnation ‘Hongying’and ‘Kaixuan’.The cloves and rhubarb formula showed the same anti-bacterial effect as carbendazim.The 2 kinds of chinese herbal medicine preservative formula were screened by orthogonal test.No.1 preservative had better effect to ‘Huangying’carnation,while No.2 preservative was suitable to ‘Kaixuan’carnation.Both No.1 preservative and No.2 preservative could prolong life of fresh cut carnation 6 to 8 days and showed a good preservative effect.

  18. Effect of IRM root end fillings on healing after replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1994-08-01

    The effect of IRM as a root end filling placed in teeth prior to replantation was examined in 21 molar teeth in monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root end cavities prepared, and fillings of IRM or amalgam placed prior to replantation. After 8 wk the jaws were removed and prepared for histological examination. Bacteria were demonstrated in only 9 of 15 teeth filled with IRM; 18 of the roots (60%) were associated with inflammation, which was only moderate or severe around 5 (17%), and extended > 0.1 mm around only 2 roots. In contrast, of the 6 teeth filled with amalgam, all contained bacteria in the root canals and 11 roots were associated with moderate or severe inflammation, which around 8 roots extended > 0.5 mm. The difference in severity of inflammation for the two materials was statistically significant (p IRM in replanted teeth was less severe and less extensive than that to amalgam.

  19. Fracture Resistance of Roots after Application of Different Sealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaji, Fatemeh; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Bidkhori, Babak; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical root fracture inevitably leads to tooth extraction. Thus, root filling with obturating materials and sealers that can reinforce the tooth would be an ideal way to reduce fracture in root treated teeth. This study aimed to assess the fracture resistance of roots following the application of different sealers including Epiphany, iRoot sealer and AH-plus. Methods and Materials: Fifty extracted human single-canal premolars without caries, curvature or cracks were used in this study. Tooth crowns were cut to yield 13-mm-long roots. Five roots were put in the negative control group and were left unprepared. Forty-five canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files up to F3 and were then randomly divided into three groups based on the sealer type (n=15). The root canals were filled using cold lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and AH-Plus sealer, gutta-percha and iRoot sealer and Resilon and Epiphany sealer, in groups one to three, respectively. The roots were then mounted in acrylic molds for fracture resistance testing and subjected to compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean fracture resistance was 673.38±170.42 N in AH-Plus, 562.00±184.68 N in iRoot, 708.03±228.05 N in Resilon and 592.59±117.29 N in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups and the negative control group (P=0.26). Conclusion: Application of AH-Plus, bioceramic and Resilon sealers did not change the fracture resistance of roots compared to that of unprepared root canals. PMID:28179924

  20. Root architecture simulation improves the inference from seedling root phenotyping towards mature root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangsan; Bodner, Gernot; Rewald, Boris; Leitner, Daniel; Nagel, Kerstin A; Nakhforoosh, Alireza

    2017-02-01

    Root phenotyping provides trait information for plant breeding. A shortcoming of high-throughput root phenotyping is the limitation to seedling plants and failure to make inferences on mature root systems. We suggest root system architecture (RSA) models to predict mature root traits and overcome the inference problem. Sixteen pea genotypes were phenotyped in (i) seedling (Petri dishes) and (ii) mature (sand-filled columns) root phenotyping platforms. The RSA model RootBox was parameterized with seedling traits to simulate the fully developed root systems. Measured and modelled root length, first-order lateral number, and root distribution were compared to determine key traits for model-based prediction. No direct relationship in root traits (tap, lateral length, interbranch distance) was evident between phenotyping systems. RootBox significantly improved the inference over phenotyping platforms. Seedling plant tap and lateral root elongation rates and interbranch distance were sufficient model parameters to predict genotype ranking in total root length with an RSpearman of 0.83. Parameterization including uneven lateral spacing via a scaling function substantially improved the prediction of architectures underlying the differently sized root systems. We conclude that RSA models can solve the inference problem of seedling root phenotyping. RSA models should be included in the phenotyping pipeline to provide reliable information on mature root systems to breeding research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  2. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  3. 大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的临床研究%Clinical study of the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宇; 周静; 潘立茹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of the fat liquefaction of abdominal incision. Methods 101 patients with the fat liquefaction of abdominal operative inci-sion who underwent abdominal operation in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. SO patients in the treatment group were treated by rhubarb and sodium sulfate for external application in combination with infrared rays once daily ;51 patients in the control group were treated by changing dry dressing once daily and squeezing. Results There was statistic difference on healing time, frequency of dressing replacement, the use of butterfly sterile adhesive tape, and the rate of second debridement between the treatment group and the control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rhubarb and sodi-um sulfate in combination with infrared rays can promote the absorption of inflammatory exudates and accelerate the concrescence of the wounds.%目的 观察大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的治疗效果.方法 将我院2009年1月-2010年10月期间术后腹部手术切口发生脂肪液化的101例患者随机分为两组.试验组(n =50例)脂肪液化之切口,用大黄、芒硝混匀后外敷,并给予红外线治疗,每日1次.对照组(n=51例)应用普通换药及挤压方法,每日换药1次.结果 试验组的切口愈合时间、更换敷料及应用无菌蝶形胶布固定切口次数、二次清创缝合术的几率,与对照组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 中药外敷加红外线治疗能促进脂肪液化伤口炎症渗出物的吸收,加快切口愈合.

  4. Regional variation in root dentinal tubule infection by Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules at different regions in human roots. Specimens were obtained from single-rooted teeth that had their root canals prepared in a standard manner. Roots were then sectioned longitudinally through the canals and the resulting specimens chemically treated to remove the smear layers. Specimens were immersed in a suspension of Streptococcus gordonii for 3 weeks and then prepared for histological analysis. Sections from the cervical, midroot, and apical areas were examined. The pattern of bacterial infection of the cervical and midroot areas was similar, characterized as a heavy infection with bacteria penetrating as deep as 200 microns. Invasion of the apical dentin was significantly different, with a mild infection and maximum penetration of 60 microns.

  5. The quality of single cone and laterally compacted gutta-percha fillings in small and curved root canals as evidenced by bidirectional radiographs and fluid transport measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Wu; M.G. Bud; P.R. Wesselink

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the quality of root fillings in small and curved root canals using bidirectional radiographs and fluid transport (FT) measurements. Study design: Root canals in eighty 38°-curved mesial roots of mandibular molars were prepared using a balanced force te

  6. Effectiveness of Er:YAG laser in cavity preparation for retrograde filling--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlović, Zoran; Grgurević, Lovro; Verzak, Zeljko; Modrić, Vesna-Erika; Sorić, Pjetra; Grgurević, Josko

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sealing quality of Super EBA cement in laser prepared root-end cavities in comparison with root-end cavities classically prepared with steel burrs. Two groups of three millimeter root sections were prepared. The first group was prepared with the Er:YAG laser and the second group with a steel burr mounted on a surgical handpiece. The sections were filled with Super EBA cement and tested for leakage with fluid transport techniques. The sealing quality of Super EBA cement in the classically prepared root-end cavities was better, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two preparation techniques. The possible reason for greater leakage in the laser prepared root-end cavities was probably the irregular shape of the root-end cavity.

  7. VARIATION OF MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Kirilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful endodontic treatment requires effective biomechanical preparation of the root canals and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system. This can be achieved only by knowing and identifying the variations in the root canal system of the endodontically treated teeth. The Aim: The aim of this article is to present cases of endodontic treatment of maxillary first premolar with three root canals – different types. Material and Methods: Five clinical cases of successful endodontic treatment of patients with maxillary first premolar and three root canals are described. Result and Discussion: It is noted that good endodontic practice requires good knowledge of dental anatomy and possible variations, accurate X-ray images, as well as use of magnifying equipment. Conclusion: Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for good endodontic practice.

  8. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  9. Study of the areas and thicknesses of mesiobucal root canals prepared by three endodontic techniques Estudo das áreas e espessuras de canais radiculares mésio-vestibulares preparados por três técnicas endodônticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Geralda Teixeira Constante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, by means of computerized analysis of digital radiographic images, the anatomic alterations produced in the mandibular molar tooth dentinal walls of mesiobucal canals with severe curvature by three different endodontic techniques: Progressive Preparation, Staged and Serial Preparation. A selection was made of 45 extracted, human, mandibular molars, with root curvatures greater than 25°. They were divided into three groups for every technique studied, which were then sub-divided into three sub-groups in accordance with the position of the curvature along the root: cervical, median or apical. After access surgery and tooth length determination, the canals were filled with 100% Barium Sulphate radiological contrast and the teeth were then radiographed with a direct digital radiography system, using a special apparatus capable of keeping the samples in the same spatial position during the different radiographic takes. After the above-mentioned endodontic techniques had been performed, the teeth were again filled with Barium sulphate and were also radiographed under the same previously mentioned conditions. The pre- and post-operative digital images were then analyzed in two computerized programs, AutoCAD 2004 and CorelDraw 10, to assess, respectively, the areas and the horizontal alterations which occurred in the internal and external walls of the root canals. The results indicated that although no significant differences among the techniques were shown in the statistical analysis, in a descriptive analysis the Progressive Preparation technique was shown to be more regular, uniform and effective.Objetivou-se comparar, in vitro, através de análise computadorizada de imagens radiográficas digitais, as alterações anatômicas promovidas nas paredes dentinárias de canais mésio-vestibulares com curvatura severa de molares inferiores por três técnicas endodônticas diferentes: Preparo Progressivo

  10. 茯苓、甘草、银花复方制剂对砷中毒小鼠治疗效果的实验研究%Curative Effects of Compound Preparation of Hoelen, Sweet Root and FIos Lonicerae in Mice with Arsenic Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃淑云; 张树球

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of compound preparation of hoelen, sweet root, and flos lonicerae in mice with arsenic poisoning and to search an effective medicine for treating arsenic poisoning. Methods Mice were used to establish the arsenic poisoning models. Mice were randomly divided into namely the control group, arsenic poisoned group and treatment group. In the treatment group, mice were first poisoned with arsenic, afterward the mice were treated with compound preparation of hoelen, sweet root and flos lonicerae. The serum glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD)and creatinine(Cr)were measured after 60 days. The organ damages of liver, kidney were studied under light microscope. Results In the arsenic poisoned group, the vitality of SOD(129. 86±37. 23 UN/ml)and the contents of GSH(172. 16±30. 08 mg/L)lowered while the Cr contents elevated(123. 56±23. 69 umol/L). The histological damages of liver and kidney were significant. In the treatment group, the vitality of SOD, the contents of GSH and Cr obviously recovered, (189. 68±47. 16 UN/ml), (266. 29 ± 58. 45 mg/L), and(86.75± 16.08 umol/L) respectively. The histological damages of liver and kidney were repaired. Conclusions Results show obvious curative effects of compound preparation of hoelen, sweet root and flos lonicerae on arsenic poisoning in mice.%目的 观察茯苓、甘草、银花复方制剂对砷中毒小鼠治疗效果,寻找一种安全有效无毒的治疗砷中毒药物.方法 建立砷中毒小鼠动物模型,按随机方法将小鼠分为对照组、砷中毒组和治疗组;治疗组先行染砷再给予茯苓、甘草、银花复方制剂进行治疗;各组处理60 d后测定血清中超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活力、谷胱甘肽(GSH)和肌酐(Cr)含量;行肝脏、肾脏组织切片,光镜观察肝、肾损害程度.结果 砷中毒组小鼠SOD活力下降[(129.86±37.23)UN/ml],GSH含量降低[(172.16±30.08) mg/L],Cr含量升高[(123.56±23.69)μmol/L],小鼠肝、肾

  11. The Roots Of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1973-01-01

    Alienation in our society takes several forms--withdrawal, hostility, or efforts to reform. The author traces the roots of alienation to our neglect of many of the needs of children, particularly their need for interaction with adults. Among his many recommendations are: modified work schedules to permit more time with children and systems for…

  12. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  13. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 3: Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcey, James; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Hunter, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of instrumentation is to facilitate irrigation and allow controlled obturation. This article will revisit methods of instrumentation of the root canal system with consideration given to length determination, apical preparation and the concept of patency filing. It will discuss hand instrumentation and rotary preparation looking at emerging technology such as reciprocating systems and the self-adjusting file. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mechanical preparation of the root canal system is of fundamental importance in achieving success, creating a more easily managed environment from a biological perspective.

  14. 大黄对急性心肌梗死伴泵衰竭患者肠道屏障功能的影响%Effects of Rhubarb on the Intestinal Barrier Function of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction-Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓波; 王诗奇; 毛奕; 曾秋棠; 李裕舒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify the intestinal barrier function (IBF) state of patients with acute myocardial in-farction-heart failure (AMI-HF), and to compare the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and Pantoprazole (proton pump in-hibitor). Methods Enrolled were 107 AMI patients from ICU, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong Uni-versity of Science and Technology from May 2008 to April 2010. Of them, 47 AMI patients without HF were recruited as the control group, while 60 AMI-HF patients were randomly assigned to the rhubarb group (30 cases, treated by rhu-barb + Pantoprazole) or the Pantoprazole group (30 cases, treated by Pantoprazole + routine treatment). All patients were treated till the 14 th day of the onset. The fecal occult blood (FOB) test was performed daily. The occurrence of the digestive tract hemorrhage on the 14th day after onset was compared. The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), serum D-lactic acid, plasma glutamine (Gin), endotoxin and cytokines [high sensitive C reaction pro-tein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-oc (TNF-ct), interleukin-10 (IL-10) ], and heart function were compared among the three groups before and after treatment. Results There was no statistical difference in the case number of using aspirin, clopidogel, low molecular weight heparin, ACEI/ARB, statins, insulin, and antibiotics among the 3 groups. The case number of using p-blocker was obviously lower in the two medication groups than in the control group (P0.05). Compared with before treatment, NT-proBNP, D-lactic acid, endotoxin, hsCRP, TNF-oc, and IL-10 decreased in the Pantoprazole group (P0. 05). Gin and EF increased in the rhubarb group after treatment, and they were higher than those of the control group. Blood NT-proBNP, D-lactic acid, endotoxin, hsCRP, TNF-cx, and IL-10 de-creased in the rhubarb group after treatment, showing statistical difference when compared with the control group (P < 0.01 ,P<0.05). Conclusions Impaired IBF and endotoxemia existed

  15. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exo...

  16. Pectate hydrolases of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodrová, Dana; Dzúrovä, Mária; Lisková, Desana; Mohand, Fairouz Ait; Mislovicová, Danica; Malovícová, Anna; Voburka, Zdenek; Omelková, Jirina; Stratilová, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The presence of various enzyme forms with terminal action pattern on pectate was evaluated in a protein mixture obtained from parsley roots. Enzymes found in the soluble fraction of roots (juice) were purified to homogeneity according to SDS-PAGE, partially separated by preparative isoelectric focusing and characterized. Three forms with pH optima 3.6, 4.2 and 4.6 clearly preferred substrates with a lower degree of polymerization (oligogalacturonates) while the form with pH optimum 5.2 was a typical exopolygalacturonase [EC 3. 2.1.67] with relatively fast cleavage of polymeric substrate. The forms with pH optima 3.6, 4.2 and 5.2 were released from the pulp, too. The form from the pulp with pH optimum 4.6 preferred higher oligogalacturonates and was not described in plants previously. The production of individual forms in roots was compared with that produced by root cells cultivated on solid medium and in liquid one.

  17. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  18. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  19. Evaluation of marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Gonçalves Alencar, Ana Helena; Poli Figueiredo, José Antônio; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Almeida Decurcio, Daniel; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The importance of perfect apical seal in endodontics, more specifically in periradicular surgery, is the motivation/reason for development of root-end filling materials with favorable physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopy. Twenty five human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using a K-File #50 to 1 mm short of the apical foramen and filled with gutta-percha and Sealapex using the lateral compaction technique. The apical 3 mm of the roots were sectioned perpendicularly to the long axis of the teeth. A 3-mm-deep root-end cavity was prepared using ultrasonic tips powered by an Enac ultrasonic unit. The teeth were randomly assigned to five groups according to the materials tested including IRM, amalgam, ProRoot MTA, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon. Root-end cavities were filled with the materials prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions. The root apices were carefully prepared for sputter coating and later evaluation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The images of root-end fillings were divided into four quadrants and distributed into five categories according to the level of marginal adaptation between the root-end material and the root canal walls. The Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction was used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at P = 0.005. SEM images showed the presence of gaps in the root-end filling materials. No significant difference was observed between the tested materials (P > 0.005). ProRoot MTA, IRM, amalgam, Super-EBA and Epiphany/Resilon showed similar marginal adaptation as root-end filling materials.

  20. Characteristic of root decomposition in a tropical rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Mizue; Makita, Naoki; Katayam, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Khoon Kho, L.

    2016-04-01

    Woody roots play a significant role in forest carbon cycling, as up to 60 percent of tree photosynthetic production can be allocated to belowground. Root decay is one of the main processes of soil C dynamics and potentially relates to soil C sequestration. However, much less attention has been paid for root litter decomposition compared to the studies of leaf litter because roots are hidden from view. Previous studies have revealed that physico-chemical quality of roots, climate, and soil organisms affect root decomposition significantly. However, patterns and mechanisms of root decomposition are still poorly understood because of the high variability of root properties, field environment and potential decomposers. For example, root size would be a factor controlling decomposition rates, but general understanding of the difference between coarse and fine root decompositions is still lacking. Also, it is known that root decomposition is performed by soil animals, fungi and bacteria, but their relative importance is poorly understood. In this study, therefore, we aimed to characterize the root decomposition in a tropical rainforest in Sarawak, Malaysia, and clarify the impact of soil living organisms and root sizes on root litter decomposition. We buried soil cores with fine and coarse root litter bags in soil in Lambir Hills National Park. Three different types of soil cores that are covered by 1.5 cm plastic mesh, root-impermeable sheet (50um) and fungi-impermeable sheet (1um) were prepared. The soil cores were buried in February 2013 and collected 4 times, 134 days, 226 days, 786 days and 1151 days after the installation. We found that nearly 80 percent of the coarse root litter was decomposed after two years, whereas only 60 percent of the fine root litter was decomposed. Our results also showed significantly different ratio of decomposition between different cores, suggesting the different contribution of soil living organisms to decomposition process.

  1. Function of root apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Benešová, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    A root apical meristem is the only source of cells for all tissues in the root. The root growth relies on its function. Regulation of a cell division frequency and cell differentiation affects organization and function of the differentiated tissues and the proper meristem function. If the cell differentiation overbalances the cell proliferation, the meristem exhaustion occurs and the root growth irreversibly terminates. This thesis describes existing knowledge about regulation of the primary ...

  2. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  3. Adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoumi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable in vegetative propagation and is widely used. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed to improve rooting treatments. We first established a system to study rooting in Arabidopsis, the model organism in plant biology but only occ

  4. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  5. 不结球白菜根尖体细胞染色体制片及其二倍体和四倍体有丝分裂过程观察%Chromosome preparation of somatic cell in root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis ) and observation of mitosis process of its diploid and tetraploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金双; 张蜀宁; 孙成振; 王雅美

    2011-01-01

    L-1 colchicine, 0. 2 g · L-1 colchicine, saturated p-dichlorobenezene, 20 or 40 mg · L-1 cycloheximide, equivalent volume mixed solution of 40 mg · L-1 cycloheximide and 2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline) and pretreatment time (1.0 -3. 5 h) in chromosome preparation process were compared and selected. And on this basis, mitosis process of somatic cell in root-lip of diploid and tetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage was observed. The results show that root length obviously influences on number of split phase. And there are relatively more split phases in 1.0-2.0 cm root with an account for 64. 75% of total cell number. Some split phases can be obtained by frozen pretreating for 22-23 h. Using different pretreatment agents andtimes, number of split phase and chromosome morphology are obviously different. Pretreating for 3. 5 h with 40 mg · L-1 cycloheximide, number of split phase is the most but chromosome doubling is easy to be caused. And pretreating for 3. 5 h with 20 mg · L-1 cycloheximide, chromosomes are long with clear kinetochore and satellite, and number of split phase accounts for 53. 65% of total cell number. Therefore, suitable length of root is 1. 0-2. 0 cm, optimal pretreatment method is using 20 mg · L-1 cycloheximide soaking for 2. 0-3. 0 h. The mitosis process of somatic cell in root-tip of diploid and tetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage is generally similar, and their chromosome behavior is basically identical in interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase of mitosis. But there are some abnormal phenomena in mitosis process of tetraploid, such as, multivalent, chromosome bridge, lagging chromosome, chromosome abnormal segregation and endogenous mitosis.

