WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepared foods electronic

  1. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  2. Haida Food Gathering and Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to the Haida language as well as to traditional Haida foods in this booklet, one in a series of curriculum materials on Southeast Alaska Natives. Ten selections written in simple language describe a Haida barbecue, Indian bread, sea cucumbers, black sea weed, the edible pulp sap of Hemlock, Indian ice cream made from soap…

  3. Arsenic Release from Foodstuffs upon Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Waegeneers, Nadia; Van de Wiele, Tom; Ruttens, Ann

    2017-03-22

    In this study the concentration of total arsenic (As) and arsenic species (inorganic As, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and methylarsonate) was monitored in different foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, algae, fish, crustacean, molluscs) before and after preparation using common kitchen practices. By measuring the water content of the foodstuff and by reporting arsenic concentrations on a dry weight base, we were able to distinguish between As release effects due to food preparation and As decrease due to changes in moisture content upon food preparation. Arsenic species were released to the broth during boiling, steaming, frying, or soaking of the food. Concentrations declined with maxima of 57% for total arsenic, 65% for inorganic As, and 32% for arsenobetaine. On the basis of a combination of our own results and literature data, we conclude that the extent of this release of arsenic species is species specific, with inorganic arsenic species being released most easily, followed by the small organic As species and the large organic As species.

  4. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings. PMID:28773909

  5. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gould

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w and water-in-oil (w/o emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C. Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9. Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  6. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3-pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  7. Preparing Students for the Electronic Cottage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Sally L.; Burdin, Joel

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on Alvin Toffler's "electronic cottage" concept as a way of helping counselors become aware of futuristic thinking patterns, changing work roles and patterns in society, and techniques for preparing students for these changes. (Author/ABB)

  8. Stonefish "Okoze" envenomation during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Masaru; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or deep-fried by Japanese. Since many people cook and eat Japanese food, it is important to know that cutting a stonefish for cooking carries the risk of envenomation. However, most primary and emergency physicians have not encountered cases of envenomation during food preparation. Here we describe a case of envenomation occurring while cooking. The patient was a healthy 33-year-old man working as a chef in a Japanese restaurant. He was presented to an academic emergency department after suddenly developing severe pain in his right fourth finger while cutting a stonefish. The finger was reddish, swollen, and tender. The pain reduce d after immersing his hand in hot water, and disappeared within 18 h without any complication. In this report, we describe the history of stonefish envenomation and provide a brief review of the literature related to this form of envenomation.

  9. Electron accelerator facilities for food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaler, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    The basic characteristics of electron and X-ray processing and the main types of accelerator used together with features of facilities for food processing are reviewed. Capital and operating costs are given, with throughput and unit cost calculations for typical examples.

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopy Sample Preparation and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jenny Ngoc Tran; Harbison, Amanda M

    2017-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes allow us to reach magnifications of 20-130,000× and resolve compositional and topographical images with intense detail. These images are created by bombarding a sample with electrons in a focused manner to generate a black and white image from the electrons that bounce off of the sample. The electrons are detected using positively charged detectors. Scanning electron microscopy permits three-dimensional imaging of desiccated specimens or wet cells and tissues by using variable pressure chambers. SEM ultrastructural analysis and intracellular imaging supplement light microscopy for molecular profiling of prokaryotes, plants, and mammals. This chapter demonstrates how to prepare and image samples that are (a) desiccated and conductive, (b) desiccated and nonconductive but coated with an electron conductive film using a gold sputter coater, and (c) wet and maintained in a hydrated state using a Deben Coolstage.

  11. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  12. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  13. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  14. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electronic access to food and cash benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaloneBeach, Eileen E; Frank, Cindy S; Heuberger, Roschelle A

    2012-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to examine access to Family Independence Program and Food benefits in relation to customer service and an automated helpline. In addition, participants identified impediments and limitations to the receipt of services. Two hundred forty-four surveys were mailed to recipients of over-the-counter electronic benefit transfer cards; 58 were returned. The findings indicate that when customers (age 21-92) received assistance navigating the electronic benefits transfer system from local office staff, they were able to obtain benefits successfully. Negative credit/debit card history and touchtone phones were related to difficulty using the system. The results suggest that the local office and the contracted service provider (automatic helpline) need to provide assistance that promotes greater autonomy for the customer to make successful transitions to benefits that are delivered electronically.

  16. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  17. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  18. Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…

  19. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  20. Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the space in the house available for food preparation. Data for this qualitative study were collected from 25 Hmong individuals aged 18 and over residing in Fresno, California. Participants in this study did not appear to understand the direct relationship between bacteria and food borne illnesses. Similarly, study participants were more likely to reportreliance on traditional medicine to address foodborne illnesses. Results from this study indicate a need to reach the Hmong community with culturally appropriate messages relating to food preparation and practice. Messages must acknowledge the role of food in cultural celebrations, while seeking to decrease the risk for foodborne illnesses.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  2. Prevalence of Selected Food Consumption and Preparation Behaviors Associated with Increased Risks of Food-borne Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klontz, Karl C; Timbo, Babgaleh; Fein, Sara; Levy, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Although not well quantified, a portion of food-borne illnesses results from voluntary behaviors that are entirely avoidable, such as eating raw foods of animal origin or engaging in unsafe food preparation practices...

  3. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  4. Input to electronic food safety management tools in catering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, S.; Hansen, H.F.; Hansen, B.S.

    More and more meals and meal components are being prepared outside the home by caterers often in a semi-industrialized scale. In Denmark it is estimated that one third of the food consumed is prepared within the catering sector. This includes canteens, meals-on-wheels, restaurants and fast......-food outlets, hospitals and nursing homes, nurseries etc. Often a great variety of raw materials and cooking processes are used. This requires a high degree of food safety know-how and management skills in the kitchens. Although a short course in food hygiene is mandatory, the labour force may be transient...

  5. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    /botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misidentification/s’ and ‘interaction/s’ in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically......The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned...

  6. A 21st century technique for food control: Electronic noses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Vicente Andres Estelles s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-04-06

    This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses (e-noses) and their most important applications in food control in this new century. The three components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, detection system, and data processing system) are described. Special attention is devoted to the promising mass spectrometry based e-noses, due to their advantages over the more classical gas sensors. Applications described include process monitoring, shelf-life investigation, freshness evaluation, authenticity assessment, as well as other general aspects of the utilization of electronic noses in food control. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in food control are also mentioned.

  7. Uncertainties of size measurements in electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Chaudhry, Qasim;

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy is a recognized standard tool for nanomaterial characterization, and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for the size measurement of nanomaterials in food. Despite this, little data have been published assessing the reliability of the method, especially for size...... measurement of nanomaterials characterized by a broad size distribution and/or added to food matrices. This study is a thorough investigation of the measurement uncertainty when applying electron microscopy for size measurement of engineered nanomaterials in foods. Our results show that the number of measured...... particles was only a minor source of measurement uncertainty for nanomaterials in food, compared to the combined influence of sampling, sample preparation prior to imaging and the image analysis. The main conclusion is that to improve the measurement reliability, care should be taken to consider...

  8. Preparing a business justification for going electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A Orlando; Luyckx, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Exponential advances in the technology sector and computer industry have benefited the science and practice of radiology. Modalities such as digital radiography, computed radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, digital angiography, and gamma cameras are all capable of producing DICOM compliant images. Text can likewise be acquired using voice recognition technology (VRT) and efficiently rendered into a digital format. All of these digital data sets can subsequently be transferred over a network between machines for display and further manipulation on workstations. Large capacity archiving units are required to store these voluminous data sets. The enterprise components of radiology departments and imaging centers--radiology information systems (RIS) and picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)--have thus undergone a transition from hardcopy to softcopy. When preparing to make transition to a digital environment, the first step is introspective. A detailed SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, with a focus on the status of "electronic preparedness," ensues. The next step in the strategic planning process is to formulate responses to the following questions: Will this technology acquisition provide sufficient value to my organization to justify the expense? Is there a true need for the new technology? What issues or problems does this technology address? What customer needs will this technology satisfy today and tomorrow? How will the organization's shareholders benefit from this technology? The answers to these questions and the questions that they in turn generate will stimulate the strategic planning process to define demands, investigate technology and investment options, identify resources and set goals. The mission of your radiology center will determine what you will demand from the electronic environment. All radiology practices must address the demand of clinical service. Additional

  9. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  10. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Input to electronic food safety management tools in catering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, S.; Hansen, H.F.; Hansen, B.S.

    outlets, hospitals and nursing homes, nurseries etc. Often a great variety of raw materials and cooking processes are used. This requires a high degree of food safety know-how and management skills in the kitchens. Although a short course in food hygiene is mandatory, the labour force may be transient...... and without an integrated understanding of food safety issues. Information technology can be used to help transform expert knowledge into safer working procedures. A software and a database platform has been developed setting safe performance criteria for heating and cooling processes for different types......More and more meals and meal components are being prepared outside the home by caterers often in a semi-industrialized scale. In Denmark it is estimated that one third of the food consumed is prepared within the catering sector. This includes canteens, meals-on-wheels, restaurants and fast-food...

  12. Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A concern for food safety. ... The microbial quality of all the food samples tested was satisfactory with ... management of these hotels are now implementing Good Hygienic Practices ...

  13. Observational trial of safe food handling behavior during food preparation using the example of Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, C; Mayerhofer, U; Steininger, M; Brüller, W; Hofstädter, D; Aldrian, U

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter infections are one of the most prominent worldwide food-related diseases. The primary cause of these infections is reported to be improper food handling, in particular cross-contamination during domestic preparation of raw chicken products. In the present study, food handling behaviors in Austria were surveyed and monitored, with special emphasis on Campylobacter cross-contamination. Forty participants (25 mothers or fathers with at least one child ≤10 years of age and 15 elderly persons ≥60 years of age) were observed during the preparation of a chicken salad (chicken slices plus lettuce, tomato, and cucumber) using a direct structured observational scoring system. The raw chicken carcasses and the vegetable part of the salad were analyzed for Campylobacter. A questionnaire concerning knowledge, attitudes, and interests related to food safety issues was filled out by the participants. Only 57% of formerly identified important hygiene measures were used by the participants. Deficits were found in effective hand washing after contact with raw chicken meat, but proper changing and cleaning of the cutting board was noted. Campylobacter was present in 80% of raw chicken carcasses, albeit the contamination rate was generally lower than the limit of quantification (10 CFU/g). In the vegetable part of the prepared product, no Campylobacter was found. This finding could be due to the rather low Campylobacter contamination rate in the raw materials and the participants' use of some important food handling behaviors to prevent cross-contamination. However, if the initial contamination had been higher, the monitored deficits in safe food handling could lead to quantifiable risks, as indicated in other published studies. The results of the observational trial and the questionnaire indicated knowledge gaps in the food safety sector, suggesting that further education of the population is needed to prevent the onset of foodborne diseases.

  14. Preparation of food grade carboxymethyl cellulose from corn husk agrowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Ibrahim H; Yeasmin, Mst Sarmina; Rahman, Md Saifur

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-cellulose extracted from corn husks was used as the raw material for the production of food-grade carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Preparation of CMC from husk cellulose was carried out by an etherification process, using sodium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid (MCA), with ethanol as the supporting medium. Characterizations of CMC were carried out by analyzing the spectra of FTIR, XRD patterns and SEM photomicrographs. Degree of substitution (DS) was determined with respect to particle size using chemical methods. Solubility, molecular weight and DS of CMC increased with decreased cellulose particle sizes. Microbiological testing of the prepared CMC was done by the pour plate method. Concentrations of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in the purified CMC were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy technique and found to be within the WHO/FAO recommended value. A comparative study with CMC available in the international market was conducted. The purity of the prepared CMC was higher, at 99.99% well above the purity of 99.5% for standard CMC. High purity CMC showed a yield 2.4 g/g with DS 2.41, water holding capacity 5.11 g/g, oil holding capacity 1.59 g/g. The obtained product is well suited for pharmaceutical and food additives.

  15. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  17. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  18. Electron collisions with coherently prepared atomic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.S. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia). Electronics Structure of Materials Centre; Csanak, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The subject of electron scattering by laser-excited atoms is briefly reviewed. To demonstrate some aspects of these electron collision processes, the authors describe the procedures and the results of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic scattering by coherently excited {sup 138}Ba (...6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) atoms. Examples of experimental and theoretical collision parameters and magnetic sublevel differential cross sections for elastic scattering are given and compared. The convergent close coupling calculations (with the neglect of spin-orbit interaction) are in good agreement with experiment at 20 eV impact energy and 10, 15 and 20{degree} scattering angles and can be expected to yield reliable integral magnetic sublevel and alignment creation cross sections. The role of these quantities in plasma polarization spectroscopy is pointed out.

  19. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz; Marcela Boro Veiros; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença; Anete Araújo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The ...

  20. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  1. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Falasconi, M.; I. Concina; E. Gobbi; Sberveglieri, V.; A. Pulvirenti; G. Sberveglieri

    2012-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs) have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a) Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b) early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c) screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination ...

  2. Preparing School Personnel to Assist Students with Life-Threatening Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Genevieve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of and preparation for life-threatening food allergies will enable school personnel to better respond to students who have severe allergic reactions. Given the high incidence of food-related anaphylaxis in public places, teachers and school personnel should be aware of and prepared to handle severe food allergy reactions. (SM)

  3. Microbial characteristics of food preparations in Benevento province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Ricci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs, total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E. coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci counts, isolation of Salmonella spp., Bacillus (B. cereus counts, and isolation of Listeria (L. monocytogenes. The microbiological quality was good, with absence of the pathogens L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and extremely rare presence of E. coli. The fresh pastry and the uncooked gastronomy products were the most contaminated groups; also, cooked cold-served gastronomy products were susceptible to microbiological risk, as a result of the inadequate reheating and the interruption of the warm chain. On the contrary, dried pastry and cooked warm-served gastronomy products showed an excellent hygienic profile. In fact, the amount of compliant samples was 74.4%.

  4. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  5. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  6. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending <1 hour/day on food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  8. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood.

  9. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay; Brauer, Paula

    2015-10-01

    While vegetables are often studied as one food group, global measures may mask variation in the types and forms of vegetables preferred by different individuals. To explore preferences for and perceptions of vegetables, we assessed main food preparers based on their preparation of eight specific vegetables and mushrooms. An online self-report survey. Ontario, Canada. Measures included perceived benefits and obstacles of vegetables, convenience orientation and variety seeking in meal preparation. Of the 4517 randomly selected consumers who received the invitation, 1013 responded to the survey (22·4 % response). Data from the main food preparers were analysed (n 756). Latent profile analysis indicated three segments of food preparers. More open to new recipes, the 'crucifer lover' segment (13 %) prepared and consumed substantially more Brussels sprouts, broccoli and asparagus than the other segments. Although similar to the 'average consumer' segment (54 %) in many ways, the 'frozen vegetable user' segment (33 %) used significantly more frozen vegetables than the other segments due to higher prioritization of time and convenience in meal preparation and stronger 'healthy=not tasty' perception. Perception of specific vegetables on taste, healthiness, ease of preparation and cost varied significantly across the three consumer segments. Crucifer lovers also differed with respect to shopping and cooking habits compared with the frozen vegetable users. The substantial heterogeneity in the types of vegetables consumed and perceptions across the three consumer segments has implications for the development of new approaches to promoting these foods.

  10. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  11. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1 expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2 frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p menor que 0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses. Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  12. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of 'comida corrida' or restaurant food and street food. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (pConsumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  13. Thermo-analysis of Preparation Process for Electron Trapping Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heated process of raw materials for electron trapping materials (ETM) is investigated by thermo-analysis method. The temperature ranges of raw materials experienced some physical and chemical change processes, such as dehydration, organic solvent removal, crystal sulphur burning, oxidation of alkaline earth sulfides and solid phase reaction (rare earth doped) and so on, are obtained. The experimental results also show that the presence of trace oxygen in shielded gas is very harmful to prepare the ETM.The raw material thermo-analysis results provide very important experimental reference for optimizing the ETM preparation techniques.

  14. Soft electron (low energy electron) processing of foods for microbial control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Nakaoka, Motoko; Miike, Mika; Hayashi, Toru

    2002-03-01

    'Soft-electron' is a new term we have created referring to electrons with energies of 300 kV or lower. Homogenous irradiation of surfaces with soft electrons can decontaminate dry food ingredients such as gains, pulses, spices, dehydrated vegetables and tealeaves without detrimental effects. Treatment of soybeans with electrons of acceleration voltages at 170 kV reduced their microbial count to an undetectable level. Pre-treatment of soybeans with soft electrons enabled the extension of soymilk without sterilization process at a high temperature (120 deg. C). The gelatinized property of soymilk from soft electron-treated beans was better than that of high-temperature sterilized soymilks. These results indicate that soft-electron sterilization improved the quality of soybeans for the processing of soymilk and Tofu(soymilk curd)

  15. Scanning electron microscopy: preparation and imaging for SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris G

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been almost universally applied for the surface examination and characterization of both natural and man-made objects. Although an invasive technique, developments in electron microscopy over the years has given the microscopist a much clearer choice in how invasive the technique will be. With the advent of low vacuum SEM in the 1970s (The environmental cold stage, 1970) and environmental SEM in the late 1980s (J Microsc 160(pt. 1):9-19, 1989), it is now possible in some circumstances to examine samples without preparation. However, for the examination of biological tissue and cells it is still advisable to chemically fix, dehydrate, and coat samples for SEM imaging and analysis. This chapter aims to provide an overview of SEM as an imaging tool, and a general introduction to some of the methods applied for the preparation of samples.

  16. Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Brandalise, Michele; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: dfsilva@ipen.br; espinace@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol solutions containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The water/ethylene glycol ratio (v/v) was evaluated as synthesis parameters. The Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts were prepared with a nominal Pt:Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 and were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The obtained Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts showed the typical fcc structure of platinum-ruthenium alloys and the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the preparation.

  17. Pilot project on the Danish implementation of FoodEx2 as part of the Standard Sample Description for the electronic transmission of harmonised chemical occurrence data to EFSA (NP/EFSA/DCM/2012/01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Christensen, Tue

    for the updated data format for food description and classification, FoodEx2, this terminology has been fully translated into the Danish language. The translation tables (based on FoodEx1 as food classification) prepared while performing the data transmission grant project (Electronic Transmission of Chemical...

  18. Preparation of Magnetic Hollow Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Detection of Triazines in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixiang; Lu, Hongzhi; Xu, Shoufang

    2016-06-22

    Novel magnetic hollow molecularly imprinted polymers (M-H-MIPs) were proposed for highly selective recognition and fast enrichment of triazines in food samples. M-H-MIPs were prepared on the basis of multi-step swelling polymerization, followed by in situ growth of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of hollow molecularly imprinted polymers (H-MIPs). Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of H-MIPs. M-H-MIPs could be separated simply using an external magnet. The binding adsorption results indicated that M-H-MIPs displayed high binding capacity and fast mass transfer property and class selective property for triazines. Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models fitted the best adsorption models for M-H-MIPs. M-H-MIPs were used to analyze atrazine, simazine, propazine, and terbuthylazine in corn, wheat, and soybean samples. Satisfactory recoveries were in the range of 80.62-101.69%, and relative standard deviation was lower than 5.2%. Limits of detection from 0.16 to 0.39 μg L(-1) were obtained. When the method was applied to test positive samples that were contaminated with triazines, the results agree well with those obtained from an accredited method. Thus, the M-H-MIP-based dispersive solid-phase extraction method proved to be a convenient and practical platform for detection of triazines in food samples.

  19. Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    2003-04-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the technology of food irradiation using electron accelerators. Food irradiation has generally come to describe the use of ionizing radiation to decrease the population of, or prevent the growth of, undesirable biological organisms in food. The many beneficial applications include insect disinfestation, sprouting inhibition, delayed ripening, and the enhanced safety and sterilization of fresh and frozen meat products, seafood, and eggs. With special regard to food safety, bacteria such as Salmonella enteridis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 are the primary causes of food poisoning in industrialized countries. Ionizing doses in the range of only 1-5 kilogray (kGy) can virtually eliminate these organisms from food, without affecting the food's sensory and nutritional qualities, and without inducing radioactivity. The key elements of an accelerator-based irradiation facility include the accelerator system, a scanning system, and a material handling system that moves the product through the beam in a precisely controlled manner. Extensive radiation shielding is necessary to reduce the external dose to acceptable levels, and a safety system is necessary to prevent accidental exposure of personnel during accelerator operation. Parameters that affect the dose distribution must be continuously monitored and controlled with process control software. The choice of electron beam vs x-ray depends on the areal density (density times thickness) of the product and the anticipated mass throughput. To eliminate nuclear activation concerns, the maximum kinetic energy of the accelerator is limited by regulation to 10 MeV for electron beams, and 5 MeV for x-rays. From penetration considerations, the largest areal density that can be treated by double-sided electron irradiation at 10 MeV is about 8.8 g/cm2. Products having greater areal densities must be processed using more penetrating x-rays. The

  20. Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy Segura; Brandalise, Michele; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: espinace@ipen.br

    2007-10-15

    Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol mixtures containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX), X ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts showed superior performance for methanol electro-oxidation at room temperature compared to commercial Pt Ru/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  1. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  2. Critical control points of complementary food preparation and handling in eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, J. E.; Azubuike, M. C.; Ubbaonu, C. N.; Anyanwu, E. C.; Ibe, K. M.; Ogbonna, M. O.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. METHODS: The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach was used to investigate processes and procedures that contributed to microbial contamination, growth and survival, and to identify points where controls could be applied to prevent or eliminate these microbiological hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. Food samples were collected and tested microbiologically at different stages of preparation and handling. FINDINGS: During cooking, all foods attained temperatures capable of destroying vegetative forms of food-borne pathogens. However, the risk of contamination increased by storage of food at ambient temperature, by using insufficiently high temperatures to reheat the food, and by adding contaminated ingredients such as dried ground crayfish and soybean powder at stages where no further heat treatment was applied. The purchasing of contaminated raw foodstuffs and ingredients, particularly raw akamu, from vendors in open markets is also a CCP. CONCLUSION: Although an unsafe environment poses many hazards for children's food, the hygienic quality of prepared food can be assured if basic food safety principles are observed. When many factors contribute to food contamination, identification of CCPs becomes particularly important and can facilitate appropriate targeting of resources and prevention efforts. PMID:11417038

  3. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  4. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Ngoddy, P.O.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements and manufacturing procedure of complementary (weaning) foods is discussed. Nutritional requirements for infants (aged 6-12 months) include approx. 3 MJ energy and 14 g digestible protein per litre, of a semi-liquid porridge. Microbiological safety is enhanced by biological acidifica

  5. A Guide to Food Service Operation Planning with Information on Preparing and Submitting Plans and Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    Guidelines are presented for planning a food service operation which is defined as any place kept or maintained for the purpose of preparing or serving meals or lunches for a consideration. Brief discussions are presented pertaining to the value of planning and the preparation and use of plans and specifications. Recommendations and specifications…

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high...... the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given....

  7. Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

    2012-04-01

    Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (ptime spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (ptime spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of electronic group method in assessing food safety training needs and delivery methods among international college students in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information.

  9. Pilot project on the Danish implementation of FoodEx2 as part of the Standard Sample Description for the electronic transmission of harmonised chemical occurrence data to EFSA (NP/EFSA/DCM/2012/01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Christensen, Tue

    The National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark has been recoding and transmitting data for chemical contaminants and pesticide residues to EFSA in the SSD format on behalf of the Danish Veterinary and Food Authority using FoodEx1 and MATRIX food classification. To prepare...... for the updated data format for food description and classification, FoodEx2, this terminology has been fully translated into the Danish language. The translation tables (based on FoodEx1 as food classification) prepared while performing the data transmission grant project (Electronic Transmission of Chemical...... Occurrence Data (CFP/EFSA/DATEX/2009/01)) have been supplemented with the FoodEx2 code, comprising of base term and additional (non-implicit) facets. Approximately 1000 distinct food descriptions from the LIMS have been associated with the equivalent FoodEx2 codes. The performance of FoodEx2 in classifying...

  10. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  11. Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A

  12. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  13. Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Slob, Wout; Galli, Corrado; Silano, Vittorio

    2008-08-15

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety experts and regulators of risks associated with the use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in food including food supplements. It is becoming clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that, in modern society, adverse health effects can occur as a result of (mis)use. With the growing awareness of these issues efforts to ensure safety of botanicals and botanical ingredients are also increasing. Several guidance documents on safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations to be used as ingredients in food and food supplements have been published, although, at present, relevant legislative frameworks and guidances for risk assessment are not established yet. Furthermore, when defining possible guidance documents for risk assessment of botanicals, several issues emerge that need to be developed beyond the present state-of-the-art. The present paper describes some of the issues to be considered and developed to a further extent to improve risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations, illustrated by examples based on some allylalkoxybenzenes. It is concluded that, for an improved and more accurate future risk assessment of botanicals, it is necessary to further develop and validate: (i) the use of the margin of exposure (MOE) concept for compounds that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic; (ii) new ways to quantify and incorporate matrix effects into risk assessment strategies; (iii) the use of analytical chemistry approaches, enabling complete chemical characterisation of complex mixtures. Defining new approaches in risk assessment would be in line with the inspiring attitude of the late Professor Robert Kroes, who, for example by supporting the

  15. Preparation and characterization of keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mira; Kim, Byoung-Suhk [Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Kyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    The biocompatible and highly porous keratin-based hydrogels were prepared using electron beam irradiation (EBI). The conditions for keratin-based hydrogel formation were investigated depending on several conditions, including the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), concentration of keratin solution, EBI dose, and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) additives. The pure keratin (human hair and wool) aqueous solution was not gelled by EBI, while the aqueous keratin solutions blended with PVA were gelled at an EBI dose of more than 90 kGy. Furthermore, in the presence of PEI, the aqueous keratin solution blended with PVA could be gelled at a considerably lower EBI dose, even at 10 kGy. This finding suggests that the PEI additives significantly influence the rate of gelation and that PEIs function as an accelerator during gelation. The resulting keratin-based hydrogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel fraction, degree of swelling, gel strength, and kinetics of swelling analyses. - Highlights: • The biocompatible and highly porous keratin-based hydrogels were prepared using EBI. • The conditions for keratin-based hydrogel formation were examined. • PEI would play an accelerator role in the formation of keratin-based hydrogels. • The resulting keratin-based hydrogels are expected to be more environmentally friendly.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functio...

  17. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of Microbial Hazards During Food Preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jonge, de R.; Frewer, L.J.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    It has been established that, to a considerable extent, the domestic hygiene practices adopted by consumers can result in a greater or lesser microbial load in prepared meals. In the research presented here, an interdisciplinary study is reported in which interviews, observations of consumers prepar

  18. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Yael; Hadad, Binyamin; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  19. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebes, Yael; Ashkenasy, Nurit [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hadad, Binyamin, E-mail: nurita@bgu.ac.il [The Ilze Kaz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  20. Preparation of diffusion coatings in ion-electron melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anfinogenov; A.; I.; Chebykin; V.; V.; Chernov; Ya.; B.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure of Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, and Mo (Me) transfer onto iron substrate in ionic-electronic melts LiCl-Li, CaCl2-Ca, and BaCl2-Ba was elaborated and the transport processes were studied. The saturated vapor pressure of these ionic-electronic melts is as low as enabled working at atmosphere pressure in an inert media up to 1000 ℃.Armco iron was used as a substrate because it practically does not interact with lithium, calcium, and barium. The metals-diffusants were put into the melts in the form of a powder. The complete saturation of the melts with lithium, calcium, and barium was ensured by a preceding contact of a molten salt with an excess of Li, Ca, or Ba before loading of iron.The reactions take place despite the metals and iron were separated from each other by the molten salt. The quantity of the metals transfered was determined by the change in mass before and after experiments, by microprobe analysis, and x-raying of the iron surface layer. The experiments were carried out at 900, 950 and 1000℃ during 5, 10, 15 and 20 hours.At the first stage of the process the formation of the ionic-electronic melt occurs. For example, dissolution of calcium in the case of the system CaCl2-Ca is mainly proceeded in the form of one-valent cations: Ca + Ca2+()Ca+. As soon as the metal-diffusance is immersed into the melt, its dissolution in the form of negative ions takes place: Me + Ca+() Me-+ Ca2+. In the vicinity of the iron substrate the last equilibrium will shift to the left generating a solid solution or intermetallide. The thickness of the diffusion layer rises as the temperature and saturation time increase. The obtained coverings were 20-60 (m thick,and their surface layer contained 15%-80% (mass fraction) of the metal-diffusance.Both the composition of the melt and the procedure of the coverings preparation in ionic-electronic melts have been patented (Patent RU2058422, 1996, pr. 30.09.93).

  1. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  2. Chapter 18 - Gliadins in foods and the electronic tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Ana C. A.; Luís G. Dias; Rodrigues, Lígia R.; Peres, António M.

    2016-01-01

    The commercialization of safe foods is a main concern and should be ensured throughout the entire food supply chain. So, fast, sensitive, and reliable analytical methods are needed to identify food-related specific hazards, ensuring consumers protection and avoiding health problems. This chapter is focused on the emerging (bio)sensors to detect the heat-stable allergen gliadin in gluten-free foods. A brief overview concerning gliadin and its relation to celiac disease is provided. Several wor...

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given.

  4. Infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii in northern traditional (country) foods prepared with meat from experimentally infected seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lorry B; Measures, Lena; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2009-08-01

    Serological and clinical evidence of human toxoplasmosis in the Canadian Arctic indicates a food safety risk associated with the consumption of wild game meat. Such meat often is eaten raw or partially cooked in locally prepared traditional (country) foods, but no data have been collected to describe survival of Toxoplasma gondii forms in these foods. The muscle of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts was used to prepare three country foods: igunaq, a fermented product; nikku, a dried product; and sausage, a salted and spiced product. Igunaq and nikku were stored at 4 degrees C and bioassayed in cats at 49, 95, and 140 days postpreparation (DPP) and 41, 84, and 132 DPP, respectively. Raw and cooked sausages were stored at -20 degrees C and bioassayed at 50, 92, and 141 DPP. The source seal meat was infective for cats, but none of the foods prepared with this meat were infective for cats. Some cooked sausages did not reach internal temperatures considered lethal for T. gondii. Data from studies in domestic animals suggested that the negative results in this experiment were due to temperature and duration of storage. Because of the possibility that T. gondii of arctic origin might be more freeze tolerant than the swine-origin isolate used in this experiment, additional studies are necessary to clarify the risks of toxoplasmosis associated with consumption of arctic country foods.

  5. Preparation of 2D crystals of membrane proteins for high-resolution electron crystallography data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Chami, Mohamed; Pantelic, Radosav S; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography is a powerful technique for the structure determination of membrane proteins as well as soluble proteins. Sample preparation for 2D membrane protein crystals is a crucial step, as proteins have to be prepared for electron microscopy at close to native conditions. In this review, we discuss the factors of sample preparation that are key to elucidating the atomic structure of membrane proteins using electron crystallography.

  6. Use of Whey and Whey Preparations in the Food Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Królczyk Jolanta B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in whey and whey preparations has considerably increased in recent years. Whey and whey preparations are the so-called “forgotten treasure” and, because of their unique properties, they have been “rediscovered” and have been increasingly frequently and successfully used by various production plants in the food industry. They have also been eagerly purchased by consumers who are aware of the role of whey preparations in adequate human nutrition. For many years, there has been a tendency in the food processing industry to use substitutes of ingredients in recipes of many products. This situation can be observed in the case of foods with reduced fat and sugar, or products for lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Whey - and more specifically, its preparations - can also be used as a substitute. According to many literature sources, its use can have a positive impact not only on the consumers’ health but also on the finances of many companies, by reducing the costs of raw materials, and thus production costs. This review paper presents selected uses of whey and whey preparations in the food industry. The uses of whey discussed include: meat and meat products, reduced-fat products, yoghurts and ice creams, cheeses, bakery products, confectionery and pastry products, infant formulas, and whey drinks.

  7. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...

  8. Preparation of stable food-grade double emulsions with a hybrid premix membrane emulsification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that food-grade double emulsions can be successfully prepared using a hybrid premix emulsification system. A coarse emulsion containing beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% or 1.0% whey protein isolate solution as outer water phase

  9. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  10. Data-driven Methods for the Study of Food Perception, Preparation, Consumption, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of food consumption, in the broadest sense, intersects with a wide range of academic disciplines. The perception of food involves molecular biology, chemistry, soft-matter physics, neuroscience, psychology, physiology, and even machine learning. Our choices and preparation of food are of interest to anthropologists, social scientists, historians, philosophers, and linguists. The advent of information technology has enabled the accumulation and analysis of large amounts of food-related data, from the interactions of biomolecules and the chemical properties of aroma compounds to online recipes and food-related social media postings. In this perspective article, we outline several areas in which the availability and analysis of data can inform us about general principles that may underlie the perception of food and the diversity of culinary practice. One of these areas is the study of umami taste through a combination of chemical analysis and quantitative sensory evaluation for a wide range of fermented products. Another is the mapping of global culinary diversity by mining online recipes and the analysis of culinary habits recorded by individuals on social media. A third area is the study of the properties of flavor compounds and the application of these insights in the context of high-end gastronomy. These examples illustrate that large-scale data analysis is already transforming our understanding of food perception and consumption, and that it is likely to fundamentally influence our food choices and habits in the future.

  11. Infant food from quality protein maize and chickpea: optimization for preparing and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Valdez, C; Milán-Carrillo, J; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Bello-Pérez, L A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2005-06-01

    The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from quality protein maize and extruded chickpea flour (ECF) for producing an infant food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NMF/ECF mixture and the infant food. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the best combination of NMF/ECF; the experimental design (Lattice simplex) generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein and available lysine. Each one of 11 mixtures was used for preparing 11 infant foods that were sensory evaluated for acceptability. A common optimum value for the three response variables was obtained utilizing the desirability method. The best combination of NMF/ECF for producing an infant food was NMF = 26.7%/ECF = 73.3%; this optimized mixture had a global desirability of 0.87; it contained 19.72% dry matter (DM) proteins, 6.10% (DM) lipids, 71.45% (DM) carbohydrates, and 2.83% (DM) minerals; its essential amino acids profile covered the amino acids requirements for children 10-12 years old. The infant food prepared from optimized mixture had an in vitro protein digestibility of 87.9%, and a calculated protein efficiency ratio of 1.86. Infant food could be used to support the growth of infants in developing countries.

  12. Probabilistic risk model for staphylococcal intoxication from pork-based food dishes prepared in food service establishments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Griffiths, Mansel W; Fazil, Aamir M; Lammerding, Anna M

    2009-09-01

    Foodborne illness contracted at food service operations is an important public health issue in Korea. In this study, the probabilities for growth of, and enterotoxin production by, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat-based foods prepared in food service operations were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Data on the prevalence and concentration of S. aureus as well as compliance to guidelines for time and temperature controls during food service operations were collected. The growth of S. aureus was initially estimated by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Pathogen Modeling Program. A second model based on raw pork meat was derived to compare cell number predictions. The correlation between toxin level and cell number as well as minimum toxin dose obtained from published data was adopted to quantify the probability of staphylococcal intoxication. When data gaps were found, assumptions were made based on guidelines for food service practices. Baseline risk model and scenario analyses were performed to indicate possible outcomes of staphylococcal intoxication under the scenarios generated based on these data gaps. Staphylococcal growth was predicted during holding before and after cooking, and the highest estimated concentration (4.59 log CFU/g for the 99.9th percentile value) of S. aureus was observed in raw pork initially contaminated with S. aureus and held before cooking. The estimated probability for staphylococcal intoxication was very low, using currently available data. However, scenario analyses revealed an increased possibility of staphylococcal intoxication when increased levels of initial contamination in the raw meat, andlonger holding time both before and after cooking the meat occurred.

  13. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  15. Preparation, storage stability and palatability of spent hen meal based pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, P; Kulkarni, V V; Sivakumar, K

    2010-06-01

    Extruded pet foods were prepared by extrusion process incorporating dry rendered spent hen meal (SHM) at 10 and 20% levels, and packed in LDPE bags before storage at room temperature (35 ± 2°C) up to 45 days. The colour of the pet foods was uniformly brown with pleasant meaty odour. The thiobarbituric acid, tyrosine values, free fatty acid content and acid value and total bacterial counts increased gradually during storage but E.coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp and fungi were not detected during storage. The pet owners rated the pet foods as good. The body weight of the adult pet dogs did not decrease during the feeding trial of one month and the health condition of pets was good. The cost of production per kg of pet food containing 10 and 20% SHM was Rs 18.00 and Rs 22.75, respectively. It was concluded that a pet food (whole meal) with good nutritive quality and palatability to dogs can be prepared by incorporating 10-20% of spent hen meal which can be safely stored up to 45 days at room temperature.

  16. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; Plichta, Jennifer; Zeira, Ohad; Rivera, Randy; Wang, Susan; Pottle, Bill; Leung, Calvin; Vicens, Carrie; Tao, Christine; Beers, Craig; Fung, Grace; Levine, Jacob; Yoo, Jaeshin; Jackson, Joanna; Saikkonen, Kelly; Zimmerman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  17. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  18. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-12-04

    Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article.

  19. Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, N.; van Druten, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Individual multiwalled carbon nanotube field emitters were prepared in a scanning electron microscope. The angular current density, energy spectra, and the emission stability of the field-emitted electrons were measured. An estimate of the electron source brightness was extracted from the

  20. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  1. PtRu/C Electrocatalysts Prepared Using Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation for Methanol Electrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles were prepared in a single step submitting water/2-propanol mixtures containing Pt(IV and Ru(III ions and the carbon support to gamma and electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electrooxidation. PtRu/C electrocatalyst can be prepared in few minutes using high dose rate electron beam irradiation while using low dose rate gamma irradiation some hours were necessary to prepare it. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc structure of Pt and Pt alloys with average nanoparticle sizes of around 3 nm. The material prepared using electron beam irradiation was more active for methanol electrooxidation than the material prepared using gamma irradiation.

  2. Electronic Noses As Flexible Tools For Evaluating Food Quality And Safety: Can We Trust Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2011-09-01

    Since most food adulterations are reflected on volatile chemical profile, Electronic Noses (ENs) appear as excellent candidates for process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation, sensory and authenticity assessment, microbial contamination diagnosis [1]. In this study three applications recently carried out in our laboratory are presented and discussed, with the aim to illustrate three paradigmatic and diverse issues related to food quality control in which EN can find application and discuss the reliability of sensor technology in food analysis.

  3. Design of an electronic performance support system for food chemistry laboratory classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    The design oriented research described in this thesis aims at designing an realizing an electronic performance support system for food chemistry laboratory classes (labEPSS). Four design goals related to food chemistry laboratory classes were identified. Firstly, labEPSS should avoid extraneous cogn

  4. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  5. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    白土, 弘子; 井川, 佳子

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  6. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Gender, Age, Education, and Household Size on Meal Preparation and Food Shopping Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Anne, Flagg; Bisakha, Sen; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Locher, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which the gendered division of labor persists within households in the US in regard to meal planning/preparation and food shopping activities. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects Subsample of 3,195 adults at least 20 years old who had a spouse or partner. Results Analyses revealed that the majority of women and men reported that they shared in both meal planning/preparing and food shopping activities (meal planning/preparation: women, 54 % and men, 56 % and food shopping: women, 60 % and men, 57 %). Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to men, women are more likely to take primary responsibility than to share this responsibility and are less likely to report having no responsibility for these tasks. Gender differences were observed for age/cohort, education, and household size. Conclusions This study may have implications for public health nutritional initiatives and the well-being of families in the US. PMID:23988018

  8. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Characterization of nanomaterials in food by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Tiede, Karen; Löschner, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in the food industry. In order to assess the efficacy and the risks of these materials, it is essential to have access to methods that not only detect the nanomaterials, but also provide information on the characteristics of the materials...

  10. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  11. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhen Li; Chao Wu; Yanyan Liu; Tiebing Liu; Zheng Jiao; Minghong Wu

    2008-11-01

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and morphology of prepared PbSe nanoparticles were analysed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The results indicated that the obtained materials were cubic nanocrystalline PbSe with an average grain size of 30 nm. The optical properties of prepared PbSe nanocrystalline were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The possible mechanism of the PbSe grain growth by electron beam irradiation method is proposed.

  12. Electron Cryomicroscopy of Membrane Proteins: Specimen Preparation for Two-Dimensional Crystals and Single Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possi...

  13. An Economic Analysis of Electron Accelerators and Cobalt-60 for Irradiating Food

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Rosanna Mentzer

    1989-01-01

    Average costs per pound of irradiating food are similar for the electron accelerator and cobalt-60 irradiators analyzed in this study, but initial investment costs can vary by $1 million. Irradiation costs range from 0.5 to 7 cents per pound and decrease as annual volumes treated increase. Cobalt-60 is less expensive than electron beams for annual volumes below 50 million pounds. For radiation source requirements above the equivalent of 1 million curies of cobalt-60, electron beams are more e...

  14. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin; Reza; Sharmin; Aktar; Hasan; Al; Amin; Mashiur; Rahman; Afroza; Arefin; Nayan; Chandra; Mohanto; Shahnur; Alam; Abdullah; Al; Mamun; Anwar; Habib; Asafudullah; Farjana; Nikkon; Khaled; Hossain; Zahangir; Alam; Saud

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh.The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit.To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose.Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups.Group Ⅰ was used as control,while Groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ received hydrose mixing food(5.10 and 25 g/kg food),respectively,and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study(16weeks).Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken.To determine the effect of hydrose on host,blood indices related to liver,heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Result:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly(P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice,whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice.Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation,increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals.Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  15. In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuhin Reza; Asafudullah; Farjana Nikkon; Khaled Hossain; Zahangir Alam Saud; Sharmin Aktar; Hasan Al Amin; Mashiur Rahman; Afroza Arefin; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Shahnur Alam; Abdullah Al Mamun; Anwar Habib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh.Methods:Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group I was used as control, while Groups II, III and IV received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured.Results:Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.

  16. Manuscript Preparation, Submission and Features of the Electronic IBVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, A.

    IBVS is a small journal in the field of variable star research, which is fully electronic now. The HTML version of the journal features object database links and reference links. The necessary markup is provided by the authors, using the macros implemented in the LaTeX style file. We are testing a web-based manuscript submission tool, which would enable authors to submit data files, draw or upload simple figures, and enter plain ASCII or LaTeX text. The text is typeset on the server. The submitted manuscript can be previewed, and links tested by the authors themselves. The markup has been designed to facilitate automatic information exchange between the journal and databases. A short description is given on the other features of the electronic IBVS.

  17. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of k-Carrageenan/SiO$_2$ nanocomposite films for antimicrobial food packaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R VENKATESAN; N RAJESWARI; T THENDRAL THIYAGU

    2017-06-01

    Kappa-Carrageenan (KCG) films have been formulated as a packaging material. This study has been conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating SiO$_2$ nanoparticles inside the KCG matrix, with the aim of enhancing the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of KCG for reinforcement purposes. Films were prepared by solution casting technique with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt% of SiO$_2$ nano-filler content taking neat KCG as the reference for the study. Structural characterizations of the prepared nanocomposite films were carried out by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope (SEM) andtransmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. SEM and TEM showed homogeneous dispersion of SiO$_2$ nanoparticles in the KCG matrix. The tensile strength increased significantly by introducing the SiO$_2$ nanoparticles into the KCG matrix, in which KCG/SiO$_2$ films have greater tensile strength (53.9 MPa) when compared to the KCG polymer (46.8 MPa). The moisture uptake (MU) of nanocomposites decreased when SiO2 was introduced into the polymer matrix. The barrier property of the prepared KCG-based nanocomposite films decreased oxygen transmission rate with loading of different wt%of SiO$_2$. SiO$_2$ nanoparticle-loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains compared to polymer film. This study was intended to find the applications for KCG films containing SiO$_2$ nanoparticles to enhance the shelf-life of foods in the form of biodegradable wrapper.

  18. [Salmonella destruction by heating during the customary preparation of dehydrated food products (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschke, R

    1980-01-01

    Defined number of S. Senftenberg W 775 (between 300 000 and 16 000 000 colony forming units in relation to 1 ml of the ready-to-serve-product) were added to 21 different dehydrated ready-to-eat-meals (no baby and junior food) cutomary in trade, of which 11 were cooked for a certain period of time, while 10 were prepared with boiling water only. No surviving salmonellae were found in any of the products ready for consumption. All samples were subject to temperature control. In this paper 6 examples are given to show temperature control during the phase of preparation. More than 1800 examinations performed by us on comparable products revealed no salmonellae in samples between 20 and 50 g. However, in view of the ubiquity of salmonaellae today, incidental positive findings in dehydrated products of this type cannot be excluded; but such findings would not defintely mean degredation of the product. If properly prepared, the food concerned is not dangerous to the consumer.

  19. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  20. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  1. The role of food-related shopping and preparation practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Stancu, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    symptoms were measured using the CES-D 20 scale. Quality of diet was based on intake frequencies of seven food categories. Impulse buying tendency, food-related practices on eating food on-the-go, storing foods at home, cooking skills, food choice motives and meal patterns were measured using multi......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive......Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food...

  2. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified b

  3. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  4. IRANIAN AND TURKISH FOOD CULTURES: A COMPARISON THROUGH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN TERMS OF PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Avcıoğlu, Gamze Gizem; Avcıoğlu, Gürcan Şevket

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative sociological analysis of Iranian and Turkish food cultures in terms of food preparation, distribution and consumption. Moreover, contribution is intended to be made to the field of applied food sociology. The research design carries features of a qualitative research. Of the qualitative research techniques, observation and interview form were used in the study. Research findings were obtained through observations made in Tehran, the capital c...

  5. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  6. [Food poisoning following consumption of canned meat prepared by a butcher (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M J; Bijker, P G

    1976-04-01

    A case of food poisoning possibly caused by the ingestion of canned meat is reported. Large numbers of micro-organisms (approximately 10(7)/gram), mainly Enterobacteriaceae and streptococci, were isolated from the contents of three cans. The contents of another can contained approximately 10(5) Bacillus spp. per gram. The meat preserves had been prepared in a butcher's shop and heated in a "cooking pot", the steam holes of which had been stopped up and the lid of which had been made heavier in order to reach a temperature above 100 degrees C. Inadequate sterilization and errors in processing are suggested as possible causes.

  7. Treatment of foods with 'soft-electrons' (low-energy electrons)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute (NFRI), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electrons with energies of 300 keV or lower were defined as soft-electrons'. Soft-electrons can eradicate microorganisms residing on the surface of grains, pulses, spices, dehydrated vegetables, tea leaves and seeds, and reduce their microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g with little quality deterioration. Soft-electrons can inactivate insect pests infesting grains and pulses and inhibit sprouting of potatoes. (author)

  8. Electron microscopy of flatworms standard and cryo-preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvenmoser, Willi; Egger, Bernhard; Achatz, Johannes G; Ladurner, Peter; Hess, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) has long been indispensable for flatworm research, as most of these worms are microscopic in dimension and provide only a handful of characters recognizable by eye or light microscopy. Therefore, major progress in understanding the histology, systematics, and evolution of this animal group relied on methods capable of visualizing ultrastructure. The rise of molecular and cellular biology renewed interest in such ultrastructural research. In the light of recent developments, we offer a best-practice guide for users of transmission EM and provide a comparison of well-established chemical fixation protocols with cryo-processing methods (high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, HPF/FS). The organisms used in this study include the rhabditophorans Macrostomum lignano, Polycelis nigra and Dugesia gonocephala, as well as the acoel species Isodiametra pulchra.

  9. Decontamination of food packaging using electron beam--status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittendorfer, J. E-mail: htcmitt@eunet.at; Bierbaumer, H.P.; Gratzl, F.; Kellauer, E

    2002-03-01

    In this paper the status of food packaging disinfection decontamination using electron beam at Mediscan GmbH is presented. The first section of the paper describes the activities at the service center, where food packaging materials, e.g. yoghurt cups are decontaminated in their final shipment containers. As important step in the hazard analysis and critical control point of food processing, microbiological uncontaminated food packaging material is of public interest and attracts a lot of attention from packaging material producers and food processors. The dose ranges for different sterility assurance levels are discussed and results from microbiological test are presented. Studies at Mediscan have demonstrated, that an electron beam treatment at a dose of 5-7 kGy is most effective against yeast and mold, which are mainly responsible for spoilage and short shelf-life of a variety of products. The second section is devoted to the field of inline decontamination of food packaging and sterilization of pharmaceutical packaging material and the research currently conducted at Mediscan. The requirements for industrial inline electron beam systems are summarized and design concepts discussed in terms of beam energy, beam current, irradiation topology, product handling and shielding.

  10. Decontamination of food packaging using electron beam—status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, J.; Bierbaumer, H. P.; Gratzl, F.; Kellauer, E.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper the status of food packaging disinfection decontamination using electron beam at Mediscan GmbH is presented. The first section of the paper describes the activities at the service center, where food packaging materials, e.g. yoghurt cups are decontaminated in their final shipment containers. As important step in the hazard analysis and critical control point of food processing, microbiological uncontaminated food packaging material is of public interest and attracts a lot of attention from packaging material producers and food processors. The dose ranges for different sterility assurance levels are discussed and results from microbiological test are presented. Studies at Mediscan have demonstrated, that an electron beam treatment at a dose of 5-7 kGy is most effective against yeast and mold, which are mainly responsible for spoilage and short shelf-life of a variety of products. The second section is devoted to the field of inline decontamination of food packaging and sterilization of pharmaceutical packaging material and the research currently conducted at Mediscan. The requirements for industrial inline electron beam systems are summarized and design concepts discussed in terms of beam energy, beam current, irradiation topology, product handling and shielding.

  11. Sterilization of foods with low-energy electrons (``soft-electrons'')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toru; Takahashi, Yoko; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1998-06-01

    Electrons with an energy of 300 keV or lower were defined as "Soft-electrons", which showed several advantages over conventional irradiation with gamma-rays or high-energy electrons in decontamination of grains and spices. Energies of electrons necessary to reduce microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g were 60 keV for brown rice, 75 keV for wheat, 100 keV for white pepper, coriander and basil, 130 keV for buckwheat, 160 keV for rough rice, and 210 keV for black pepper. Electrons with such energies did not significantly influence the quality.

  12. Sterilization of foods with low-energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Takahashi, Yoko; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1998-06-01

    Electrons with an energy of 300 keV or lower were defined as 'Soft-electrons', which showed several advantages over conventional irradiation with gamma-rays or high-energy electrons in decontamination of grains and spices. Energies of electrons necessary to reduce microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g were 60 keV for brown rice, 75 keV for wheat, 100 keV for white pepper, coriander and basil, 130 keV for buckwheat, 160 keV for rough rice, and 210 keV for black pepper. Electrons with such energies did not significantly influence the quality.

  13. Preparation and analysis of styrene oligomers containing migrates from various polystyrenes used in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klärner, P; Klenz, R; Eder, R; Volz, W E; Schnell, H W; Leyendecker, D; Güntner, A; Niessner, N; Morris, C R; Christian, M S

    1998-01-01

    An oligostyrene-like product (F2L5250) was reported to have estrogen-like activity (statistically significant increases in means for absolute uterine weight and the ratios of the uterine weight to terminal body weight) in juvenile female rats provided a dietary concentration of 100 ppm F2L5250 for four consecutive days. The highest no-effect-level (NOEL) for estrogenic activity was 80 ppm in the diet, corresponding to a daily intake of 13.3 mg F2L5250/kg. Although it is unlikely that such estrogenic tetramers would occur in commercial polystyrene, the Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored the current extensive project to address any concern that human consumption of styrene oligomers migrating from polystyrene containers into food, e.g., from packaged yoghurt, or from the use of EPS coffee cups and related products, might affect human health. To ensure confidentiality and compliance with the highest scientific and regulatory standards, the entire project was conducted without knowledge of the oligomer migrates tested, and all activities were managed and audited under a contract between the SSC and a third party, Argus International. This paper describes the preparation and analyses of the 23 representative polystyrenes [9 general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS), 8 high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) and 6 expandable polystyrenes (EPS)] evaluated for estrogenicity in an in vivo uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. The polystyrene samples were chosen to represent food packaging applications. They were obtained from participating European Polystyrene Manufacturers, coded at the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands (TNO) and sent to BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany for preparation of test bars (GPPS and HIPS) or test foam parts (EPS). The prepared polystyrene test bars or test foam parts were submitted to elution with 50% aqueous (v/v) ethanol for 10 days at 40 degrees C, a procedure which

  14. Metal Oxide Sensors for Electronic Noses and Their Application to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (E-noses) use various types of electronic gas sensors that have partial specificity. This review focuses on commercial and experimental E-noses that use metal oxide semi-conductors. The review covers quality control applications to food and beverages, including determination of freshness and identification of contaminants or adulteration. Applications of E-noses to a wide range of foods and beverages are considered, including: meat, fish, grains, alcoholic drinks, non-alcoholic drinks, fruits, milk and dairy products, olive oils, nuts, fresh vegetables and eggs. PMID:22319332

  15. Metal Oxide Sensors for Electronic Noses and Their Application to Food Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Berna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (E-noses use various types of electronic gas sensors that have partial specificity. This review focuses on commercial and experimental E-noses that use metal oxide semi-conductors. The review covers quality control applications to food and beverages, including determination of freshness and identification of contaminants or adulteration. Applications of E-noses to a wide range of foods and beverages are considered, including: meat, fish, grains, alcoholic drinks, non-alcoholic drinks, fruits, milk and dairy products, olive oils, nuts, fresh vegetables and eggs.