  6. Metagenomics at Grass Roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeshna Mazumdar-Leighton; Vivek K Choudhary

    2017-03-01

    Metagenomics is a robust, interdisciplinary approach for studyingmicrobial community composition, function, and dynamics.It typically involves a core of molecular biology, microbiology,ecology, statistics, and computational biology. Excitingoutcomes anticipated from these studies include unravelingof complex interactions that characterize the ecologicalmilieu of microbial communities. Diverse habitats fromwhich metagenomes have been reported include human guts,caterpillar guts, thermal vents in oceans, ore deposits, polarcaps, and even soils that adhere to plant roots. Knowledgegenerated from metagenomic projects has tremendous potentialto benefit human health, agriculture, and ecosystemfunctions. This article provides a brief history of technicaladvances in metagenomics, including DNA sequencing methods,and some case studies. A specific example is providedof microbial metagenomes found at the roots of native grassspecies (family Poaceae) that can grow on degraded lands undergoingrevegetation.

  7. Rooting an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    tools that grant root privileges for both Windows and Linux . For the Linux system, open a shell window and use “cd” command to change the directory...defined as a process of gaining administrative commands and functions of an operating system (OS). In order to monitor live network traffic on any... Linux -based or, in this case, Android system, it is necessary to have administrative rights to gain access to any of the hardware devices, such as the

  8. Differential Expression of Proteins and mRNAs from Border Cells and Root Tips of Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. A.; Woo, H. H.; Nicoll, S. M.; Hawes, M. C.

    1995-10-01

    Many plants release large numbers of metabolically active root border cells into the rhizosphere. We have proposed that border cells, cells produced by the root cap meristem that separate from the rest of the root upon reaching the periphery of the cap, are a singularly differentiated part of the root system that modulates the environment of the plant root by producing specific substances to be released into the rhizosphere. Proteins synthesized in border cells exhibit profiles that are very distinct from those of the root tip (root cap, root meristem, and adjacent cells). In vivo-labeling experiments demonstrate that 13% of the proteins that are abundant in preparations from border cells are undetectable in root tip preparations. Twenty-five percent of the proteins synthesized by border cells in a 1-h period are rapidly excreted into the incubation medium. Quantitative variation in levels of specific marker proteins, including glutamine synthetase, heat-shock protein 70, and isoflavone reductase, also occurs between border cells and cells in the root tip. mRNA differential-display assays demonstrate that these large qualitative and quantitative differences in protein expression are correlated with similarly distinct patterns of gene expression. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a major switch in gene expression accompanies differentiation into root border cells, as expected for cells with specialized functions in plant development.

  9. Incidence of dentinal defects after root canal filling procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To compare the incidence of dentinal defects (cracks and craze lines) after root canal preparation, lateral compaction and continuous wave compaction of gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Methodology  Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were divided into four groups with similar average canal diam

  10. Effect of needle insertion depth and root canal curvature on irrigant extrusion ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psimma, Z.; Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Vasiliadis, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, apical preparation size, and root canal curvature on irrigant extrusion by using a recently introduced method. Methods Sixteen human teeth with a straight root canal (group A) and 16 with a moderatel

  11. Effects of Self-Adjusting File, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hin, E.S.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; Shemesh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this ex vivo study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root dentin after root canal preparation with hand files, self-adjusting file (SAF), ProTaper, and Mtwo. Methods One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly selected. Two angulate

  12. Back to the roots!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that one can revive the critical edge that postmodernist theory has brought to marketing, thinking without subscribing to any particular school of (critical) theory by following the principle of methodological situationalism. The roots of postmodernist critique lie in careful...... of social order into account, hence fail to provide sensible insight. I propose the principle of methodological situationalism as a litmus test to the analytical strength of a theory or piece of research. The principle states that theoretically adequate accounts of social phenomena must be grounded...

  13. The Roots of Beowulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  14. Matching roots to their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J; George, Timothy S; Gregory, Peter J; Bengough, A Glyn; Hallett, Paul D; McKenzie, Blair M

    2013-07-01

    Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on 'Matching Roots to Their Environment'. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang on P-Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Watanabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the effects of various Kampo medicines on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a drug transporter, in vitro. The present study focused on Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, which shows the most potent inhibitory effects on P-gp among the 50 Kampo medicines studied, and investigated the P-gp inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto herbal ingredients (rhubarb and licorice root and their components by an ATPase assay using human P-gp membrane. Both rhubarb and licorice root significantly inhibited ATPase activity, and the effects of rhubarb were more potent than those of licorice root. The content of rhubarb in Daiokanzoto is double that in licorice root, and the inhibition patterns of Daiokanzoto and rhubarb involve both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto are mainly due to rhubarb. Concerning the components of rhubarb, concentration-dependent inhibitory effects were observed for (−-catechin gallate, (−-epicatechin gallate, and (−-epigallocatechin gallate. In conclusion, rhubarb may cause changes in the drug dispositions of P-gp substrates through the inhibition of P-gp. It appears that attention should be given to the interactions between these drugs and Kampo medicines containing rhubarb as an herbal ingredient.

  16. RootNav: navigating images of complex root architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel image analysis tool that allows the semiautomated quantification of complex root system architectures in a range of plant species grown and imaged in a variety of ways. The automatic component of RootNav takes a top-down approach, utilizing the powerful expectation maximization classification algorithm to examine regions of the input image, calculating the likelihood that given pixels correspond to roots. This information is used as the basis for an optimization approach to root detection and quantification, which effectively fits a root model to the image data. The resulting user experience is akin to defining routes on a motorist's satellite navigation system: RootNav makes an initial optimized estimate of paths from the seed point to root apices, and the user is able to easily and intuitively refine the results using a visual approach. The proposed method is evaluated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) images (and demonstrated on Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana], Brassica napus, and rice [Oryza sativa]), and results are compared with manual analysis. Four exemplar traits are calculated and show clear illustrative differences between some of the wheat accessions. RootNav, however, provides the structural information needed to support extraction of a wider variety of biologically relevant measures. A separate viewer tool is provided to recover a rich set of architectural traits from RootNav's core representation.

  17. Geophysical Imaging of Root Architecture and Root-soil Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Roots play a critical role in controlling water and nutrient uptake, soil biogeochemical processes, as well as the physical anchorage for plants. While important processes, such as root hydraulic redistribution for optimal growth and survival have been recognized, representation of roots in climate models, e.g. its carbon storage, carbon resilience, root biomass, and role in regulating water and carbon fluxes across the rhizosphere and atmosphere interface is still challenging. Such a challenge is exacerbated because of the large variations of root architecture and function across species and locations due to both genetic and environmental controls and the lack of methods for quantifying root mass, distribution, dynamics and interaction with soils at field scales. The scale, complexity and the dynamic nature of plant roots call for minimally invasive methods capable of providing quantitative estimation of root architecture, dynamics over time and interactions with the soils. We present a study on root architecture and root-soil interactions using geophysical methods. Parameters and processes of interests include (1) moisture dynamics around root zone and its interaction with plant transpiration and environmental controls and (2) estimation of root structure and properties based on geophysical signals. Both pot and field scale studies were conducted. The pot scale experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and were monitored with cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), TDR moisture sensors and temperature probes. Pots with and without a tree were compared and the moisture conditions were controlled via a self regulated pumping system. Geophysical monitoring revealed interactions between roots and soils under dynamic soil moisture conditions and the role of roots in regulating the response of the soil system to changes of environmental conditions, e.g. drought and precipitation events. Field scale studies were conducted on natural trees using

  18. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  19. Perennial roots to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  1. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  2. Hyperforin production in Hypericum perforatum root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam; Haas, Paul; Beuerle, Till; Scholl, Stephan; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-03-20

    Extracts of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum are used to treat depression and skin irritation. A major API is hyperforin, characterized by sensitivity to light, oxygen and temperature. Total synthesis of hyperforin is challenging and its content in field-grown plants is variable. We have established in vitro cultures of auxin-induced roots, which are capable of producing hyperforin, as indicated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS analyses. The extraction yield and the productivity upon use of petroleum ether after solvent screening were ∼5 mg/g DW and ∼50 mg/L culture after six weeks of cultivation. The root cultures also contained secohyperforin and lupulones, which were not yet detected in intact plants. In contrast, they lacked another class of typical H. perforatum constituents, hypericins, as indicated by the analysis of methanolic extracts. Hyperforins and lupulones were stabilized and enriched as dicyclohexylammonium salts. Upon up-scaling of biomass production and downstream processing, H. perforatum root cultures may provide an alternative platform for the preparation of medicinal extracts and the isolation of APIs.

  3. ROOT Tutorial for Summer Students

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Piparo, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    ROOT is a "batteries-included" tool kit for data analysis, storage and visualization. It is widely used in High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Biology, Finance and Astrophysics. This event is an introductory tutorial to ROOT and comprises a front lecture and hands on exercises. IMPORTANT NOTE: The tutorial is based on ROOT 6.04 and NOT on the ROOT5 series.  IMPORTANT NOTE: if you have ROOT 6.04 installed on your laptop, you will not need to install any virtual machine. The instructions showing how to install the virtual machine on which you can find ROOT 6.04 can be found under "Material" on this page.

  4. Auxin control of root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvoorde, Paul; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Beeckman, Tom

    2010-06-01

    A plant's roots system determines both the capacity of a sessile organism to acquire nutrients and water, as well as providing a means to monitor the soil for a range of environmental conditions. Since auxins were first described, there has been a tight connection between this class of hormones and root development. Here we review some of the latest genetic, molecular, and cellular experiments that demonstrate the importance of generating and maintaining auxin gradients during root development. Refinements in the ability to monitor and measure auxin levels in root cells coupled with advances in our understanding of the sources of auxin that contribute to these pools represent important contributions to our understanding of how this class of hormones participates in the control of root development. In addition, we review the role of identified molecular components that convert auxin gradients into local differentiation events, which ultimately defines the root architecture.

  5. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  6. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...... when multiple roots are present as this imply a non-differentiability so the d-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples this has a considerable influence on the finite sample distribution unless the roots are far apart....... With increasing order of the autoregressions it becomes increasingly difficult to place the roots far apart giving a very noisy signal from the characteristic roots....

  7. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  8. 大黄加芒硝外敷腹部配合综合护理治疗腹部手术患者腹胀临床观察%Clinical observation of Rhubarb and mirabilite with comprehensive nursing in treatment of abdominal surgery in patients with abdominal distension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小飞; 陈巧英

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析大黄加芒硝外敷腹部配合综合治疗腹部手术患者腹胀临床效果。方法本研究选取2014年6月~2015年9月收治的90例妇科腹部手术后腹胀患者,根据随机原则分成常规组和综合组。其中45例常规组患者实施常规妇科术后护理,45例综合组患者以大黄加芒硝外敷腹部配合综合治疗。对2组患者腹胀持续时间、肛门排气时间、肠鸣音恢复时间、首次排便时间、患者治疗效果、干预前后患者焦虑、抑郁情绪和生活质量变化进行比较。结果与常规组相比较,综合组腹胀持续时间、肛门排气时间、肠鸣音恢复时间、首次排便时间更短( P<0.05)。与常规组相比较,干预后综合组焦虑、抑郁情绪和生活质量更优( P<0.05)。结论大黄加芒硝外敷腹部配合综合治疗腹部手术患者腹胀临床效果确切,有助于改善患者负性情绪和腹胀症状,提升患者生活质量。%Objective To study the clinical effect of complex treatment combined with external application of Rhubarb and Mirabilite on abdomen of patients with abdominal distension after abdominal surgery .Methods 90 patients with abdominal distension after gynecological abdominal surgery from June 2014 to September 2015 were randomly divided into conventional group(45 patients) and comprehensive group(45 patients).Patients in the conventional group were given routine gynecological postoperative care, and patients in the comprehensive group were given complex treatment combined with external application of Rhubarb and Mirabilite on abdomen.The abdominal distension duration, anal exhaust time, time of resuming peristaltic sound, first defecation time, treatment effect, depression and anxiety emotions, changes of life quality of the two groups before and after intervention were compared.Results The comprehensive group had higher treatment effect than the comprehensive group ( P<0.05 ) .The abdominal

  9. Roots of the Chromatic Polynomial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrett, Thomas

    a tight lower bound on the smallest non-trivial chromatic root of a graph admitting a spanning tree with at most three leaves. Here, non-trivial means different from 0 or 1. This extends a theorem of Thomassen on graphs with Hamiltonian paths. We also prove similar lower bounds on the chromatic roots...... of several graph families. In particular, we show that the chromatic roots of planar graphs are dense in the interval (3; 4), except for a small interval around _ + 2 _ 3:618, where _ denotes the golden ratio. We also investigate the chromatic roots of related minor-closed classes of graphs and bipartite...

  10. The roots of human destructiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabby Sagall

    2014-01-01

    .... I emphasise the contributions of the Frankfurt School, particularly Erich Fromm, and Wilhelm Reich, to our understanding of individual and class consciousness, and of the roots of destructiveness...

  11. Chemical and Biological Assessment of Angelica Roots from Different Cultivated Regions in a Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy L. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Angelica sinensis (Danggui have been used in promoting blood circulation as herbal medicine for over 2000 years in China. Another species of Angelica roots called A. gigas is being used in Korea. To reveal the efficiency of different Angelica roots, the chemical and biological properties of Angelica roots from different cultivated regions were compared. Roots of A. sinensis contained higher levels of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and senkyunolide A, while high amounts of butylphthalide and Z-butylenephthalide were found in A. gigas roots. The extracts deriving from A. gigas roots showed better effects in osteogenic and estrogenic properties than that of A. sinensis from China. However, this difference was markedly reduced when the Angelica roots were being prepared in a Chinese herbal decoction together with Astragali Radix as Danggui Buxue Tang. In contrast, the herbal decoction prepared from A. sinensis roots showed better responses in cell cultures. In addition, the extracts of A. gigas roots showed strong cell toxicity both as single herb and as Danggui Buxue Tang. This result revealed the distinct properties of Angelica roots from China and Korea suggesting the specific usage of herb in preparing a unique herbal decoction.

  12. Development and evaluation of novel lozenges containing marshmallow root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Niko; Kostova, Bistra; Nikolova, Irina; Rachev, Dimitar

    2013-11-01

    Lozenges (tablets intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth) were evaluated as delivery system for polysaccharides extract from Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) root. The aim of investigation was to improve of the efficacy of convenient preparations for the treatment of irritated oropharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. The formulations studied were prepared with water extract of roots of Althaea officinalis L. The polysaccharides extract was obtained by ultrasonification. Acute oral toxicity (LD 50 p.o.) of the obtained extract was estimated in mice. Four models of lozenges based on different excipients were formulated. The characteristics of the preparations: resistance to crushing, friability testing, disintegration time and drug release properties were evaluated.

  13. Root Scaling Study ; Description of the DNS Root Scaling Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsen, B.; Jamakovic, A.; Roijers, F.

    2009-01-01

    In opdracht van de Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), de organisatie verantwoordelijk voor het beheren van de Root zone, heeft TNO onderzoek gedaan naar de schaalbaarheid van de Root zone. Welke impact kunnen de invoering van secure DNS (DNSSEC) en IPv6 en de uitbreiding

  14. Endodontic management of mandibular second premolar with three roots and three root canals: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High level of success in endodontic treatment requires an understanding of root canal anatomy and morphology. The clinician must be prepared to identify those teeth that tend to vary generally from norm. Thorough debridement and obturation of such teeth can be challenging and failing to do so can lead to treatment failure. Mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. However, the occurrence of three separate canals with three separate foramina in mandibular premolars is very rare. The incidence of three canals is as high as 23% in mandibular first premolars, whereas in second premolars incidence is as low as 0.4%. Three rooted mandibular second premolar is reported to be 0.2%. This case report describes endodontic management of one such tooth with unusual morphological variations in canal anatomy of mandibular second premolar.

  15. Evolution of root canal sealers: An insight story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attainment of ideal root canal treatment comprises various essential factors such as proper instrumentation, biomechanical preparation, obturation, and ultimately depending upon the case, post-endodontic restoration. Main objective of the treatment is to get absolute rid of microbial entity and prevent any future predilection of re-infection. In order to achieve that, proper seal is required to cut down any chance of proliferation of bacteria and future occurrence of any pathology. Although gutta-percha has been the standard obturating material used in root canal treatment, it does not reinforce endodontically treated roots owing to its inability to achieve an impervious seal along the dentinal walls of the root canal. Gutta-percha does not from a monoblock even with the use of a resin-based sealer such as AH Plus because the sealer does not bind to gutta-percha. As a result, a monoblock is formed (consisting of Resilon core material, Resin sealer, bonding agent/primer, and dentin. Another reason of Resilon being a better obturating material could be that the removal of smear layer by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA after biomechanical preparation may have allowed the root canal filling material and root canal sealers to contact the canal wall and penetrate in the dentinal tubules, which may increase the strength of roots. New silicone-based sealers like Roekoseal automix and the most recent GuttaFlow have some affirmative results regarding solubility and biocompatibility, as compared to other sealers. Methacrylate resin-based sealers and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers have opened a new horizon for sealers.

  16. Combining Bioactive Multifunctional Dental Composite with PAMAM for Root Dentin Remineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of this study were to: (1 develop a bioactive multifunctional composite (BMC via nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM and nanoparticles of silver (NAg; and (2 investigate the effects of combined BMC + poly (amido amine (PAMAM on remineralization of demineralized root dentin in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Methods. Root dentin specimens were prepared and demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. Four groups were prepared: (1 root dentin control; (2 root dentin with BMC; (3 root dentin with PAMAM; (4 root dentin with BMC + PAMAM. Specimens were treated with a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid regimen for 21 days. Calcium (Ca and phosphate (P ion concentrations and acid neutralization were determined. The remineralized root dentin specimens were examined via hardness testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results. Mechanical properties of BMC were similar to commercial control composites (p = 0.913. BMC had excellent Ca and P ion release and acid-neutralization capability. BMC or PAMAM alone each achieved slight mineral regeneration in demineralized root dentin. The combined BMC + PAMAM induced the greatest root dentin remineralization, and increased the hardness of pre-demineralized root dentin to match that of healthy root dentin (p = 0.521. Significance. The excellent root dentin remineralization effects of BMC + PAMAM were demonstrated for the first time. BMC + PAMAM induced effective and complete root dentin remineralization in an acid challenge environment. The novel BMC + PAMAM method is promising for Class V and other restorations to remineralize and protect tooth structures.

  17. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  18. Comparison of the root-end sealing ability of MTA and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Intekhab; Chng, Hui Kheng; Yap, Adrian U Jin

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro sealing ability of ProRoot MTA, ProRoot MTA (Tooth-Coloured Formula), ordinary Portland cement and white Portland cement when used as root-end filling materials. Twenty-four single-rooted human premolars were prepared and obturated using standard techniques, then retrofilled with the test materials. The prepared teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue dye for 72 hours and then assessed for dye leakage. The depth of dye penetration was measured and expressed as a percentage of the length of the retrofilling. Data was analysed using ANOVA and Fisher's Least Significant Test (LSD) (p cements, it is reasonable to consider Portland cement as a possible substitute for MTA as a root-end filling material. However, further tests, especially in vivo biocompatibility tests, need to be conducted before Portland cement can be recommended for clinical use.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, S; Speciale, A; Acquaviva, R; Ferlito, G; Ragusa, S; De Pasquale, R; Iauk, L

    2009-08-17

    Roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus (Schiffner) Merxm. & Podl. are widely used in veterinary folk medicine in Sicily (Italy) to diagnose and cure lower respiratory tract infections in cattle. This study intended to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanolic root extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus, and of the bufadienolide and ecdysteroid fractions extracted from its roots, against strains belonging to species commonly associated with respiratory tract infections. The phytochemical screening of the previously prepared plant extracts was carried out by chemical, thin-layer chromatography and spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts against seven different standard bacterial strains was evaluated by broth microdilution. According to the present study, Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus roots contain bufadienolides and ecdysteroids, and the extracts containing these compounds, as well as the crude methanolic root extract, show antibacterial activity against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. In particular, the bufadienolide extract has the highest inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms, and, as the other extracts, shows the lowest MIC values (100mug/ml) against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Since the roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus contain substances with antibacterial activity, the traditional use of this plant may also derive from its antibacterial properties.