  16. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  17. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  18. Impact of water fluoride concentration on the fluoride content of infant foods and drinks requiring preparation with liquids before feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Fatemeh V; Moynihan, Paula J; Omid, Narges; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Maguire, Anne

    2012-10-01

    To measure the fluoride (F) content of infant foods and drinks requiring reconstitution with liquids prior to consumption and to determine the impact of water F concentration on their F content, as consumed, by measuring F content before and after preparation. In total, 58 infant powdered formula milks, dry foods and concentrated drinks were prepared with deionized water (pasta and rice', 'breakfast cereals', 'savoury meals' and 'powdered infant formula milks' were 0.38, 0.26, 0.18, 0.16 and 0.15 μg/g, respectively. The corresponding mean F concentrations were 0.97, 1.21, 0.86, 0.74 and 0.91 μg/g, respectively, when the same samples were prepared with fluoridated water. Although some nonreconstituted infant foods/drinks showed a high F concentration in their dry or concentrated forms, the concentration of F in prepared foods/drinks primarily reflected the F concentration of liquid used for their preparation. Some infant foods/drinks, when reconstituted with fluoridated water, may result in a F intake in infants above the suggested optimum range (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg body weight) and therefore may put infants at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Further research is necessary to determine the actual F intake of infants living in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities using reconstituted infant foods and drinks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Tehnika za proizvodnju hrane u terenskim uslovima / Technology for food preparation in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko M. Tešanović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U terenskim uslovima osnovna sredstva za pripremanje hrane su pokretne kuhinje. One se koriste u miru za vreme izvođenja vežbi, logorovanja, za obuku vojnika kuvara i u vojnim školama za obuku studenata i učenika intendantske službe. Izuzetno, mogu se koristiti za kuvanje jela kada se vojni restorani adaptiraju ili se zbog drugih razloga hrana ne može pripremati u njima. U Vojsci Srbije danas su u upotrebi sledeće vrste pokretnih kuhinja: kuhinja autoprikolica od 250, 200, 300 i 400 l i kuhinja tovarna od 25 l. Za pripremu hrane u terenskim uslovima OS NATO koriste veoma raznovrstan park poljskih tehničkih sredstava. / In field conditions, the basic means for food preparation are mobile kitchens. Mobile kitchens are used in peace time during exercise and camping as well as for training military chefs and students of logistic support in military schools. Exceptionally, they can be used for cooking meals when repairing or adapting military restaurants or for some other valid reasons. In the Army of Serbia today, there are the following types of mobile kitchens: mobile kitchen 250, 200, 300 and 400 l and a kitchen pack of 25 l. For the preparation of food in field conditions, NATO forces use a very versatile choice of field technical resources.

  20. Involvement in home meal preparation is associated with food preference and self-efficacy among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Farmer, Anna; Fung, Christina; Kuhle, Stefan; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between frequency of assisting with home meal preparation and fruit and vegetable preference and self-efficacy for making healthier food choices among grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Children were asked how often they helped prepare food at home and rated their preference for twelve fruits and vegetables on a 3-point Likert-type scale. Self-efficacy was measured with six items on a 4-point Likert-type scale asking children their level of confidence in selecting and eating healthy foods at home and at school. Schools (n =151) located in Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (n = 3398). A large majority (83-93 %) of the study children reported helping in home meal preparation at least once monthly. Higher frequency of helping prepare and cook food at home was associated with higher fruit and vegetable preference and with higher self-efficacy for selecting and eating healthy foods. Encouraging children to be more involved in home meal preparation could be an effective health promotion strategy. These findings suggest that the incorporation of activities teaching children how to prepare simple and healthy meals in health promotion programmes could potentially lead to improvement in dietary habits.

  1. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli.

  2. Comparison of an electronic versus traditional food diary for assessing dietary intake-A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Nicholas R; Fong, Mackenzie; Gerofi, James; Ferkh, Fatima; Leung, Chloris; Leung, Lisa; Zhang, Shaoyu; Skilton, Michael; Caterson, Ian D

    2017-04-15

    Paper-based estimated food diaries are often used in research to collect dietary data, despite this method being burdensome for both participants and researchers. Such food diaries are often time consuming, labour intensive, and rely on participant literacy and therefore may lead to greater rates of under-reporting. This study assessed the validity of the 'Boden Food Plate', a novel web-based electronic application, compared to a paper-based three-day estimated food diary. Participants were also asked to rate their satisfaction with the new electronic diary. Sixty-seven participants with overweight or obesity completed both the electronic and paper-based diaries at two different time-points. Baseline BMI of participants (mean±standard deviation (SD)) was 30.4±2.9kg/m(2), body weight was 87.6±13.4kg, and age was 42.3±7.7years. Fifty four percent (n=41) of the cohort were female. Bland Altman plots for total energy, and percentage of total energy intake from fat, carbohydrate, and protein, indicated wide limits of agreement between the two methods of dietary data collection, and in some analyses there were a few cases that did not lie within the 95% confidence intervals. Approximately 70% of participants rated the electronic food diary as easier to use and more fun when compared to the traditional paper-based estimated food diary. Innovative and visual dietary collection applications such as the 'Boden Food Plate' provide an enjoyable and interactive means of measuring nutritional intake in a time efficient manner. Further validation studies incorporating micronutrient analysis and to improve the applications validity are warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of educational and electronic medical record interventions on food allergy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelig, Ari; Harwayne-Gidansky, Ilana; Gault, Allison; Wang, Julie

    2016-09-01

    The growing prevalence of food allergies indicates a responsibility among primary care providers to ensure that their patients receive accurate diagnosis and management. To improve physician knowledge and management of food allergies by implementing educational and electronic medical record interventions. Pre- and posttest scores of pediatric residents and faculty were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an educational session designed to improve knowledge of food allergy management. One year later, a best practice advisory was implemented in the electronic medical record to alert providers to consider allergy referral whenever a diagnosis code for food allergy or epinephrine autoinjector prescription was entered. A review of charts 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention was completed to determine the impact of both interventions. Outcome measurements included referrals to an allergy clinic, prescription of self-injectable epinephrine, and documentation that written emergency action plans were provided. There was a significant increase in test scores immediately after the educational intervention (mean, 56.2 versus 84.3%; p management of children with food allergies at our pediatrics clinic. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve management of food allergies by primary care physicians.

  4. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  5. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  6. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  7. Application of electron linacs in medicine, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc-Tien

    1989-04-01

    A review of the state of the art and new trends in electron linac technology is given with emphasis on three particular applications: radiotherapy, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources. The requirements on linac performances that these applications call for, namely energy variation flexibility, high power, high energy and low cost, will open linacs to new applications to come.

  8. Application of electron linacs in medicine, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, D.T. (General Electric - CGR MeV, 78 - Buc (France))

    1989-04-01

    A review of the state of the art and new trends in electron linac technology is given with emphasis on three particular applications: radiotherapy, food sterilization and synchrotron light sources. The requirements on linac performances that these applications call for, namely energy variation flexibility, high power, high energy and lost cost, will open lincas to new applications to come. (orig.).

  9. Preparation of thermal resistant-enhanced separators for lithium ion battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Micro-porous membrane made of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) is most widely used as physical separators between the cathode and anode in lithium secondary batteries. However, the polymer membranes so soften or melt when the temperature reaches 130 .deg. C or higher because of thermal shrinkage of the polyolefin separators, and thaw low thermal stability may cause internal short circuiting or lead to thermal runaway. In this study, to realize a highly safe battery, we prepared three type separators as crosslinked PE separator, polymer-coated PE separator, and ceramic-coated PE separators, for lithium secondary battery by electron beam irradiation. We prepared crosslinked PE separators with the improved thermal stability by irradiating a commercial PE separator with an electron beam. A polymer-coated PE separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. Ceramic-coated PE separator was prepared by coating ceramic particles on a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The prepared separators were characterized with FT-IR, SEM, electrolyte uptake, ion conductivity, thermal shrinkage and battery performance test.

  10. Application of Electronic Noses for Disease Diagnosis and Food Spoilage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Francesco

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (socalled“electronic noses" have odour analyses made possible. This paper describes theapplications of these systems for microbial detection in different fields such as medicineand the food industry, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriatemanagement of health care. Several groups have employed different electronic noses forclassification and quantification of bacteria and fungi to obtain accurate medicaldiagnosis and food quality control. So far, detection and identification of bacterial andfungal volatiles have been achieved by use of e-noses offering different correctclassification percentages. The present review includes examples of bacterial and fungalspecies producing volatile compounds and correlated to infectious diseases or fooddeterioration. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology both inmedical diagnostics and in food control management.

  11. EVALUATION OF HONEY INCORPORATED FOOD PREPARATION ON THE BASIS OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND THEIR ADVOCACY IN IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seema

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and it is a nature’s gift to mankind. Honey is important edible substance, which contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins and sugars as major constituents. Honey is frequently used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as variety of the Ayurvedic preparations are taken along with or in combination with honey. The present study was conducted to determine the glycemic index of food products made with different natural sweeteners including honey. Normal healthy subjects (n = 10 and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10 were included in the study and administered with equicarbohydrate quantity of glucose and a food preparation ‘sweet roll’ containing different sweeteners at fasted state on various days. Monitoring of blood glucose in normal healthy subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes indicated a significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC of glucose and food preparations made with different sweeteners. The mean incremental area under the curve of food preparations was significantly lower (p = < 0.01 than that of glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance as well as normal healthy subjects. At the same time honey incorporated sweet rolls were found to have lower glycemic index when compared to rolls prepared with cane sugar and jaggery. This indicated honey incorporated foods may be occasionally consumed by subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  12. Sample preparation strategies for food and biological samples prior to nanoparticle detection and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Löschner, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    fractionation (AFFF, or AF4) coupled on-line to various detectors including static and dynamic light scattering (LS), UV or fluorescence (FL) spectroscopies and ICP-MS have proven useful and powerful [1, 2, 3]. Furthermore, additional information obtained by an imaging method such as transmission electron...... microscopy (TEM) proved to be necessary for trouble shooting of results obtained from AFFF-LS-ICP-MS. Aqueous and enzymatic extraction strategies were tested for thorough sample preparation aiming at degrading the sample matrix and to liberate the AgNPs from chicken meat into liquid suspension. The resulting...

  13. The Preparation and Properties of Niobium Superconducting Structures Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation in Uhv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin S.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This work has achieved the development of a fabrication method for the realisation of superconductor-insulator -superconductor (SIS) junctions based on niobium thin films with an artificial barrier layer. Such devices are likely to have advantages over lead alloy devices because of the enhanced mechanical and chemical stability. A principal objective was to attempt to exploit the offset mask technology developed by Dolan that has been successfully employed by Davies et.al. in the realisation of lead alloy SIS junction heterodyne mixers. In order to transfer this technology to niobium based devices it is essential that an evaporation method is used to allow shadow formation beneath the offset mask. As a result of the chemical reactivity and the low vapour pressure of niobium, a UHV system has been developed which incorporates an electrostatically focussed electron beam evaporation source. This is capable of providing deposition rates of close to 10A/sec. with a source to substrate distance of 120mm. During deposition the system pressure is below 5 times 10 ^{-9} mbar. These process parameters have been recorded, for a number of depositions, on a specially built data acquisition system controlled by a BBC microcomputer. Such recording allows detailed comparison of conditions which helps in the understanding of differences between the superconducting behaviour of various films. A further extremely important aspect of these real time measurements is that it helps to ensure optimum settings of the focus conditions of the electron beam source. The results of the depositions are extremely encouraging with critical temperatures of between 9.1 and 9.3K being achieved. These results compare well with expected values for bulk niobium. An all-metal offset mask technology has been developed to replace the photo-resist technique pioneered by Dolan. This new method is needed because the photo-resist is not compatible

  14. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable active PLA film for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Avallone, E.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on the preparation and characterization of a biodegradable active PLA film (aPLA), intended for food packaging applications. The film was obtained by cast extrusion blending a commercial PLA matrix with an active system, developed in our laboratory and based on PLA microparticles containing a-tocopherol (aTCP) as natural antioxidant agent. In order to optimize the film composition and processing, the active microparticles were preliminarily characterized with the aim to evaluate their morphology (size and shape), thermal resistance and a-tocopherol content. The aPLA film, produced with a 5wt% of aTCP, was characterized in terms of performance and activity. The experimental results demonstrated that the aPLA film has mechanical, thermal, barrier and optical properties adequate for packaging applications and shows oxygen scavenging activity and prolonged exhaustion lag time, compared to pure PLA films.

  15. Preparation and storage stability of flaxseed chutney powder, a functional food adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pamidighantam Prabhakara; Rao, Galla Narsing; Mala, Kripanand Sathiya; Balaswamy, Karakala; Satyanarayana, Akula

    2013-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) chutney powder (FSCP), a palatable functional food adjunct was prepared by mixing roasted and powdered flaxseeds with other selected spice ingredients. The protein content of these powders was 24.2% and 23.4% in flaxseed powder (FSP) and FSCP respectively. Total polyphenol content of FSP and FSCP was 439 and 522 mg/100 g respectively. The free fatty acid content of FSCP increased from 0.38 to 1.03 after 6 months storage. The critical moisture content for FSP and FSCP was 10.2 and 13.5%, which were equilibrated at 82 and 68% RH respectively and the ERH studies indicated both the powders are non-hygroscopic in nature. Overall sensory quality of FSCP served with cooked rice scored 'good' (7.4) even after 6 months of storage.

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopy Specimen Preparation Method for Multiphase Porous Functional Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    An optimum method is proposed to prepare thin foil transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamellae of multiphase porous functional ceramics: prefilling the pore space of these materials with an epoxy resin prior to focused ion beam milling. Several advantages of epoxy impregnation are demonstrate...

  17. Porridge deconstructed: a comparative linguistic approach to the history of staple starch food preparations in Bantuphone Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ricquier, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Despite the current interest in food studies, little is known about the culinary history of Central and Southern Africa. Using the methods of historical-comparative linguistics, this dissertation provides the first insights into the culinary traditions of early Bantu speech communities. The dissertation focuses on the history of staple starch food preparations, more specifically, the history of porridge and the integration of cassava into Kongo culinary traditions.

  18. Porridge deconstructed: a comparative linguistic approach to the history of staple starch food preparations in Bantuphone Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ricquier, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Despite the current interest in food studies, little is known about the culinary history of Central and Southern Africa. Using the methods of historical-comparative linguistics, this dissertation provides the first insights into the culinary traditions of early Bantu speech communities. The dissertation focuses on the history of staple starch food preparations, more specifically, the history of porridge and the integration of cassava into Kongo culinary traditions.

  19. Review: Highlights in recent applications of electronic tongues in food analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Vicente Andres Estelles s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain); Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-04-14

    This paper examines the main features of modern electronic tongues (e-tongues) and their most important applications in food analysis in this new century. The components of an e-tongue (automatic sampler, array of chemical sensors, and data processing system) are described. Applications commented include process monitoring, freshness evaluation and shelf-life investigation, authenticity assessment, foodstuff recognition, quantitative analysis, and other quality control studies. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of e-tongues in food analysis are also mentioned.

  20. Preparation and Application of Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol/Citric Acid Ternary Blend Antimicrobial Functional Food Packaging Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blend films were prepared with different ratios of starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. The influence of different ratios of starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid and different drying times on the performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility (WS, color difference (ΔE, and antimicrobial activity of the ternary blends films were investigated. The starch/polyvinyl alcohol/citric acid (S/P/C1:1:0, S/P/C3:1:0.08, and S/P/C3:3:0.08 films were all highly transparent. The S/P/C3:3:0.08 had a 54.31 times water-holding capacity of its own weight and its mechanical tensile strength was 46.45 MPa. In addition, its surface had good uniformity and compactness. The S/P/C3:1:0.08 and S/P/C3:3:0.08 showed strong antimicrobial activity to Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, which were the food-borne pathogenic bacteria used. The freshness test results of fresh figs showed that all of the blends prevented the formation of condensed water on the surface of the film, and the S/P/C3:1:0.08 and S/P/C3:3:0.08 prevented the deterioration of figs during storage. The films can be used as an active food packaging system due to their strong antibacterial effect.

  1. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption and separation of vanillin in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fangjian; Peng, Hailong; Dong, Liling; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin; Xiong, Hua

    2014-11-19

    Novel water-compatible superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were prepared by coating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with MIPs in a methanol-water reaction system. The M-MIPs were used for the selective adsorption and separation of vanillin from aqueous solution. The M-MIPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicated that a core-shell structure of M-MIPs was obtained by coating a layer of silica and MIPs on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The obtained M-MIPs possess a loose and porous structure and can be rapidly separated from the solution using a magnet. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of the M-MIPs was significantly higher than that of the superparamagnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (M-NIPs). Meanwhile, the adsorption of M-MIPs reached equilibrium within 100 min, and the apparent maximum adsorption quantity (Qmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were 64.12 μmol g(-1) and 58.82 μmol L(-1), respectively. The Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous binding sites were formed on the M-MIP surface. The recoveries of 83.39-95.58% were achieved when M-MIPs were used for the pre-concentration and selective separation of vanillin in spiked food samples. These results provided the possibility for the separation and enrichment of vanillin from complicated food matrices by M-MIPs.

  2. Survival of Haplorchis taichui metacercariae in Lab-Pla, Thai traditional food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuboon, Suksan; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Ruamsuk, Archaree; Nithikathkul, Chusak

    2005-01-01

    Lab-Pla is a famous kind of Thai traditional food in northern and northeasthern Thailand. Consumption of uncooked Lab-Pla can lead to trematode infection because cyprinoid fish serve as the 2nd intermediate hosts of trematodes. The preparation of Lab-Pla can be made in different ways, depending on seasonings used in different places. The effect of the seasonings used in Lab-Pla on the survival of Haplorchis taichui metacercariae were, therefore, determined. The methodology was done by the following: 100 g of chopped Siamese mud carp fish (Henicorhynchus siamensis) were used for each experiment of seasonings used for completely mixed Lab-Pla. Mixed materials were blended and digested by 1% pepsin solution to obtain metacercariae and then checked for the movement under a stereomicroscope. The results showed that metacercariae remained active in 5 experimental groups: fermented fish treated, fish sauce treated, chili powder treated, ground roasted rice treated, and complete mixed treated indicated by average as follows: 27, 38.7, 33.3, 42.7 and 21%, respectively. In conclusion, fermented fish and completely mixed methods have more effectiveness in killing metacercariae in Lab-Pla preparation than other seasonings (p < 0.05).

  3. Chemical characterization of Klason lignin preparations from plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Mirko; Schüssler, Anne; Tchetseubu Saha, Gérard

    2011-12-14

    To analyze the accuracy of the Klason lignin method as applied for the determination of lignin contents in plant based-food products, Klason lignin preparations from curly kale, pears, whole wheat grains, and corn bran were chemically characterized. Characterization included routine ash and protein determinations and the extraction of fat/waxes as well as cutin/suberin depolymerization and extraction of the liberated monomers. Fat/wax and cutin/suberin amounts in the Klason lignin preparations were determined gravimetrically, and their compositions were analyzed by using GC-MS. Typical fat, wax, and cutin (and suberin) constituents such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy and/or epoxy fatty acids, and phenolic acids were identified in all samples, whereas the detection of long-chain hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ketones, sterols, stanols, and dioic acids was dependent on the sample analyzed. Estimation of the contribution of non-lignin compounds to the Klason lignin contents reduced the noncorrected Klason lignin contents of the insoluble fibers from 28.7% (kale), 22.8% (pear), 14.8% (wheat), and 9.9% (corn) to maximum lignin contents of 6.5% (kale), 16.4% (pear), 4.9% (wheat), and 2.3% (corn). These data demonstrate that certain commonly used statements such as "cereal brans are highly lignified" need to be revised.

  4. Practical Guide to Using Cryoprotectants in Biological Sample Preparation at Cryogenic temperature for Electron Microscopic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Reum Je

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryo-fixation enables the preservation of the fine structures of intracellular organelles in a condition that is as close to their native state as possible compared with chemical fixation and room temperature processing. Fixation is the initial step for biological sample preparation in electron microscopy. This step is critically important because the goals of electron microscopic observation are fundamentally dependent on well-preserved specimens resulting from this fixation. In the present work, key components of cryo-fixation, cryoprotectants, are tested with various cell types of interest. The results show that dextran can be easily adapted for use with animal cells and cyanobacteria, whereas 1-hexadecene is applicable to plant and yeast cells. The current report provides useful information on the preparation of cryo-fixed biological specimens using high pressure freezing and freeze-substitution aimed at electron microscopic observation.

  5. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misid...

  6. Rapid Measurement of Food Adulteration with Minimal Sample Preparation and No Chromatography Using Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmia, Avinash

    2017-03-01

    A rapid method, with minimal sample preparation and no chromatography, was developed for analyzing food samples such as olive oil and pomegranate juice to measure adulteration with cheaper ingredients using the novel Direct Sample Analysis™ (DSA) ion source in conjunction with a time-of-flight (TOF)-MS. In less than 30 s, with minimal sample preparation and method development, adulteration of olive oil and pomegranate juice with cheaper seed oils and fruit juices, respectively, was measured with DSA/TOF-MS.

  7. Metallographic preparation of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy for analysis by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, M G; Martínez-Flores, E E; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Escalera, M Dolores

    2014-08-01

    Samples of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy (Zinalco) that will be heavily deformed were prepared using five different manual mechanical metallographic methods. Samples were analyzed before tensile testing using the orientation imaging microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (OIM-EBSD) technique. The effect of type and particle size during the final polishing stages for this material were studied in order to identify a method that produces a flat, damage free surface with a roughness of about 50 nm and clean from oxide layers, thereby producing diffraction patterns with high image quality (IQ) and adequate confidence indexes (CI). Our results show that final polishing with alumina and silica, as was previously suggested by other research groups for alloys that are difficult to prepare or alloys with low melting point, are not suitable for manual metallographic preparation of this alloy. Indexes of IQ and CI can be used to evaluate methods of metallographic preparation of samples studied using the OIM-EBSD technique.

  8. Development of the techniques for food processing with low-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to construct a new electron beam irradiation apparatus which allows to perform homogeneous irradiation up to a certain depth of a spherical or granular material through rotating it. And the sterilizing effects of this apparatus on various kinds of spices such as black and white peppers (grains), turmeric (root), coriander (seed), basil (leaves) were investigated to compare with the effects of {gamma}-ray irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was made changing the energy form 200 keV for 15 min to 500 keV for 5 min and a dose-depth curve was drawn for each electron energy. Indicator balls were used to examine the radiation effects. It became possible to make homogeneous irradiation onto a spherical surface of food by using the rotary system of the apparatus. It was demonstrated that satisfactory sterilizing effects as much as those of {gamma}-ray were obtainable by superficial treatments with low-energy electron. (M.N.)

  9. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  10. Application of an electronic tongue to detect gliadins in gluten-free foods

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, António M.; Dias, L. G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Meirinho, S.G.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Machado, A.A.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune-mediated disorder triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by the ingestion of some gluten proteins, namely gliadins. To prevent inadvertent gluten consumption, the Commission Regulation (EC) Nº41/2009 will implement labelling foods as “gluten-free” or “low-gluten content”[1]. The feasibility of an all-solid-state potentiometric electronic tongue to detect the contamination of “gluten-free” foodstuffs with gliadins was evaluated. The devi...

  11. New Technique for Successful Thermal Barrier Coating Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickey; Lee

    2000-05-01

    Reliability of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) hinges on the adhesion of a thermally grown oxide scale to an insulative ceramic topcoat and an underlying metallic bondcoat. The width of the scale and its interfaces makes transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an appropriate tool for its analysis. However, specimen preparation has proven to be a challenging obstacle leading to a dearth of TEM research on TBCs. A new approach to cross-section TBC TEM specimen preparation is described. The principal advantages of this technique are reproducibility, reduced specimen damage, and time savings resulting from decreased ion milling. This technique has been successfully applied to numerous TBC specimens with various thermal histories.

  12. Preparation of cluster states with trapped electrons on a liquid helium surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Ling-Yan; Shi Yan-Li; Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for the preparation of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) cluster states with electrons trapped on a liquid helium surface and driven by a classical laser beam.The two lowest levels of the vertical motion of the electron act as a two-level system,and the quantized vibration of the electron along one of the parallel directions (the x direction) serves as the bosonic mode.The degrees of freedom of the vertical and parallel motions of the trapped electron can be coupled together by a classical laser field.With the proper frequency of the laser field,the cluster states can be realized.

  13. Electron-Induced Secondary Electron Emission Properties of MgO/Au Composite Thin Film Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hu, Wenbo; Wei, Qiang; Wu, Shengli; Hua, Xing; Zhang, Jintao

    2016-12-01

    As a type of electron-induced secondary electron emitter, MgO/Au composite thin film was prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of individual Mg target and Au target, and the effects of key process parameters on its surface morphology and secondary electron emission (SEE) properties were investigated. It is found that to deposit a NiO buffer layer on the substrate is conducive to the subsequent growth of MgO grains owing to the lattice matching. The gold addition can raise the electrical conductivity of MgO film and further suppress the surface charging. However, the gold deposition would interfere with the MgO crystallization and increase the surface roughness of MgO/Au film. Therefore, MgO/Au composite thin film with a NiO buffer layer and proper deposition times of MgO and Au can achieve superior SEE properties due to good MgO crystallization, low surface roughness and reasonable electrical conductivity. The optimized MgO/Au composite thin film has a higher SEE coefficient and a lower 1-h SEE degradation rate under electron beam bombardment in comparison with MgO film.