  20. Searching for Roots / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Searching for Roots. Eduard Tubin: Symphonie no 11; Arvo Pärt: Nekrolog-Symphonie no 1; Erkki-Sven Tüür: Searching for Roots - Insula deserta - Zeitraum; Orchestre philharmonique royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi (direction)" Virgin Classics 5 45212 2 (distribue par EMI)

  1. Properties of Estimated Characteristic Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear...

  2. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  3. Project Work on Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonald, V. G.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of investigating plant root growth developed for research purposes can be adopted for student use. Investigations of the effect of water table level and of ethylene concentration are described, and techniques of measuring root growth are explained. (Author/ML)

  4. Genotoxic effects of sodium nitrate in onion roots

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE; Doroftei, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess cyto- and genotoxic effects of sodium nitrate on Allium cepa root tips by using different concentrations (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5%) for treating uniform healthy onion bulbs for three different periods of time: 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique using Schiff reagent and the investigations were realized according to Allium test. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nitr...

  5. Immune Regulatory Effect of Shenfu Preparation (参附制剂) and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏影非; 杜惠兰

    2004-01-01

    Shenfu preparation (SFP, 参附制剂) is a preparation consists of Radix Ginseng and Radix Aconiti lateralis. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a plant that belongs to Panax Linn genus of Araliaceae, generally its root is taken for medical use;Radix Aconiti lateralis is the lateral root tuber of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. As an auxiliary herb

  6. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  7. Root dentin strain and temperature rise during endodontic treatment and post rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amade, Euridsse Sulemane; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Azevedo, Fabiane Maria Ferreira; Bicalho, Aline Aredes; Soares, Carlos José

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endodontic treatment procedures and different post systems rehabilitation steps on the strain and temperature rise on apical and cervical root dentin regions. Twenty-one extracted human canine teeth had two strain gages attached to the distal root surface and two thermocouples attached to the mesial root surface (cervical and apical). The strain and temperature rise were recorded during the following procedures: root canal preparation, final rinse and drying, root canal filling and canal relief. Then the teeth were divided into three groups (n=7), according to the type of post system: CPC, cast post and core; FGP, fiberglass post; and PSP, prefabricated steel post. Data continued to be recorded during the post space preparation, post modeling (only for CPC), post trying and post cementation. Data were subjected to a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). The post-space preparation caused the highest temperature rise (4.0-14.9 °C) and the highest strain in the apical region during irrespective of post type. The resin cement light-activation resulted in significant temperature increases in the cervical region for all of the groups. The canal relief and the post-space preparation produced highest temperature rises. The CPC post modeling resulted in higher root strain level similarly the level of post preparation. The PSP resulted in highest strain during post trying and post cementation.

  8. Medico-legal aspects of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I; Tamse, A

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT).......To analyse the medico-legal aspects of vertical root fracture (VRF) following root canal treatment (RCT)....

  9. Effect of Different Instrumentation Techniques on Vertical Root Fracture Re-sistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Tavanafar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Vertical root fractures are catastrophic events that often result in tooth extraction. Many contributing factor are associated with increasing incidence of vertical root fracture. Root canal preparation is one of the predisposing factors which can increase the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different instrumentation techniques on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: In this study, 120 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth of similar dimensions were decoronated and randomly divided into control (n=30, nickel-titanium hand K-file (HF, n=30, BioRaCe rotary file (BR, n=30, and WaveOne reciprocating single-file (WO, n=30 groups. After cleaning and shaping the root canals, AH26 was used as canal sealer, and obturation was completed using the continuous wave technique. The root canals were embedded vertically in standardised autopolymerising acrylic resin blocks, and subjected to a vertical load to cause vertical root fracture. The forces required to induce fractures were measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. Results: All experimental groups showed statistically significant reductions in fracture resistance as compared with the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the HF and BR groups. The WO group did not differ significantly from the HF group or the BR group. Conclusion: All three instrumentation techniques caused weakening of the structure of the roots, and rendered them susceptible to fracture under lesser load than unprepared roots. The fracture resistance of roots prepared with the single-file reciprocating technique was similar to that of those prepared with NiTi hand and rotary instrumentation techniques.

  10. Molecular Genetics of Root Thigmoresponsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick H.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow plant roots to use gravity and touch as growth guides are investigated. We are using a molecular genetic strategy in Arabidopsis thaliana to study these processes. When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grow on tilted hard-agar surfaces, their roots develop a wavy pattern of growth which appears to derive from a succession of left-handed and right-handed circumnutation-like processes triggered by gravity and touch stimulation (Okada and Shimura, 1990; Rutherford et al., 1998; Rutherford and Masson, 1996). Interestingly, mutations that affect root waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces can be identified and characterized. Some of these mutations affect root gravitropism, while others appear to be responsible for the production of abnormal waves (no waves, compressed or square waves, coils) without affecting gravitropism. The specific objectives of this project were to functionally characterize two genes (WVD2 and WVD6) which are required for root waving on tilted agar surfaces, but not for root gravitropism. Specific objectives included a physiological and cytological analysis of the mutants, and molecular cloning and characterization of the corresponding genes. As summarized in this paper, we have reached these objectives. We have also identified and partially characterized other mutations that affect root skewing on hard-agar surfaces (sku5-1 and ago1), and have completed our work on the root-wave phenotype associated with mutations in genes of the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (Lynn et al., 1999; Rutherford et al., 1998; Sedbrook et al., 2000, 2002). We briefly describe our progress on the cloning and characterization of WVD6, WVD2 and SKU5, and provide a list of papers (published, or in preparation) that derived from this grant. We also discuss the biological implications of our findings, with special emphasis on the analysis of WVD2.

  11. EDTA-S: A novel root conditioning agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srirangarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the efficacy of 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-S (EDTA with soft soap preparation for the removal of smear layer at human root surfaces. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth indicated for extraction due to periodontal disease were sectioned using high speed cylindrical bur under copious irrigation. The root surfaces were instrumented with Gracey 7-8 curette (Hu-Friedy, 12 times to induce an "experimental smear layer". Following root planning, the root surface was cut using diamond disc and separated from the crown. Samples were randomly distributed into five groups. One group was control, saline and test groups were EDTA 15% alone, by active and passive applications (groups 2 and 3, and EDTA 15%+soft soap, by active and passive applications (groups 4 and 5. Specimens were then subjected to scanning electron microscope study. Smear layer removal was evaluated according to Sampaio et al., index. Results: EDTA-S removed the smear layer better than plain EDTA and the control group, while active application of the root conditioning agent had significant difference than the passive application of the agent. Conclusion: EDTA-S has favorable benefits over EDTA alone, and active application is better in comparison with passive application of root conditioning agent. Clinical Relevance: Removal of smear layer has been considered as an important step in periodontal regenerative therapy. Scaling and root planning alone with saline irrigation does not remove the smear layer. EDTA is a commonly used root conditioning agent in periodontal therapy. The addition of a detergent to EDTA proved to remove smear layer more efficiently than EDTA alone.

  12. A Clinical Update on the Different Methods to Decrease the Occurrence of Missed Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed; Shalavi, Sousan; V. Abbott, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of endodontic treatment failure is the clinician’s inability to localize all the root canals. Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, missed canals are not uncommon. There are several strategies to decrease the possibility of missed root canals starting with good pre-operative radiographies. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional radiographies, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered. A correct access cavity preparation is of pivotal importance in localizing the orifices of the root canals. Furthermore, ultrasonics are very important devices to find missed canals. Increasing magnification and illumination enhance the possibility of finding all root canals during root canal treatment. The purpose of the present paper was to review all of the above techniques and devices. PMID:27471533

  13. Separation and determination of four active anthraquinones in Chinese herbal preparations by flow injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Fan, Liuyin; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for the separation and determination of physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin in Rhubarb, Juemingzi, and Chinese herbal preparations was developed by combination of flow injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the first time. The analysis was carried out using an unmodified fused-silica capillary (75 mm x 50 microm ID x 375 microm OD, effective separation length of 48 mm) and direct ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. By a series of optimization, the sample solvent consisted of NaOH (100 mmol/L) and ACN (1:1 v/v), and a running buffer composed of 15 mmol/L sodium borate - 12.5 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - 42% v/v ACN (pH 10.1) was applied for the separation of the four anthraquinones. The separation was rapid and highly reproducible, with complete resolution of all four compounds within 6 min. The sample throughput rate could reach up to 12 per h. The repeatability (defined as relative standard deviation) was 4.45, 4.44, 4.34, 0.61% with peak height evaluation and 1.62, 0.89, 2.49, 2.19% with peak area evaluation for physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin, respectively.

  14. MICROLEAKAGE ASSOCIATED WITH RETROGRADE FILLING AFTER ROOT END RESECTION (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Radeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare microleakage after root end resection of the two materials (MTA and Biodentine for two different apical cavity preparation using the method of penetration of dye - 0, 2 % Rodamine B. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root tip with a high speed diamond bur at an angle of 90 degree to the long axis of the tooth. For the retrofilling, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were used. The teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1st group (10 teeth – the apical cavity was prepared with stainless steel fissure bur #10 at 3 mm depth in the root canal parallel to the long axis of the tooth and is filled retrograde with MTA. 3rd group (10 teeth - retrofilling with Biodentine. 2 nd group (10 teeth - with a round bur apical cavity was prepared with a concave shape and cavity along the root canal with a depth of 3 mm and retrograde obturation with MTA. 4th group (10 teeth - retrofilling with Biodentine. 5th group (8 teeth - control group - with preparation of the cavity after resection without retrofilling. The outer surface of the root is covered with two layers of varnish, with the exception of the apical 3 mm then immersed in 0.2% Rodamine B for 72 h. The degree of penetration of the dye is measured in millimeters. Results: Relative highest median value of penetration of the dye in mm is in the control group. MTA group has a higher value in mm versus the Biodentine. The apical preparation with a concave shape and cavity along the root canal with a depth of 3 mm after apicoectomy is important to reduce apical microleakage. Conclusion: Different apical cavity preparations in both types of material have led to the microleakage dye, but to varying degrees.

  15. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement.......The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses...... to and reactions from the circulation of people, objects and ideas to the transmission of the spiral and the ‚trade’ in crafting expertise, this volume takes a fresh look at old questions. Each article within this monograph represents a different approach to mobility framed within a highly mobile and dynamic...

  16. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  17. Non-canonical WOX11-mediated root branching contributes to plasticity in arabidopsis root system architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Lihong; Hu, Xiaomei; Du, Yujuan; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Scheres, Ben; Xu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Lateral roots (LRs), which originate from the growing root, and adventitious roots (ARs), which are formed from non-root organs, are the main contributors to the post-embryonic root system in Arabidopsis. However, our knowledge of how formation of the root system is altered in response to diverse

  18. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  19. Comparison of the Root End Sealing Ability of Four Different Retrograde Filling Materials in Teeth with Root Apices Resected at Different Angles – An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappa, K.C.; Yadav, Pankaj; Rao, Yogesh; Relhan, Nikhil; Gupta, Priyanka; Choubey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Shivanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insufficient apical seal is the significant reason for surgical endodontic disappointment. The root-end filling material utilized should avoid egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials MTA, Portland cement, IRM, RMGIC in teeth with root apices resected at 0 and 45 angle using dye penetration method under fluorescent microscope. Materials and Methods Hundred extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were sectioned horizontally at the cement-enamel junction. After cleaning, shaping and obturation with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, the tooth samples were randomly divided in two groups (the root apices resected at 0° and 45° to the long axis of the root). The root resections were carried out by removing 2 mm and 1 mm in both the groups. Following which 3 mm deep root-end cavities were prepared at the apices and the root were coated with nail varnish except the tip. The teeth in both the group were randomly divided into four subgroups each (Pro root MTA, Portland cement, IRM and Light cure nano GIC Ketac N-100). All the retrofilled samples were stored in acrydine orange for 24 hours after which they were cleaned and vertically sectioned buccolingually. The sectioned root samples were observed under fluorescent microscope. Results The root apex sealing ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was superior to Portland cement, Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) and LC GIC. IRM demonstrated the maximum apical leakage value among all the materials. Portland cement and LC GIC showed comparable sealing ability. Conclusion The angulation whether 0° or 45° angle did not affect the sealing ability of all the four materials used, MTA proved to be one of the superior materials for root-end filling. PMID:26894168

  20. Effect of dentinal tubules and resin-based endodontic sealers on fracture properties of root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainaen, Angsana; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the role of dentinal tubules in the fracture properties of human root dentin and whether resin-filled dentinal tubules can enhance fracture resistance. Crack propagation in human root dentin was investigated in 200 microm thick longitudinal samples and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. 30 maxillary premolar teeth were prepared for work of fracture (Wf) test at different tubule orientations, one perpendicular and two parallel to dentinal tubules. Another 40 single canal premolars were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: intact dentin, prepared but unobturated canal, canal obturated with epoxy rein (AH Plus/gutta percha), or with UDMA resin sealer (Resilon/RealSeal. The samples were prepared for Wf test parallel to dentinal tubules. Wf was compared under ANOVA with statistical significance set at pcanal preparation nor obturation using epoxy- or UDMA-based resins as sealer cements substantially influenced fracture properties of root dentin, despite extensive infiltration of dentinal tubules by both sealer cements.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the apical sealing ability of a ceramic based sealer and MTA as root-end filling materials - An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Bhavana; Halebathi-Gowdra, Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate and compare the apical sealing ability of two endodontic root-end filling materials namely, iRoot SP (ceramic based) and ProRoot MTA using the bacterial leakage system. A total of fifty recently extracted, single rooted teeth with a single straight canal were selected for the study. The teeth were chemo mechanically prepared. The apical 3mm of the root was resected and root end cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of twenty teeth each for the experimental root end filling materials namely, iRoot SP and ProRoot MTA. A two-chamber model was constructed using pippeter tips and plastic vials. The pipetter tips with the teeth were suspended in these caps and the entire assembly was reattached to the vial. The upper chamber was seeded withEnterococcus faecalis. An Enterococci-selective broth was used in the lower chamber. Leakage was assessed for 90 days and compared using survival statistics. The ProRoot MTA filled root end samples leaked within 30-72 days. The iRoot SP filled root end samples leaked within 51-69 days. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that all the tested materials showed significant apical sealing ability as root-end filling materials over a period of 90 days. iRoot SP exhibited the most effective apical sealing ability as compared to ProRoot MTA. Key words:Apical sealing ability, Bacterial leakage, iRoot SP, ProRoot MTA, Root-end filling.

  2. Effect of two restorative materials on root dentine erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Silvia Jorge; Colucci, Vivian; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the microhardness of root dentine adjacent to glass-ionomer and composite resin restorations after erosive challenge. A crossover study was performed in two phases of 4 consecutive days each. One hundred twelve bovine root dentine slabs were obtained, and standardized box-shaped cavities were prepared at center of each specimen. The prepared cavities were randomly restored with glass-ionomer cement or composite resin. The slabs were randomly assigned among 14 volunteers, which wore intraoral palatal device containing four restored root dentin slabs. Starting on the second day, half of the palatal acrylic devices were immersed extraorally in a lemonade-like carbonated soft drink for 90 s, four times daily for 3 days. After 3-day wash-out, dentine slabs restored with the alternative material were placed into palatal appliance and the volunteers started the second phase of this study. After erosive challenges, microhardness measurements were performed. Regardless of the restorative material employed, eroded specimens demonstrated lower microhardness value (p < 0.0001). At eroded condition examined in this study, dentine restored with glass-ionomer cement showed higher microhardness values (p < 0.0001). It may be concluded that the glass-ionomer cement decreases the progression of root dentine erosion at restoration margin. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Biomorphic SiC from lotus root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Donghua Wang; Guoqiang Jin; Yingyong Wang; Xiangyun

    2009-01-01

    Biomorphic silicon carbide (bioSiC) with macro-channels and alveolate micropores was prepared by spon-taneous infiltration of melted silicon into a carbon template derived from lotus root at 1600 ℃. The carbon template and purified bioSiC samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, camera and mercury intrusion. The results suggest that the bioSiC mainly consists of β-SiC and perfectly replicates the shape and microstructure of the carbon template. The bioSiC has a mean pore diameter of 91.1 μm and a porosity of 50.1%, both similar to those of the carbon template, 92.3 μm and 50.7%, respectively.

  4. Reinforcement of immature roots with a new resin filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles H; Schwartz, Scott A; Beeson, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reinforcement and strengthening ability of Resilon, gutta-percha, and a self-curing composite resin (Bisfil 2B) in endodontically treated roots of immature teeth. Sixty single rooted teeth were divided into five groups of 12 teeth each. Teeth in all groups except the negative controls were prepared with a #5 Peeso (1.5 mm) through the apex (simulating immature roots) and root ends were filled with a 4 mm barrier of MTA. After smear layer removal, canals in the three experimental groups were backfilled with gutta-percha, Resilon, or Bisfil 2B. The remaining canal space in the positive control group was left unfilled. Negative controls received no treatment. A horizontal fracture was created in the root of each specimen using an Instron and the mean peak loads to fracture were recorded. ANOVA revealed no significant difference between any of the treatment groups. Based on the results of this study, canal wall reinforcement of teeth with a canal diameter of 1.5 mm or less may not be necessary.

  5. Evaluation of ultrasonic and ErCr:YSGG laser retrograde cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista de Faria-Junior, Norberto; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato; Camargo Villela Berbert, Fábio Luiz

    2009-05-01

    Root end cavity preparation techniques aim to create a clean and properly shaped cavity in a short time. Although the use of ultrasonics has been widely recommended, a laser can also be used. This study evaluated the time required and quality of retrograde cavity preparations using ultrasonics or ErCr:YSGG laser. Thirty single-rooted teeth were instrumented, root filled, submitted to apicectomies, and grouped. Root end cavities were prepared by using the following: group 1 (G1): CVD (6.1107-6) ultrasonic retrotips (CVD-Vale, São José dos Campos, Brazil); group 2 (G2): EMS (DT-060/Berutti) ultrasonic retrotips (EMS, LeSentier, Switzerland); and group 3 (G3): ErCr:YSGG (G6/Waterlase; Biolase Technology, San Clemente, CA) laser tips. The time taken to complete the preparation was recorded. Epoxy resin replicas of the root apices were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The parameters for evaluation were the presence of fractures, and the quality of the preparations. The Waterlase showed the highest mean time for preparation of the root end cavities (p 0.05). Fractures in the cavosurface angle occurred only in G2. G1 and G2 showed better scores for quality of preparation than G3 (p < 0.05). These results suggest that root end cavities should be prepared by ultrasonic tips.

  6. [Induction and in vitro culture of Wedelia trilobata hairy roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shaoyun; Shi, Heping; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2010-03-01

    To study the possibilities for improvement of the ornamental character and production of secondary metabolites by using Wedelia trilobata hairy roots, we investigated the induction of W. trilobata L. hairy roots and its consumption changes of carbon resource, nitrogen resource, phosphate and calcium in the medium during liquid culture. The results showed that hairy roots could be incited from the cut edges of leaf explants 7 days after inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 and could have an autonomous growth on the medium without phytohormones. The PCR amplification showed that rol genes of Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes was integrated and expressed into the genome of transformed hairy roots. The hairy root line grew very slowly in 0-7 days, very fast from 7 to 21 days. During the liquid culture of hairy roots, sucrose, NO3(-)-N, PO4(3-) and Ca2+ in the medium could be gradually absorbed and utilized with time. The content of NO3(-)-N in the medium was 5.8% of the initial amount at day 7, while sucrose content was about 50% of the initial amount. At day 35, the NO3(-)-N and sucrose content in the medium was 1.82% and 3.39% of the initial amount, respectively. In combination with Ca2+ consumption, PO4(3-) of the medium was rapidly absorbed and utilized. At day 7, the content of PO4(3-) in the spent medium was only 1.76% of the initial amount; but even at day 35, the content of Ca2+ in the spent medium was still 61.3% of the initial amount. The results presented here had provided the possibilities on improvement the ornamental character and how to prepare optimum medium for large scale cultivation and production of secondary metabolites from W. trilobata L. hairy roots.