  14. Preparation of {sup 114m}In low energy conversion electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, C., E-mail: wrede@uw.ed [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Filippone, B.W. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Garcia, A.; Harper, G.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lassell, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Liu, J. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Mendenhall, M.P. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Palmer, A.S.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pattie, R.W. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Will, D.I. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Young, A.R. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} Controlled ion implantation of In-113 into thin Al substrate. {yields} Production of In-114m (half life = 50 days) by neutron irradiation. {yields} Use of In-114m as a source of electron lines and continuum for calibrations. {yields} Source reactivation by short neutron irradiation. -- Abstract: The preparation of {sup 114m}In sources of conversion electrons in the energy range 162-190 keV and {beta} continuum with a 1989 keV endpoint via ion implantation of {sup 113}In into Al substrates and subsequent irradiation by thermal and epi-thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor is described.

  15. RECOVERY ASSESSMENT OF DAILY AND LABOUR ACTIVITIES (FOOD PREPARING AND FEEDING IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danelina Vacheva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulgaria is in a leading position concerning morbidity and mortality rate from cerebrovascular disease (CVD. The goal of this research was to examine, follow up and assess the recovery and the ability for food preparation and feeding in patients with CVD.Materials and methods: Sixty one patients were included in the research. All of them underwent physical rehabilitation program, based on their individual status. The program included: kinesitherapy, labour-therapy [(occupational therapy (OT and activities of daily life (ADL]; electrotherapy. The patients were assessed twice: in the beginning and at the end of the rehabilitation course. They self evaluated the basic parameters nevertheless which of the limbs was particularly affected. Wilcoxon rank test was used for the statistical analysis of non parametrical data and distribution. Results and analysis: At the end of the rehabilitation course the Wilcoxon’s curves were found shifted to the right, which confirmes improvement of the main parameter (self independence in the main task set to be fulfilled, no matter which limb was paretic.Conclusion: Early initiation of the rehabilitation course including labour activities and elements of ADL, given as instructions is essential for achieving better results in the rehabilitation of patients with CVD and for enhancing the self service ability. Functional OT stimulates the independence of patients and facilitates their recovering to independent everyday life and social activities.

  16. Non-home prepared foods : contribution to energy and nutrient intake of consumers living in two low-income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and

  17. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of food-poisoning bacterium Bacillus cereus using a variable-pressure SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masako; Wada, Masao; Akiba, Tsuneo; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    A variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) with a cooling stage permits long hours of observation of water-containing specimens in their natural or close to natural state, without the conventional specimen preparations of fixation, dehydration, drying and metal coating. It reduces water vaporization and beam damage by keeping the specimens at a low temperature. We observed Bacillus cereus colonies on nutrient agar, which would shrink significantly if any conventional specimen preparation technique were used. We also studied the growing process of the bacteria on raw and steamed rice using the VP-SEM without conventional preparation techniques. Original specimens were directly mounted onto specimen holders and their backscattered electron images observed under the following conditions: specimen stage temperature, -10 degrees C; specimen chamber vacuum level, 30-70 Pa; and accelerating voltage, 15-20 kV. We recognized that the VP-SEM minimized deformation of the colonies due to shrinkage of the nutrient agar, and successfully imaged the morphology of the colonies and bacteria without a decline in bacteria number, which is apt to occur during fixation and dehydration. Also, the growth process of the bacteria on raw or steamed rice could be observed promptly, since there is no specimen preparation step.

  19. Specimen preparation by ion beam slope cutting for characterization of ductile damage by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Hans-Bernward; Gerstein, Gregory; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    To investigate ductile damage in parts made by cold sheet-bulk metal forming a suited specimen preparation is required to observe the microstructure and defects such as voids by electron microscopy. By means of ion beam slope cutting both a targeted material removal can be applied and mechanical or thermal influences during preparation avoided. In combination with scanning electron microscopy this method allows to examine voids in the submicron range and thus to analyze early stages of ductile damage. In addition, a relief structure is formed by the selectivity of the ion bombardment, which depends on grain orientation and microstructural defects. The formation of these relief structures is studied using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction and the use of this side effect to interpret the microstructural mechanisms of voids formation by plastic deformation is discussed. A comprehensive investigation of the suitability of ion beam milling to analyze ductile damage is given at the examples of a ferritic deep drawing steel and a dual phase steel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    peppers from Mexico in the summer of 2008)5 can be an effective vector for illness. The cases mentioned above are due to lapses in food safety, so what...BIOTERRORISM AGENTS AND DISEASES CDC CATEGORY A17 CDC CATEGORY B18 SELECT HHS/USDA19 ANTHRAX CHOLERA BRUCELLOSIS BOTULISM E.COLI EPSILON TOXIN PLAGUE

  1. Characterization of epoxy resin containing nano clay prepared by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Seok; Lee, Seung Jun; Lim, Youn Mook; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Shin, Young Min; Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chan [Research Division for Industry AND Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Epoxy resin is widely used as aerospace, automobile, construction and electronics due to their good mechanical and electrical properties and environmental advantages. However, the inherent flammability of epoxy resin has limited its application in some field where good flame retardancy is required. Nano clay can enhance the properties of polymers such as flames retardancy and thermal stability. In this study, we have investigated the nanoclay filled epoxy composite, which has good flame retardancy while maintaining high mechanical properties. The cured epoxy resins were obtained using an electron beam curing process. The nano clays were dispersed in epoxy acrylate solution and mechanically stirred. The prepared mixtures were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator. The composites were characterized by gel content and thermal/ mechanical properties. Moreover, the flammability of the composite was evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI). The flame retardancy of nano clay filled epoxy composite was evidently improved.

  2. Assessing the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard of 2016: Can Americans Access Electronic Disclosure Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Berning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The debate as to whether to require mandatory labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO foods was partially settled on 29 July 2016, when President Obama signed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard into public law. In contrast to precipitating legislation passed by the State of Vermont that required disclosure of GMO ingredients on food shelves or food packages, the superseding National Standard allows firms to disclose bioengineered ingredients to consumers via symbols, electronic or digital links, or phone numbers, and further requires a study assessing the ability of consumers to access disclosure information by these means. This communication analyzes survey responses from 525 adults to investigate whether U.S. consumers are able to obtain information as per the disclosure methods allowed in the Federal legislation. The survey probes deeper to investigate consumer perceptions of genetically modified organisms and whether consumers would use the tools available to access disclosure about bioengineered ingredients. Findings from the survey show that 93.8% of respondents have the ability to access information via the disclosure methods permitted. Those in the lowest income group, and from the oldest age group are least likely to have such access. This provides the United State Department of Agriculture with information relevant to how they can implement the law and highlights particular demographic segments that may require additional attention to ensure the disclosed information is universally accessible.

  3. Sanitation in classroom and food preparation areas in child-care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgenent, Kelly C; Cates, Sheryl C; Fraser, Angela; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 60% of U.S. children aged five and younger spend time in child-care settings. Such environments increase the risk of diarrheal disease, including diseases caused by enteric pathogens. To describe adherence to sanitation standards in classrooms and food preparation areas in child-care facilities, the authors conducted site visits in 40 North Carolina and South Carolina child-care facilities. Audits in up to two classrooms (rooms providing care for infants and toddlers) and the kitchen were performed using a form similar to a regulatory inspection form. Audit data were used to calculate indices to describe adherence to sanitation standards and were based on state environmental health regulations for child-care centers, the Food and Drug Administration's Food Code 2009, and guidance from food safety experts. Most facilities participating in the authors' study adhered to sanitation standards within the classroom; however, deficiencies with regard to sanitation in food preparation areas and refrigerator operating temperatures were noted. These results provide insight into possible risk factors for enteric disease transmission in child-care facilities.

  4. Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Gayet, D.P.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, M.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest food resources contribute significantly to food supply in areas where they grow. Three fermented baobab foods were studied: Dikouanyouri (from seeds, pH = 6.5); Tayohounta (from seed kernels, pH = 7), and Mutchayan (from baobab pulp and sorghum, pH = 4.2). Bacillus spp. (8.5 and 9.5 Log cfu /

  5. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for... generated from machine sources at energy levels not to exceed 10 million electron volts (MeV); (3)...

  6. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowson, Andrew.

    1991-09-01

    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author).

  7. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured Pt/TiO2 thin films treated using electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Hyeok; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Bo-Hye; Lee, Byung Cheol; Jun, Jin

    2010-05-01

    Pt nanoparticle-doped titanium dioxide (Pt/TiO2) thin films were prepared on a silicon wafer substrate by sol-gel spin coating process. The prepared thin films were treated with electron beam (EB at 1.1 MeV, 100, 200, 300 kGy) at air atmosphere. The effect of EB-irradiation on the composition of the treated thin films, optical properties and morphology of thin films were investigated by various analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal structure of the TiO2 layer was found to be an anatase phase and the size of TiO2 particles was determined to be about 13 nm. Pt nanoparticles with diameter of 5 nm were observed on surface of the films. A new layer (presumed to be Pt-Ti complex and/or PtO2 compound) was created in the Pt/TiO2 thin film treated with EB (300 kGy). The transmittance of thin film decreased with EB treatment whereas the refractive index increased.

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium in powdered weaning food by electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yun-Hee [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Yong [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myong-Soo [Department of Food Science, Ehwa Women' s University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sung [Center for Food safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyungsook; Won, Misun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in powdered weaning food using electron-beam irradiation. E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium were eliminated by irradiation at 16, 8, and 8 kGy, respectively. The D{sub 10}-vlaues of E. sakazakii, B. cereus, and S. typhimurium inoculated on powdered weaning food were 4.83, 1.22, and 0.98 kGy, respectively. The results suggest that electron-beam irradiation should inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on baby food without impairing qualities.

  9. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers.

  10. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  11. Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ruimin [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: zhourm47@staff.shu.edu.cn; Wu Xinfeng; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongbin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Rao Weihong [Shenzhen Tianding Fine Chemical Engineering Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Electron beam radiation was applied to prepare nano-size copper in water system using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, gluten and polyethylene glycol as the surfactants, respectively. The irradiated products were characterized by XRD, TEM and LSPSDA. The XRD and TEM showed that relative pure copper products with an average size of 20 nm, 40 nm and 20 nm can be obtained by using gluten, PEG and SDBS as surfactant, respectively. An admixture of copper and cuprous oxide was obtained in PVA system. The LSPSDA showed that the size of the Cu nanoparticles decreased with increasing the glutin concentration.

  12. Edible flowers of Viola tricolor L. as a new functional food: antioxidant activity, individual phenolics and effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Amanda; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Villavicencio, Anna L C H; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-15

    Edible flowers are used in food preparations, being also recognized for their beneficial effects on human health. Nevertheless, these species are highly perishable, and irradiation treatment might be applied to ensure food quality and increase their shelf life. Viola tricolor L. is a typical edible flower, with multiple applications and biological properties, mainly provided by the flavonoid content. In the present work, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using biochemical assays. Linear discriminant analyses (LDA) were performed in order to compare the results obtained with flowers submitted to different irradiation doses and technologies (cobalt-60 and electron-beam). In general, irradiated samples (mostly with 1 kGy) showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the significant differences observed in the LDA allow determination of which dose and/or technology is suitable to obtain flowers with higher antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-12-15

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature.

  14. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2008-12-01

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature.

  15. Preparation of Modified Magnetic Nanocomposites Dithiooxamide/Fe3O4 for Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Cobalt Ions in Food and Natural Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first study on the high efficiency of nanometer-sized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and dithiooxamide as a new sorbent solid phase extraction has been reported. Modified magnetic nanicomposites was used to preconcentrate and separate Co (II ions in food and environmental water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation of Fe (II and Fe (III salts from aqueous solution by ammonia solution. These magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and elemental analysis CHNS. A micro sample introduction system was employed for the nebulization micro-volume of diluted solution into flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction conditions were optimized by selecting the appropriate extraction parameters including the amount of nanosorbent, pH value, volume of dithiooxamide and condition of eluting solution. The detection limit of this method for Co (II ions was 1.21 ng ml-1 and the R.S.D. was 0.9% (n=6. The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of nanosorbents and a high preconcentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Co (II ions at trace levels in real samples such as, kiwi, orange, cucumber, apple, green pepper, honey, potato, tap water, river water and sea water with satisfactory results.

  16. Electron microscopic and preparative methods for the analysis of isopod cuticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Hans Michael Seidl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustacean cuticle consists of a complex organic matrix and a mineral phase. The physical and chemical properties of the cuticle are corellated to the specific functions of cuticular elements, leading to a large variety in its structure and composition. Investigation of the structure-function relationship in crustacean cuticle requires sophisticated methodological tools for the analysis of different aspects of the cuticular architecture. In the present paper we report improved preparation methods that, in combination with various electron microscopic techniques, have led to new insights of cuticle structure and composition in the tergite cuticle of Porcellio scaber. We used thin sections of non-decalcified tergites and decalcified resin embedded material for transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Etched sagittal planes of bulk tergite samples were analysed with field emission scanning electron microscopy. We have found a distinct distal region within the exocuticle that differs from the subjacent proximal exocuticle in the arrangement of fibres. Within this distal exocuticle chitin-protein fibrils assemble to fibres with diameters between 15 and 50 nm that are embedded in a mineral matrix. In the proximal exocuticle and the endocuticle fibrils do not assemble to fibres and are surrounded by mineral individually. Furthermore, we show that the pore canals are filled with mineral, and demonstrate that mild etching of polished sagittal cuticle surfaces reveals regions containing mineral of diverse solubility.

  17. Influence of electron beam Irradiation on PP/Piassava fiber composite prepared by melt extrusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Michelle G.; Ferreira, Maiara S.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: michellegoncalvesgomes@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the latest years, the interest for the use of natural fibers in materials composites polymeric has increased significantly due to their environmental and technological advantages. Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera) have been used as reinforcement in the matrix of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. In the present work (20%, in mass), piassava fibers with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were incorporated in the polypropylene matrix (PP) no irradiated and polypropylene matrix containing 10 % and 30 % of polypropylene treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy (PP/PPi/Piassava). The composites PP/Piassava and PP/PPi/Piassava were prepared by using a twin screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The composite material samples obtained were treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature, in presence of air. After irradiation treatment, the irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to thermo-mechanical tests, melt flow index (MFI), sol-gel analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  18. Sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy of plant surfaces--horses for courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, A K; Bond, J; Gaskin, R E

    2008-12-01

    Plant tissues must be dehydrated for observation in most electron microscopes. Although a number of sample processing techniques have been developed for preserving plant tissues in their original form and structure, none of them are guaranteed artefact-free. The current paper reviews common scanning electron microscopy techniques and the sample preparation methods employed for visualisation of leaves under specific types of electron microscopes. Common artefacts introduced by specific techniques on different leaf types are discussed. Comparative examples are depicted from our lab using similar techniques; the pros and cons for specific techniques are discussed. New promising techniques and microscopes, which can alleviate some of the problems encountered in conventional methods of leaf sample processing and visualisation, are also discussed. It is concluded that the choice of technique for a specific leaf sample is dictated by the surface features that need to be preserved (such as trichomes, epidermal cells or wax microstructure), the resolution to be achieved, availability of the appropriate processing equipment and the technical capabilities of the available electron microscope.

  19. Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate

  20. Studies on artefacts induced in the specimen preparation routines of electron microscopy characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monikandan, V. V.; Joseph, M. A.; Rajendrakumar, P. K.

    2016-09-01

    Artefacts are induced during the preparation of specimens for electron microscopic characterization. The present work is a study of the artefacts induced on worn surfaces and wear debris specimens of AA6061-B4C-Gr hybrid composites. The worn surfaces are prepared using routines such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and ion milling. Apart from these routines, a novel trial is made to prepare the worn surface using femtosecond laser machining. The wear debris is pelletized and sectioned using ultramicrotome. In femtosecond laser machining, FIB milling and ion milling operations, melting and re-solidification of ablated debris, re-deposition and melting of sputtered debris and formation of the amorphous layer, respectively are the major artefacts that diminish the accuracy of the inferences made on the microstructural characteristics of the specimen. In ultramicrotomy, knife marks, tearing of sections and absence of wear debris distribution reduce the effectiveness of the routine, making it impossible to derive any substantial inference from the micrographs.

  1. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Shamala; L C S Murthy; K Narasimha Rao

    2004-06-01

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated films varied from 2.65 × 10-2 -cm to 3.57 × 10-3 -cm in the temperature range 150–200°C. For undoped spray pyrolyzed films, the resistivity was observed to be in the range 1.2 × 10-1 to 1.69 × 10-2 -cm in the temperature range 250–370°C. Hall effect measurements indicated that the mobility as well as carrier concentration of evaporated films were greater than that of spray deposited films. The lowest resistivity for antimony doped tin oxide film was found to be 7.74 × 10-4 -cm, which was deposited at 350°C with 0.26 g of SbCl3 and 4 g of SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.065). Evaporated films were found to be amorphous in the temperature range up to 200°C, whereas spray pyrolyzed films prepared at substrate temperature of 300–370°C were polycrystalline. The morphology of tin oxide films was studied using SEM.

  2. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  3. Monitoring of irradiated food products marketed in Italy and evaluation of electron spin resonance signal sensitivity of experimentally irradiated fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, in order to authorise the use of food irradiation, claim the availability of methods to detect the occurred treatment in addition to the respect of safe use of this technology. Among physical methods, the electron spin resonance (ESR measuring the number of free radicals that are formed during irradiation can be applied only to those foods with cellulose, a crystalline or bone structure, in which free radicals have a shelf life greater than irradiated product. The aim of this study was to highlight an irradiation treatment in European and extra-European foods marketed in Southern Italy by the means of ESR technique. Furthermore, in order to optimise the preparation procedures the efficacy of the above mentioned method in fish scales experimentally irradiated has been evaluated. From February to September 2012, a total number of 83 samples of food products of animal and plant origin were taken at the border inspection post and at retail market and finally analysed. At the same time, the scales of grouper and barracuda have been experimentally irradiated at 0.5 kGy and were subsequently analysed using ESR. Results showed 5 frog legs out of 83 samples positive for treatment and confirm the applicability of ESR also for fish scales.

  4. PAHs in baby food: assessment of three different processing techniques for the preparation of reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Baù, Andrea; Schimmel, Heinz; Dabrio, Marta

    2015-04-01

    A feasibility study for producing a matrix reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in baby food is reported. A commercially available baby food, containing carrots, potatoes, tomato, white beans and meat, was spiked with the so-called 15 + 1 PAHs included in the PAHs priority list for food of the EU, at a mass fraction level of 1 μg/kg. The contaminated baby food was further processed by autoclaving, freezing or freeze drying. The homogeneity of the three materials (bottle-to-bottle variation) and their short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (18 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house. It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate reference materials targeted here. All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use. Measurements on the autoclaved material provided the most promising results in terms of envisaged shelf life, although freeze drying was also found to be a suitable processing technique for most of the investigated PAHs. These results are an important step towards the development of a matrix reference material for PAHs in a processed food matrix in a presentation very similar to routine samples.

  5. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  6. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A

    2015-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production.

  7. Advanced Cookware and Techniques for Food Preparation at Reduced Pressure and Gravity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop detailed design requirements for adapting COTS cooking appliances for meal preparation under Lunar 8 psia ambient conditions, and to produce...

  8. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.

    2016-08-04

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.

  9. MAGNETORESISTANCE EFFECT OBSERVED IN Fe/Mo MULTILAYERS PREPARED BY ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. He; B. Zhao; Y. Gao; F. Zeng; F. Pan

    2003-01-01

    The Fe/Mo multilayers were prepared by electron beam evaporation, the microstructure and magnetic properties of the multilayers were studied by X-ray diffraction, vibratingsample magnetometer (VSM) et al. The experimental results revealed that the Fe/Mo multilayers in our experimental conditions behaved magnetoresistance effect with a sharp peak on magnetoresistance (MR) ratio curve, and magnetoresistance is easily saturated at low applied magnetic fields. For [Fe(1.5nm)/Mo(1.0nm)]42 multilayers,MR ratio could arrive to 0.1%. The antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling could be observed in some films at room temperature. The strength of the antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling J in the films is low because of the low saturation field Hs. The relationship between magnetic properties and microstructure was also discussed in this paper.

  10. Preparation of cross-sectional specimens of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, O; Heuer, A H; Mitchell, T E

    1990-04-01

    During the microstructural examination of ceramic thermal barrier coatings by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), initial efforts for the preparation of cross-sectional thin foils from interface regions by conventional means were mostly failures. Delamination of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic coating from the nickel-base alloy substrate sometimes occurred during fine polishing at around 80 microns thickness but mostly occurred during dimpling. Because of this sensitivity, special techniques for mechanical handling were developed so that ion milling could give thin enough regions of the metal-ceramic interface. TEM showed convincingly that the highly fragile nature of the coatings is in fact due to the extensive porosity at the interface developed as a result of heat treatment.

  11. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Wednesday, September 11, 2013 (78 FR 55727), announcing the availability of the draft guidance for industry... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations...

  12. Preparation of electron buffer layer with crystalline ZnO nanoparticles in inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Kang, Taeho; Choi, Yoon-Young; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method were used to fabricate the electron buffer layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) after thermal treatment. To investigate the effect of thermal treatment on the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, the amorphous ZnO nanoparticles were treated via hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase of ZnO with well-ordered structure could be obtained when the amorphous phase of ZnO was processed under hydrothermal treatment at 170 °C. The crystalline structure of ZnO thin film in inverted organic solar cell could be obtained under relatively low annealing temperature by using thermally treated ZnO nanoparticles. The OPVs fabricated by using crystalline ZnO nanoparticles for electron buffer layer exhibited higher efficiency than the conventional ZnO nanoparticles. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for 7.16% through the ZnO film using the crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. The proposed method to prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) could effectively reduce energy consumption during the fabrication of OPVs, which would greatly contribute to advantages such as lower manufacturing costs, higher productivity and application on flexible substrates.

  13. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs.

  14. Preparation of solid silver nanoparticles for inkjet printed flexible electronics with high conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xianpeng; Huang, Qijin; Xu, Qingsong; Song, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) which could be kept in solid form and were easily stored without degeneration or oxidation at room temperature for a long period of time were synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly wet chemistry method in an aqueous phase. Highly stable dispersions of aqueous silver NP inks, sintered at room temperature, for printing highly conductive tracks (~8.0 μΩ cm) were prepared simply by dispersing the synthesized silver NP powder in water. These inks are stable, fairly homogeneous and suitable for a wide range of patterning techniques. The inks were successfully printed on paper and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a common color printer. Upon annealing at 180 °C, the resistivity of the printed silver patterns decreased to 3.7 μΩ cm, which is close to twice that of bulk silver. Various factors affecting the resistivity of the printed silver patterns, such as annealing temperature and the number of printing cycles, were investigated. The resulting high conductivity of the printed silver patterns reached over 20% of the bulk silver value under ambient conditions, which enabled the fabrication of flexible electronic devices, as demonstrated by the inkjet printing of conductive circuits of LED devices.Silver nanoparticles (NPs) which could be kept in solid form and were easily stored without degeneration or oxidation at room temperature for a long period of time were synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly wet chemistry method in an aqueous phase. Highly stable dispersions of aqueous silver NP inks, sintered at room temperature, for printing highly conductive tracks (~8.0 μΩ cm) were prepared simply by dispersing the synthesized silver NP powder in water. These inks are stable, fairly homogeneous and suitable for a wide range of patterning techniques. The inks were successfully printed on paper and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a common color printer. Upon annealing at 180 °C, the

  15. Research Progress on Prepared Food Sterilization Technology%调理食品杀菌技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慜; 王丽萍

    2012-01-01

    This article was focused on the thermal sterilization and non-ihermal sierilizaiion in the prepared food. Not only has this article formulated the use of thermal sterilization,such as microwave and high radio frequency,hut also it has summarized the application of non-thermal sterilization- including ultra-high pressure,high-pressure carhon dioxide.ecl. Meanwhile,the existing problems and application prospect of various sterilization technologies in prepared food were discussed.%作者主要介绍了调理食品的热杀菌技术和非热杀菌技术,阐述了微波、高频RF等热杀菌技术在调理食品杀菌中的应用现状,综述了超高压、超声波等非热杀菌技术在调理食品杀菌中的应用.另外,作者还分析了两大类杀菌技术在调理食品杀菌中存在的问题,对未来发展方向进行了展望.

  16. The role of trust in the transition from traditional to electronic B2B relationships in agri-food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavari, M.; Fritz, M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Matopoulos, A.; Vlachopoulou, M.

    2010-01-01

    E-business adoption rates in the agri-food sector are rather low, despite the fact that technical barriers have been mostly overcome during the last years and a large number of sophisticated offers are available. However, concerns about trust seem to impede the development of electronic relationship

  17. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation.

  18. A comparison of the effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation on antioxidants present in food-contact polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Crowson, Andrew; Leathard, D.A. (Sheffield City Polytechnic (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary details have been reported of studies of the effects of progressive doses of gamma irradiation on the extractable levels of hindered phenol antioxidants (Irganox 1076 and Irganox 1010) and also the hindered phosphite stabiliser, Irgafos 168, present in a range of food contact polymers. Electron-beam irradiation offers an alternative approach for the radiation treatment of pre-packaged foods as an on-line process, provided that due consideration is given to the energy of the incident radiation and to the thickness of the package. It was of interest to establish whether the two irradiation processes had similar effects on the extent of destruction of antioxidants present in food contact polymers. Preliminary details are now reported of a comparison of the effects of gamma and electron-beam irradiation on the extent of destruction of Irganox 1076, Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168 present in polypropylene and low density polyethylene (LDPE) samples. (author).

  19. Evaluation of Electrospray as a Sample Preparation Tool for Electron Microscopic Investigations: Toward Quantitative Evaluation of Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Johannes; Dohányosová, Pavla; Müller, Philipp; López-Vidal, Silvia; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2017-02-01

    The potential of electrospray deposition, for the controlled preparation of particles for imaging in electron microscopes, is evaluated on various materials: from mono-modal suspensions of spherical particles to multimodal suspensions and to real-world industrial materials. It is shown that agglomeration is reduced substantially on the sample carrier, compared with conventional sample preparation techniques. For the first time, it is possible to assess the number concentration of a tri-modal polystyrene suspension by electron microscopy, due to the high deposition efficiency of the electrospray. We discovered that some suspension stabilizing surfactants form artifact particles during electrospraying. These can be avoided by optimizing the sprayed suspension.

  20. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer

  1. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer thes

  2. Effects of the preparation processes on structural, electronic, and optical properties of LaHoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siaï, Amira, E-mail: amira_siai@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Horchani-Naifer, Karima [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Haro-González, Patricia [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Department of physical material C-IV, Madrid Autonoma University, C/Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The preparation of LaHoO{sub 3} by combustion and hydrothermal techniques was performed. • The crystal structure and characterization of the synthesized oxides were carried out. • The lattice distortions have effects on Raman, luminescence and optical band gap. • Electronic properties and band structure have been carried out by DFT method. • Sample prepared by hydrothermal process gives higher emission intensities. - ABSTRACT: Lanthanum holmium oxide (LaHoO{sub 3}) was synthesized using combustion and hydrothermal processes in order to compare the effects of preparation method on structural, electronic, and optical properties. For this purpose, the as-prepared samples were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electronic microscopy. The Rietveld refinements structure of as-prepared samples show that lattice distortions and volume expansion were obtained for LaHoO{sub 3} synthesized with hydrothermal method compared to combustion process. The luminescence properties were investigated upon 488 and 750 nm laser excitations. The emission curves show the presence of characteristic Ho{sup 3+} transitions with a higher emission intensity for a sample prepared by hydrothermal method than the one obtained by combustion process. The structures properties effects on the band structure and the density of states were realized via generalized gradient approximation functional with Hubbard correction. The lattice distortions were found to have effects on Raman, luminescence and optical band gap.

  3. Evaluation of Er:YAG laser radiation cavity preparation under transmitted and polarized light and by electron microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Krejsa, Otakar; Rokytova, Kveta; Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel

    1993-12-01

    The results of evaluation of Er:YAG radiation cavity preparation under transmitted and polarized light and by the electron microanalyzer are presented. We examined the longitudinal sections of intact teeth, teeth with early dental caries, teeth with laser preparation in enamel and teeth with Er:YAG laser preparation in enamel and dentine class I and V. We examined intact teeth and laser prepared teeth for the variation of mineralization. Phosphorus and calcium were regularly distributed. The margins of cavities had no necrosis zones. The defects of mineralization in caries depend on demineralization of hard tissues. In the structures was irregular loss of calcium and phosphorus. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation with water cooling has been found to be a non-invasive preparation technique.

  4. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation of the m......An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation...... of the meal production in order to transfer labour-intensive operations from the kitchens to the industry; 2) Systemic use of a new concept: thawing during distribution, which improves shelf-life and reduces waste; 3) Supply chain modelling to improve delivery schedules and reduce environmental impact...

  5. Rapid determination of acrylamide contaminant in conventional fried foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Dong, Yi; Ren, Yiping; Zhang, Ying

    2006-05-26

    Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was successfully developed and applied for the rapid determination of acrylamide in conventional fried foods, such as potato crisps, potato chips, and fried chicken wings. The method included defatting with n-hexane, extraction with aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO3) and potassium bromide (KBr), and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The final acrylamide extract was analyzed by GC-ECD for quantification and by GC-MS for confirmation. The chromatographic analysis was performed on the HP-INNOWax capillary column, and good retention and peak response of acrylamide were achieved under the optimal conditions (numbers of theoretical plates N = 83,815). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.1 microg kg(-1) on the basis of ECD technique. Recoveries of acrylamide from conventional samples spiked at levels of 150, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) (n = 4 for each level) ranged between 87 and 97% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 4%. Furthermore, the GC-ECD method showed that no clean-up steps of acrylamide derivative would be performed prior to injection and was slightly more sensitive than the MS/MS-based methods. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that this method should be regarded as a new, low-cost, and robust alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  6. Thermoluminescence detection of Korean traditional foods exposed to Gamma and electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. H.; Chung, H. W.; Byun, M. W.; Kang, I. J.

    1998-06-01

    Thermoluminescence(TL) analysis was applied to detect irradiated Korean traditional condiments and soup mixes containing salt(NaCl). These food items, which are commercially irradiated in Korea, showed a consistently high correlation(R 2) between the absorbed doses and the corresponding TL responses. It was proved that table salt played a role as an in-built indicator in TL measurements and its concentration in test samples was proposed as a correction factor for varying conditions of TL measurements. Pre-established threshold values were successfully adopted to identify 167 coded samples of Ramen soup mixes, both non-irradiated and irradiated with gamma and electron-beam energy. The TL intensity of irradiated soup mixes decreased with the lapse of time, but was still distinguishable from that of the non-irradiated samples at the fourth month of ambient storage. Expected estimates of absorbed doses, 2.85 and 4.75 kGv were obtained using a quadratic equation with average values of 1.57 and 4.90 kGy, respectively.

  7. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.

  8. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  9. Characterization of pitch prepared from pyrolysis fuel oil via electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Gun; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kwac, Lee Ku; Shin, Hye Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Pitch samples were obtained from pyrolysis fuel oil by thermal treatment for 2 h at 300 °C after electron beam irradiation (EBI) treatment and by thermal treatment alone for different temperature of 250 °C, 300 °C, and 350 °C. EBI treatment was found to be an effective treatment for preparing pitch compare to the pitch obtained without EBI treatment. These results were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analyses, which showed the increase in the intensities of peaks corresponding to aromatic compounds. In the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra, the amount of components with medium molecular weights in the pitch was found to increase with the temperature; likewise, in the case of the pitch obtained via EBI treatment, we found that the amount of components with higher molecular weight over 1000 (m/v) similarly increased. Further, the thermal stability and carbon yield at 850 °C of the pitch obtained by EBI were greater than those of samples subjected to thermal treatment at 250 and 300 °C.

  10. Closer to the native state. Critical evaluation of cryo-techniques for Transmission Electron Microscopy: preparation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielanczyk, Lukasz; Matysiak, Natalia; Michalski, Marek; Buldak, Rafal; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Over the years Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has evolved into a powerful technique for the structural analysis of cells and tissues at various levels of resolution. However, optimal sample preservation is required to achieve results consistent with reality. During the last few decades, conventional preparation methods have provided most of the knowledge about the ultrastructure of organelles, cells and tissues. Nevertheless, some artefacts can be introduced at all stagesofstandard electron microscopy preparation technique. Instead, rapid freezing techniques preserve biological specimens as close as possible to the native state. Our review focuses on different cryo-preparation approaches, starting from vitrification methods dependent on sample size. Afterwards, we discuss Cryo-Electron Microscopy Of VItreous Sections (CEMOVIS) and the main difficulties associated with this technique. Cryo-Focused Ion Beam (cryo-FIB) is described as a potential alternative for CEMOVIS. Another post-processing route for vitrified samples is freeze substitution and embedding in resin for structural analysis or immunolocalization analysis. Cryo-sectioning according to Tokuyasu is a technique dedicated to high efficiency immunogold labelling. Finally, we introduce hybrid techniques, which combine advantages of primary techniques originally dedicated to different approaches. Hybrid approaches permit to perform the study of difficult-to-fix samples and antigens or help optimize the sample preparation protocol for the integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy (iLEM) technique.

  11. Extending the detection limit of dopants for focused ion beam prepared semiconductor specimens examined by off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel;

    2009-01-01

    Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the activ...

  12. Lights Will Guide You : Sample Preparation and Applications for Integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Correlative microscopy is the combined use of two different forms of microscopy in the study of a specimen, allowing for the exploitation of the advantages of both imaging tools. The integrated Laser and Electron Microscope (iLEM), developed at Utrecht University, combines a fluorescence microscope (FM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in a single set-up. The region of interest in the specimen is labeled or tagged with a fluorescent probe and can easily be identified within a large field of view with the FM. Next, this same area is retraced in the TEM and can be studied at high resolution. The iLEM demands samples that can be imaged with both FM and TEM. Biological specimen, typically composed of light elements, generate low image contrast in the TEM. Therefore, these samples are often ‘contrasted’ with heavy metal stains. FM, on the other hand, images fluorescent samples. Sample preparation for correlative microscopy, and iLEM in particular, is complicated by the fact that the heavy metals stains employed for TEM quench the fluorescent signal of the probe that is imaged with FM. The first part of this thesis outlines preparation procedures for biological material yielding specimen that can be imaged with the iLEM. Here, approaches for the contrasting of thin sections of cells and tissue are introduced that do not affect the fluorescence signal of the probe that marks the region of interest. Furthermore, two novel procedures, VIS2FIXH and VIS2FIX­FS are described that allow for the chemical fixation of thin sections of cryo-immobilized material. These procedures greatly expedite the sample preparation process, and open up novel possibilities for the immuno-labeling of difficult antigens, eg. proteins and lipids that are challenging to preserve. The second part of this thesis describes applications of iLEM in research in the field of life and material science. The iLEM was employed in the study of UVC induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of

  13. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  14. Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar Y Al-Okbi; Doha A Mohamed; Thanaa E Hamed; Reham SH Esmail; Souria M Donya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. Methods:Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted;control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts. Results:Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol andβ-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Conclusions: Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety.

  15. Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y.; Mohamed, Doha A.; Hamed, Thanaa E.; Esmail, Reham SH.; Donya, Souria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado, walnut, flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin. Methods Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant. Six groups of rats were conducted; control healthy, cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection. Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined. Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals. Total phenolic contents, fatty acids (FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts. Results Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic. FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA. Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in all the studied plants. Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, total protein, catalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance. Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction. Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and sperm-shape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical, histopathological and cytogenetic parameters. Conclusions Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms. All studied nutraceuticals showed complete safety. PMID:25183331

  16. Parallel preparation of plan-view transmission electron microscopy specimens by vapor-phase etching with integrated etch stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, Timothy S., E-mail: englisht@stanford.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Provine, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marshall, Ann F.; Koh, Ai Leen [Stanford Nano Shared Facilities, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kenny, Thomas W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Specimen preparation remains a practical challenge in transmission electron microscopy and frequently limits the quality of structural and chemical characterization data obtained. Prevailing methods for thinning of specimens to electron transparency are serial in nature, time consuming, and prone to producing artifacts and specimen failure. This work presents an alternative method for the preparation of plan-view specimens using isotropic vapor-phase etching with integrated etch stops. An ultrathin amorphous etch-stop layer simultaneously serves as an electron transparent support membrane whose thickness is defined by a controlled growth process such as atomic layer deposition with sub-nanometer precision. This approach eliminates the need for mechanical polishing or ion milling to achieve electron transparency, and reduces the occurrence of preparation induced artifacts. Furthermore, multiple specimens from a plurality of samples can be thinned in parallel due to high selectivity of the vapor-phase etching process. These features enable dramatic reductions in preparation time and cost without sacrificing specimen quality and provide advantages over wet etching techniques. Finally, we demonstrate a platform for high-throughput transmission electron microscopy of plan-view specimens by combining the parallel preparation capabilities of vapor-phase etching with wafer-scale micro- and nanofabrication. - Highlights: • Parallel thinning of plan-view specimens enables high-throughput microscopy studies. • The support membrane thickness is controlled with sub-nanometer precision. • No physical etching (polishing, dimpling, or ion milling) is required. • Large area and uniformly thin specimens are suitable for Cs-corrected HRTEM. • Wafer-scale integration enables custom specimens for in situ experiments.

  17. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  18. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  19. Preparing for Veg-04 and Veg-05: Improving Pick-And-Eat Food Capabilities for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Williams, T. J.; Young, M. H.; Douglas, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. Studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. Ground testing of Chinese cabbage and dwarf tomato crops under different LED lighting and fertilizer conditions is being conducted to allow for a preliminary down selection of the two best lighting recipes and the best fertilizer treatment. Two trials of Chinese cabbage and one trial on dwarf tomato have been completed in on-going ground tests. Horticultural data on crop growth and productivity and chemical data on specific nutrients have been collected and are being analyzed to allow preliminary down selection. Taste test evaluations are planned on the preliminary down selection treatments to allow a final down selection for flight testing. Microbial assessment for hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) evaluation is also underway to enable implementation of food consumption. Following down selection flight preparation will commence for testing these crops in the Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS. A crew questionnaire has been developed to better understand the impact of crop growth in Veggie on crew behavioral health. A single Veggie plant growth chamber is currently installed on ISS, and preparations are underway to launch a second Veggie, allowing side-by-side testing under different lighting conditions. Veg-04 will be the first mission that will use this

  20. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  1. Investigation on the hematopoietic effect of functional foods using radiation and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun; Jeong, Yong Woon [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We performed this study to determine the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the biological stability of irradiated chinese medical prescriptions, we performed the experiment to determine the effect of irradiated (10kGy) or unirradiated Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San in irradiated mice. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of the total extract and its ingredients and for preparing the provisional product. (author). 61 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahar; Y.Al-Okbi; Doha; A.Mohamed; Thanaa; E.Hamed; Reham; SH.Esmail; Souria; M.Donya

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect of extracts prepared from avocado,walnut,flaxseed and Eruca sativa seeds in a rat model of kidney dysfunction induced by intraperitoneal cisplatin.Methods:Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts mixture was prepared from each plant.Six groups of rats were conducted:control healthy,cisplatin group and four test groups where rats were given daily oral dose of each extract mixture before cisplatin injection.Different biochemical and cytogenetic parameters and kidney histopathology were determined.Acute toxicity was tested for the nutraceuticals.Total phenolic contents,faity acids(FA) and unsaponifiable matter were assessed in the extracts.Results:Walnut ethanol extract showed the highest content of total phenolic.FA analysis revealed that all the studied plants were rich in unsaturated FA.Gas-liquid chromatographic investigation of the unsaponifiable matter showed the presence of campeslerol.stigmaslerol and β—sitosterol in all the studied plants.Cisplatin treatment induced significant increase in plasma urea,creatinine and malondialdehyde along with significant reduction of plasma albumin,total protein,calalase and total antioxidant as well as reduction in creatinine clearance.Histopathological examination proved the induction of kidney dysfunction.Some sorts of chromosomal aberration and spermshape abnormalities were noticed after cisplatin treatment.Administration of extracts mixtures produced improvements in biochemical,histopathological and cytogenetic parameters.Conclusions:Administration of the studied nutraceuticals proved to possess protective role against cisplatin—induced nephrotoxicity,chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperms.All studied uutraceuticals showed complete safety.

  3. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  4. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  5. Ergonomic intervention in aonla pricking operation during preserve preparation in food processing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Kumar, Nitin; Sharma, D K; Garg, M K

    2012-01-01

    Aonla is an important Indian fruit crop with great potential for processing into various quality products. Aonla preserve making is an important economic activity in our country. The pricking methods are age old, hence a hand operated aonla pricking machine was introduced in preserve making industries to speed up the pricking task. OWAS and RULA two of the most commonly used ergonomic assessment tools were evaluated for their efficacy in the assessment pricking along with Rating of perceived exertion scale. Analysis of working posture using RULA revealed that the pricking task with existing methods i.e. fork and hand tool requires immediate investigation and changes in working posture while with machine pricking investigations and changes are required soon. The results of OWAS indicated that the posture maintained while pricking with existing methods need to be changed in future planning while with machine was acceptable. The subjective assessment revealed that machine pricking was less exerting activity as compared to the existing methods. The preserve prepared from machine pricked fruit was most acceptable among consumers. Hence, in the form of machine ergonomic intervention was brought about in preservation industries which have proved beneficial for workers in terms of their safety and productivity.

  6. A rapid HPLC column switching method for sample preparation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Ivana; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Satínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2013-11-15

    A simple and automated HPLC column-switching method with rapid sample pretreatment has been developed for quantitative determination of β-carotene in food supplements. Commercially samples of food supplements were dissolved in chloroform with help of saponification with 1M solution of sodium hydroxide in ultrasound bath. A 20-min sample dissolution/extraction step was necessary before chromatography analysis to transfer β-carotene from solid state of food supplements preparations (capsules,tablets) to chloroform solution. Sample volume - 3μL of chloroform phase was directly injected into the HPLC system. Next on-line sample clean-up was achieved on the pretreatment precolumn Chromolith Guard Cartridge RP-18e (Merck), 10×4.6mm, with a washing mobile phase (methanol:water, 92:8, (v/v)) at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min. Valve switch to analytical column was set at 2.5min in a back-flush mode. After column switching to the analytical column Ascentis Express C-18, 30×4.6mm, particle size 2.7μm (Sigma Aldrich), the separation and determination of β-carotene in food supplements was performed using a mobile phase consisting of 100% methanol, column temperature at 60°C and flow rate 1.5mL/min. The detector was set at 450nm. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions standard calibration curve was measured with good linearity - correlation coefficient for β-carotene (r(2)=0.999014; n=6) between the peak areas and concentration of β-carotene 20-200μg/mL. Accuracy of the method defined as a mean recovery was in the range 96.66-102.40%. The intraday method precision was satisfactory at three concentration levels 20, 125 and 200μg/mL and relative standard deviations were in the range 0.90-1.02%. The chromatography method has shown high sample throughput during column-switching pretreatment process and analysis in one step in short time (6min) of the whole chromatographic analysis.

  7. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions as potential delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs: preparation, in vitro characterization, and pharmacokinetics in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Tian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei He1, Yanan Tan1, Zhiqiang Tian1, Lingyun Chen2, Fuqiang Hu3, Wei Wu11Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers raise toxicological concerns for long-term treatment. The present work investigates the potential of food proteins as safer stabilizers for nanoemulsions to deliver hydrophobic drugs. Nanoemulsions stabilized by food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, ß-lactoglobulin were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The toxicity of the nanoemulsions was tested in Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide viability assay. In vivo absorption in rats was also evaluated. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions, with small particle size and good size distribution, exhibited better stability and biocompatibility compared with nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers. Moreover, ß-lactoglobulin had a better emulsifying capacity and biocompatibility than the other two food proteins. The pancreatic degradation of the proteins accelerated drug release. It is concluded that an oil/water nanoemulsion system with good biocompatibility can be prepared by using food proteins as emulsifiers, allowing better and more rapid absorption of lipophilic drugs.Keywords: oil in water nanoemulsions, food proteins, poorly water-soluble drugs, biocompatibility, in vivo absorption

  8. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food…

  9. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a liquid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are t...

  10. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.28)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a solid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are to...

  11. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food…

  12. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.28)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a solid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are to...

  13. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF POLAR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the extraction and preparation of a liquid food sample for analysis of acidic persistent organic pollutants such as acid herbicides, pentachlorphenol, and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-phenol. It covers the extraction, concentration and derivatization of samples that are t...

  14. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.

  15. Sample preparation for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by generation of substituted arsines with atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charles S; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Dessuy, Morgana B; Svoboda, Milan; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiři

    2017-12-01

    A slurry sampling procedure for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by arsane generation, cryogenic trapping and detection with atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Several procedures were tested for slurry preparation, including different reagents (HNO3, HCl and tetramethylammonium hydroxide - TMAH) and their concentrations, water bath heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The best results for inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) were reached when using 3molL(-1) HCl under heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The developed method was applied for the analysis of five porridge powder and six baby meal samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of total arsenic (tAs), iAs and DMA in rice (ERM-BC211). Arsenic recoveries (mass balance) for all samples and CRM were performed by the determination of the tAs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion and its comparison against the sum of the results from the speciation analysis. The relative limits of detection were 0.44, 0.24 and 0.16µgkg(-1) for iAs, methylarsonate and DMA, respectively. The concentrations of the most toxic arsenic species (iAs) in the analyzed baby food samples ranged between 4.2 and 99µgkg(-1) which were below the limits of 300, 200 and 100µgkg(-1) set by the Brazilian, Chinese and European legislation, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody and Development of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Specific for Escherichia coli O157 in Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies (Mab) and antisera specific for Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157, and to develop a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect E.coli O157 in foods. Methods Spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with the somatic antigen of E.coli O157:H7 were fused with murine Sp2/0 myeloma cells. The hybridoma cell line specific for E.coli O157 was established after having been subcloned. Antisera specific for E.coli O157 was prepared by intravenous injection into New Zealand rabbits with a stain of E.coli O157:H7. The sandwich ELISA was developed with the polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and the Mab 3A5 as the detection antibody. The inoculated ground poultry meat and pasteurized milk were tested to confirm efficiency of the method. Results Mab 3A5 specific for E.coli O157 and O113:H21 belonged to subtype IgM. The ascetic titers of the antibody was 1:1×106. No cross-reactivity of the Mab was observed with strains of Salmonella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella dysenteriae, etc. The purified polyclonal antibody had a titer of 1:1×105 with E.coli O157. The detection limit of this sandwich ELISA was 103-104 cfu E.coli O157/mL in pure culture with a high specificity, which was characterized by every non-O157 strain with negative response. With 10h enrichment procedure, E.coli O157:H7 recovered well from inoculated ground poultry meat and pasteurized milk at levels of 0.1 cfu/g and 0.1 cfu/mL. Conclusion Mab 3A5 specific for E.coli O157 and O113:H21 can be produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a strain of E.coli O157:H7. Then a sandwich ELISA can be developed with the polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and the Mab 3A5 as the detection antibody. The method is proved to be a sensitive and specific technique to detect low number of E.coli O157 in food.

  17. Quantitating morphological changes in biological samples during scanning electron microscopy sample preparation with correlative super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tao; Jorgens, Danielle M; Nickerson, Andrew; Lin, Li-Jung; Pelz, Joshua; Gray, Joe W; López, Claudia S; Nan, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical to biological electron microscopy (EM), and there have been continuous efforts on optimizing the procedures to best preserve structures of interest in the sample. However, a quantitative characterization of the morphological changes associated with each step in EM sample preparation is currently lacking. Using correlative EM and superresolution microscopy (SRM), we have examined the effects of different drying methods as well as osmium tetroxide (OsO4) post-fixation on cell morphology during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sample preparation. Here, SRM images of the sample acquired under hydrated conditions were used as a baseline for evaluating morphological changes as the sample went through SEM sample processing. We found that both chemical drying and critical point drying lead to a mild cellular boundary retraction of ~60 nm. Post-fixation by OsO4 causes at least 40 nm additional boundary retraction. We also found that coating coverslips with adhesion molecules such as fibronectin prior to cell plating helps reduce cell distortion from OsO4 post-fixation. These quantitative measurements offer useful information for identifying causes of cell distortions in SEM sample preparation and improving current procedures.

  18. Comparison of green sample preparation techniques in the analysis of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in baby food by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus Henrique; Ccanccapa-Cartagena, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-05-12

    A new selective and sensitive liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids residues in baby food. In this study, two sample preparation methods based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) were optimized, and then, compared regarding the performance criteria. Appropriate linearity in solvent and matrix-based calibrations, and suitable recoveries (75-120%) and precision (RSD values≤16%) were achieved for selected analytes by any of the sample preparation procedures. Both methods provided the analytical selectivity required for the monitoring of the insecticides in fruit-, cereal- and milk-based baby foods. SALLE, recognized by cost-effectiveness, and simple and fast execution, provided a lower enrichment factor, consequently, higher limits of quantification (LOQs) were obtained. Some of them too high to meet the strict legislation regarding baby food. Nonetheless, the combination of ultrasound and DLLME also resulted in a high sample throughput and environmental-friendly method, whose LOQs were lower than the default maximum residue limit (MRL) of 10μgkg(-1) set by European Community for baby foods. In the commercial baby foods analyzed, cyhalothrin and etofenprox were detected in different samples, demonstrating the suitability of proposed method for baby food control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional composition, assessed by chemical analyses, of prepared foods available for primary-school children: a comparison of public and private schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Márcia L; Morais, Tania B

    2010-11-01

    To assess the nutritional quality of prepared foods available to primary-school children. Prepared foods available in a public and private school were sampled daily for 4 weeks (a total of forty-five samples) and chemically analysed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, iron, salt and sodium. The results were compared to the nutritional standards for children aged 7-10 years. Alfenas, south-eastern Brazil. The concentration of protein, lipid, iron and sodium and the energy values of the foods at the private school were significantly higher than those at the public school. No differences were seen in the carbohydrate and salt values. The range of macronutrients was more balanced at the public school in relation to fat and protein. Foods at the private school were, in general, energy-dense. At both the public and private school, they provided the minimum energy and iron. Salt content was over twice the maximum amount, and that for sodium was over three times the amount, in both the public and private school. Overall, foods prepared at the public school were better nutritional quality than those at the private school and those offered in public schools in some developed countries. This finding can probably be explained by the fact that a nutritionist, as required by law, was responsible for planning the menus at the public school. However, corrective action is needed to adjust for the wide variability in energy and nutrient content during weekdays and in the sodium content of prepared foods available in both the public and private school.

  20. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbiao; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Guo, Sen

    2008-08-30

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N(-)) states above the valence band of TiO(2) modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO(2).

  1. Rapid sample preparation method for LC-MS/MS or GC-MS analysis of acrylamide in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastovska, Katerina; Lehotay, Steven J

    2006-09-20

    A fast and easy sample preparation procedure for analysis of acrylamide in various food matrices was developed and optimized. In its first step, deuterated acrylamide internal standard is added to 1 g of homogenized sample together with 5 mL of hexane, 10 mL of water, 10 mL of acetonitrile, 4 g of MgSO4, and 0.5 g of NaCl. Water facilitates the extraction of acrylamide; hexane serves for sample defatting; and the salt combination induces separation of water and acetonitrile layers and forces the majority of acrylamide into the acetonitrile layer. After vigorous shaking of the extraction mixture for 1 min and centrifugation, the upper hexane layer is discarded and a 1 mL aliquot of the acetonitrile extract is cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using 50 mg of primary secondary amine sorbent and 150 mg of anhydrous MgSO4. The final extract is analyzed either by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in positive chemical ionization mode) using the direct sample introduction technique for rugged large-volume injection.