  7. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio, E-mail: caciomn@usp.br [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Palo, Renato Miotto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (ICT/UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi [Universidade Ibirapuera (UNIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  8. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio MOURA-NETTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I and WaveOne (Group II and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III. Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation.

  9. The effect of root canal taper on the irrigant flow: evaluation using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Gogos, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Kastrinakis, E.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To evaluate the effect of root canal taper on irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two types of needles, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methodology  A validated CFD model was used to simulate irrigant flow from either a side-ve

  10. The effect of root canal taper on the irrigant flow: evaluation using an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Gogos, C.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Kastrinakis, E.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim  To evaluate the effect of root canal taper on irrigant flow inside a prepared root canal during final irrigation with a syringe and two types of needles, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Methodology  A validated CFD model was used to simulate irrigant flow from either a side-v

  11. Review on Mutation in Lateral Root of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xia; ZHANG Da; HAO Zaibin

    2011-01-01

    Rice roots include seminal roots, adventitious roots, lateral roots and root hairs, At present, progresses in the research of rice roots have been achieved in many aspects, such as root morphology, root activity, root reaction to various environmental factors as a contribution of root growth and rice yield, the relationship between root growth and stems/leaves/flowers/rice, genetic laws of root characters, etc. However, there are very few researches on lateral root mutant. This paper reviewed progresses of the lateral root mutant of rice from the perspectives of phytomorphology to plant physiology and biochemistry to the gene mapping, consisting of mechanism of developing lateral root of rice, gene cloning and functional analysis of lateral root development, the relationship between auxin and lateral roots, agronomic traits of lateral roots mutant, structure and morphology of root hairs, gravity anomaly of root, redox metabolism and proteomics researches of the mutation in lateral root of rice.

  12. Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareen, Andrew; Burton, Frances; Schäfer, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increases the importance and urgency of understanding how microbiomes may be exploited to increase crop yields and reduce losses caused by disease. In addition, climate change effects may require novel approaches to overcoming abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity as well as new emerging diseases. This review discusses current knowledge on the formation and maintenance of root-associated microbial communities and plant-microbe interactions with a particular emphasis on the effect of microbe-microbe interactions on the shape of microbial communities at the root surface. Further, we discuss the potential for root microbiome modification to benefit agriculture and food production.

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increased the push out bond strength of an epoxy resin sealer to root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheenithicharoenkul, Suthida; Panichuttra, Anchana

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea extract on the push out bond strength of an epoxy resin sealer to root dentin. Seventy single root canal premolars were decoronated and instrumented. The roots were randomly irrigated with different final irrigation protocols (n=16): 17%EDTA (EDTA), 17%EDTA followed by 2.5%NaOCl (EDTA+NaOCl), 17%EDTA followed by 1 mg/mL EGCG (EDTA+EGCG) and 1 mg/mL EGCG (EGCG). Other six root canals were received only 2.5%NaOCl as a control group. One root from each group (n=1) was excluded and prepared for SEM investigation. All root canals were then obturated and horizontally sectioned to perform the push out test. EDTA+EGCG group had the highest bond strength (pbond strength than EDTA group (pbond strength of an epoxy resin sealer to root dentin.

  14. Influence of root canal sealer on the radiographic appearance of filling voids in maxillary single-rooted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bodanezi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the influence of three epoxy resin-based sealers with distinct radiopacities on the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and divided into three groups. Each group was laterally condensed with one sealer (AH Plus®, Acroseal® or a non-radiopaque sealer, and a longitudinal void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8. Buccolingual radiographs were obtained and randomly interpreted for voids by a radiologist and an endodontist in a blinded fashion. Teeth were cut and inspected under a microscope to confirm the position of void. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using the Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests, respectively (α=0.05. RESULTS: Significantly lower sensitivity levels (p<0.05 were observed in the coronal portion of fillings performed with both radiopaque sealers. Specificity values for Acroseal® were significantly higher (p<0.05 in the coronal and apical portions of fillings. CONCLUSIONS: The type of root canal sealer can affect the observers' ability to detect root canal filling voids during radiographic analysis of upper single-rooted teeth.

  15. How Can Science Education Foster Students' Rooting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to foster rooting in science education points towards a double challenge; efforts to "prevent" (further) uprooting and efforts to "promote" rooting/re-rooting. Wolff-Michael Roth's paper discusses the uprooting/rooting pair of concepts, students' feeling of alienation and loss of fundamental sense of the…

  16. MES buffer affects Arabidopsis root apex zonation and root growth by suppressing superoxide generation in root apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKagenishi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.

  17. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the maize primary, crown and seminal root in response to salinity stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolin Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major constraint to crop growth and yield. The primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana are known to respond differentially to a number of environmental stresses, including salinity. Although the maize root system as a whole is known to be sensitive to salinity, whether or not different structural root systems show differential growth responses to salinity stress has not yet been investigated. The maize primary root (PR was more tolerant of salinity stress than either the crown root (CR or the seminal root (SR. To understand the molecular mechanism of these differential growth responses, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted on cDNA prepared from the PR, CR and SR of plants either non-stressed or exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 24 h. A set of 444 genes were shown to be regulated by salinity stress, and the transcription pattern of a number of genes associated with the plant salinity stress response differed markedly between the various types of root. The pattern of transcription of the salinity-regulated genes was shown to be very diverse in the various root types. The differential transcription of these genes such as transcription factors, and the accumulation of compatible solutes such as soluble sugars probably underlie the differential growth responses to salinity stress of the three types of roots in maize.

  19. Comparative transcriptome profiling of the maize primary, crown and seminal root in response to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Kong, Xiangpei; Xu, Xiangbo; Li, Cuiling; Tian, Huiyu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to crop growth and yield. The primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana are known to respond differentially to a number of environmental stresses, including salinity. Although the maize root system as a whole is known to be sensitive to salinity, whether or not different structural root systems show differential growth responses to salinity stress has not yet been investigated. The maize primary root (PR) was more tolerant of salinity stress than either the crown root (CR) or the seminal root (SR). To understand the molecular mechanism of these differential growth responses, RNA-Seq analysis was conducted on cDNA prepared from the PR, CR and SR of plants either non-stressed or exposed to 100 mM NaCl for 24 h. A set of 444 genes were shown to be regulated by salinity stress, and the transcription pattern of a number of genes associated with the plant salinity stress response differed markedly between the various types of root. The pattern of transcription of the salinity-regulated genes was shown to be very diverse in the various root types. The differential transcription of these genes such as transcription factors, and the accumulation of compatible solutes such as soluble sugars probably underlie the differential growth responses to salinity stress of the three types of roots in maize.

  20. Advances in experimental methods for root system architecture and root development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-bang Wang; Xiu-juan Zhang; Chu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots play important roles in acquisition of water and nutrients, storage, anchoring, transport, and symbiosis with soil microorganisms, thus quantitative researches on root developmental processes are essential to understand root functions and root turnover in ecosystems, and at the same time such researches are the most difficult because roots are hidden underground. Therefore, how to investigate efficiently root functions and root dynamics is the core aspect in underground ecology. In this article, we reviewed some experimental methods used in root resear-ches on root development and root system architecture, and summarized the advantages and shortages of these meth-ods. Based on the analyses, we proposed three new ways to more understand root processes: (1) new experimental materials for root development; (2) a new observatory system comprised of multiple components, including many observatory windows installed in field, analysis software, and automatic data transport devices; (3) new techniques used to analyze quantitatively functional roots.

  1. Magnetophoretic Induction of Root Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    1997-01-01

    The last year of the grant period concerned the consolidation of previous experiments to ascertain that the theoretical premise apply not just to root but also to shoots. In addition, we verified that high gradient magnetic fields do not interfere with regular cellular activities. Previous results have established that: (1) intracellular magnetophoresis is possible; and (2) HGMF lead to root curvature. In order to investigate whether HGMF affect the assembly and/or organization of structural proteins, we examined the arrangement of microtubules in roots exposed to HGMF. The cytoskeletal investigations were performed with fomaldehyde-fixed, nonembedded tissue segments that were cut with a vibratome. Microtubules (MTs) were stained with rat anti-yeast tubulin (YOL 1/34) and DTAF-labeled antibody against rat IgG. Microfilaments (MFs) were visualized by incubation in rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. The distribution and arrangement of both components of the cytoskeleton were examined with a confocal microscope. Measurements of growth rates and graviresponse were done using a video-digitizer. Since HGMF repel diamagnetic substances including starch-filled amyloplasts and most The second aspect of the work includes studies of the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on MTs and MFs. The analysis of the effect of micotubular inhibitors on the auxin transport in roots showed that there is very little effect of MT-depolymerizing or stabilizing drugs on auxin transport. This is in line with observations that application of such drugs is not immediately affecting the graviresponsiveness of roots.

  2. Capturing Arabidopsis Root Architecture Dynamics with root-fit Reveals Diversity in Responses to Salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julkowska, M.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Mol, S.; Feron, R.; de Boer, G.J.; Haring, M.A.; Testerink, C.

    2014-01-01

    The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles i

  3. Ex vivo evaluation of three instrumentation techniques on E. faecalis biofilm within oval shaped root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cesar NAKAMURA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of reciprocating instrumentation in disinfecting oval-shaped root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-five human lower premolars were infected with a culture of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 for 28 days. Five other teeth that were neither contaminated nor instrumented were used as controls. The 45 specimens were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 based on the root canal preparation technique used: manual (K-type, Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland; rotary (MTwo, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany; and reciprocating (Reciproc R50, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany instruments. During chemomechanical preparation, 21 mL of 2.5% NaOCl was used as the irrigating solution. Microbiological sampling was performed before (S1 and immediately after (S2 the chemomechanical preparation using sterilized paper points. Specimens were then cleaved, and 0.02 g of dentine chips was collected from the root thirds to verify the presence of microorganisms in dentinal tubules. All three preparation techniques reduced the number of microorganisms in the root canal lumen and dentine chips from the root thirds, but no significant differences were observed between the three groups (p > 0.05. Reciprocating instrumentation with Reciproc R50 was effective in reducing the number of microorganisms within the root canal system. Although this technique involves the use of only one file to perform the root canal therapy, it is as effective as conventional rotary instrumentation in reducing theE. faecalis biofilm from the root canal system. However, further clinical investigations are warranted in order to ratify these results.

  4. Sharonlay - a novel postendodontic restorative design for premolars and single rooted molars: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddapur Mathada Sharath Chandra; Rahul Singh

    2014-01-01

    Root canal treated teeth are structurally compromised as a result of loss of tooth structure due to caries, iatrogenic cavity preparation, and dehydration. Given that a direct relationship exists between the amount of remaining tooth structure and the ability to resist occlusal forces, it is vital to provide a restoration allowing cuspal coverage as soon as possible following completion of the root canal treatment. A decision to provide a full crown or an onlay depends on the remaining tooth ...

  5. STUDY ON EFFECT OF RHUBARB WATER EXTRACT ON THE STRUCTURE OF HYPOTHALAMUS ;AND PITUITARY IN FEMALE RATS AND REVERSIBILITY%大黄水提物对雌性大鼠下丘脑、垂体结构的影响及可逆性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟欣; 佟继铭; 张树峰; 吴金洋; 宋素英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Rhubarb water extract on the structure of hypothalamus and pituitary of female rats and reversibility,for providing the basis for clinical safety drug use.Methods Forty SD female rats,10 rats were randomly divided into normal control group,the other 30 were administration of Rhubarb water extract 2g kg-1 for 60 days.After the 24h of last administration,stopping the medicine for 30 days and 60 days,1/3 rats was respectively executed.Take the brain and pituitary,weighed and cal-culated the index of pituitary.The morphological changes of the tissues were observed by HE staining.Re-sults The indexes of pituitary in medicine of 60 days were higher than that in normal control group obvi-ously (P 0.05).The indexes of pituitary in stopping of 30 days compared with that in medicine of 60 days were no statistical significance (P >0.05).The indexes of pituitary in stopping of 60 days were lower than that in medicine of 60 days (P 0.05)。停药30d 垂体指数与给药60d 比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);停药60d 垂体指数明显低于给药60d(P <0.05)。组织形态学检测结果显示,给药组大鼠下丘脑神经元减少,有红色神经元,出现大量鬼影细胞及染色质边极现象;垂体细胞数量减少,细胞排列不规整,血窦严重扩张,嗜酸性细胞适应性增生,嗜碱性细胞减少。停药30d,下丘脑神经元有所增加,鬼影细胞及染色质边极现象减轻;垂体细胞数量增加,血窦扩张减轻,嗜酸性细胞适应性增生减少。停药60d,下丘脑神经元明显增加,鬼影细胞及染色质边极现象极少;垂体细胞数量明显增加,血窦扩张进一步减轻,嗜酸性细胞适应性增生明显减少。结论灌胃大黄60d 可致雌性大鼠下丘脑、垂体组织结构损害,此种损害是可逆性的,停药60d 基本恢复正常。

  6. Adventitious Roots and Secondary Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy; Eun Joo Hahn; Kee Yoeup Paek

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a rich source of valuable secondary metabolites and in the recent years plant cell, tissue and organ cultures have been developed as an important alternative sources for the production of these compounds. Adventitious roots have been successfully induced in many plant species and cultured for the production of high value secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial importance. Adoption of elicitation methods have shown improved synthesis of secondary metabolites in adventitious root cultures. Development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors has opened up feasibilities of production of secondary metabolites at the industrial levels. In the present review we summarize the progress made in recent past in the area of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites.

  7. Reinforcing Effect of Glass Fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine as Intraorifice Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagas, Emre; Cehreli, Zafer C; Uyanik, Ozgur; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of roots by using intraorifice barriers with glass fiber-incorporated ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. The diametral tensile strength and compressive strength of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were determined after incorporation of 5 wt% and 10 wt% alkali resistant (AR) glass fiber powder into both cements. On the basis of higher diametral tensile strength and compressive strength values, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fiber were selected for further testing as intraorifice barriers. The 14-mm-long root specimens obtained from extracted mandibular premolars (n = 60) were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files and obturated with gutta-percha + AH Plus sealer. After removal of coronal 3 mm of root fillings, the roots were grouped with respect to the intraorifice barrier material (n = 12/group): (1) ProRoot MTA, (2) ProRoot MTA with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, (3) Biodentine, (4) Biodentine with 5 wt% AR glass fibers, and (5) control (no intraorifice barrier). The specimens were loaded vertically at 1 mm/min crosshead speed until vertical root fracture occurred. The data were evaluated statistically by using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Both incorporation of glass fiber and the type of material significantly affected fracture resistance (both P = .002). Roots with glass fiber-reinforced Biodentine barriers showed the highest fracture strength (P = .000). Incorporation of 5 wt% AR glass fiber can significantly improve the reinforcement effect of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine when used as intraorifice barriers. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A research on effects of rhubarb combined with glutamine on repair of gut mucosal barrier injury in rats%大黄联合谷氨酰胺对大鼠肠黏膜屏障损伤后修复的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓锋; 沈耀亮; 郑峰; 叶宏伟; 陈德昌

    2013-01-01

    屏障功能的修复。%Objective To investigate the effects of rhubarb combined with glutamine on repair of gut mucosal barrier injury after gastrointestinal surgery in rats. Methods Fifty male healthy Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats were randomly divided into five groups:control(C group),enteral nutrition(EN group),rhubarb with EN(R-EN group), glutamine with EN(G-EN group)and rhubarb combined with glutamine and EN(R-G-EN group)groups(each n=10). The rats of C group received no treatment and were fed normally. Cecectomy and gastrostomy were performed in EN,R-EN,G-EN and R-G-EN groups,and in 24 hours after surgery,they were interfered with the use of amoxicillin 50 mg/d and metronidazole 20 mg twice a day. From the first day after operation,each group was treated with the same prescription of enteral isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutrition for consecutive 7 days. Seven days later, under anaesthesia,laparotomy was performed,and a specimen of 1 cm intestinal segment was taken from the terminal 5 cm long ileum for all the groups;under the light microscope,the morphological examination of intestinal mucosal epithelial tight junctions(including villus height and mucosal thickness)was carried out. For each group,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)was used to measure the levels of plasma citruline and D-lactate,and the serum concentration of TNF-αwas detected by utilizing double antibody ABC-ELISA. Results The levels of D-lactate and TNF-αin EN,R-EN,G-EN and R-G-EN groups were obviously higher than those in C group(all P0.05). Conclusion The application of rhubarb combined with glutamine can protect gut mucosa,reduce the level of inflammatory reaction and elevate the level of plasma citruline, that is beneficial to the repair of gut mucosal barrier injury and its functional recovery after gastrointestinal surgery in rats.

  9. Study on the Interactions between HSA and Rhubarb Anthraquinone Analogues by Ultrafiltration Mass Spectrometry%超滤质谱法研究大黄蒽醌类化合物与人血清白蛋白的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献; 喻花

    2013-01-01

    To study the interactions between small drug molecules and the target protein, an ultrafiltration technology coupled with liquid chromatography-ESI-mass spectrometry ( LC-ESI-MS) method was established and applied to screen the rhubarb anthraquinone analogues ( chrysophanol, rhein and aloe-emodin ) that interacted with human serum albumin ( HSA) . Comparing the extracted ion chromatography ( EIC) of these drugs before and after the incubation with HSA,the sesults indicated that the binding affinity capacity of rhein was the strongest, followed by aloe-emodin, and chrysophanol was the weakest. This work demonstrated that ultrafiltration mass spectrometry is a fast and sensitive analytical method for the study of interactions of protein-ligand complexes.%  为研究药物小分子与靶蛋白的相互作用,建立了超滤技术和液相色谱电喷雾质谱联用方法( LC-ESI-MS),并用该法筛选了与人血清白蛋白( HSA)的作用的大黄蒽醌类物质(大黄酚、大黄酸、芦荟大黄素)。通过比较大黄蒽醌类药物混合溶液与HSA结合前后的提取离子流图色谱峰,发现大黄酸与HSA结合能力最强,芦荟大黄素次之,大黄酚最弱。说明超滤质谱法是研究药物小分子和蛋白质相互作用的一种快速灵敏的分析方法。

  10. Grass Roots War on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  11. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  12. A COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT AND STEM OF PIPER LONGUM LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vivek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Piper longum Linn. is a well known plant being used in home remedies as well as in Ayurveda since long. Nowadays Pippalī mūla (root of P. longum is not easily available in the market. Stem cutting of P. longum is being marketed as substitute. Manufacturing companies have started using stem cuttings instead of root. This alteration may affect quality of Ayurvedic preparations. The demand of Ayurvedic medicine has increased globally as well as the concern regarding quality and authenticity of product. The standard parameters of root of Piper longum have not been prepared yet. This work was an attempt to establish preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical standards of root as well as comparison with stem cuttings according to the parameters of Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India (API. Thin Layer Chromatography profile was prepared to compare their chemical constituents. The profile suggested similarity between root and stem cuttings but the percentage of chemical constituents was found more in stem. Additional researches will substantiate stem cuttings efficiency as a good quality alternative for root.

  13. Iridovirus infection of cell cultures from the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We here report the development and viral infection of a Diaprepes root weevil cell culture. Embryonic tissues of the root weevil were used to establish cell cultures for use in screening viral pathogens as potential biological control agents. Tissues were seeded into a prepared solution of insect medium and kept at a temperature of 24°C. The cell culture had primarily fibroblast-like morphology with some epithelial monolayers. Root weevil cells were successfully infected in vitro with a known insect virus, Invertebrate Iridescent Virus 6. Potential uses of insect cell cultures and insect viruses are discussed.

  14. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  15. 大黄降浊冲剂对5/6肾切除大鼠血清与胃窦组织胃泌素、血浆胃动素的影响%The Impact of Rhubarb Downbearing the Turbid Granules on 5/6 Nephrectomy Rat Serum and Antral Tissue Gastrin,Plasma Motilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦安钦; 徐进秀

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study 5/6 nephrectomy rat seram GAS, GAS and gastric tissue changes in plasma levels of MTL and Rhubarb Downbearing the turbid Granules interference. Methods:Wiatar male rats 5/6 nephrectomy rat model of CRF method of reproduction. Randomly assigned to high - dose treatment group, low - dose treatment group [ all ig Rhubarb Downbearing the turbid Granules l.0g/(kg·d), 3.0g/(kg·d) ] control group [ig Niaoduqing particles 2.0 g/(kg·d) ], a separate model group, sham operation group (ig water each), compare observed after 12 weeks of surgery, rats in each group animal mortality; 24h urinary protein; T, A, Hb; serum Cr, BUN; serum GAS, gastric tissue homogenate GAS, plasma MTL. Results:After treatment, protein control group was significantly lower than model group (P < 0.01) , large and small dose group Cr levels significantly lower than model group ( P < 0.05, P <0.01) and the control group (P < 0.01) ; treatment After the sham group GAS with large doses of serum levels were significantly lower than model group (P < 0.01 ), sham group and the treatment group GAS gastric tissue levels were significantly lower than model group ( P <0.01), the sham group , low - dose group and control group MTL plasma levels were significantly lower than model group ( P < 0.05, P <0. 01), while the low dose group decreased significantly ( P <0. 05). Conclusion: Rhubarb Downbearing the turbid Granules to improve high - GAS hyperlipidemia, lower levels of gastric tissue GAS, improved high - MTL hyperlipidemia; with lower creatinine, urea nitrogen, improving azotemia, protect renal function.%目的:研究5/6大鼠肾切除大鼠血清GAS、胃窦组织匀浆GAS及血浆MTL的水平变化及大黄降浊冲剂干预的影响.方法:以Wiatar雄性大鼠5/6肾切除的方法复制CRF大鼠模型.随机分为大剂量治疗组、小剂量治疗组[各ig大黄降浊冲剂1.Og/(kg·d)、3.0g/(kg·d)]对照组[ig尿毒清颗粒2.0g/(kg·d)],另设模型

  16. Clinical effect of rhubarb combined with mirabilite on severe acute pancreatitis:A Meta-analysis%大黄灌胃灌肠联合芒硝外敷对重症急性胰腺炎临床疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方; 王强

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To evaluate the effectiveness of rhubarb combined with mirabilite in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis according to a Meta‐Analysis.[Methods]Relevant randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs ) were collected by retrieving the relevant articles published on CNKI ,VIP ,WanFang , PubMed ,OVID ,Elsevier ScienceDirect electronic databases from March of 2004 to April of 2014.Two re‐viewers independently screened studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria ,extracted data and as‐sessed quality of the included studies.Then meta‐analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.2 software.[Results]Compared with the control group ,patients treated with rhubarb and mirabilite showed significant‐ly lower time of the first defecation time(MD= -1.73 ,95% CI-2.15 to -1.31 ,P<0.00001) ,shorter ab‐dominal pain relief time(MD= -1.86 ,95% CI-2.51 to -1.21 ,P<0.00001) ,shorter abdominal distension relief time(MD= -2.22 ,95% CI-2.81 to -1.63 ,P<0.00001) ,less average hospitalization days(MD= -6.18 ,95% CI-7.86 to -4.50 ,P<0.00001) ,lower the incidence of complications (RR=0.42 ,95% CI 0.27 to 0.65 ,P<0.0001)and lower hospital mortality (RR=0.44 ,95% CI0.24 to 0.83 ,P=0.01).[Conclusion] The combination therapy with rhubarb and mirabilite on severe acute pancreatitis can significantly shorten the first defecation time ,abdominal distension relieve time ,abdominal pain relief time ,average hospitaliza‐tion days ,and can significantly reduce the incidence of complications and hospital mortality.Due to the lim‐ited quality and quantity of the inclusion studies ,more high quality studies with larger sample size are nee‐ded to verify the above conclusion.%[目的]用循证医学的方法评价大黄灌胃灌肠联合芒硝外敷辅助治疗重症急性胰腺炎的疗效。[方法]计算机检索2004‐03—2014‐04期间中国知网、重庆维普、万方、PubMed、OVID、Elsevier Science Direct 电子数据库的相关

  17. Accelerating root system phenotyping of seedlings through a computer-assisted processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Lionel X; Wright, Gladys; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Taylor, Anna; Dekeyser, Sebastien; White, Christopher P; Thomas, William T B; Nightingale, Mark; Hammond, John P; Graham, Neil S; Thomas, Catherine L; Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous systems and techniques to measure the growth of plant roots. However, phenotyping large numbers of plant roots for breeding and genetic analyses remains challenging. One major difficulty is to achieve high throughput and resolution at a reasonable cost per plant sample. Here we describe a cost-effective root phenotyping pipeline, on which we perform time and accuracy benchmarking to identify bottlenecks in such pipelines and strategies for their acceleration. Our root phenotyping pipeline was assembled with custom software and low cost material and equipment. Results show that sample preparation and handling of samples during screening are the most time consuming task in root phenotyping. Algorithms can be used to speed up the extraction of root traits from image data, but when applied to large numbers of images, there is a trade-off between time of processing the data and errors contained in the database. Scaling-up root phenotyping to large numbers of genotypes will require not only automation of sample preparation and sample handling, but also efficient algorithms for error detection for more reliable replacement of manual interventions.

  18. A practical guide to endodontic access cavity preparation in molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Rhodes, J

    2007-08-11

    The main objective of access cavity preparation is to identify the root canal entrances for subsequent preparation and obturation of the root canal system. Access cavity preparation can be one of the most challenging and frustrating aspects of endodontic treatment, but it is the key to successful treatment. Inadequate access cavity preparation may result in difficulty locating or negotiating the root canals. This may result in inadequate cleaning, shaping and filling of the root canal system. It may also contribute to instrument separation and aberrations of canal shape. These factors may ultimately lead to failure of treatment. Good access cavity design and preparation is therefore imperative for quality endodontic treatment, prevention of iatrogenic problems, and prevention of endodontic failure.

  19. TGF-β and Physiological Root Resorption of Deciduous Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Emi; Karakida, Takeo; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Saeko; Fukae, Makoto; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Asada, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine how transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in root-surrounding tissues on deciduous teeth regulates the differentiation induction into odontoclasts during physiological root resorption. We prepared root-surrounding tissues with (R) or without (N) physiological root resorption scraped off at three regions (R1–R3 or N1–N3) from the cervical area to the apical area of the tooth and measured both TGF-β and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities. The TGF-β activity level was increased in N1–N3, whereas the TRAP activity was increased in R2 and R3. In vitro experiments for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation revealed that proteins from N1–N3 and R1–R3 enhanced the TRAP activity in RAW264 cells. A genetic study indicated that the mRNA levels of TGF-β1 in N1 and N2 were significantly increased, and corresponded with levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, the expression level of RANKL was increased in R2 and R3. Our findings suggest that TGF-β is closely related to the regulation of OPG induction and RANKL-mediated odontoclast differentiation depending on the timing of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in the root-surrounding tissues of deciduous teeth during physiological root resorption. PMID:28035998

  20. Effect of photodynamic therapy and non-thermal plasma on root canal filling: analysis of adhesion and sealer penetration

    OpenAIRE

    MENEZES,Marilia; PRADO,Maíra; Gomes,Brenda; Gusman, Heloisa; SIMÃO,Renata

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and non-thermal plasma (NTP) on adhesion and sealer penetration in root canals. Material and Methods Sixty single-rooted premolars were used. The teeth were prepared using a crown-down technique. NaOCl and EDTA were used for irrigation and smear layer removal, respectively. The root canals were divided into three groups: control, PDT, and NTP. After treatments, the roots were filled using gut...

  1. Belowground neighbor perception in Arabidopsis thaliana studied by transcriptome analysis: roots of Hieracium pilosella cause biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eSchmid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Root-root interactions are much more sophisticated than previously thought, yet the mechanisms of belowground neighbor perception remain largely obscure. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses allow detailed insight into plant reactions to environmental cues.A root interaction trial was set up to explore both morphological and whole genome transcriptional responses in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence or absence of an inferior competitor, Hieracium pilosella.Neighbor perception was indicated by Arabidopsis roots predominantly growing away from the neighbor (segregation, while solitary plants placed more roots towards the middle of the pot. Total biomass remained unaffected. Database comparisons in transcriptome analysis revealed considerable similarity between Arabidopsis root reactions to neighbors and reactions to pathogens. Detailed analyses of the functional category ‘biotic stress’ using MapMan tools found the sub-category ‘pathogenesis-related proteins’ highly significantly induced. A comparison to a study on intraspecific competition brought forward a core of genes consistently involved in reactions to neighbor roots.We conclude that beyond resource depletion roots perceive neighboring roots or their associated microorganisms by a relatively uniform mechanism that involves the strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins. In an ecological context the findings reveal that belowground neighbor detection may occur independently of resource depletion, allowing for a time advantage for the root to prepare for potential interactions.

  2. A comparative histologic study on furcal perforation repair with Root MTA and Pro Root MTA in fully developed teeth in dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The goal of endodontics is to seal the root canal system from the orifice to apical constriction completely and tridimensionally.Hence perforations during root canal therapy, because of caries or resorptions must be sealed and obturated with ideal materials. The aim of this study was to histologically compare two kinds of mineral trioxide aggregate Root MTA and Pro Root MTA for furcal perforation repair in developed teeth in dog. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty teeth consisting of second, third and fourth mandibular premolars of five German shepherd dogs were selected. Twenty-four teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (6 teeth each. One pair of Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups studied in one month and the other in three months intervals. Positive and negative control groups was each contained three teeth. In positive control group, perforations were not treated and negative control group contained intact teeth. In experimental groups perforations repaired after one week exposure to oral cavity with Root MTA or Pro Root MTA. After time intervals animals were subjected to vital perfusion and 6 m histologic sections were prepared. Inflammation and hard tissue formation were ranked by Cox criteria. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square statistical tests with P0.05. Conclusion: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate is an adequate material for furcal perforation repair in dog’s teeth. Root MTA could be a good substitute for Pro Root MTA considering the lower cost and similar characteristics.

  3. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  4. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps.

  5. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  6. Evaluation of Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars: A Clearing Method in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkavand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Successful endodontic treatment is dependent on the knowledge of root canal anatomy. Objectives This study aims to investigate the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods One hundred human mandibular first molars were collected and stored in 5.25% NaOCl. Radiographic images of the teeth were taken in mesial, distal, and buccal aspects using digital radiography. The root numbers were recorded, and the teeth were covered with lacquer. Access cavities were prepared, pulp tissue was dissolved, the apex was covered with liquid glue, and the root canals were injected with methylene blue. Decalcification of the teeth meant they were kept in 10% nitric acid, and final dehydration meant they were kept in 100% Isopropyl alcohol for 72 hours and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The number of root canals per tooth, the number of canals per root, and canal configuration in each tooth were recorded. Results Ninety-nine of the 100 teeth had two roots and the other had three roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals; there were 2% with two canals, 59% with three canals, and 39% with four canals. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configurations in the mesial root were types II and IV, and type I in the distal root. Conclusions The most common root morphology is the two rooted morphology with three canals. Both the mesial and distal roots show wide variations in canal anatomy with type IV and type I canal configuration predominating in the mesial and distal roots, respectively. Iranian mandibular first molar teeth exhibit features close to the average Caucasian, Jordanian, and Kuwaiti’s root and canal morphology.

  7. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  8. [Lumbosciatica and nerve root anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, A; Rouaud, J P; Caroit, M; George, B; Cophignon, J

    1982-04-01

    The authors report 3 cases of lumbar pain and sciatica where operation revealed the existence of abnormalities in the distribution of L5 and S1 roots. In one case, the L5 root was not recognised within fibrous tissue also surrounding S1 and S2 and histological examination of this "fibrosis" led to the identification of nerve structures. Development of postoperative L5 paralysis showed that the L5 root was contained within the tissue non-individualised, consisting of multiple rootlets. In the other two cases the L5 and S1 roots arose from a common trunk. There was an associated herniated disc in all three cases. A review of the literature revealed the rarity of such abnormalities, as well as the fact that they were not recognised before surgery. They are difficult to recognise, even at the time of operation. The prognosis is less good than in typical lumbar pain and sciatica, essentially because of surgical difficulties of the disc curettage.

  9. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  10. The Roots of School Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    The Pyramid, Railroad, and High Performance theories of leadership are inappropriate for school settings. At root, school leadership is about connecting people morally to each other and to their work. The work of leadership involves developing shared purposes, beliefs, values, and conceptions associated with teaching and learning,…

  11. Rapid shoot‐to‐root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VANDELEUR, REBECCA K; SULLIVAN, WENDY; ATHMAN, ASMINI; JORDANS, CHARLOTTE; GILLIHAM, MATTHEW; KAISER, BRENT N; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between transpiration and root hydraulic conductance Vandeleur et al report that leaf area reduction reduces root hydraulic conductance in grapevine, soybean and maize...

  12. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  13. CANAL CONFIGURATION IN THE ROOTS OF MAXILLARY SECON D PREMOLAR: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Modified access cavity preparation and X ray- interpre tation were used clinically to find out the additional canals in the root of maxil lary second premolars. In 85% of the case two canals were located and treated, of these 30% had t wo separate apical foramen and 50.66% had two canal, joined at the apical third in 5% of the cases, two roots with two different canals were located and in 15% of the cases, one canal was loca ted KEY WORDS: Access Preparation, Apical Foramen.

  14. Longitudinal evaluation of the seal of IRM root end fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, W G; Anderson, R W; Powell, B J; Kimbrough, W F

    1994-05-01

    IRM has been recommended for root end filling during endodontic surgery. This study evaluated the seal of IRM root end fillings prepared with various powder to liquid ratios (P:L) at extended time intervals using a fluid filtration method. The P:L of IRM evaluated included 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 g/ml and the P:L which resulted from the manufacturer's recommended scoop and dropper. Ten teeth were evaluated for microleakage for each group at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 wk after insertion. There were no significant differences in the microleakage of any of the various P:L groups at weeks 3, 8, and 12. These results suggest that higher P:L of IRM than those previously recommended for temporary restorations and for endodontic access preparations may be acceptable for root end fillings. IRM of higher P:L has other advantages such as ease of placement and decreased setting time, toxicity, and solubility.

  15. Solubility evaluation of different root canal sealing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Emre; Dalat, Dilek; Bayram, Melike

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the solubility of five different root canal sealers (AH Plus Jet, RealSeal SE, MTA Fillapex, Tubli-Seal, and Acroseal) in chloroform, eucalyptol and Endosolv-E solvents. Ninety root canal sealer samples were prepared and then divided into three groups for immersion in a solvent for 2, 5 or 10 minutes. The mean values of the root canal sealers' dissolution in the solvents were obtained by the difference between the preimmersion original weight and the post-immersion weight on a digital analytical scale. Data were statistically analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. Chloroform was a more effective solvent than eucaly-ptol or Endosolv E for all root canal sealers, except for RealSeal SE, at all time points (p materials, and eucaly-ptol was found to be the least effective solvent in this study. This study can help to the clinicians about which solvent should be preferred for solving the filling materials in retreatment cases.

  16. Spatial tissue distribution of polyacetylenes in carrot root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, Malgorzata; Schulz, Hartwig

    2005-06-01

    The presented results show the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy in the investigation of polyacetylenes in carrot root. The components are measured directly in the plant tissue without any preliminary sample preparation. Compared with the strong polyacetylene signals the spectral impact of the surrounding biological matrix is weak, except for carotenoids, and therefore it does not contribute significantly to the obtained results. Three different Raman mapping techniques applied here have revealed essential information about the investigated compounds. Using point acquisition several spectra have been measured to demonstrate the complex composition of the polyacetylene fraction in carrot root. The molecular structures of falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol 3-acetate are similar but their Raman spectra exhibit differences demonstrated by the shift of their -C triple bond C- mode. Line mapping performed along the diameter of transversely cut carrot roots has been used to investigate the relative concentration of polyacetylenes and carotenoids. An area map provides detailed information regarding the distribution of both components. It has been found that high accumulation of polyacetylenes is located in the outer section of the root, namely the pericyclic parenchyma, and in the phloem part close to the secondary cambium. The highest concentration of carotenes is seen in the immediate vicinity to polyacetylene conglomerates.

  17. Root formation in ethylene-insensitive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D G; Gubrium, E K; Barrett, J E; Nell, T A; Klee, H J

    1999-09-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more below-ground root mass but fewer above-ground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated tap-roots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli.

  18. [Distortion and vertical fracture of the root: effect produced by condenser design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, D A; Walton, R E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of vertical root fractures and the amount of root distortion created during lateral condensation of gutta-percha with either D11 spreaders or B-finger pluggers were evaluated in vitro. Fifty-five extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the step-back flare technique. Ten teeth served as positive controls (obturation to the point of fracture) and five teeth as negative controls (prepared but not obtured). Strain gauges were attached to the root surfaces. In the experimental group, 20 teeth were obturated using a D11 spreader and 20 with a B-finger plugger. Recordings were made of root distortion (expansion) created during obturation. Then, after sectioning the teeth, root surfaces of obturated samples were examined for fractures under the scanning electron microscope. Only the more tapered spreader, the D11, produces vertical root fractures, although very few in number. Also, the D11 spreader caused greater root distortion than did the B-finger plugger.

  19. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon [Geumsan Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year.

  20. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan‐based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon‐Jee; Baek, Seung‐Ho; Kum, Kee‐Yeon; Shon, Won‐Jun; Woo, Kyung‐Mi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan‐based (Pz‐) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta‐percha (GP) and Pz‐MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz‐MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin‐material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz‐MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. SCANNING 38:50–56, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179659

  1. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan-based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Shon, Won-Jun; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Lee, WooCheol

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan-based (Pz-) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and Pz-MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz-MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin-material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz-MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment.

  2. Zinc adsorption and desorption characteristics in root cell wall involving zinc hyperaccumulation in Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Meng, Fan-hua; Lu, Ling-li

    2007-02-01

    Radiotracer techniques were employed to characterize (65)Zn adsorption and desorption in root-cell-wall of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) species of Sedum alfredii Hance. The results indicated that at the end of a 30 min short time radioisotope loading period, comparable amounts of (65)Zn were accumulated in the roots of the two ecotypes Sedum alfredii, whereas 2.1-fold more (65)Zn remains in NHE root after 45-min desorption. At the end of 60 min uptake period, no difference of (65)Zn accumulation was observed in undesorbed root-cell-wall of Sedum alfredii. However, 3.0-fold more (65)Zn accumulated in desorbed root-cell-wall of NHE. Zn(2+) binding in root-cell-wall preparations of NHE was greater than that in HE under high Zn(2+) concentration. All these results suggested that root-cell-wall of the two ecotypes Sedum alfredii had the same ability to adsorb Zn(2+), whereas the desorption characteristics were different, and with most of (65)Zn binding on root of HE being available for loading into the xylem, as a result, more (65)Zn was translocated to the shoot.

  3. Fluoride varnish as root canal sealer: a scanning electron microscopy and bacterial penetration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed.

  4. Comparison of the Accuracy of Root ZX and Novapex with Radiography: an in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohamad Mahabadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Working length determination and remaining this length is of great importance in root canal therapy. Recently, electronic apex locators are being used to determine working length and decrease the number of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of Root ZX and Novapex electronic apex locators with radiography in a clinical study. Materials and Methods: In this study, 73 single-canalled teeth of the patients referred to the endodontic department of the Yazd Dental School were evaluated. The access cavity was prepared and working length of the root canals were measured by using the apex locators: Root ZX and Novapex. The file was placed in the root canal and a periapical radiograph was taken using parallel technique. The working lengths obtained by apex locators were recorded and compared with those of radiographs. The data were analyzed by Pearsons correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon test and paired t-test. Results: The exact measurement without any fault was 46.6% for Root ZX and 20.5% for Novapex compared to radiography. In the range of 0.5 mm fault, the results were 91.8% for Root ZX and 64.4% for Novapex compared to radiographic measurements. The difference between the average of the measured lengths by Root ZX and radiography was not significant (P=0.17. On the other hand, the results showed significant difference between the average of the measured lengths by Novapex and radiography (P=0.017. The difference between two apex locators was not significant (P=0.061. Conclusion: Root ZX and Novapex with high accuracy are useful for determining working length of the root canals in pregnant patients with special anatomic conditions and patients with muscle disharmony. Therefore, the use of these apex locators combined with radiography is recommended in root canal treatment.