  2. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  3. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R., E-mail: chitta@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Mastanaiah, P. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, E. Rajendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy study of cavity preparation in deciduous teeth using the Er:YAG laser with different powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sun; Chen, Tao; Ge, Li-hong

    2012-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we evaluated the morphology of cavity surfaces in deciduous teeth prepared in vitro with the Er:YAG laser with different power parameters. Eight extracted cavity-free deciduous teeth with an intact crown were prepared using a traditional handpiece or an Er:YAG laser with different parameters (10 Hz/200 mJ, 10 Hz/300 mJ and 10 Hz/400 mJ). Samples were then processed and cavity surface morphology was evaluated by SEM to detect open dentinal tubules, or melting or cracking of the dentin. SEM showed that laser cavity preparation in deciduous teeth using different parameters left no smear layer and the dentinal tubules were clear. Dentin melting was not seen after cavity preparation at 200 mJ or 300 mJ, while visible dentin melting and cracks were detected at 400 mJ. The use of the laser at 10 Hz/200 mJ and 10 Hz/300 mJ for cavity preparation in deciduous teeth is safe and effective, but higher powers may damage the dentin.

  5. An Analysis of Electronic Media to Prepare Children for Safe and Ethical Practices in Digital Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.; Desai, Shreya; Falls, Donald; Fenaughty, John

    2008-01-01

    A range of electronic resources, including video-based instruction, are used to promote cybersafety to young people at school. This evaluation analyzed seven distinct programs that use electronic media in Internet safety initiatives in schools. The findings highlight emerging evidence on successful approaches to engage children in assessing risky…

  6. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  7. Rapid specimen preparation to improve the throughput of electron microscopic volume imaging for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truc Quynh; Nguyen, Huy Bang; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Takashi; Joh, Kensuke; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy enables rapid observations of three-dimensional ultrastructures in a large volume of biological specimens. However, such imaging usually requires days for sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In this study, we report a rapid procedure to acquire serial electron microscopic images within 1 day for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures. This procedure is based on serial block-face with two major modifications, including a new sample treatment device and direct polymerization on the rivets, to reduce the time and workload needed. The modified procedure without uranyl acetate can produce tens of embedded samples observable under serial block-face scanning electron microscopy within 1 day. The serial images obtained are similar to the block-face images acquired by common procedures, and are applicable to three-dimensional reconstructions at a subcellular resolution. Using this approach, regional immune deposits and the double contour or heterogeneous thinning of basement membranes were observed in the glomerular capillary loops of an autoimmune nephropathy model. These modifications provide options to improve the throughput of three-dimensional electron microscopic examinations, and will ultimately be beneficial for the wider application of volume imaging in life science and clinical medicine.

  8. Electroactive materials for organic electronics: preparation strategies, structural aspects and characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, Adam; Gawrys, Pawel; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Djurado, David; Demadrille, Renaud

    2010-07-01

    This critical review discusses specific chemical and physicochemical requirements which must be met for organic compounds to be considered as promising materials for applications in organic electronics. Although emphasis is put on molecules and macromolecules suitable for fabrication of field effect transistors (FETs), a large fraction of the discussed compounds can also be applied in other organic or hybrid (organic-inorganic) electronic devices such as photodiodes, light emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, etc. It should be of interest to chemists, physicists, material scientists and electrical engineers working in the domain of organic electronics (423 references).

  9. Food Preparation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    dry mixing, melting ingre- dients such as butter or margarine or shortening, creaming butter or shortening, mixing and blending, dissolving soda in...cooked at the satellite and of various pasta and rice dishes. These latter dishes will require some baking, and, to avoid equip- ment duplication, they...Propeller mixers are made by many companies including Lightnin. · Steamed rice (E-5) and the pasta dishes require a jacketed kettle, preferably with a

  10. The detection and influence of food soils on microorganisms on stainless steel using scanning electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kathryn A; Smith, Lindsay A; Verran, Joanna

    2010-07-31

    A range of food soils and components (complex [meat extract, fish extract, and cottage cheese extract]; oils [cholesterol, fish oil, and mixed fatty acids]; proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA), fish peptones, and casein]; and carbohydrates [glycogen, starch, and lactose]) were deposited onto 304 2B finish stainless steel surfaces at different concentrations (10-0.001%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used to visualise the cell and food soil distribution across the surface. Epifluorescence microscopy was also used to quantify the percentage of a field covered by cells or soil. At 10% concentration, most soils, with the exception of BSA and fish peptone were easily visualised using SEM, presenting differences in gross soil morphology and distribution. When soil was stained with acridine orange and visualised by epifluorescence microscopy, the limit of detection of the method varied between soils, but some (meat, cottage cheese and glycogen) were detected at the lowest concentrations used (0.001%). The decrease in soil concentration did not always relate to the surface coverage measurement. When 10% food soil was applied to a surface with Escherichia coli and compared, cell attachment differed depending on the nature of the soil. The highest percentage coverage of cells was observed on surfaces with fish extract and related products (fish peptone and fish oil), followed by carbohydrates, meat extract/meat protein, cottage cheese/casein and the least to the oils (cholesterol and mixed fatty acids). Cells could not be clearly observed in the presence of some food soils using SEM. Findings demonstrate that food soils heterogeneously covered stainless steel surfaces in differing patterns. The pattern and amount of cell attachment was related to food soil type rather than to the amount of food soil detected. This work demonstrates that in the study of conditioning film and cell retention on the hygienic properties of surfaces, SEM

  11. Characteristics and properties of metal aluminum thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Yu-Qing; Li Xing-Cun; Chen Qiang; Lei Wen-Wen; Zhao Qiao; Sang Li-Jun; Liu Zhong-Wei; Wang Zheng-Duo; Yang Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Metal aluminum (Al) thin films are prepared by 2450 MHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition on glass and p-Si substrates using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and hydrogen as the reductive gas.We focus our attention on the plasma source for the thin-film preparation and annealing of the as-deposited films relative to the surface square resistivity.The square resistivity of as-deposited Al films is greatly reduced after annealing and almost reaches the value of bulk metal.Through chemical and structural analysis,we conclude that the square resistivity is determined by neither the contaminant concentration nor the surface morphology,but by both the crystallinity and crystal size in this process.

  12. Effect of Pt:Sn atomic ratio on the preparation of PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V., E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: espinace@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 in water/2-propanol using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The ethanol electro-oxidation was studied by chronoamperometry. The XRD diffractograms of the PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed typical face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of platinum and the presence of a SnO{sub 2} phase (cassiterite). The mean crystallite sizes of Pt fcc phase was in the range of 3.0-3.5 nm. The PtSn/C electrocatalysts were active for ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature and the material prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1 showed the best activity. (author)

  13. Identification and measurement of pesticide contaminants in food products by electron impact GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, Florina; Moldovan, Zaharie [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vlassa, Mircea, E-mail: zaharie.moldovan@itim-cj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes Bolyai University, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The paper concern is determination of eight pesticides in food products samples. The target compounds are: Lindane, Heptachlor, Aldrin, o,p-DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, p,p'-DDT, and Methoxychlor. The compounds quantities were performed from chromatographic area obtained in full scan GC/MS mode after baseline separation and by comparation with surrogate internal standard area (Diphenylamine). The samples were concentrated by extraction with organic solvents (acetone) by Solid-Liquid Extraction (SLE) procedures the recovery factors being better than 80% except for Heptachlors. The coefficient of correlation of detector response function was better than 0.913 and LOQ under 0.015 {mu}g/g. The method enables to determine pesticides at low {mu}g/g in food supplements.

  14. Electron tomography characterization of hemoglobin uptake in Plasmodium chabaudi reveals a stage-dependent mechanism for food vacuole morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Camila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare

    2016-05-01

    In the course of their intraerythrocytic development, malaria parasites incorporate and degrade massive amounts of the host cell cytoplasm. This mechanism is essential for parasite development and represents a physiological step used as target for many antimalarial drugs; nevertheless, the fine mechanisms underlying these processes in Plasmodium species are still under discussion. Here, we studied the events of hemoglobin uptake and hemozoin nucleation in the different stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi using transmission electron tomography of cryofixed and freeze-substituted cells. The results showed that hemoglobin uptake in P. chabaudi starts at the early ring stage and is present in all developmental stages, including the schizont stage. Hemozoin nucleation occurs near the membrane of small food vacuoles. At the trophozoite stage, food vacuoles are found closely localized to cytostomal tubes and mitochondria, whereas in the schizont stage, we observed a large food vacuole located in the central portion of the parasite. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms of hemoglobin uptake and degradation in rodent malaria parasites.

  15. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in electron beam evaporation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongping Zhang(张东平); Meiqiong Zhan(占美琼); Ming Fang(方明); Hongbo He(贺洪波); Jianda Shao(邵建达); Zhengxiu Fan(范正修)

    2004-01-01

    ZrO2 thin films were prepared in electron beam thermal evaporation method. And the deposition rate changed from 1.3 to 6.3 nm/s in our study. X-ray diffractometer and spectrophotometer were employed to characterize the films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra pattern shows that films structure changed from amorphous to polycrystalline with deposition rate increasing. The results indicate that internal stresses of the films are compressive in most case. Thin films deposited in our study are inhomogeneous, and the inhomogeneity is enhanced with the deposition rate increasing.

  16. Enantioselective semi-preparative HPLC separation of PCB metabolites and their absolute structures determined by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, H.P.; Larsson, C.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Hoffmann, F.; Froeba, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Bergmann, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The present paper represents a first result of an ongoing systematic study of atropisomeric methylsulfonyl, methylthionyl, hydroxy, and methoxy metabolites of environmentally most relevant PCBs. This involves semi-preparative enantioselective HPLC separation to obtain pure atropisomers from synthesized PCB metabolite standards, their configuration estimation using the electronic circular dichroism (UV-CD) method and the determination / confirmation of these absolute configurations applying the combined vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) / ab initio approach. The following substances have been investigated: 4-HO-, 4-MeO-, 4-MeS-, 4-MeSO2-, 3-MeS- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149.

  17. Investigation of resins suitable for the preparation of biological sample for 3-D electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Longo, Giovanni; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-02-01

    In the last two decades, the third-dimension has become a focus of attention in electron microscopy to better understand the interactions within subcellular compartments. Initially, transmission electron tomography (TEM tomography) was introduced to image the cell volume in semi-thin sections (∼ 500 nm). With the introduction of the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope, a new tool, FIB-SEM tomography, became available to image much larger volumes. During TEM tomography and FIB-SEM tomography, the resin section is exposed to a high electron/ion dose such that the stability of the resin embedded biological sample becomes an important issue. The shrinkage of a resin section in each dimension, especially in depth, is a well-known phenomenon. To ensure the dimensional integrity of the final volume of the cell, it is important to assess the properties of the different resins and determine the formulation which has the best stability in the electron/ion beam. Here, eight different resin formulations were examined. The effects of radiation damage were evaluated after different times of TEM irradiation. To get additional information on mass-loss and the physical properties of the resins (stiffness and adhesion), the topography of the irradiated areas was analysed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further, the behaviour of the resins was analysed after ion milling of the surface of the sample with different ion currents. In conclusion, two resin formulations, Hard Plus and the mixture of Durcupan/Epon, emerged that were considerably less affected and reasonably stable in the electron/ion beam and thus suitable for the 3-D investigation of biological samples.

  18. Electronic structure and size of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles of controlled size prepared by aerosol methods

    CERN Document Server

    Soriano, L; Sanchez-Agudo, M; Sanz, J M; Ahonen, P P; Kauppinen, E I; Palomares, F J; Bressler, P R

    2002-01-01

    A complete characterization of nanostructures has to deal both with electronic structure and dimensions. Here we present the characterization of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles of controlled size prepared by aerosol methods. The electronic structure of these nanoparticles was probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the particle size by atomic force microscopy (AFM). XAS spectra show that the particles crystallize in the anatase phase upon heating at 500 sup o C, whereas further annealing at 700 sup o C give crystallites of 70 % anatase and 30 % rutile phases. Raising the temperature to 900 sup o C results in a complete transformation of the particles to rutile. AFM images reveal that the mean size of the anatase particles formed upon heating at 500 sup o C is 30 nm, whereas for the rutile particles formed upon annealing at 900 sup o C 90 nm were found. The results obtained by these techniques agree with XRD data. (author)

  19. Characterization of different commercial soybean peroxidase preparations and the use of the enzyme for the N-demethylation of methyl-N-methylanthranilate to produce the food flavour methylanthranilate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandel, van M.J.H.; Saraber, F.C.E.; Boersma, M.G.; Laane, C.; Fleming, Y.; Weenen, H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of different peroxidase preparations for the N-demethylation of methyl N-methylanthranilate to produce the food flavor methylanthranilate (MA) was investigated. All tested peroxidase preparations were able to catalyze the N-dealkylation. The tested soybean preparations vary widely with

  20. Lights Will Guide You : Sample Preparation and Applications for Integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Correlative microscopy is the combined use of two different forms of microscopy in the study of a specimen, allowing for the exploitation of the advantages of both imaging tools. The integrated Laser and Electron Microscope (iLEM), developed at Utrecht University, combines a fluorescence microscope

  1. Research opportunities for bioactive natural constituents in agriculture and food prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J

    2002-11-20

    The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry recently introduced a new subject matter category titled "Bioactive Constituents" to cover investigations of the composition of natural compounds and their biological activity in crops and foods. It is recognized by the Editors that a number of other journals specialize in various aspects of the chemistry of natural products, but the intent of this classification is to emphasize and stimulate submission of manuscripts in such areas of agricultural and food chemistry that have so far been neglected or under-represented. Selected topics dealing with bioactive constituents are given as representative examples of the types of investigations that would be appropriate to the scope of the Journal.

  2. Electronic noses and tongues: Applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electronic nose (enose) is designed to crudely mimic the human brain in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern rec...

  3. Study on the preparation of resist mask based on two-consecutive electron beam exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yanbing; Wang, Li; Sun, Yanjun; Dong, Lianhe

    2016-10-01

    To overcome the alignment error caused by the overlay when the conventional electron beam lithography produces the four-step relief structure, the paper did a detailed research on the influence of different accelerating voltage on the exposure depth during the process of exposure. Therefore, it drew out the limit value of exposure depth under different accelerating voltage and the relationship between the electron beam energy and critical exposed dose. Through the analysis of the experimental results, it worked out the optimum process parameter combination of exposure. The accelerating voltage of the first exposure was 5keV and the exposed dose was 100μC/cm2, while the second accelerating voltage was 15keV and the exposed dose was 150μC/cm2. Finally, the four-step relief structure was made on the resist layer and this structure met the needs of the graphic transfer process on the etch mask.

  4. Preparation and characterization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate microgels using electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, Mohd Yusof [Makmal Nanoteknologi, Bahagian Teknologi Sinaran (Malaysia); Isa, Naurah Mat; Napia, Liyana M. Ali [ALURTRON, Bahagian Kemudahan Iradiasi, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanosized gels based on polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. PEGDA was solubilized in n-heptane with use of sodium docusate (AOT) at 0.15M concentration to form reverse micelles. These micelles were than irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using electron beam (EB) to crosslink the entrapped polymer in the micelles. Ionizing radiation was imparted to the emulsions to generate crosslinking reaction in the micelles formed. The nanosized gels were evaluated in terms of particle diameter using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the images of the nanosized gels were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size and shape of the particles are influenced by concentration of PEGDA and radiation dose. This study showed that this method can be utilized to produce nanosized gels.

  5. Preparation and characterization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate microgels using electron beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Isa, Naurah Mat; Napia, Liyana M. Ali

    2014-02-01

    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanosized gels based on polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. PEGDA was solubilized in n-heptane with use of sodium docusate (AOT) at 0.15M concentration to form reverse micelles. These micelles were than irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using electron beam (EB) to crosslink the entrapped polymer in the micelles. Ionizing radiation was imparted to the emulsions to generate crosslinking reaction in the micelles formed. The nanosized gels were evaluated in terms of particle diameter using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the images of the nanosized gels were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size and shape of the particles are influenced by concentration of PEGDA and radiation dose. This study showed that this method can be utilized to produce nanosized gels.

  6. Method for the preparation of inorganic single crystal and polycrystalline electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, W. O. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    Large area, semiconductor crystals selected from group 3-5 compounds and alloys are provided for semiconductor device fabrication by the use of a selective etching operation which completely removes the substrate on which the desired crystal was deposited. The substrate, selected from the same group as the single crystal, has a higher solution rate than the epitaxial single crystal which is essentially unaffected by the etching solution. The preparation of gallium phosphide single crystals using a gallium arsenide substrate and a concentrated nitric acid etching solution is described.

  7. Preparation and Electronic Property Investigation of Zinc(II)-Schiff Base Complexes in the Confined Space

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Shang; Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Metal-Schiff base complexes have attracted continued research interest regarding their intriguing and useful features, while the electronic properties of these complexes in the confined space have not been sufficiently addressed in previous studies. In this work, a new zinc(II)-Schiff base complex bis(N-dodecyl salicylideneiminato)Zn(II) (1) was synthesized and subsequently loaded in an inorganic solid host. A large red shift (~40 nm) of the absorption onset was recorded, when the microenviro...

  8. Efficacy of Different Root Canal Irrigants on Smear Layer Removal after Post Space Preparation: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirseifinejad, Rahele; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Davari, Abdolrahim; Mehravar, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Effective durable adhesion between post material and dentine using resin cements is essential for longevity of restoration. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different irrigants on smear layer removal after post space preparation. A total of 75 extracted anterior human teeth were selected. The canals were instrumented by rotary system and then were filled. After preparing the post space, teeth were divided into 5 groups according to irrigants: 17% EDTA; 17% EDTA+2% CHX; 5.25% NaOCl; 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl; and saline. The canals were irrigated with 5 cc of each irrigants for 1 min. Specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hulsmann's score was used for marking of smear layer removal at coronal, middle and apical thirds of post space. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results revealed that subsequent use of 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl was more effective than the other groups in smear layer removal. No statistical difference was found among different levels of root canal within each group. It can be concluded that 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl could be an effective irrigant for smear layer removal after post space preparation.

  9. Preparing students for careers in food-supply veterinary medicine: a review of educational programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R

    2012-01-01

    The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.

  10. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  11. Food Allergy Emergencies in Children – To what extent are Early Years Services Prepared? A cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  12. ILU industrial electron accelerators for medical-product sterilization and food treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Voronin, L. A.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. M.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pulse linear electron accelerators of the ILU type have been developed and produced by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for more than 30 years. Their distinctive features are simplicity of design, convenience in operation, and reliability during long work under conditions of industrial production. ILU accelerators have a range of energy of 0.7-10 MeV at a power of accelerated beam of up to 100 kW and they are optimally suitable for use as universal sterilizing complexes. The scientific novelty of these accelerators consists of their capability to work both in the electron-treatment mode of production and in the bremsstrahlung generation mode, which has high penetrating power.

  13. A hybrid electronic tongue for direct classification of baby liquid foods with or without gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, António M.; Dias, L. G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Machado, A.A.S.C.

    2011-01-01

    People suffering from celiac disease are gluten intolerant and inadvertent ingestion of gluten proteins must be avoided. Several techniques have been proposed to detect/quantify gluten proteins in foodstuffs: immunochemical methods, mass tandem spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction as well as gluten sensors [1]. Recently, a potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) with lipo/polymeric membranes has been used to detect gliadins, which are gluten proteins, in foodstuffs [2]. How...

  14. 77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... Ingredients AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Sadex Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food...

  15. Proposed Draft Military Handbook for Preparation of View Packages in Support of Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...F. Tittle 1 NOSC 1 EER Systems R. Smillie N. Bukowski 1 NUSC 1 EG&G A. Valm L. Snodgrass 2 NTSC I General Dynamics W. Rizzo Electronic Division IL

  16. Preparation and property of a novel soluble electron transport POSS-based hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Juan Shen; Jin Cui Wu; Min Fang; Hong Yao Xu

    2008-01-01

    A novel POSS-based organic/inorganic hybrid covalently attached at molecular level, 2-(4-(allyloxy)phenyl)-5-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-POSS (6) (abbreviated as oxadiazole-POSS) was synthesized by Pt (dcp) catalyst. The hybrid was soluble in common organic solvents such as CHCl3, toluene, C2H4Cl2, and THF. Its structures and properties were characterized and evaluated with FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 29Si NMR, EA, TGA, DSC, GPC, and CV, respectively. The results show that the novel hybrid possesses high thermal stability and good electron injection ability.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Sample Preparation of Si(1-x)Gex in c-Plane Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sang H.; Bae, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Tae Woo

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-invented X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, including the total defect density measurement method and the spatial wafer mapping method, have confirmed super hetero epitaxy growth for rhombohedral single crystalline silicon germanium (Si1-xGex) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. However, the XRD method cannot observe the surface morphology or roughness because of the method s limited resolution. Therefore the authors used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with samples prepared in two ways, the focused ion beam (FIB) method and the tripod method to study the structure between Si1-xGex and sapphire substrate and Si1?xGex itself. The sample preparation for TEM should be as fast as possible so that the sample should contain few or no artifacts induced by the preparation. The standard sample preparation method of mechanical polishing often requires a relatively long ion milling time (several hours), which increases the probability of inducing defects into the sample. The TEM sampling of the Si1-xGex on sapphire is also difficult because of the sapphire s high hardness and mechanical instability. The FIB method and the tripod method eliminate both problems when performing a cross-section TEM sampling of Si1-xGex on c-plane sapphire, which shows the surface morphology, the interface between film and substrate, and the crystal structure of the film. This paper explains the FIB sampling method and the tripod sampling method, and why sampling Si1-xGex, on a sapphire substrate with TEM, is necessary.

  18. Food preparation methods, drinking water source, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the high-risk area of Golestan, Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Fazeltabar Malekshah, Akbar; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoosh; Khoshnia, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahriar; Marjani, Haji Amin; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Brennan, Paul; Taylor, Philip; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Cooking practices and water sources have been associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly through exposure to carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrates. Using data from the Golestan case-control study, carried out between 2003 and 2007 in a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we sought to investigate the association between food preparation and drinking water sources and ESCC. Information on food preparation methods, sources of drinking water, and dietary habits was gathered from 300 cases and 571 controls matched individually for age, sex, and neighborhood using a structured questionnaire and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders and other known risk factors including socioeconomic status and smoking. More than 95% of the participants reported eating meat, mostly red meat. Red meat consumption above the 75th percentile increased the odds of ESCC by 2.82-fold (95% CI: 1.21-6.57). Fish intake was associated with a significant 68% decrease in ESCC odds (26%, 86%). Among meat eaters, ORs (95% CI) for frying meat (red or white) and fish were 3.34 (1.32-8.45) and 2.62 (1.24-5.5). Drinking unpiped water increased ESCC odds by 4.25 times (2.23-8.11). The OR for each 10-year increase in the duration of drinking unpiped water was 1.47 (1.22-1.78). Our results suggest roles for red meat intake, drinking water source, and food preparation methods in ESCC, even after adjusting for a large number of potential confounders.

  19. Z-scan studies of the nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, M H; Nady, A; Penny, R; Chong, W Y; Zakaria, R

    2015-11-20

    This paper details the fabrication process for placing single-layer gold (Au) nanoparticles on a planar substrate, and investigation of the resulting optical properties that can be exploited for nonlinear optics applications. Preparation of Au nanoparticles on the substrate involved electron beam deposition and subsequent thermal dewetting. The obtained thin films of Au had a variation in thicknesses related to the controllable deposition time during the electron beam deposition process. These samples were then subjected to thermal annealing at 600°C to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au nanoparticles. Observation from field-effect scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images indicated the size of Au nanoparticles ranges from ∼13 to ∼48  nm. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear effects on the fabricated Au nanoparticle layers where it strongly relates LSPR and nonlinear optical properties.

  20. Electronically Stabilized Copoly(Styrene-Acrylic Acid Submicrocapsules Prepared by Miniemulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation and characterization of poly(styrene-acrylic acid (St/AA submicrocapsules by using the miniemulsion copolymerization method. AA was introduced to miniemulsion polymerization of St to increase the zeta potential and the resulting electrostatic stability of St/AA submicrocapsules. Phytoncide oil was adopted as the core model material. Miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was conducted at a fixed monomer concentration (0.172 mol with a varying monomer feed ratio [AA]/[St] (0.2, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, and 1.0. Concentrations of initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile; 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 3.0 × 10−3, and 4.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; 0.6 × 10−3, 1.0 × 10−3, and 1.4 × 10−3 mol were also controlled to optimize the miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Dynamic light scattering and microscopic analyses confirmed the optimum condition of miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Long-term colloidal stability of aqueous St/AA submicrocapsule suspension was evaluated by using TurbiscanTM Lab. In this work, the optimum condition for miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was determined ([AA]/[St] = 0.33; [SDS] = 1.0 × 10−3 mol; [AIBN] = 2.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer. St/AA submicrocapsules prepared at the optimum condition (392.6 nm and −55.2 mV of mean particle size and zeta potential, respectively showed almost no variations in backscattering intensity (stable colloids without aggregation.

  1. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Solid Silver Nanoparticles (<10 nm) for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-07-02

    Metal conductive ink for flexible electroncs has exhibited a promising future recently. Here, an innovative strategy was reported to synthesize silver nanocolloid (2.5 ± 0.5 nm) and separate solid silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) effectively. Specifically, silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as silver precursor, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent, fatty acid (CnH2n+1COOH) as dispersant agent, ammonia (NH3•H2O) and hydrochloride (HCl) as pH regulator and complexing agent in aqueous. The main mechanism is the solubility changes of fatty acid salts (CnH2n+1 COO-NH4+) and fatty acid (CnH2n+1 COOH) coated on the synthesized silver nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous. This change determinates the suspension and precipitation of silver NPs directly. The results show that when n in dispersant is 12, and molar ratio (C12H24O2/AgNO3) is 1.0, the separation yield of silver NPs is up to 94.8 %. After sintered at 125 ℃ for 20 minutes, the as-prepared conductive silver nanoink (20 wt. %) presents a satisfactory resistivity (as low as 6.6 μΩ.cm on polyester-PET substrate), about 4 times the bulk silver. In addition, the efficacy of the as-prepared conductive ink was verified with the construction of radio frequency antenna by inkjet printing and conductive character pattern (Fudan-Fudan) by direct wiring, showing with excellent electrical performance.