  5. Dynamics of heterorhizic root systems: protoxylem groups within the fine-root system of Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishi, Takuo; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    To understand the physiology of fine-root functions in relation to soil organic sources, the heterogeneity of individual root functions within a fine-root system requires investigation. Here the heterogeneous dynamics within fine-root systems are reported. The fine roots of Chamaecyparis obtusa were sampled using a sequential ingrowth core method over 2 yr. After color categorization, roots were classified into protoxylem groups from anatomical observations. The root lengths with diarch and triarch groups fluctuated seasonally, whereas the tetrarch root length increased. The percentage of secondary root mortality to total mortality increased with increasing amounts of protoxylem. The carbon : nitrogen ratio indicated that the decomposability of primary roots might be greater than that of secondary roots. The position of diarch roots was mostly apical, whereas tetrarch roots tended to be distributed in basal positions within the root architecture. We demonstrate the heterogeneous dynamics within a fine-root system of C. obtusa. Fine-root heterogeneity should affect soil C dynamics. This heterogeneity is determined by the branching position within the root architecture.

  6. Environmental Control of Root System Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Lobet, Guillaume; Dinneny, José R

    2016-04-29

    The plant root system traverses one of the most complex environments on earth. Understanding how roots support plant life on land requires knowing how soil properties affect the availability of nutrients and water and how roots manipulate the soil environment to optimize acquisition of these resources. Imaging of roots in soil allows the integrated analysis and modeling of environmental interactions occurring at micro- to macroscales. Advances in phenotyping of root systems is driving innovation in cross-platform-compatible methods for data analysis. Root systems acclimate to the environment through architectural changes that act at the root-type level as well as through tissue-specific changes that affect the metabolic needs of the root and the efficiency of nutrient uptake. A molecular understanding of the signaling mechanisms that guide local and systemic signaling is providing insight into the regulatory logic of environmental responses and has identified points where crosstalk between pathways occurs.

  7. Meromorphic iterative roots of linear fractional functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI YongGuo; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    Iterative root problem can be regarded as a weak version of the problem of embedding a homeomorphism into a flow. There are many results on iterative roots of monotone functions. However, this problem gets more difficult in non-monotone cases. Therefore, it is interesting to find iterative roots of linear fractional functions (abbreviated as LFFs), a class of non-monotone functions on R. In this paper, iterative roots of LFFs are studied on C. An equivalence between the iterative functional equation for non-constant LFFs and the matrix equation is given. By means of a method of finding matrix roots, general formulae of all meromorphic iterative roots of LFFs are obtained and the precise number of roots is also determined in various cases. As applications, we present all meromorphic iterative roots for functions z and 1/z.

  8. Actinomyces spp. gene expression in root caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame-Teixeira, Naile; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Maltz, Marisa; Tugnait, Aradhna; Devine, Deirdre; Do, Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries. Objective The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries. Design The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina® HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly – but not differentially (p>0.001) – expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=−6.00, FDR=2.37E-05). Conclusion There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic due to survival mechanisms that allow them to exist in acid environments and to

  9. Single-rooted primary first mandibular molar

    OpenAIRE

    Haridoss, SelvaKumar; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Rajendran, Vijayakumar; Rajendran, Bharathan

    2014-01-01

    Morphological variations like single-rooted molar in primary dentition are scarce. Understanding the root canal anatomy and variations is necessary for successful root canal therapy. The purpose of the present article is to report successful endodontic treatment of primary left mandibular first molar with an abnormal morphology of a single root. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its applications in the management of anomalous anatomic variants which play a crucial ro...

  10. Retrograde seal in ultrasonically prepared canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutimuntanakul, S; Worayoskowit, W; Mangkornkarn, C

    2000-08-01

    The sealing ability of various retrofilling materials was compared. The root canals of 85 single-rooted teeth were cleansed and obturated with gutta-percha without sealer using lateral condensation. The apical 3 mm of the roots were resected and divided into positive control, negative control, and five experimental groups. The experimental teeth received root-end cavity preparation to 3 mm depth using an ultrasonic retroprep tip. The retrocavities were dried and divided into five groups to receive the following materials: amalgam with varnish, amalgam with Clearfil Liner Bond II, thermoplasticized gutta-percha (TGP) with sealer, Ketac-fil, and Super-EBA. After immersion in India ink for 7 days, the roots were demineralized, cleared, and evaluated for dye leakage under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that Super-EBA, Ketac-fil, and TGP with sealer demonstrated less leakage than amalgam with varnish and amalgam with Clearfil Liner Bond II (p fil or TGP sealer (p fil and TGP or between the two groups filled with amalgam (p > 0.05).

  11. Accuracy of three different electronic apex locators in detecting simulated horizontal and vertical root fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Aqeel K; Wadachi, Reiko; Suda, Hideaki

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs): Root ZX, Foramatron D10 and Apex NRG, in the detection of fractures in teeth having simulated horizontal and vertical root fractures. A total of 90 extracted intact, straight, single-rooted teeth were divided into six groups of 15 teeth each. In Groups A, B and C, an incomplete horizontal fracture was simulated by preparing a horizontal incision in the coronal, middle or apical portion of the root until the circumferential half of the canal was exposed in the horizontal plane respectively. In Groups D, E and F, an incomplete vertical root fracture was simulated by preparing a vertical straight incision to expose the canal in the coronal, middle or apical portion of the root all the way in the longitudinal plane respectively. The simulated fractures were 0.25 mm in thickness in all groups. The teeth were embedded in 1% agar and the canals were irrigated with saline solution during electronic measurement. Detection of the simulated root fractures was established with a size 10 K-file when the meter value reached 'APEX' on each EAL. In Groups A, B and C, Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between the three EALs. However, statistically significant differences were found among the EALs in Groups D, E and F (P < 0.0001, one-way anova and Tukey's post-hoc test). In conclusion, the three EALs tested were accurate and acceptable clinical tools in the detection of horizontal root fractures. However, the three EALs were unreliable in detecting the position of vertical root fractures.

  12. Apical Microleakage of four Materials after Root End Resection (In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeva E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic sealing of the apical area after root end resection is essential to the success of endodontic surgery. To compare microleakage after root end resection of the two bioceramic sealers without retrograde filling - Total Fill BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex, and two materials for retrograde filling-MTA and Biodentine, using the method of penetration of dye - 2% methylene blue. Forty eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root tip at an angle of 90 degree to the long axis of the tooth. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1st group (n = 9 - root canal obturation with Total Fill BC Sealer without retrograde filling; 2nd group (n = 8 - root canal obturation with MTA Fillapex without retrograde filling. 3rd group (n = 10 - retrograde ultrasonic cavity preparation and filling with MTA. 4th group (n = 8 - retrograde ultrasonic cavity preparation and filling with Biodentine. The outer surface of the root was covered with two layers of varnish, with the exception of the apical 3 mm and then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 72 h. The degree of penetration of the dye is measured in millimeters. The data was entered and processed with the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. We reject the null hypothesis when p < 0.05. With significantly higher value is the arithmetic mean of the group with the root canal obturation with Total Fill BC Sealer without retrograde filling - 2,01 mm; versus a retrograde filling with MTA - 0,68 mm and Biodentin - 0,51 mm; and no statistically significant difference with the group root canal obturation with MTA Fillapex - 1,76 mm. In the four material microleakage dye was observed, but to varying degrees.

  13. Platelet-rich-fibrin: A novel root coverage approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of gingival recession has become an important therapeutic issue due to increasing cosmetic demand. Multiple surgical procedures have been developed to obtain predictable esthetic root coverage. More specifically, after periodontal regenerative surgery, the aim is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. A recent innovation in dentistry is the preparation and use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, a concentrated suspension of the growth factors, found in platelets. These growth factors are involved in wound healing and postulated as promoters of tissue regeneration. This paper reports the use of PRF membrane for root coverage on the labial surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth. This was accomplished using laterally displaced flap technique with platelet rich fibrin (PRF membrane at the recipient site.

  14. Counting Rooted Nearly 2-regular Planar Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣霞; 蔡俊亮

    2004-01-01

    The number of rooted nearly 2-regular maps with the valency of rootvertex, the number of non-rooted vertices and the valency of root-face as three parameters is obtained. Furthermore, the explicit expressions of the special cases including loopless nearly 2-regular maps and simple nearly 2-regular maps in terms of the above three parameters are derived.

  15. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions o

  16. Rooting of microcuttings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and in conventional propagation. This paper reviews recent progress in the understanding of adventitious root formation as a developmental process focusing on the role of plant hormones and on the effect of rooting conditions o

  17. Doubling bialgebras of rooted trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Belhaj; Manchon, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The vector space spanned by rooted forests admits two graded bialgebra structures. The first is defined by Connes and Kreimer using admissible cuts, and the second is defined by Calaque, Ebrahimi-Fard and the second author using contraction of trees. In this article, we define the doubling of these two spaces. We construct two bialgebra structures on these spaces which are in interaction, as well as two related associative products obtained by dualization. We also show that these two bialgebras verify a commutative diagram similar to the diagram verified Calaque, Ebrahimi-Fard and the second author in the case of rooted trees Hopf algebra, and by the second author in the case of cycle-free oriented graphs.

  18. The rhizosphere revisited: root microbiomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A.H.M. Bakker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere was defined over 100 years ago as the zone around the root where microorganisms and processes important for plant growth and health are located. Recent studies show that the diversity of microorganisms associated with the root system is enormous. This rhizosphere microbiome extends the functional repertoire of the plant beyond imagination. The rhizosphere microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana is currently being studied for the obvious reason that it allows the use of the extensive toolbox that comes with this model plant. Deciphering plant traits that drive selection and activities of the microbiome is now a major challenge in which Arabidopsis will undoubtedly be a major research object. Here we review recent microbiome studies and discuss future research directions and applicability of the generated knowledge

  19. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  20. Archimedes' calculations of square roots

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E B

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider Archimedes' evaluations of several square roots in 'Measurement of a Circle'. We show that several methods proposed over the last century or so for his evaluations fail one or more criteria of plausibility. We also provide internal evidence that he probably used an interpolation technique. The conclusions are relevant to the precise calculations by which he obtained upper and lower bounds on pi.

  1. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... intensified cropping systems using chemical and mechanical inputs also show that facilitative interactions definitely can be of significance. It is concluded that a better understanding of the mechanisms behind facilitative interactions may allow us to benefit more from these phenomena in agriculture...

  2. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  3. Evaluation of Root-End Resections Performed by Er, Cr: YSGG Laser with and without Placement of a Root-End Filling Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microleakage following root-end resections has a direct influence on the outcome of surgical endodontic procedures. This study compared the microleakage after root-end resections performed by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser or carbide burs with or without the placement of MTA, and evaluated the presence of microcracks and gaps at the interface of GP/MTA and the canal walls. Ninety single-rooted teeth were instrumented, obturated with GP and AH-Plus sealer, and divided into 3 experimental groups: (I root-end resections were performed with the laser and G6 tips (parameters: 4.5 w, 30 pps, 20% water and 50% air; (II Lindeman burs were used, without the placement of MTA; (III the burs were used followed by root-end fillings with MTA, and one control (IV of five unobturated roots resected with the burs. The samples were prepared for microleakage (=20 and SEM (=10 analysis. They were immersed in 1% methylene blue, decalcified, cleared, and evaluated for dye penetration (mm2 with the ImageJ software. Epoxy-resin replicas of the root-ends were analyzed by SEM for gaps (m2 and microcracks. Microleakage results were 0.518±1.059, 0.172±0.223, and 0.158±0.253, for the laser (I, no root-end filling (II, and MTA (III samples, respectively, (ANOVA =.02. The laser (7831.7±2329.2 and no root-end filling (7137.3±1400.7 samples presented gaps. Whereas, none was found in the MTA (ANOVA =.002. Microcracks were not observed. The MTA group demonstrated statistically less leakage and better adaptation to the canal walls when compared to the other groups. There was no correlation between the size of the gaps and the degree of microleakage.

  4. Comparative study of sealing ability of three root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Complete obturation of the prepared root canal is an essential step in endodontic treatment. Combination of gutta-percha and a sealer is widely used in clinical practice for root canal obturation, thus microleakage studies on sealing properties of these materials constitute an important part of endodontic researches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three root canal sealers: Apexit, AH26 and Dorifill by electrochemical method.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 55 extracted human maxillary and mandibular cuspids were used. The coronal part of teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared using the step-back technique. The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups of 17 samples each. Teeth in each group were filled with one of the sealers and gutta-percha by lateral condensation technique. 4 specimens served as positive and negative controls. An electrochemical method was used for evaluation of apical leakage with the electrical source potential of 10 V. Measurements of current flow through the test system were recorded every 72 hours. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: All specimens of the three groups showed low initial leakage that increased during the test period. The mean leakage in Apexit group was higher than AH26 and Dorifill groups. The lowest mean leakage was related to Dorifill group. Although no statistically significant difference was observed between this sealer and AH26.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the best apical seal was obtained using Dorifill and AH26 sealers. The poorest result was observed in Apexit.

  5. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  6. OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Johannes A; Kuppe, Christian; Owen, Markus R; Mellor, Nathan; Griffiths, Marcus; Bennett, Malcolm J; Lynch, Jonathan P; Watt, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species. The flexible OpenSimRoot design allows upscaling from root anatomy to plant community to estimate the following: resource costs of developmental and anatomical traits; trait synergisms; and (interspecies) root competition. OpenSimRoot can model three-dimensional images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of roots in soil. New modules include: soil water-dependent water uptake and xylem flow; tiller formation; evapotranspiration; simultaneous simulation of mobile solutes; mesh refinement; and root growth plasticity. OpenSimRoot integrates plant phenotypic data with environmental metadata to support experimental designs and to gain a mechanistic understanding at system scales. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. ROOT Status and Future Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, R; Canal, P; Rademakers, Fons; Goto, Masaharu; Canal, Philippe; Brun, Rene

    2003-01-01

    In this talk we will review the major additions and improvements made to the ROOT system in the last 18 months and present our plans for future developments. The additons and improvements range from modifications to the I/O sub-system to allow users to save and restore objects of classes that have not been instrumented by special ROOT macros, to the addition of a geometry package designed for building, browsing, tracking and visualizing detector geometries. Other improvements include enhancements to the quick analysis sub-system (TTree::Draw()), the addition of classes that allow inter-file object references (TRef, TRefArray), better support for templated and STL classes, amelioration of the Automatic Script Compiler and the incorporation of new fitting and mathematical tools. Efforts have also been made to increase the modularity of the ROOT system with the introduction of more abstract interfaces and the development of a plug-in manager. In the near future, we intend to continue the development of PROOF and...

  8. Printing Values In Interactive ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Perovic, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This project report summarizes the work I have been performing during the past twelve weeks as a Summer Student intern working on ROOT project in the SFT group, PH department, under the supervision of Axel Naumann and Danilo Piparo. One of the widely requested features for ROOT was improved interactive shell experience as well as improved printing of object values. Solving this issue was the goal of this project. Primarily, we have enabled printing of the collections. Secondly, we have unified the printing interface, making it much more robust and extendible. Thirdly, we have implemented printing of nested collections in a flexible and user-friendly manner. Finally, we have added an interactive mode, allowing for paginated output. At the beginning of the report, ROOT is presented with examples of where it is used and how important it is. Then, the motivation behind the project is elaborated, by presenting the previous state of the software package and its potential for improvement. Further, the process in wh...

  9. Bio-Root and Implant-Based Restoration as a Tooth Replacement Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z H; Hu, L; Liu, G L; Wei, F L; Liu, Y; Liu, Z H; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, J S; Wang, S L

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dental stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) regeneration could restore tooth loss in a miniature pig model. As a potential new method for tooth restoration, it is essential to compare this method with the widely used commercial dental implant-based method of tooth restoration. Tooth loss models were created by extracting mandibular incisors from miniature pigs. Allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and cultured. A PDLSC sheet was prepared by adding 20.0 µg/mL vitamin C to the culture medium; in addition, a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)/DPSC graft was fabricated and cultured in a 3-dimensional culture system. A total of 46 bio-root implantations and 9 dental implants were inserted, and crown restorations were performed 6 mo after implantation. Histological, radiological, biomechanical, and elemental analyses were used to evaluate and compare tissue-engineered bio-roots and dental implants to the natural tooth roots. After 6 mo, both computed tomography scans and histological examinations showed that root-like structures and dentin-like tissues had formed. Three months after crown restoration, clinical assessments revealed that tooth function was equivalent in the regenerated bio-root and the dental implant. Biomechanical testing showed that the bio-roots were similar to natural tooth roots in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and torsional force; however, these properties were significantly higher in the dental implants. Elemental analysis revealed a higher similarity in elemental composition between bio-roots and natural tooth roots than between bio-roots and dental implants. However, the dental implant success rate was 100% (9 of 9) and the bio-root success rate was only 22% (10 of 46). Taken together, we showed that an allogeneic HA/TCP/DPSC/PDLSC sheet could successfully build a bio-root with structure and function similar to

  10. 自制牙胶尖在粗大根管的根管治疗中的临床观察%Homemade gutta percha root canal therapy clinical observation in the thick root canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽君

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the use of homemade gut a percha in 25 cases of 29 thick root canal treatment and root canal therapy summarize the experience. Methods:29 root canals are not ful y developed forming residual root and crown root canal treatment, fol ow-up of 2 years of treatment effect was observed. Results:29 thick root canal in root canal treatment, 25 root canal tooth produce good results after chemical root canals, three teeth only for mechanical root canal preparation without teeth for the first time prepared for chemical root canal treatment fails, the use of chemical preparation to re-root fil ing effect is good, a recurrent fistula and tooth extraction. Homemade gut a percha is not overfil ed happen. Conclusion:The use of chemical methods for coarse root canal must be prepared, using homemade gut a percha root canal fil ing can form a good apical closure.%目的:观察采用自制牙胶尖在25例29个粗大根管的根管治疗效果并总结治疗经验。方法:对29个根管未完全发育成形的残根、残冠进行根管治疗,随访2年观察治疗效果。结果:29个粗大根管在根管治疗过程中,25个牙经化学根管预备后即产生良好的根充效果,3个牙仅作机械根管预备而未作化学预备的患牙首次根管治疗失败,采用化学预备重新根充效果良好,1个牙反复出现瘘管而拔除。自制牙胶尖未发生超充情况。结论:利用化学方法对粗大根管进行预备是必须的,采用自制牙胶尖进行根管充填能形成良好的根尖封闭。

  11. Light as stress factor to plant roots - case of root halotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, Ken; Fasano, Rossella; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Baluška, František

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing underground, largely in darkness, roots emerge to be very sensitive to light. Recently, several important papers have been published which reveal that plant roots not only express all known light receptors but also that their growth, physiology and adaptive stress responses are light-sensitive. In Arabidopsis, illumination of roots speeds-up root growth via reactive oxygen species-mediated and F-actin dependent process. On the other hand, keeping Arabidopsis roots in darkness alters F-actin distribution, polar localization of PIN proteins as well as polar transport of auxin. Several signaling components activated by phytohormones are overlapping with light-related signaling cascade. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of roots to salinity is altered in the light-grown Arabidopsis roots. Particularly, light-exposed roots are less effective in their salt-avoidance behavior known as root halotropism. Here we discuss these new aspects of light-mediated root behavior from cellular, physiological and evolutionary perspectives.

  12. Effectiveness of gutta-percha and Resilon in filling lateral root canals using thermomechanical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Tanomaru-Filho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gutta-percha and Resilon in filling lateral root canals in cervical, middle, and apical third using a thermomechanical technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Root canals of artificial teeth were prepared using a standard preparation. The lateral canals were fabricated using a 0.3-mm-diameter bur at 3 parts of each root. By using Tagger's hybrid technique with a McSpadden thermomechanical compactor, the root canal was filled using the following filling materials: Dentsply gutta-percha, Endopoint gutta-percha, and Resilon cones. The root canal fillings were evaluated using digitized radiographs and the Image Tool software. The percentage of filled area of each lateral canal was determined. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests at a 5% significance level. RESULT: Resilon showed better effectiveness as a filling material. When the three thirds were compared, Resilon was more effective in the apical third than in the cervical third (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Resilon is an effective filling material for lateral root canals using a thermomechanical technique.

  13. The Tucker technique: the proximal hollow grind to address a root concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, T A

    2014-01-01

    Cast gold inlays have long been used to conservatively restore compromised tooth structure. When the mesial or distal proximal surfaces are indicated for restoration and a cast gold restoration is desired, traditionally a box is prepared with an external bevel. Often a root concavity does not allow for a standard box form or the external and/or internal bevels. A proximal hollow grind can be utilized to address limits of standard inlay or onlay preparation design.