  2. Preparation and Electronic Property Investigation of Zinc(II-Schiff Base Complexes in the Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-Schiff base complexes have attracted continued research interest regarding their intriguing and useful features, while the electronic properties of these complexes in the confined space have not been sufficiently addressed in previous studies. In this work, a new zinc(II-Schiff base complex bis(N-dodecyl salicylideneiminatoZn(II (1 was synthesized and subsequently loaded in an inorganic solid host. A large red shift (~40 nm of the absorption onset was recorded, when the microenvironment of 1 changed from the solvent ethanol to the inorganic solid medium, evidencing the confined space effect. The marked shift of the absorption onset was associated with a band-gap reduction between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO. Theoretical calculation results showed that the confined space effect is distance dependent and exerts a more profound influence on the HOMO than the LUMO within an effective distance range. An initial study implied that the confined space effect is also accompanied with the electron density variation.

  3. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine...... by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH† and ΔS†), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed...... to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found...

  4. Conventional food preparation, cook and chill and sous-vide as optional methods for institutional kitchens. Perinteinen ruoanvalmistus, cook and chill ja sous-vide toimintavaihtoehdot suurkeittioessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivaerinta, T., Reisbacka, A., Salminen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to clarify the situation concerning the energy consumption, economics and the appropriateness of the three options when applied in institutional households. The options included in the study were conventional (preparation-cooking-serving), cook and chill and sous-vide (vacuum cooking-chilling). A further aim was to compare industrially produced products to self-made products. Each option was studied in connection with several devices embodying latest technology. The overall price for a portion was found to be cheapest when using the conventional preparation method. The cook and chill method was only slightly more expensive. The result of this study also support the understanding that when appropriately planned, cook and chill and sous-vide food preparation options make possible the rationalisation of kitchen work. The appropriateness of different food preparation methods depends on the versatility of the functions and programmes built into cooking devices. A combination oven is appropriate and conserves energy when cooking or heating up large quantities. Significant waste of water (126-146 1/h) is possible because of the structural solutions and modes of use of such an oven. A microwave oven saves energy when used to heat up ready-made portions. The amount of energy consumed by an air-cooled chilling cabinet in the cooling of food makes it more economical to use than a water-cooled model. The amount of electricity consumed by a refrigerator or an equivalent cold storage is 5-14 times less than that consumed by chilling devices

  5. Electron microscopy observations of MgB 2 wire prepared by an internal Mg diffusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Y.; Kubota, Y.; Hata, S.; Ikeda, K.; Nakashima, H.; Matsumoto, A.; Togano, K.; Kumakura, H.

    2011-11-01

    Microstructure in a high-density MgB2 wire fabricated by an internal Mg diffusion (IMD) process has been investigated by electron microscopy imaging and analysis at different scales. In the IMD process, a pure Mg rod was used as Mg source, and nanosized SiC powders were mixed with amorphous B powders. In the case of a heat treatment at 640 °C for 1 h carried out after rolling and drawing processes, the wire has two microstructural features that degrade critical current density: uncrystallized zones composed mainly of unreacted B and SiC powders, and cracks partly filled with course Mg2Si crystals. Those cracks were formed in the uncrystallized zones as well as in crystallized MgB2 zones. It indicate that the cracks formed by the mechanical milling and drawing remain after the heat treatment.

  6. Electronic packaging materials prepared by powder injecting molding and pressure infiltration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AlSiCp (65 vol.% SiC) electronic packaging materials were manufactured by powder injection molding (PIM) and pressure infiltration process in order to obtain near net-shaped parts. SiCp preformed compacts obtained by pre-sintering process at 1150 K have high strength and good appearance, and the ratio of open porosity to total porosiry is nearly 98%. The relative density of composites is bigger than 99%. The thermal conductivity of AlSiCp composites fabricated by this method is 198 W·m-1·K-1, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 8.0 × 10-6/K (298 K).

  7. One-Step Preparation of Silver Hexagonal Microsheets as Electrically Conductive Adhesive Fillers for Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hu-Ming; Guo, Ying; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M F; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Yu, Shuhui; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-06-24

    A facile one-step solution-phase chemical reduction method has been developed to synthesize Ag microsheets at room temperature. The morphology of Ag sheets is a regular hexagon more than 1 μm in size and about 200 nm in thickness. The hexagonal Ag microsheets possess a smoother and straighter surface compared with that of the commercial Ag micrometer-sized flakes prepared by ball milling for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs). The function of the reagents and the formation mechanism of Ag hexagonal microsheets are also investigated. For the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate facet-selective capping, the Ag atoms freshly reduced by N2H4 would orientationally grow alone on the {111} facet of Ag seeds, with the synergistically selective etching of irregular and small Ag particles by H2O2, to form Ag hexagonal microsheets. The hexagonal Ag microsheet-filled epoxy adhesives, as electrically conductive materials, can be easily printed on various substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), epoxy, glass, and flexible papers. The hexagonal Ag microsheet filled ECAs demonstrate lower bulk resistivity (approximately 8 × 10(-5) Ω cm) than that of the traditional Ag micrometer-sized-flake-filled ECAs with the same Ag content of 80 wt % (approximately 1.2 × 10(-4) Ω cm).

  8. Influência do modo de preparo de alimentos na prevenção da aterosclerose The influence of food preparation methods on atherosclerosis prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do modo de preparo na composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol em alimentos. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição química do colesterol e ácidos graxos de oito tipos diferentes de carnes e da feijoada, em relação a diferentes métodos de preparo. RESULTADOS: A feijoada preparada com as carnes em separado tem menos colesterol (12,1 e 16,1 mg, respectivamente; p = 0,005 e gordura saturada (1,4 e 1,9 mg; p = 0,046 do que quando preparada junto. O frango grelhado sem pele apresenta menor quantidade de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frango frito sem pele (7645 e 1505 mg; p = 0,049. O camarão grelhado também apresenta menor conteúdo de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frito (532 e 1262 mg; p = 0,049. O contrafilé grelhado sem gordura apresenta menor conteúdo de colesterol quando comparado com o frito (102 e 114 mg; p = 0,049. CONCLUSÃO: As análises aqui realizadas indicam que a forma de preparo influencia no teor de gordura dos alimentos, com potencial impacto na prescrição de dietas com baixo teor de gordura e colesterol.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1 mg, respectively, p = 0.005 and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9 mg, p = 0.046 than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645 mg, p = 0.049. Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262 mg, p = 0.049. Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114 mg, p = 0

  9. Preparation, theory, and biological applications of highly luminescent cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots in optical and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, James Christopher

    This dissertation describes the preparation, theory, and applications of ZnS overcoated CdSe (core) quantum dots for applications as fluorescent probes in optical microscopy and as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) probes in electron microscopy, with applications to the biological sciences. The dissertation begins with a brief overview of quantum dots and their history. Next, a brief overview of the necessary semiconductor theory is discussed including the origin of the band gap, the origin of holes, the concepts of phonons, and trap states. Then, the role of the confinement potential in the quantum dot fluorescent spectrum is discussed in the context of the 3-dimensional spherical well. Included in this discussion is the role of excitonic electron-hole bound states. To provide a complete document useful to anyone who wishes to continue work along these lines, included is a methods section which describes the complete process of synthesis of the CdSe cores, overcoating the cores with ZnS, size selection of nanocrystals, water solubilization, and protein conjugation. The methods used in live cell labeling are included as well. In the section that follows, a discussion of the mathematical methods of image correlation spectroscopy (ICS) for extracting dynamic constants such as flow rates and diffusion constants from time lapse optical image data is discussed in the context of quantum dot fluorescent probes. Dynamic constants were obtained using live NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells labeled with IgG-anti-EGF conjugated quantum dots. These same cells were then fixed, imbedded in resin, sectioned to 100nm thick sections and imaged under the electron microscope. The electron dense cadmium selinide provides the contrast necessary to perform direct imaging of EGF receptor sites. In order to improve the data and move toward multi-channel imaging in the electron microscope, EELS spectroscopy and elemental mapping of quantum dots was performed. The theory along with a

  10. Intertwisted fibrillar diamond-like carbon films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武保; 王久丽; 张谷令; 范松华; 刘赤子; 杨思泽

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the structures, optical and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films are studied, which are prepared by a self-fabricated electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method at room temperature in the ambient gases of mixed acetylene and nitrogen. The morphology and microstructure of the processed film are characterized by the atomic force microscope image, Raman spectra and middle Fourier transform infrared transmittance spectra, which reveal that there is an intertwisted fibrillar diamond-like structure in the film and the film is mainly composed of sp3 CH, sp3 C-C, sp2 C=C, C=N and C60. The film micro-hardness and bulk modulus are measured by a nano-indenter and the refractive constant and deposition rate are also calculated.

  11. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Yong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.

  12. Optical characteristics of ZnS {sub x}Se{sub 1-x} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Hassan, Khedr M.M. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, School of Engineering, UCSI, Lot 18113, Off Jalan Cerdas, Taman Connaught, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: khedr@ucsi.edu.my; Muhamad, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, K.L. Malaysia (Malaysia); Radhakrishna, S

    2005-11-22

    The optical transmission measurements are used to determine various optical constants and properties of ZnS {sub x}Se{sub 1-x} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation onto glass substrates at 60 deg. C. The dispersion of the complex refractive index, the complex dielectric function and the absorption coefficient is studied in the transparent region of the spectrum and compared with the theoretical results calculated based on the model dielectric function. The fundamental optical energy gap is estimated by fitting the absorption coefficient data in the high absorption region to the direct transition expression. The variation of the energy gap with the composition in the film is investigated and compared with the results reported previously by other workers. The shift in the energy gap caused by the uniaxial stress inside the film and the grain size effect is estimated.

  13. Multifractal spectra of scanning electron microscope images of SnO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-09-01

    The concept of fractal geometry has proved useful in describing structures and processes in experimental systems. In this Letter, the surface topographies of SnO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for various substrate temperatures were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifractal spectra f(α) show that the higher the substrate temperature, the wider the spectrum, and the larger the Δf(Δf=f(α)-f(α)). It is apparent that the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases with the increasing substrate temperature, and the liquid droplets of SnO2 thin films are formed on previous thin films. These results show that the SEM images can be characterized by the multifractal spectra.

  14. Multifractal spectra of scanning electron microscope images of SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Shek, C.H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-09-26

    The concept of fractal geometry has proved useful in describing structures and processes in experimental systems. In this Letter, the surface topographies of SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for various substrate temperatures were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifractal spectra f({alpha}) show that the higher the substrate temperature, the wider the spectrum, and the larger the {delta}f({delta}f=f({alpha}{sub min})-f({alpha}{sub max})). It is apparent that the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases with the increasing substrate temperature, and the liquid droplets of SnO{sub 2} thin films are formed on previous thin films. These results show that the SEM images can be characterized by the multifractal spectra.

  15. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping.

  16. Electronic microscopy analysis of HAP single crystals prepared by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友法; 闫玉华; 李美娟; 张宏泉

    2003-01-01

    H ydroxyapatite(HAP, Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2) is one of the quite important bone implant materials. Thehydroxyapatite crystals were synthesized under hydrothermal condition. The specimen was verified to be HAP crys-tal by the X-ray powder diffractometry(XRD). Then the specimen was distinguished single crystal from polycrystalby the use of the transmission electron microscope(TEM). The diffraction pattern of the specimen is neatly arrangeddiffraction spots, that verified the crystals were single crystals. The interplanar distance d calculated from diffrac-tion spot is coincided with that of HAP's JCPDS card. Moreover, crystal face angles calculated from crystal face in-dex are coincided with the values by measuring on the pattern. The HAP crystals are needle-like in shape with about3 μm in diameter and 180 μm in length. Most of the crystals are separate whiskers. Their length/diameter ratio ran-ges from 40 to 100. The average ratio is about 60.

  17. Structure and electronic properties features of amorphous chalhogenide semiconductor films prepared by ion-plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, N., E-mail: korobova3@mail.ru; Timoshenkov, S. [Department of Microelectronics, National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET), Zelenograd (Russian Federation); Almasov, N.; Prikhodko, O. [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tsendin, K. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21

    Structure of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductor glassy As-S-Se films, obtained by high-frequency (HF) ion-plasma sputtering has been investigated. It was shown that the length of the atomic structure medium order and local structure were different from the films obtained by thermal vacuum evaporation. Temperature dependence of dark conductivity, as well as the dependence of the spectral transmittance has been studied. Conductivity value was determined at room temperature. Energy activation conductivity and films optical band gap have been calculated. Temperature and field dependence of the drift mobility of charge carriers in the HF As-S-Se films have been shown. Bipolarity of charge carriers drift mobility has been confirmed. Absence of deep traps for electrons in the As{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} spectrum of localized states for films obtained by HF plasma ion sputtering was determined. Bipolar drift of charge carriers was found in amorphous As{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} films obtained by ion-plasma sputtering of high-frequency, unlike the films of these materials obtained by thermal evaporation.

  18. Lattice reorientation in tetragonal PMN-PT thin film induced by focused ion beam preparation for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneulin, Thibaud; Maeng, Wanjoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Hÿtch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Focused ion beam sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can induce relaxation mechanisms in epitaxial thin films. Here, we describe a relaxation mechanism that can occur in materials having a tetragonal structure. We investigated the lattice structure of a 600 nm thick 0.4 [ Pb ( Mg 1 / 3 Nb 2 / 3 ) O 3 ] - 0.6 [ PbTiO 3 ] layer grown by epitaxy on (110) GdScO3 substrate using geometrical phase analysis applied to high resolution TEM images. The lattice mismatch at the interface is expected to favor the formation of c-domains. However, it was measured that the out-of-plane lattice parameter can decrease abruptly along the growth direction and the transition depends on the thickness of the TEM lamella. Different observations indicate that the crystal flipped by 90° following the preparation of the sample, so that the c-axis is oriented in the thinning direction. Such a mechanism can easily lead to misinterpretations and might happen in other materials with a similar structure.

  19. Evaluation of Pentachlorophenol Residues in Some Hygienic Papers Prepared from Virgin and Secondary Pulp by Electron Capture Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Akbari-adergani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual amount of pentachlorophenol (PCP as the most important paper preservative, which is extremely hazardous pollutant, was determined in some tissue papers and napkins. Twenty-five samples of two producing hygienic paper factories prepared from virgin and secondary pulp were analyzed for the presence of trace amount of PCP. The analytical procedure involved direct extraction of PCP from hygienic paper and its determination by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The statistical results for the analysis of all samples revealed that there were significant differences between mean of PCP in hygienic papers prepared from virgin and secondary pulp (P<0.05. This method gave recoveries of 86-98% for hygienic paper made from virgin pulp and 79-92% for hygienic paper made from secondary pulp. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ for PCP were 6.3 and 21.0 mg/kg, respectively. The analytical method has the requisite sensitivity, accuracy, precision and specificity to assay PCP in hygienic papers. This study demonstrates a concern with exposition to PCP considering that hygienic paper is largely consumed in the society.

  20. High-Purity Nickel Prepared by Electron Beam Melting: Purification Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Shang, Zaiyan; Chen, Ming; He, Jinjiang; Lv, Baoguo; Wang, Xingquan; Xiong, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    A bulk cylindrical high-purity nickel ingot, with purity of more than 99.999 pct (5N) in mass, was obtained from the raw nickel with 99.95 pct (3N5) initial purity by virtue of double electron beam melting (EBM). A chemical analysis was performed by using glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) analysis for all elements in the periodic table except carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which were tested by the high-performance combustion and fusion method. The major impurities B, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, and Pb showed an excellent removal effect with removal efficiency of more than 85 pct following the double EBMs. Li, Mg, Cl, K, V, Mn, Ga, Ge, Cd, Se, In, Sn, Tl, Au, and Pt were below the detection limit. No significant change in concentration was found for the refractory elements W, Mo, Ta, Nb, and Ir. Be, F, Sc, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Re, Os, Hg, Bi, Th, and U were not detectable following the purification as compared to the raw nickel. Gaseous impurities, C, N, O, especially for N, was removed sufficiently. Theoretical calculations for removal efficiency of impurity Fe based on the calculated vapor pressure, activity coefficient, and melt temperature were in good agreement with measured results, and the purification mechanism was ascribed to the evaporation of major impurities and subsequently evacuation by repetitive EBM.

  1. Morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er:YAG laser (LiteTouch, Syneron), Carisolv and rotary instruments. A scanning electron microscopy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanova, Snejana Ts; Tomov, Georgi T

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro investigation aimed to study by means of scanning electron microscope the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after using several different methods for caries removal and cavity preparation. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth with carious lesions were used in the study. They were assigned to four groups depending on the method used for preparation: Group 1--Cavity preparation using Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch, Syneron, Israel). Group 2--Chemomechanical preparation using colourless Carisolv gel (MediTeam AB, Savedalen, Sweden). Group 3--Mechanical rotary preparation using diamond burs and air turbine. Group 4--Mechanical rotary preparation using by steel burs and micromotor. The preparations were performed strictly according to the manufacturer's instructions for proper use of instruments. The teeth samples were prepared for histological study and investigated by a scanning electron microscope at different magnification; the morphological changes in the tissues were registered and compared. There were considerable differences in the surface characteristics of the dental tissues when we analysed the photomicrographs of the specimens obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface after laser treatment remained highly retentive with no residual smear layer; the second best results in this respect were registered when teeth were chemomechanically excavated with Carisolv gel. The mechanical methods of cavity preparation resulted in surfaces with a smear layer of dentin without any microretentions. The scanning electron microscopy of hard dental tissues prepared using steel and diamond burs showed surfaces covered with a thick smear layer that may be relevant to the subsequent bonding of adhesive restorative materials to the prepared cavity. In preparing the surface using a turbine with diamond burs the smear layer was thinner and part of the dentinal tubules orifices were open in the area of water turbulence. SEM analysis of hard

  2. Electronic transport in highly conducting Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Vai, Alex T.; Edwards, Peter P., E-mail: peter.edwards@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Al-Mamouri, Malek; Stuart Abell, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    Highly conducting (ρ = 3.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm) and transparent (83%) polycrystalline Si-doped ZnO (SiZO) thin films have been deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition from (ZnO){sub 1−x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) ceramic targets prepared using a sol-gel technique. Along with their structural, chemical, and optical properties, the electronic transport within these SiZO samples has been investigated as a function of silicon doping level and temperature. Measurements made between 80 and 350 K reveal an almost temperature-independent carrier concentration consistent with degenerate metallic conduction in all of these samples. The temperature-dependent Hall mobility has been modeled by considering the varying contribution of grain boundary and electron-phonon scattering in samples with different nominal silicon concentrations.

  3. Multiple double cross-section transmission electron microscope sample preparation of specific sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Lynne M; Mittal, Surbhi; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Cohen, Guy M; Sleight, Jeffrey W

    2011-12-01

    The ability to prepare multiple cross-section transmission electron microscope (XTEM) samples from one XTEM sample of specific sub-10 nm features was demonstrated. Sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire (NW) devices were initially cross-sectioned using a dual-beam focused ion beam system in a direction running parallel to the device channel. From this XTEM sample, both low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from six separate, specific site Si NW devices. The XTEM sample was then re-sectioned in four separate locations in a direction perpendicular to the device channel: 90° from the original XTEM sample direction. Three of the four XTEM samples were successfully sectioned in the gate region of the device. From these three samples, low- and high-resolution TEM images of the Si NW were taken and measurements of the NW diameters were obtained. This technique demonstrated the ability to obtain high-resolution TEM images in directions 90° from one another of multiple, specific sub-10 nm features that were spaced 1.1 μm apart.

  4. A strategy for the identification of plants in illegal pharmaceutical preparations and food supplements using chromatographic fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; De Leersnijder, C; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2013-03-01

    The detection of regulated and forbidden herbs in pharmaceutical preparations and nutritional supplements is a growing problem for laboratories charged with the analysis of illegal pharmaceutical preparations and counterfeit medicines. This article presents a feasibility study of the use of chromatographic fingerprints for the detection of plants in pharmaceutical preparations. Fingerprints were developed for three non-regulated common herbal products--Rhamnus purshiana, Passiflora incarnata L. and Crataegus monogyna--and this was done by combining three different types of detection: diode-array detection, evaporative light scattering detection and mass spectrometry. It is shown that these plants could be detected in respective triturations of the dry extracts with lactose and three different herbal matrices as well as in commercial preparations purchased on the open market.

  5. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO).

  6. Castanea spp. buds as a phytochemical source for herbal preparations: botanical fingerprint for nutraceutical identification and functional food standardisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Bonvegna, Luca; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2014-11-01

    Many plant species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and health benefits: Castanea spp. is among the most commonly used herbal medicines. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of chestnut bud preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main bioactive compounds, and to obtain a specific chemical fingerprint to evaluate the single class contribution to the herbal preparation phytocomplex. The analyses were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a diode array detector. Castanea spp. was identified as a rich source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds: the observed analytical fingerprint demonstrated that these bud preparations represent a rich source of bioactive compounds (104.77 ± 1.14 g kg(-1) FW) in relation to different genotypes, specific sampling sites and several phenological stages. This study showed that the observed analytical fingerprint can be considered an important tool for assessing the chemical composition and bioactivities of the chestnut-derived products, considering the Castanea genus as a new source of natural health-promoting compounds. This study allowed the development of an effective tool for quality control by fingerprinting the bud preparation in order to develop a new generation of standardised preparations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparison of membrane filtration rates and hydrophobic grid membrane filter coliform and Escherichia coli counts in food suspensions using paddle-type and pulsifier sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A N; Hearn, E M; Kovacs-Nolan, J

    2000-01-01

    Food suspensions prepared by Pulsifier contained less debris and filtered 1.3x to 12x faster through hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) than those prepared by Stomacher 400. Coliform and Escherichia coli counts made by an HGMF method yielded 84 and 36 paired samples, respectively, positive by both suspending methods. Overall counts of pulsificates and stomachates did not differ significantly for either analysis, though coliform counts by Pulsifier were significantly higher in mushrooms and significantly lower in ground pork (P = 0.05). Regression equations for log10 counts of coliform and E. coli by Pulsifier and Stomacher were: Pulsifier = 0.12 + 0.97 x Stomacher, and Pulsifier = 0.01 + 1.01 x Stomacher, respectively.

  8. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (<50 μm) for Scanning Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature and our own tests, we have distilled a simpler (although slightly crude) method to prepare bacterial samples in a fast way. We only employ readily available chemicals requiring no more than a fume hoo...

  9. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of

  10. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious

  11. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious t

  12. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  13. Preparation of cultured cells using high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution for subsequent 2D or 3D visualization in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Philippa C

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an invaluable technique used for imaging the ultrastructure of samples and it is particularly useful when determining virus-host interactions at a cellular level. The environment inside a TEM is not favorable for biological material (high vacuum and high energy electrons). Also biological samples have little or no intrinsic electron contrast, and rarely do they naturally exist in very thin sheets, as is required for optimum resolution in the TEM. To prepare these samples for imaging in the TEM therefore requires extensive processing which can alter the ultrastructure of the material. Here we describe a method which aims to minimize preparation artifacts by freezing the samples at high pressure to instantaneously preserve ultrastructural detail, then rapidly substituting the ice and infiltrating with resin to provide a firm matrix which can be cut into thin sections for imaging. Thicker sections of this material can also be imaged and reconstructed into 3D volumes using electron tomography.

  14. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - In vivo test on the effect of functional food for stem cell protection and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We performed this study to determine (1) the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients, (2) the biological stability of irradiated Chinese medical prescriptions, and (3) the effect of several proposed prescriptions and its fractions on jejunal crypt survival (12 Gy), endogenous spleen colony formation(6.5 Gy), and apoptosis(2 Gy) in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the radioprotective effects of effective prescriptions, we tried the test on change of survival and hematological changes and finally we prepared the provisional product. 57 refs., 5 figs., 38 tabs. (Author)

  15. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services Desenvolvimento de um método de controle de sal e sódio em unidades de alimentação e nutrição

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz; Marcela Boro Veiros; Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença; Anete Araújo de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The ...

  16. What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Nicole

    This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

  17. Multiclass pesticide analysis in fruit-based baby food: A comparative study of sample preparation techniques previous to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus H; Fernandes, José O; Godoy, Helena T; Cunha, Sara C

    2016-12-01

    With the aim to develop a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to analyze 24 pesticide residues in baby foods at the level imposed by established regulation two simple, rapid and environmental-friendly sample preparation techniques based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, robust and safe) were compared - QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and QuEChERS with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Both sample preparation techniques achieved suitable performance criteria, including selectivity, linearity, acceptable recovery (70-120%) and precision (⩽20%). A higher enrichment factor was observed for DLLME and consequently better limits of detection and quantification were obtained. Nevertheless, d-SPE provided a more effective removal of matrix co-extractives from extracts than DLLME, which contributed to lower matrix effects. Twenty-two commercial fruit-based baby food samples were analyzed by the developed method, being procymidone detected in one sample at a level above the legal limit established by EU.

  18. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  19. 鱼籽调理食品的脱腥和加工工艺%Technology of Deodorization and Processing of Fish Roe Prepared Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何贵山; 方旭波; 陈小娥; 余辉; 虞田

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼籽脱腥工艺和鱼籽调理食品的加工工艺。实验结果表明,选用臭氧水起始浓度1.8mg/L,pH值8.0,在水温0℃下处理18min,可以达到较好的脱腥效果,最终制成的鱼籽制品是一种腥味低、体表完整紧实、嚢衣少、风味独特、高营养价值的优质调理食品。%Technology of deodorization of fish roe and processing of fish roe prepared food were studied.The result of experiment showed the optimal techniques obtained were initial concentration of ozone water 1.8 mg/L,pH value 8.0,temperature 0 ℃ and enzymatic hydrolysis time 18 min.The final products made of fish roe were high-quality prepared foods with low deodorization,full and tight surface,less membranes,unique flavor and high nutritional value.

  20. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4°C for 3 months, 37°C for 2 months, 60°C for 5 h, and 100°C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30°C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods.

  1. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Adam Kouamé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods’ GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage, 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage, 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage; 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage. GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods (p < 0.01, and no relationship existed between the GI values and the amount of protein (p = 0.89. Except for Chips (GL = 12, the GLs of the others foods were high (GL > 20. Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire.