  14. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  15. Fate of HERS during Tooth Root Development

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, XIAOFENG; BRINGAS, PABLO; Slavkin, Harold C.; Chai, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS c...

  16. Penis-root perception of Koro patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N

    1991-07-01

    Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of intra-abdominal traction is the main feature. This study attempts to explore the penis-root perception of the Koro patients by a graphomotor projective test--the Draw-a-penis Test (DAPT). This controlled DAPT investigation shows that Koro patients perceived the penis as a detached organ with root-boundary definiteness as evidenced from their close penis-root perception. They also displayed reduced volumetric perception of penis-root than the normal subjects. These perceptual deviations in penis-root image are discussed in relation to their Koro vulnerability.

  17. Medicolegal aspects of iatrogenic root perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsesis, I; Rosen, E; Bjørndal, L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the medico-legal aspects of iatrogenic root perforations (IRP) that occurred during endodontic treatments. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive search in a professional liability insurance database was conducted to retrospectively identify cases of IRP following root canal...... treatment (p root perforation is a complication of root canal treatment and may result in tooth extraction...... and in legal actions against the treating practitioner. Mandibular molars are more prone to medico-legal claims related to root perforations. The patient should be informed of the risks during RCT and should get information on alternative treatments and their risks and prognosis...

  18. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  19. Micro-CT assessment of two different endodontic preparation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio Moura-Netto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two endodontic preparation systems using micro-CT analysis. Twenty-four one-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and randomly assigned to two groups. The samples (n = 12 of Group 1 were prepared using the ProTaper Universal rotary system, while Group 2 (n = 12 was prepared using the EndoEZE AET system complemented by manual apical preparation with K-type hand files up to #30. A 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was used in both groups for irrigating. Both groups were scanned by high-resolution microcomputed tomography before and after preparation (SkyScan 1172, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium. The root canal volume and surface area was measured before and after preparation, and the differences were calculated and analyzed for statistically significant differences using ANOVA complemented by the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the mean volumes of dentin removal by the two systems. However, the EndoEZE AET system presented a significantly greater mean surface area compared to the ProTaper system (p < 0.05. The EndoEZE AET system enabled preparation of a greater root canal surface area when compared to the ProTaper Universal system. There seemed to be no difference in dentin volume loss between the two systems used.

  20. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlations of Vegetative and Reproductive Characters with Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jummy

    exception of root branching and grain weight per plant. Heritability estimates were ... Keywords: Root volume, root thickness, root dry weight, drought, grain yield. Correspondence: ..... Whole plant responses, key processes, and adaptation to ...

  2. Optimal root arrangement of cereal crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yeonsu; Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    The plant root absorbs water from the soil and supplies it to the rest part of the plant. It consists of a number of root fibers, through whose surfaces water uptake occurs. There is an intriguing observation that for most of cereal crops such as maize and wheat, the volume density of root in the soil declines exponentially as a function of depth. To understand this empirical finding, we construct a theoretical model of root water uptake, where mass transfer into root surface is modeled just as heat flux around a fin. Agreement between the theoretically predicted optimal root distribution in vertical direction and biological data supports the hypothesis that the plant root has evolved to achieve the optimal water uptake in competition with neighbors. This study has practical implication in the agricultural industry as well as optimal design of water transport networks in both micro- and macroscales. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

  3. Vertical root fracture resistance of simulated immature permanent teeth filled with MTA using different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askerbeyli-Örs, Sevinc; Deniz-Sungur, Derya

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to evaluate the resistance vertical root fracture (VRF) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filled-immature permanent roots by using three different vehicles. Material and Methods Forty-extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and the root length was standardized to the length of 9 mm. For simulation of immature tooth apices, peeso reamers were introduced into the root canals and the prepared roots were assigned into three experimental groups according the used vehicle (distilled water-DW, prophylene glycol-PG, chlorhexidine-CHX) and control group (n=10). To simulate a periodontal membrane, the apical 7 mm of all roots was covered with wax to obtain a 0.2- to 0.3-mm-thick layer before embedding the roots into acrylic cylinders. A vertical force was applied (1mm/min) using a universal testing machine and the maximum load (F-max) that fracture occurred and the fracture mode (splint or comminuted) was recorded. Data were presented as mean and standard deviations. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U Test was used for multiple comparisons. Results There were significant differences between fracture strength of experimental groups with that of control group (p0.05). In all groups, split fracture was the most common fracture mode. Conclusions MTA increases resistance of immature permanent teeth to VRF. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that mixing MTA with CHX or PG as the vehicle do not alter VRF resistance of simulated immature permanent roots. Key words:Immature teeth, MTA, vehicle, vertical root fracture. PMID:28210431

  4. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration.

  5. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  6. Root cap removal increases root penetration resistance in maize (Zea mays L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Morio; Higuchi, Toshifumi; Barlow, Peter W; Bengough, A Glyn

    2003-09-01

    The root cap assists the passage of the root through soil by means of its slimy mucilage secretion and by the sloughing of its outer cells. The root penetration resistance of decapped primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Mephisto) was compared with that of intact roots in loose (dry bulk density 1.0 g cm-3; penetration resistance 0.06 MPa) and compact soil (1.4 g cm-3; penetration resistance 1.0 MPa), to evaluate the contribution of the cap to decreasing the impedance to root growth. Root elongation rate and diameter were the same for decapped and intact roots when the plants were grown in loose soil. In compacted soil, however, the elongation rate of decapped roots was only about half that of intact roots, whilst the diameter was 30% larger. Root penetration resistances of intact and decapped seminal axis were 0.31 and 0.52 MPa, respectively, when the roots were grown in compacted soil. These results indicated that the presence of a root cap alleviates much of the mechanical impedance to root penetration, and enables roots to grow faster in compacted soils.

  7. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae.

  8. [Microbial complexes from apogeotropic roots and from rhizosphere of cycad plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobakova, E S; Orazova, M Kh; Dobrovol'skaia, T G

    2003-01-01

    The microbial complexes of soil, the rhizosphere, and the rhizoplane of the apogeotropic (coralloid) roots of cycad plants were comparatively studied. The aseptically prepared homogenates of the surface-sterilized coralloid roots did not contain bacterial microsymbiont, indicating that it was absent in the root tissues. At the same time, associated bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups were detected in increasing amounts in the cycad rhizoplane, rhizosphere, and the surrounding soil. The bacterial communities found in the cycad rhizoplane and the surrounding soil were dominated by bacteria from the genus Bacillus. The saprotrophic bacteria and fungi colonizing the cycad rhizosphere and rhizoplane were dominated by microorganisms capable of degrading the plant cell walls. The local degradation of the cell wall was actually observed on the micrographs of the thin sections of cycad roots in the form of channels, through which symbiotic cyanobacterial filaments can penetrate into the cortical parenchyma.

  9. Thermal Changes in the Hard Dental Tissue at Diode Laser Root Canal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The laser coagulation at the apical part of the root canal after vital extirpation is a proper method of preventing complications such as pain, bleeding, remaining vital pulp. The aim of the present survey is to register the thermal changes that occur on the tooth surfaces during laser treatment of the root canal after vital extirpation. An in vitro study of 30 extracted teeth has been conducted. The teeth have been prepared with ProTaper nickel-titanium machine tools and wiped dry. During the course of laser treatment of root canals with a diode laser DenLase temperatures, changes of the surface of the hard dental tissues have been recorded with infrared camera FLIR T330. The captured thermal images have been processed with software product Flir Reporter Pro 9. In conclusion, temperature changes in hard dental tissues at diode laser treatment of the root canal are biocompatible.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY OF CLOSTRIDIUM GLYCOLICUM RD-1, AN AEROTOLERANT ACETOGEN ISOLATED FROM SEA GRASS ROOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An anaerobic, H2-utilizing bacterium, strain RD-1, was isolated from the highest growth-positive dilution series of a root homogenate prepared from the sea grass Halodule wrightii. Cells of RD-1 were gram-positive, spore-forming, motile rods that were linked by connecting filamen...

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY OF CLOSTRIDIUM GLYCOLICUM RD-1, AN AEROTOLERANT ACETOGEN ISOLATED FROM SEA GRASS ROOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An anaerobic, H2-utilizing bacterium, strain RD-1, was isolated from the highest growth-positive dilution series of a root homogenate prepared from the sea grass Halodule wrightii. Cells of RD-1 were gram-positive, spore-forming, motile rods that were linked by connecting filamen...

  12. Centering and transportation: in vitro evaluation of continuous and reciprocating systems in curved root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vilas Navós

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that there were no differences in transportation between the evaluated systems for the preparation of curved root canals with an apical instrumentation diameter of #25. For centering ability, in the apical third, ProTaper® presented worst behavior when compared to Reciproc®.

  13. Micro-CT assessment of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, G; Belladonna, F G; Silva, E J N L; Souza, E M; Carvalhal, J C A; Perez, R; Lopes, R T; Versiani, M A

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures with GuttaCore (GC), cold lateral compaction (CLC) and warm vertical compaction (WVC) techniques in mandibular molars using micro-computed tomographic analysis. Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars, with a type II Vertucci's canal configuration, were prepared to working length with a Reciproc R40 instrument and randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups (n = 10), according to the technique used for root filling: GC, CLC or WVC. The GC group was filled with a size 40 GC obturator, whilst CLC and WVC groups used conventional gutta-percha cones. AH Plus sealer was used in all groups. The specimens were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 14.25 μm before and after root canal preparation and after root filling. Then, all pre- and postoperative cross-sectional images of the roots (n = 41 660) were screened to identify the presence of dentinal defects. Overall, 30.75% (n = 12 810) of the pre- + post-filling images displayed dentinal defects. In the GC, CLC and WVC groups, dentinal micro-cracks were observed in 18.68% (n = 2510), 15.99% (n = 2389) and 11.34% (n = 1506) of the cross-sectional images, respectively. All micro-cracks identified in the post-filling scans were also observed in the corresponding post-preparation images. Root fillings in all techniques did not induce the development of new dentinal micro-cracks. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  15. Radiographic evaluation of root canal cleaning, main and laterals, using different methods of final irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselle Moraima CHÁVEZ-ANDRADE

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI using intermittent or continuous flushing and conventional manual irrigation (CMI on the cleaning of main and simulated lateral root canals.MATERIAL AND METHOD: The root canals of 24 artificial teeth were prepared and simulated lateral canals were made in the medium and apical thirds of the root. The specimens were divided into three groups: G1- CMI, G2- PUI 1 (intermittent flushing and G3- PUI 2 (continuous flushing. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and the roots were radiographed pre- and post-irrigation. The digital images were transferred to Image Tool 3.0 software and the areas of root canal completely filled with contrast, and after irrigation with contrast remnant, were measured to obtain percentage data. Statistical analysis between groups was performed by ANOVA and Tukey tests.RESULT: In the apical third, G2 and G3 (PUI groups showed higher percentage of cleaning than G1 (CMI (p<0.05.CONCLUSION: Passive ultrasonic irrigation using intermittent flushing promoted a higher cleaning of simulated lateral canals than conventional manual irrigation in the apical third. There were no differences between groups in the main root canal and the middle third.

  16. ROOTING MINI-CUTTINGS OF Paulownia fortunei var. mikado DERIVED FROM CLONAL MINI-GARDEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Stuepp

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency of mini-cuttings technique on vegetative propagation of Paulownia fortunei (Seem. Hemsl. var. Mikado, as well as the possible existence of anatomical barriers to its rooting. Therefore, plants originated from cuttings formed the mini-stumps and, consequently the clonal mini-garden, which was conducted in semi-hydroponic system. We evaluated the survival of mini-stumps and sprouts production for five successive collects, the percentage of mini-cuttings rooting and their anatomical description. The mini-cuttings were prepared with about 6 to 8 cm in length and two leaves reduced by about 50% in the upper third, being remained an area of, approximately 78 cm2 (10 cm diameter. The mini-cuttings were placed in tubes of 53 cm3, with substrate formed with fine vermiculite and carbonized rice hulls (1:1 v/v and rooted in acclimatized greenhouse. After 30 days we evaluated the percentage of rooted mini-cuttings, radicial vigor (number and length of roots / mini-cutting, callus formation, emission of new shoots and maintenance of the original leaves. The mini-stumps showed 100% survival after five collects and an average production of 76-114 mini-cuttings/m2/month and rooting ranged from 70 to 90%. Mini-cuttings technique is efficient in to propagate adult propagules of the species and there are not anatomical barriers preventing roots emission.

  17. In vitro evaluation of the minimum bactericidal concentrations of different root-end filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Oktay, Elif Aybala; Kiliç, Abdullah; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of root-end filling materials ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus and IRM. Macrodilution broth method was used. Microorganisms used were: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Streptococcus mutans. Serial two-fold dilutions of root-end filling samples were prepared in macrodilution tubes with concentrations ranging from 1/2 to 1/512. The samples dilutions were incubated for 24 hours. After incubation, 0.1 ml of diluted culture was inoculated onto the surface of supplemented sheep blood agar (Merck, Germany) and all plates were incubated at 37°C in aerobic condition for 24 hours. The MBC was defined as the lowest concentration of root-end filling samples where no growth was recorded. MBC of both mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) products against S. aureus were recorded as 15.62 mg/ml and for IRM 31.25 mg/ml MBC for both MTA groups against E. faecalis were recorded as 31.25 mg/ml and for IRM 62.5 mg/ml. MBC of all root-end filling samples against S. mutans were recorded as 62.5 mg/ml. All tested root-end filling materials showed acceptable MBC against S. aureus and E. faecalis. All tested materials can be used safely for filling of a root-end cavity.

  18. Clinical features and endodontic treatment of two-rooted mandibular canines: Report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Predictable endodontic treatment depends on the dentist’s knowledge about root canal morphology and its possible anatomic variations. The majority of mandibular canines have one root and root canal, but 15% may have two canals and a smaller number may have two distinct roots. The following clinical reports describe endodontic treatment of mandibular canines with two roots and two root canals. Outline of Cases. Four clinical case reports are presented to exemplify anatomical variation in the human mandibular canine. Detailed analysis of the preoperative radiographs and careful examination of the pulp chamber floor detected the presence of two root canal orifices in all canines. Working length was determined with an electronic apex locator and biomechanical preparation was carried out by using engine driven BioRaCe Ni-Ti rotary instruments in a crown-down manner, followed by copious irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite. Definitive obturation was performed using cold lateral condensation with gutta-percha cones and Top Seal paste. The treatment outcome was evaluated using postoperative radiographs. Conclusion. Endodontists should be aware of anatomical variations of the treated teeth, and should never presume that canal systems are simple. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174005: Viscoelasticity of fractional type and optimization of shape in rod theory

  19. Effectiveness of rotatory and reciprocating movements in root canal filling material removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary techniques for removing gutta-percha and sealer from root canals. Forty straight and oval single-rooted premolars were prepared up to size 30, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and then randomly allocated to two experimental retreatment groups: ProTaper Retreatment System (PTRS and WaveOne System (WS. Procedural errors, time of retreatment and apically extruded material were recorded for all the roots. The roots were radiographed after retreatment. The percentage of residual material was calculated using image analysis software. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests, with a significance level set at 5%. No system completely removed the root filling material from the root canal. No significant differences were observed between the systems, in terms of residual filling material in any tested third (p > 0.05. WS was faster in removing filling material than PTRS (p< 0.05. Extrusion was observed in 4 cases in PTRS and in 5 cases in WS. No procedural errors were observed in either group. It can be concluded that although no differences were observed in the efficacy of PTRS and WS for removing root filling material, WS was faster than PTRS.

  20. The influence of volume, type of irrigant and flushing method on removing artificially placed dentine debris from the apical root canal during passive ultrasonic irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Der Sluis, LWM; Gambarini, G; Wu, MK; Wesselink, PR

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the influence of volume, irrigant and method of flushing on the removal of artificially-placed dentine debris from the apical part of root canals during passive ultrasonic irrigation. Methodolgy Access cavities were prepared in 15 canine teeth and their root canals instrumented to s

  1. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root...... and radiographs 5 years after surgery were examined. The following data were collected: tooth, operated root, type and quality of the coronal restoration, marginal bone level, length and homogeneity of the root canal filling, presence of a post/screw, periapical index (PAI) of each root, and radiographic healing...... of the operated root. The presence of apical pathosis of the nonoperated root was analyzed statistically in relation to the recorded variables. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Signs of periapical pathosis in the nonoperated root 5 years after surgery (PAI ≥ 3) could be observed...

  2. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  3. Patterns in soil fertility and root herbivory interact to influence fine-root dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Glen N; Jones, Robert H

    2006-03-01

    Fine-scale soil nutrient enrichment typically stimulates root growth, but it may also increase root herbivory, resulting in trade-offs for plant species and potentially influencing carbon cycling patterns. We used root ingrowth cores to investigate the effects of microsite fertility and root herbivory on root biomass in an aggrading upland forest in the coastal plain of South Carolina, USA. Treatments were randomly assigned to cores from a factorial combination of fertilizer and insecticide. Soil, soil fauna, and roots were removed from the cores at the end of the experiment (8-9 mo), and roots were separated at harvest into three diameter classes. Each diameter class responded differently to fertilizer and insecticide treatments. The finest roots (root biomass, were the only ones to respond significantly to both treatments, increasing when fertilizer and when insecticide were added (each P root-feeding insects have a strong influence on root standing crop with stronger herbivore impacts on finer roots and within more fertile microsites. Thus, increased vulnerability to root herbivory is a potentially significant cost of root foraging in nutrient-rich patches.

  4. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  5. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot eBodner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  6. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  7. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  8. Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. van Wijk

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this modelling study differences in vertical root distributions measured in four contrasting forest locations in the Netherlands were investigated. Root distributions are seen as a reflection of the plant’s optimisation strategy, based on hydrological grounds. The 'optimal' root distribution is defined as the one that maximises the water uptake from the root zone over a period of ten years. The optimal root distributions of four forest locations with completely different soil physical characteristics are calculated using the soil hydrological model SWIF. Two different model configurations for root interactions were tested: the standard model configuration in which one single root profile was used (SWIF-NC, and a model configuration in which two root profiles compete for the same available water (SWIF-C. The root profiles were parameterised with genetic algorithms. The fitness of a certain root profile was defined as the amount of water uptake over a simulation period of ten years. The root profiles of SWIF-C were optimised using an evolutionary game. The results showed clear differences in optimal root distributions between the various sites and also between the two model configurations. Optimisation with SWIF-C resulted in root profiles that were easier to interpret in terms of feasible biological strategies. Preferential water uptake in wetter soil regions was an important factor for interpretation of the simulated root distributions. As the optimised root profiles still showed differences with measured profiles, this analysis is presented, not as the final solution for explaining differences in root profiles of vegetation but as a first step using an optimisation theory to increase understanding of the root profiles of trees. Keywords: forest hydrology, optimisation, roots

  9. Histological assessment of pulp condition after apical vital root transection in one root of multirooted teeth in dogs: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaiee, Massoud; Yavari, Amir Saeed; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Afshin; Farnia, Pupak; Sharifi, Davoud; Ghanavi, Jalaledin; Eslami, Behnan

    2007-09-01

    One of the most important aspects in surgery is the healing process after the periapical surgery. Past studies have shown occasional encounters with vital root resection and have noted varying degrees of pulpal response after root resection in periodontal disease. The purpose of this investigation was to observe the pulpal and periapical responses to intentional apical vital root transection in one root of multirooted teeth of German-Canadian dogs over a 6-month postoperative period. This is an experimental study performed on left maxillary and mandibular quadrants of four adult German-Canadian dogs after a 3- and 6-month period. Four teeth were assessed in each interval. One of the roots of multirooted teeth in the left quadrant of both maxillary and mandibular jaws was surgically transected. Tissue blocks were prepared by routine histological methods after 12 and 24 weeks after the surgery. The results showed a disruption of the normal pulpal architecture, with initial pulpal degeneration and subsequent early replacement by the periodontal ligament tissue after 24 weeks. Hypercementosis was seen around the apical portion of the root in all specimens. Pulpal regeneration was seen in the both upper and lower molars (p = 0.03). Resorption took place only in two specimens (p = 0.46). The inflammation in the 12th week was more than the 24th week. The pulp of multirooted teeth remains vital after transection of the apical part of the root in dogs. Longer follow-up periods are recommended because root canal therapy or extraction is indicated if resorption, necrosis, or ankylosis is seen.

  10. Sealing ability of MTA, CPM, and MBPc as root-end filling materials: a bacterial leakage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Paulo Leal; Bernardineli, Norberti; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Torres, Sérgio Aparecido; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Marciano, Marina Angélica

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To evaluate the sealing ability of three root-end filling materials (white MTA, CPM, and MBPc) using an Enterococcus faecalis leakage model. Material and Methods Seventy single-root extracted human teeth were instrumented and root-ends were resected to prepare 3 mm depth cavities. Root-end preparations were filled with white MTA, CPM, and MBPc cements. Enterococcus faecalis was coronally introduced and the apical portion was immersed in BHI culture medium with phenol red indicator. The bacterial leakage was monitored every 24 h for 4 weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Gehan test (pCPM and the other groups. Conclusions The epoxy resin-based cement MBPc had lower bacterial leakage compared with the calcium silicate-based cements MTA and CPM.

  11. Intraradicular Splinting with Endodontic Instrument of Horizontal Root Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Çiçek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Root fractures, defined as fractures involving dentine, cementum, and pulpal and supportive tissues, constitute only 0.5–7% of all dental injuries. Horizontal root fractures are commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region and 75% of these fractures occur in the maxillary central incisors. Methods. A 14-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic three days after a traffic accident. In radiographic examination, the right maxillary central incisor was fractured horizontally in apical thirds. Initially, following local infiltrative anesthetics, the coronal fragment was repositioned and this was radiographically confirmed. Then the stabilization splint was applied and remained for three months. After three weeks, according to the results of the vitality tests, the right and left central incisors were nonvital. For the right central incisor, both the coronal and apical fragments were involved in the endodontic preparation. Results. For the right central tooth, both the coronal and apical root fragments were endodontically treated and obturated at a single visit with white mineral trioxide aggregate whilst the fragments were stabilized internally by insertion of a size 40 Hedstrom stainless-steel endodontic file into the canal. Conclusion. Four-year follow-up examination revealed satisfactory clinical and radiographic findings with hard tissue repair of the fracture line.

  12. Sorption of fibronectin to human root surfaces in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, C.; Caravana, C.; Fine, D.H. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions that favor the sorption and retention of human plasma fibronectin to cementum. Rectangular root segments prepared from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were mounted on a capillary pipette and immersed in solutions of {sup 125}I fibronectin for assay of cementum sorption under various conditions. Kinetic studies showed sorption to be rapid, with 77% of the maximum fibronectin sorption occurring within 1 minute. Fibronectin sorption was reduced when added in conjunction with serum and was inhibited by monovalent ions (such as sodium), but enhanced in the presence of divalent cations (such as calcium). Exposure of cementum to serum partially blocked subsequent sorption of fibronectin, while cementum bound fibronectin was eluted by subsequent exposure to serum. Treatment of cementum with citric acid pH 1.1 (4 minutes) followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (5 minutes) caused a significant increase in fibronectin sorption with maximum retention upon subsequent exposure to serum (P less than 0.05). Fibronectin sorption to cementum was: rapid, electrostatic in nature, competitive, reversible, Ca+(+)-facilitated, and maximized by prior treatment of the root with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite. It is concluded that sorption of fibronectin to cementum can be achieved for clinical gain; however, conditions of application can significantly influence both accumulation and subsequent release of root sorbed material.

  13. Root dentine and endodontic instrumentation: cutting edge microscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmeh, Amre R; Watson, Timothy F

    2016-06-06

    Cutting of the dental hard tissues is an integral part of restorative dentistry. Cutting of the root dentine is also needed in preparation prior to endodontic treatment, with significant commercial investment for the development of flexible cutting instruments based around nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys. This paper describes the evolution of endodontic cutting instruments, both in materials used, e.g. the transition from stainless steel to NiTi, and the design of the actual instruments themselves and their method of activation-by hand or motor driven. We have been examining tooth-cutting interactions microscopically for over 25 years using a variety of microscopic techniques; in particular, video-rate confocal microscopy. This has given a unique insight into how many of the procedures that we take for granted are achieved in clinical practice, by showing microscopic video images of the cutting as it occurs within the tooth. This technology has now been extended to allow imaging of the endodontic instrument and the root canal wall for the first time. We are able to image dentine distortion and crack propagation during endodontic filing of the root canal space. We are also able to visualize the often claimed, but seldom seen action of contemporary endodontic instruments.

  14. Fracture resistance of roots obturated with novel hydrophilic obturation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Comparative assessment of fracture resistance of roots obturated with three hydrophilic systems — novel CPoint system, Resilon/Epiphany system, and EndoSequence BC sealer; and one hydrophobic gold standard gutta-percha/AHPlus system. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted, human, single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected. The specimens were decoronated and standardized to a working length of 13 mm. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 15). In Group A, teeth were left unprepared and unfilled (negative control). Rest of the groups were prepared by using ProTaper system up to a master apical file F3; followed by which Group B was left unobturated (positive control); Group C, novel CPoint System; group D, Resilon/Epiphany system, Group E EndoSequence BC sealer, and Group F gutta-percha and AH Plus. Specimens were stored for 2 weeks at 100% humidity. Each group was then subjected to fracture testing by using a universal testing machine. The force required to fracture each specimen was recorded and the data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: The hydrophilic obturation systems have shown to exhibit significantly higher fracture resistance as shown by the values in Groups C, D, and E (P 0.05). Conclusion: In contrast to hydrophobic systems, hydrophilic systems showed higher fracture resistance in a single-rooted premolar. PMID:26069417

  15. Systems approaches to study root architecture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela eCuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant root system is essential for providing anchorage to the soil, supplying minerals and water, and synthesizing metabolites. It is a dynamic organ modulated by external cues such as environmental signals, water and nutrients availability, salinity and others. Lateral roots are initiated from the primary root post-embryonically, after which they progress through discrete developmental stages which can be independently controlled, providing a high level of plasticity during root system formation.Within this review, main contributions are presented, from the classical forward genetic screens to the more recent high-throughput approaches, combined with computer model predictions, dissecting how lateral roots and thereby root system architecture is established and developed.

  16. Thermotropism by primary roots of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, M.-C.; Poff, K.L. (MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Sensing in the roots of higher plants has long been recognized to be restricted mainly to gravitropism and thigmotropism. However, root responses to temperature gradients have not been extensively studied. We have designed experiments under controlled conditions to test if and how root direction of maize can be altered by thermal gradients perpendicular to the gravity vector. Primary roots of maize grown on agar plates exhibit positive thermotropism (curvature toward the warmer temperature) when exposed to gradients of 0.5 to 4.2{degree}C cm{sup {minus}1}. The extent of thermotropism depends on the temperature gradient and the temperature at which the root is placed within the gradient. The curvature cannot be accounted for by differential growth as a direct effect of temperature on each side of the root.

  17. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  18. Tree-root control of shallow landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cohen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree roots have long been recognized to increase slope stability by reinforcing the strength of soils. Slope stability models usually include the effects of roots by adding an apparent cohesion to the soil to simulate root strength. No model includes the combined effects of root distribution heterogeneity, stress-strain behavior of root reinforcement, or root strength in compression. Recent field observations, however, indicate that shallow landslide triggering mechanisms are characterized by differential deformation that indicates localized activation of zones in tension, compression, and shear in the soil. Here we describe a new model for slope stability that specifically considers these effects. The model is a strain-step discrete element model that reproduces the self-organized redistribution of forces on a slope during rainfall-triggered shallow landslides. We use a conceptual sigmoidal-shaped hillslope with a clearing in its center to explore the effects of tree size, spacing, weak zones, maximum root-size diameter, and different root strength configurations. Simulation results indicate that tree roots can stabilize slopes that would otherwise fail without them and, in general, higher root density with higher root reinforcement results in a more stable slope. The variation in root stiffness with diameter can, in some cases, invert this relationship. Root tension provides more resistance to failure than root compression but roots with both tension and compression offer the best resistance to failure. Lateral (slope-parallel tension can be important in cases when the magnitude of this force is comparable to the slope-perpendicular tensile force. In this case, lateral forces can bring to failure tree-covered areas with high root reinforcement. Slope failure occurs when downslope soil compression reaches the soil maximum strength. When this occurs depends on the amount of root tension upslope in both the slope-perpendicular and slope

  19. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  20. Tree-root control of shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Denis; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    Tree roots have long been recognized to increase slope stability by reinforcing the strength of soils. Slope stability models usually include the effects of roots by adding an apparent cohesion to the soil to simulate root strength. No model includes the combined effects of root distribution heterogeneity, stress-strain behavior of root reinforcement, or root strength in compression. Recent field observations, however, indicate that shallow landslide triggering mechanisms are characterized by differential deformation that indicates localized activation of zones in tension, compression, and shear in the soil. Here we describe a new model for slope stability that specifically considers these effects. The model is a strain-step discrete element model that reproduces the self-organized redistribution of forces on a slope during rainfall-triggered shallow landslides. We use a conceptual sigmoidal-shaped hillslope with a clearing in its center to explore the effects of tree size, spacing, weak zones, maximum root-size diameter, and different root strength configurations. Simulation results indicate that tree roots can stabilize slopes that would otherwise fail without them and, in general, higher root density with higher root reinforcement results in a more stable slope. The variation in root stiffness with diameter can, in some cases, invert this relationship. Root tension provides more resistance to failure than root compression but roots with both tension and compression offer the best resistance to failure. Lateral (slope-parallel) tension can be important in cases when the magnitude of this force is comparable to the slope-perpendicular tensile force. In this case, lateral forces can bring to failure tree-covered areas with high root reinforcement. Slope failure occurs when downslope soil compression reaches the soil maximum strength. When this occurs depends on the amount of root tension upslope in both the slope-perpendicular and slope-parallel directions. Roots

  1. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING : ROOTING FOR ROOTS, HANKERING FOR HEROES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The “roots” of Industrial Engineering are certainly extensive, diverse and deep. Similarly, there are numerous historical “heroes” that made significant contributions to the development of the Industrial Engineering discipline. For the sake of argument, this article will assume that Industrial Engineering has at least two identifiable main roots, namely Determinism and Stochastism. The article attempts to trace the early history1 of the stochastic root which is very closely linked to the history of probability and statistics and hence games of chance, gambling and divinity. Therefore, the life and times, contributions and personalities of some of the heroes and villains, champions and sad cases of the stochastic world, will be briefly discussed in a somewhat light-hearted, but not necessarily flippant, manner.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “wortel en tak” van Bedryfsingenieurswese is sekerlik van groot omvang, van diverse aard en diep gesetel. Verskeie historiese “helde” het betekenisvolle bydraes gemaak tot die ontwikkeling van die Bedryfsingenieurswesevakgebied. Ter wille van betoogvoering sal in hierdie artikel aanvaar word dat Bedryfsingenieurswese uit minstens twee identifiseerbare sub-vakgebiede bestaan naamlik : Die Determinisme en die Stogasme. ’n Poging word aangewend om die vroeë geskiedenis van die stogasme na te speur wat op sy beurt aaneengesnoer is met die geskiedenis van die waarskynlikheidsleer en statistiek en dus toevalspelle, dobbelary en wiggelary. Die lewenswyse, tydsgewrig, bydraes en persoonlikheidseienskappe van ’n aantal helde en skurke, kampioene en prulle van die stogastiese wêreld word kortliks bespreek, op ’n ietwat lighartige maar nie noodwendig ligsinnige wyse.

  2. Canal Transportation, Unprepared Areas, and Dentin Removal after Preparation with BT-RaCe and ProTaper Next Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Sabrina C; Marceliano-Alves, Marília F; Marques, Márcia L; Grillo, João P; Lacerda, Mariane F L S; Alves, Flávio R F; Siqueira, José F; Provenzano, José C

    2017-07-13

    This study compared the shaping ability of ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa, OK) and BT-RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instrument systems in the mesial canals of mandibular molars using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. A total of 17 type IV mesial roots of extracted first mandibular molars were scanned using micro-CT imaging before and after root canal preparation with the 2 instrument systems. Both systems were used in the same root but alternating the mesial canals from root to root. The following parameters were analyzed: root canal volume, surface area, unprepared surface areas, transportation, canal/root width ratio, and preparation time. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 systems for all evaluated parameters (P > .05). The unprepared surface areas for the full canal length and the apical 5-mm segment were 33% and 14% for BT-RaCe and 31% and 14% for ProTaper Next, respectively. After preparation, all root canals had a diameter that was not larger than 35% of the root diameter at the coronal and middle segments. The 2 systems showed no differences in any of the evaluated shaping parameters. None of the tested systems put the roots at risk of fracture because of excessive dentin removal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and charac...

  4. Root phenology in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radville, Laura; McCormack, M Luke; Post, Eric; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-06-01

    Plant phenology is one of the strongest indicators of ecological responses to climate change, and altered phenology can have pronounced effects on net primary production, species composition in local communities, greenhouse gas fluxes, and ecosystem processes. Although many studies have shown that aboveground plant phenology advances with warmer temperatures, demonstration of a comparable association for belowground phenology has been lacking because the factors that influence root phenology are poorly understood. Because roots can constitute a large fraction of plant biomass, and root phenology may not respond to warming in the same way as shoots, this represents an important knowledge gap in our understanding of how climate change will influence phenology and plant performance. We review studies of root phenology and provide suggestions to direct future research. Only 29% of examined studies approached root phenology quantitatively, strongly limiting interpretation of results across studies. Therefore, we suggest that researchers emphasize quantitative analyses in future phenological studies. We suggest that root initiation, peak growth, and root cessation may be under different controls. Root initiation and cessation may be more constrained by soil temperature and the timing of carbon availability, whereas the timing of peak root growth may represent trade-offs among competing plant sinks. Roots probably do not experience winter dormancy in the same way as shoots: 89% of the studies that examined winter phenology found evidence of growth during winter months. More research is needed to observe root phenology, and future studies should be careful to capture winter and early season phenology. This should be done quantitatively, with direct observations of root growth utilizing rhizotrons or minirhizotrons.

  5. Signaling Pathways Critical for Tooth Root Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Feng, J Q

    2017-10-01

    Tooth is made of an enamel-covered crown and a cementum-covered root. Studies on crown dentin formation have been a major focus in tooth development for several decades. Interestingly, the population prevalence for genetic short root anomaly (SRA) with no apparent defects in crown is close to 1.3%. Furthermore, people with SRA itself are predisposed to root resorption during orthodontic treatment. The discovery of the unique role of Nfic (nuclear factor I C; a transcriptional factor) in controlling root but not crown dentin formation points to a new concept: tooth crown and root have different control mechanisms. Further genetic mechanism studies have identified more key molecules (including Osterix, β-catenin, and sonic hedgehog) that play a critical role in root formation. Extensive studies have also revealed the critical role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in tooth root formation. In addition, Wnt10a has recently been found to be linked to multirooted tooth furcation formation. These exciting findings not only fill the critical gaps in our understanding about tooth root formation but will aid future research regarding the identifying factors controlling tooth root size and the generation of a whole "bio-tooth" for therapeutic purposes. This review starts with human SRA and mainly focuses on recent progress on the roles of NFIC-dependent and NFIC-independent signaling pathways in tooth root formation. Finally, this review includes a list of the various Cre transgenic mouse lines used to achieve tooth root formation-related gene deletion or overexpression, as well as strengths and limitations of each line.

  6. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  7. Is the bonding of self-adhesive cement sensitive to root region and curing mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOING, Thaynara Faelly; GOMES, Giovana Mongruel; GOMES, João Carlos; REIS, Alessandra; GOMES, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate the influence of two curing techniques on the degree of conversion (DC) of resin cements and on bond strength (BS) of fiber posts in different regions of root dentin. Material and Methods Twenty single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post spaces were prepared. The roots were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), according to the activation mode of the resin cement RelyX™ U200 (3M ESPE Saint Paul, MN, USA): conventional (continuous activation mode) and soft-start activation mode (Ramp). The posts (WhitePost DC/FGM) were cemented according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and, after one week, the roots were cross-sectioned into six discs each of 1-mm thickness, and the cervical, medium, and apical thirds of the root canals were identified. The DC was evaluated under micro-Raman spectroscopy and the BS was evaluated by the push-out test. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results Neither the activation mode nor the root regions affected the DC of the resin cement. Higher BS was achieved in the soft-start group (p=0.036); lower BS was observed in the apical third compared to the other root regions (p<0.001). Irrespective of the activation mode and root region, the mixed failure mode was the most prevalent. Conclusion The BS of fiber posts to root canals can be improved by soft-started polymerization. The DC was not affected by the curing mode. PMID:28198970

  8. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages......Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...

  9. Comprehensive analysis of Panax ginseng root transcriptomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Yun Sun; Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Hyun Oh; Joh, Ho Jun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a highly effective medicinal plant containing ginsenosides with various pharmacological activities, whose roots are produced commercially for crude drugs...

  10. Designing new interfaces for ROOT data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Kalle Elmer

    2016-01-01

    ROOT is a C++ framework for data analysis provided with a Python interface (PyRoot). ROOT is used in every Large Hadron Collider experiment. This project presents a way of reading ROOT TTree by using a new class called DataFrame, which allows the usage of cache and functional chains. Reading TTrees in Python has been quite slow compared to the C++ way of doing it and for this reason we also bring the possibility to read them with just-in-time (JIT) compiled C++ code, using another new Python class called TreeReader.

  11. Mineral nutrition and adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwambach, Joséli; Fadanelli, Cristina; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2005-04-01

    We characterized the adventitious rooting response of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. to various concentrations of calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper. The parameters analyzed were percent rooting, root number, root length and mean rooting time. Root number and root length were significantly affected by mineral nutrition, whereas mean rooting time and rooting percentage seemed to be closely related to auxin availability. Root number was affected by calcium, nitrogen source and zinc, whereas root length was influenced by concentrations of phosphorus, iron and manganese, and by nitrogen source. Based on these results, we evaluated various combinations of several concentrations of these minerals in each rooting phase. Cuttings that were rooted in an optimized mineral nutrient medium and acclimatized to ex-vitro conditions for two months showed significantly higher survival after transplanting and drought stress than cuttings rooted in basal medium and treated in the same way.

  12. Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

  13. Cleaning and shaping curved root canals: Mtwo® vs ProTaper® instruments, a lab comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzekanani Maryam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare root canal preparation in curved canals in molar teeth with the rotary NiTi Mtwo and ProTaper systems in terms of canal shape and smear layer. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal canals of 60 molar teeth with angles of curvature between 25 and 35 degrees were prepared with a torque controlled low speed engine; 30 canals for each system. Each individual instrument was used to prepare four root canals and the time required for preparation was recorded. Standardized radiographs were taken before and following instrumentation and used to determine changes in canal curvature. Results: There was no significant difference in preparation time between the two systems. No instruments separated during use. The Mtwo system gave a statistically smaller change in canal curvature and thus was better for maintaining the original shape of the root canal, with less transportation (P less than 0.05. The greatest difference was seen for maxillary molar teeth. When prepared root canals were examined by SEM there was no difference between the two systems at the coronal, middle or apical thirds. Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest that Mtwo instruments are preferable for situations where canals are curved, particularly for maxillary molars.

  14. ROOT HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF EUCALYPT CLONAL CUTTINGS WITH ROOT MALFORMATION INDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Afonso Mazzei Moura de Assis Figueiredo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814566The gain reduction of wood biomass in trees has been assigned to root deformations even in the nursery phase. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the root system hydraulic conductivity, gas exchanges and photochemical efficiency of eucalypt clonal cuttings with and without root deformation inductions. The treatments were: 1 operational cuttings without root malformation inductions (grown according to the used methodology of Fibria Cellulose S.A.; 2 root deformation inductions. These inductions did not promote decrease in the root volume. However, the deformations brought reduction of the root system hydraulic conductivity. Lower photosynthetic rates were also observed along the day in the cuttings in the root deformed cuttings. This decreasing rate is connected to stomatal and non stomatal factors.

  15. Variations of fine root diameter with root order in Manchurian ash and Dahurian larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangrong; WANG Zhengquan; HAN Youzhi; GU Jiacun; GUO Dali; MEI Li

    2007-01-01

    Fine root lifespan and turnover play an important role in carbon allocation and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems.Fine roots are typically defined as less than 1 or 2mm in diameter.However,when categorizing roots by this diameter size,the position of an individual root