  2. Intra-family role expectations and reluctance to change identified as key barriers to expanding vegetable consumption patterns during interactive family-based program for Appalachian low-income food preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Lynne; Wenrich, Tionni R

    2012-08-01

    Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white (98%), and female (94%), with several children living at home. Experimental food preparers (n=25) attended the program sessions and controls (n=25) were mailed relevant handouts and recipes. At program sessions, participants received nutrition information, hands-on cooking instruction, and prepared recipes to take home for family evaluation. As qualitative assessment, 10 couples from each treatment group (n=20 couples) were randomly selected for baseline and immediate post-intervention interviews to explore impact on the food preparer's family. These in-depth interviews with the food preparer and their adult partner were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers conducted thematic analysis using constant comparison. Family flexibility about food choices was assessed using roles, rules, and power concepts from Family Systems Theory. Interviews at baseline revealed dinner vegetable variety was very limited because food preparers served only what everyone liked (a role expectation) and deferred to male partner and children's narrow vegetable preferences (power). Control couples reported no change in vegetable dinner variety post-intervention. Most experimental couples reported in-home tasting and evaluation was worthwhile and somewhat broadened vegetables served at dinners. But the role expectation of serving only what everyone liked and the practice of honoring powerful family members' vegetable preferences remained major barriers to change.

  3. Preparation of NiO-graphene oxide nanosensor for adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of dinoterbon in food samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasaram Roja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO modified NiO electrochemical nanosensor was developed for the determination of the dinoterbon in food samples using adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The modified nanosensor characterized by TEM, XRD, cyclic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Dinoterbon pesticide exhibited a single well-defined cathodic peak at pH 4.0 at Britton–Robinson buffer (-810.0 mV. The voltammetric characterization of the pesti­cide residues is evaluated and the parameter such as the effect of pH, scan rate, pulse amplitude, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized. The current–concen­tration plot obtained using this peak was straight-lined over the range from 0.05 to 50.00 µg mL-1 with limit of detection (LOD 0.028 µg mL-1. The proposed method was efficiently applied to the determination of dinoterbon in food samples. The mean recoveries of the pesticide 97.40 to 99.88 % with a relative standard deviation of 0.114 % in food samples respectively.

  4. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...--IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority... / Friday, May 10, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food...

  5. Preparation of immunomagnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles and application in rapid isolation of E.coli O157:H7 from foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Li Duan; Zhi-Qiang Shen; Xin-Wei Wang; Fu-Huan Chao; Jun-Wen Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To prepare a kind of magnetic iron-dextran nanopartidesthat was coated with anti-E.coli O157:H7 IgG, analyze its application conditions, and try to use it to isolate E.coli O157:H7 from foods.METHODS: Magnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of a mixture of ferric and ferrous ions with dextran polymers under alkaline conditions. The particles were coated with antiserum against E. coli O157:H7 by the periodate oxidation-borohydride reduction procedure. The oxidation time, amount of antibody coating the particles, amount of nanoparticles, incubation time and isolation time were varied to determine their effects on recovery of the organisms. Finally, the optimumconditions for isolating E. coli O157:H7 from food samples were established.RESULTS: E.coli O157:H7 can be isolated from samples within 15 min with the sensitivity of 101 CFU/mL or even less. In the presence of 108 CFU/mL of other organisms,the sensitivity is 101-102 CFU/mL. Nonspecific binding of other bacteria to the particles was not observed. Two and a half hours of enrichment is enough for the particles to detect the target from the food samples inoculated with 1 CFU/g.CONCLUSION: Isolation of target bacteria by immunomagnetic nanoparticles is an efficient method with high sensitivity and specificity. The technique is so simple that it can be operated in lab and field even by untrained personnel.

  6. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  7. Preparation of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films by sequential electron beam evaporation and oxygen annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, J.; Tsaur, B.; Anderson, A.C.; Strauss, A.J.

    1989-01-30

    Superconducting films with nominal composition Bi/sub 2/Sr/sub 2/Ca/sub 1/Cu/sub 2/O/sub x/ have been prepared on <100> MgO substrates by sequential electron beam evaporation of Cu, Bi, and Sr/sub 2/3/ Ca/sub 1/3/ F/sub 2/, followed by annealing in flowing wet, then dry, O/sub 2/. X-ray diffraction data show that the films contain the two Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O phases that have been identified in the literature as a superconducting phase with capprox.31 A and a semiconducting phase with capprox.24 A. Both phases are strongly textured with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. For the best film, which was annealed at 870 /sup 0/C for 30 min, zero resistance was observed at 90 K, and the critical current density increased from 0.8 x 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 77 K to 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K.

  8. Facile, Low-Cost, UV-Curing Approach to Prepare Highly Conductive Composites for Flexible Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fucheng; Chen, Shilong; Wei, Yong; Liu, Konghua; Lin, Yong; Liu, Lan

    2016-07-01

    We present a facile approach to prepare high-performance ultraviolet (UV)-curable polyurethane-acrylate-based flexible electrical conductive adhesive (PUA-FECA) for flexible electronics applications. PUA is employed as the polymer matrix so that the ECA is flexible and UV-curable at room temperature in just a few minutes. The effects of the PUA-FECA formulation and curing procedure on the electrical properties have been studied. Very low volume resistivity (5.08 × 10-4 Ω cm) is obtained by incorporating 70 wt.% microsized Ag-coated Cu flakes. Moreover, by simply standing the PUA-FECA paste for 4 h before exposure to UV light, the bulk resistivity of the PUA-FECA is dramatically decreased to 3.62 × 10-4 Ω cm. This can be attributed to rearrangement of Ag-coated Cu flakes in the matrix while standing. PUA-FECA also presents stable electrical conductivity during rolling and compression, excellent adhesion, and good processability, making it easily scalable to large-scale fabrication and enabling screen-printing on various low-cost flexible substrates such as office paper and polyethylene terephthalate film.

  9. Structural and optical properties of Zn1−xNixTe thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zn1−xNixTe thin films with different composition (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 were deposited on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique followed by its characterization using advanced structural and optical analysis techniques. Structural properties of the prepared thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The XRD patterns revealed that the binary compounds transformed into a ternary compound with cubic structure having preferred orientation along the c-direction with (111 planes. Composition analysis of the films was determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX and found to be in agreement with the precursor composition. Optical properties such as extinction coefficient (k and band gap energy of these films were examined by using a spectroscopic ellipsometer. It was found that the extinction coefficient (k increased with the addition of Ni content in the alloy. In comparison, the band gap energy was also determined by using transmission spectra and found to be agreed with that of the ellipsometric results. These analyses confirm that the band gap energy decreases with the increase of Ni content in the alloy.

  10. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (Scanning Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature...

  11. Biological evaluation of a nutritional supplement prepared with QPM Maize cultivar BR 473 and other traditional food items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Heberth de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Protein Maize (QPM cultivar BR 473 was employed, together with soybean flour, brown sugar, banana meal and oat meal, for the preparation of a nutritional supplement.. 21-day old male Fisher rats were fed diets containing the supplement as a protein source, both with and without soybean flour; casein diets with 10 or 7% protein served as respective controls. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Net Protein Retention (NPR and Digestibility were determined. Blood biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, urea, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein were also measured in the animals and showed that all were in good health condition at the end of the experiment. The obtained results for PER, NPU and NPR indicated that the supplement prepared with QPM maize cultivar BR 473 was a good protein source, especially when soybean flour was added.

  12. Preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters as food emulsifiers and evaluation of their surface active and emulsification properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the preparation of sucrose esters, from fatty acids and the least expensive sucrose, has been conducted. Fatty acids namely lauric, palmitic and oleic were used in their preparation in the absence of any organic solvent. Reasonable yields amounting to 86.5%, 87.3% and 88.6% for sucrose esters of laurate, palmitate and oleate were obtained, respectively. The products were evaluated for their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, surface and interfacial tension properties as well as emulsion stability. The results showed that these sucrose esters exhibit similar properties as those of the commercially prepared compounds.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un método simple para la preparación de ésteres de sacarosa a partir de ácidos grasos y sacarosa de bajo coste. Se han usado ácidos laurico, palmítico y oleico en su preparación, en ausencia de solventes orgánicos. Se obtuvieron rendimientos aceptables del 86.5%, 87.3% y 88.6% para los ásteres del láurico, palmítico y oleico respectivamente. En los productos se evaluaron sus balances hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, sus propiedades de tensión superficial e interfacial así como su estabilidad en emulsiones. Los resultados mostraron que estos esteres de sacarosa exhiben propiedades similares a las de los compuestos preparados comercialmente.

  13. STIRAP preparation of a coherent superposition of ThO $H^3\\Delta_1$ states for an improved electron EDM measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, C D; West, A D; Baron, J; Hess, P W; Hoffman, C; Kirilov, E; Overstreet, C B; West, E P; DeMille, D; Doyle, J M; Gabrielse, G

    2016-01-01

    Experimental searches for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science \\textbf{343}, 269 (2014)], constraining time reversal symmetry ($T$) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO $H^3\\Delta_1$ states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using STIRAP. We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of $75\\pm5\\%$, representing a significant gain in signal for a next generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transfered via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.

  14. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  15. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  16. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  17. Time 2 tlk 2nite: Youths’ use of electronic media during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics and foods served

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the frequency of adolescents’ use of electronic media (TV/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the phone, listening to music with headphones and playing with handheld games) at family meals and examine associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescent...

  18. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market

    OpenAIRE

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg− 1, which is lowe...

  19. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Quyen, Than Linh; Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong

    2015-04-21

    Foodborne disease is a major public health threat worldwide. Salmonellosis, an infectious disease caused by Salmonella spp., is one of the most common foodborne diseases. Isolation and identification of Salmonella by conventional bacterial culture or molecular-based methods are time consuming and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or on site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic bead-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time, will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid on-site screening of Salmonella for applications in food safety control, environmental surveillance, and clinical diagnostics.

  20. Lead (II) detection and contamination routes in environmental sources, cookware and home-prepared foods from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, M; Merino-Sánchez, C; Hall, C; Grieshop, J; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M E; Handley, M A

    2009-04-01

    An interdisciplinary investigation, involving environmental geochemists, epidemiologists, nurses, and anthropologists, was undertaken to determine the contamination source and pathway of an on-going outbreak of lead poisoning among migrants originating from Zimatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico and living in Seaside, California, and among their US-born children. An initial investigation in Seaside identified grasshopper foodstuff ("chapulines") imported from Mexico and consumed as snacks, as containing alarmingly high lead concentrations (up to 2300 mg/kg). The focus in the present work concentrates on the Oaxacan area of origin of the problem in Mexico, and two potential sources of contamination were investigated: wind-borne dusts from existing mine residues as potential contaminants of soil, plant, and fauna; and food preparation practices using lead-glazed ceramic cookware. Over a three year period, sampling was conducted in Oaxaca using community-level sampling and also targeted sampling with families of cases with lead poisoning in California. In addition to fresh field chapulines, we analyzed for total lead: soil, water, mine residues, and plant materials, both from areas adjacent to or at an abandoned waste site containing mine tailings, and from fields where chapulines are collected; foodstuffs gathered in community markets or in a food transport business; and foodstuffs and cookware gathered from relatives of case families in California. Also, selected new and used lead-glazed clay cookware was extracted for lead, using 0.02 M citric acid and with 4% acetic acid. The results indicated significant presence of lead in mine wastes, in specific foodstuffs, and in glazed cookware, but no extensive soil contamination was identified. In-situ experiments demonstrated that lead incorporation in food is made very efficient through grinding of spices in glazed cookware, with the combination of a harsh mechanical action and the frequent presence of acidic lime juice, but without

  1. Food intake of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus by day and by night measured with an electronic nest balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, M.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a model to calculate food intake by Oystercatchers from their weight gain between two incubation spells and correcting for the amount of excreta voided before the bird returned to its nest. The model predictions agreed well with estimated food consumption based on direct observations in

  2. Development of a potential functional food prepared with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), oats and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Yasmina; Márquez, Enrique; Parra, Katynna; Piñero, M Patricia; Medina, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in creams, prepared with pigeon peas and oat. Products were analysed to determine their content of protein, fibre, fat, carbohydrates and degree of likeness. Viable numbers of L. reuteri and pH were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 4°C. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05) were found on sensory quality between control and creams with L. reuteri. After 28 days, the cell viability was above 7 log cfu/g in all creams. L. reuteri ATCC 55730 had the highest viability in cream with 40% pigeon pea and 20% oat (8.16 log cfu/g). In conclusion, due to its acceptability and highly nutritious value, the product could be used so as to support the growth of L. reuteri.

  3. Microbial growth in dry grain food (Sunsik) beverages prepared with water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sun-Young

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria such as Cronobacter sakazakii and Bacillus cereus, in Sunsik beverages made of water, milk, soymilk, or honey-water during storage at room temperature. Prepared Sunsik beverages were stored at room temperature and the growth of total aerobic counts, Escherichia coli/coliforms, and yeast and mold were measured. Also, samples inoculated with a cocktail of C. sakazakii or B. cereus spores were stored at room temperature and their growths were determined during storage. Populations of total aerobic counts and coliforms significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature, which resulted in higher than 8 log and 7 log after 24 h in all samples except for the honey-water sample, respectively. Levels of total aerobic counts and coliforms were significantly lower in the honey-water sample than in the other samples after 6 and 9 h of storage, respectively. Initial populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus ranged from 0 to 1 log CFU/mL, respectively, and these populations significantly increased with increasing storage time at room temperature. Therefore, populations of C. sakazakii and B. cereus were approximately 7 to 8 log CFU/mL after 24 h of storage. However, after 12 and 9 h of storage, there were significant differences in levels of C. sakazakii and B. cereus between the honey-water sample and the other samples, respectively. Based on these results, the addition of honey can inhibit microbial growth in Sunsik beverages; however, the best way to avoid pathogen infection would be to consume Sunsik beverages as soon as possible after preparation.

  4. Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically short-lived carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of short lived molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically short-lived carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.

  5. Preparation of magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups for the extraction and analysis of lead in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Huanhuan; Tang, Jie; Ye, Guiqin; Ge, Huali; Hu, Xiaoya

    2015-08-15

    A novel magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups was synthesized and developed for extraction and spectrophotometric determination of trace lead. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results indicated the adsorbents exhibited high adsorption capacities for lead due to the chelation mechanism between metal cations and mercapto groups. Meanwhile, the lead sorption onto the adsorbents could be easily separated from aqueous solution using a magnetic separation method. Under the optimal conditions, a linear calibration curve in the range from 1 to 20 μg L(-1) was achieved with an enrichment factor of 100. The limits of detection and quantitation for lead were found to be 0.29 and 0.97 μg L(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of lead in food samples and certified reference material with satisfactory results.

  6. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David; Truche, Robert; Rouviere, Jean-Luc

    2008-04-01

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  7. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, David [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr; Truche, Robert [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Rouviere, Jean-Luc [CEA DRFMC-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  8. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  9. Blotting-free and lossless cryo-electron microscopy grid preparation from nanoliter-sized protein samples and single-cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stefan A; Albiez, Stefan; Bieri, Andrej; Syntychaki, Anastasia; Adaixo, Ricardo; McLeod, Robert A; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning; Braun, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample preparation method for cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) that requires only 3-20nL of sample to prepare a cryo-EM grid, depending on the protocol used. The sample is applied and spread on the grid by a microcapillary. The procedure does not involve any blotting steps, and real-time monitoring allows the water film thickness to be assessed and decreased to an optimum value prior to vitrification. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for high-resolution cryo-EM and will enable alternative electron microscopy approaches, such as single-cell visual proteomics. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Hybrid Ultramicrotomy/FIB-SEM Technique: Preparation of Serial Electron-Transparent Thin Sections of a Hayabusa Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese space agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission returned the first particulate samples (typically SEM). Using a diamond trim knife, the epoxy surrounding the grain is removed on 3 sides (to within a few microns of the grain); the depth of material removed extends well below the bottom of the particle. The sample is attached to an SEM pin mount, the epoxy coated with conductive paint, and the entire assembly coated with approx. 40nm of carbon to eliminate sample charging during FIB work. A protective carbon cap is placed according to the plan for the 15 FIB sections. The central 'spine' of the cap runs perpendicular to the front of the sample, and the 'ribs' protruding from either side run parallel. Each rib indicates the location of a planned FIB section, and the spine contains the final two planned sections. We use a cap with a 4 micron-wide spine and 2micron-wide ribs that have ?3.5 micron of space between them (narrower cuts result in too much re-deposition of material inside the trenches). Using a 30kV, 3nA ion-beam we expose the front surface of the grain and commence milling trenches between sections. Rather than using the typical C-cut to prepare the sample for lift-out, an L-cut is used instead, leaving the sample connected by an interior tab. tab. Sections are lifted out, attached to TEM grids and thinned to electron transparency. TEM analyses show that our hybrid technique preserves both interior and edge features, including surface modifications from exposure to the space environment, such as damaged rims that form in response to solar wind implantation effects and adhering grains. In addition, the FIB sections provide larger areas that are free of fractures and chatter effects in comparison to the microtome thin sections, thus enabling more accurate measurements of solar flare particle track densities that are used to determine the surface exposure age of the particles.

  11. Scanning transmission electron microscope analysis of amorphous-Si insertion layers prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition, causing low surface recombination velocities on crystalline silicon wafers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microstructures of stacked silicon-nitride/amorphous-silicon/crystalline-silicon (SiN_x/a-Si/c-Si) layers prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition were investigated with scanning transmission electron microscopy to clarify the origin of the sensitive dependence of surface recombination velocities (SRVs) of the stacked structure on the thickness of the a-Si layer. Stacked structures with a-Si layers with thicknesses greater than 10 nm exhibit long effective carrier lifetimes, while thos...

  12. Rationale for using integrated enzymatic preparation for receiving food fibers from secondary resources of vegetable material processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to establish some rational modes of receipt of the food fibers (FF from secondary resources of vegetable raw materials. Studying chemical properties of research objects has been carried out by standard methods in accordance with the GOST 26183–84, GOST 7636–85, GOST 25555.3–82, GOST 28561–90. Determination of reducing and not reducing sugars content has been performed by the cyanide method; determination of pectinaceous substances' content – by the calcium-pectate method. As an enzyme medicine the earlier not studied complex enzyme medicine of proteolytic and amilolytic action of Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium emersonii cultures has been tested. Studying heat stability of complex enzyme medicine has been carried out at varying of the hydrolysis temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C. The fractional composition of carbohydrates of secondary resources of aubergines, vegetable marrows and onions conversion has been researched. Content of FF (cellulose, gemitsellyuloza, pectin in waste from conversion of vegetable marrows constitutes 42 % of general content of carbohydrates, aubergines – 39,2 %, and onion – 30,4 %. Chemical and carbohydrate structures of secondary resources of vegetable raw materials allow consider them as FF source, and also shows feasibility of their conversion without fractionation by the form of secondary resources. The rational modes of hydrolysis of vegetable raw materials secondary resources' mix for removing the accompanying organic compounds have been determined. The maximum proteolytic activity of enzyme medicine takes place at the temperature of 50 °C, amilolytic activity – at 70 °C. In case of рН increase from 2.0 to 6.0 proteolytic and amilolytic activity reaches the maximum and constitutes 94 % and 95 % respectively, in case of further increase рН the activity decreases. The rational value of рН of reactionary environment when carrying out enzymatic hydrolysis in the

  13. Preparation of ecofriendly UV-protective food packaging material by starch/TiO2 bio-nanocomposite: Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Vahid; Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, Iman; Babaei-Ghazvini, Amin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, ecofriendly starch/TiO2 bio-nanocomposites were produced using with different nano-TiO2 (TiO2) content (1, 3, and 5 (wt%)). Physical, mechanical, thermal, water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties and UV transmittance were investigated. Our results showed that the increasing TiO2 content increased the hydrophobicity of starch/TiO2 films. WVP of the bio-nanocomposites was reduced, simultaneously. With increasing TiO2 content, tensile strength and Young's modulus of the film specimens were reduced while elongation at break and tensile energy to break were increased. The thermal properties of specimens showed that glass transition temperature of the films increased but melting point of the specimen films was decreased by increasing TiO2 content. Scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated, the most of films' physical properties were in relation to their microstructures. The starch/TiO2 nanocomposites effectively protect goods against UV light, and could potentially be applied as UV-shielding packaging materials.

  14. Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of High-Temperatur Oxidation of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy Prepared by Focused Ion Beam Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Focused Ion Beam (FIB technique was applied for cross section preparation of the oxidized alloy for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study. Prior to preparation, the specimens of Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy sheet were oxidized in air at 1200 oC for 2 minutes, 10 minutes, 2 hours, and 100 hours. The microstructure and elemental composition of the samples were characterized using TEM equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX. The Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS was used to determine of the light elements. The TEM investigation reveals remarkable microstructure evolution of the specimens during oxidation which generally exhibit a typical multi-layer structure. The TEM images, however, can provide detailed description about the phases occur after oxidation such as the Tungsten (W and the Gallium (Ga layers on top of the samples obviously formed during FIB preparation, the formation of Al2O3 and Cr2O3 layer, MgAl2O4 spinel, porosity, Zr/Hf/Mg phases or clusters inside the oxide scale. Hence, the FIB technique has been proven to be reliable preparation technique for microstructural and elemental studies of Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy using TEM.

  15. Sample Preparation of Nano-sized Inorganic Materials for Scanning Electron Microscopy or Transmission Electron Microscopy: Scientific Operating Procedure SOP-P-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    present other challenges, as destruction of detail structures may occur because this technique involves air drying, which may collapse cell...Procedure SOP-P-2 Charles A. Weiss, Jr., and Robert D. Moser Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development...conductors and may need to be coated to passivate the surface so that electrons from the electron beam are carried from the surface. Certain metal

  16. Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Bae Choi; Jong-Seok Park; Myung-Seob Khil; Hui-Jeong Gwon; Youn-Mook Lim; Sung-In Jeong; Young-Min Shin; Young-Chang Nho

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (S...

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher-Implemented Video Prompting on an iPod Touch to Teach Food-Preparation Skills to High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse W.; Blood, Erika; Freeman, Amy; Simmons, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A multiple-probe-across-behaviors design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompts delivered on an iPod Touch to teach food-preparation skills to two high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. The special education teacher implemented the procedure in the high school classroom. Student data…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teacher-Implemented Video Prompting on an iPod Touch to Teach Food-Preparation Skills to High School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse W.; Blood, Erika; Freeman, Amy; Simmons, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A multiple-probe-across-behaviors design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of video prompts delivered on an iPod Touch to teach food-preparation skills to two high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability. The special education teacher implemented the procedure in the high school classroom. Student data…

  19. The effects of cavity-filling techniques on microleakage in class II resin restorations prepared with Er:YAG laser and diamond bur: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Emre; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Firatli, Erhan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two cavity-filling techniques affect microleakage in class II resin restorations prepared with Er:YAG laser and diamond bur. Standard MO and DO cavities were prepared in 20 extracted third molars, each randomly assigned to either Group-1 [Herculite XRV Ultra-bur-prepared cavity(bp)], Group-2 [Herculite XRV Ultra-laser-prepared cavity(lp)], Group-3 (SonicFill-(bp)], or Group-4 [SonicFill-(lp)]. For Groups 2 and 4, cavities were prepared by using an Er:YAG laser with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, output power of 200 mJ/pulse, and repetition rate of 20Hz. Teeth were restored with a one-step, self-etch adhesive material (OptiBond All-in-One), a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XRV Ultra), and a bulk-fill composite (SonicFill) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Five teeth from each group were chosen for microleakage investigation and two teeth for scanning electron microscope evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. Pair-wise comparisons were performed by Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (p SCANNING 38:389-395, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Study on Ready-to-use Prepared Food of Flammulina velutipes%金针菇即食调理食品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊韬; 孙月娥

    2011-01-01

    Taking fresh flammulina velutipes as raw material, the article studied the control method of the browning of flammulina velutipes, then provided one ready-to-use prepared food processing craft which could maintain the color, smell, taste and shape of flammulina velutipes. The experiment results showed the suitable hardened conditions were: soaking the material with 0.5% calcium chloride and 1.0% sodium chloride mixed solution for 30 min.; the optimal inactivation conditions were: blanching with 0.3% citric acid and 0.07% ascorbic acid mixed solution for 3 min. The optimized formula of the product was dehydrated flammulina velutipes 100 g, monosodium glutamate 1.5 g, pepper oil 30 g, chili oil 30 g, sugar 2 g. Mixing the flammulina velutipes and spice according to above proportion and one ready-to-use prepared food with crisp and delicious, spicy flavor can be obtained.%以新鲜金针菇为原料,首先确定了抑制金针菇酶促褐变的条件,然后提供了一种能够保持金针菇特有色、香、味、形的即食调理食品的生产工艺。适宜的硬化条件为:在0.5%氯化钙和1.0%氯化钠的混合溶液中浸泡30min。最佳杀青条件为:在0.3%的柠檬酸和O.07%的抗坏血酸混合溶液中漂烫3min。产品最佳配方:脱水金针菇100g、味精1.5g、花椒油30g、辣椒油30g、食糖2g,按此比例进行调配,可以得到脆嫩可口、鲜香麻辣风味十足的即食金针菇调理食品。

  1. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  2. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-15

    A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg(-1) in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L(-1) DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25°C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH4(+)-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  3. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  4. Evaluation of apical preparations performed with ultrasonic diamond and stainless steel tips at different intensities using a scanning electron microscope in endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martos, Ramón; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Segura-Egea, Juan-José; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-11-01

    The objective of our study is to analyse (with the help of scanning electron microscopes) the quality of the dental root surface and the appearance of dental cracks after performing apical preparations using two different types of ultrasonic tips. We used 32 single-rooted teeth that underwent a root canal and apical resection. Afterwards, the teeth were divided into 4 groups of 8 teeth each, with preparations of the apical cavities in the following manner: Group 1: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 33 KHz. Group 2: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 30 KHz. Group 3: diamond ultrasonic tip at 30 KHz. Group 4: diamond ultrasonic tip at 33 KHz. The quality of the root surface and the presence of cracks were evaluated by one single observer using a scanning electron microscope. All of the teeth in our study had cracks after the apical preparations. The mean number of cracks per tooth ranged between 6. ± 1.9 (group 1) and 3.5 ± 2.4 (group 4), with a significantly higher number found in the groups that used stainless steel tips (P=.03). The types of cracks produced involved: 8 complete cracks (4.5%), 167 incomplete cracks (94.4%), and 2 intradentinal cracks (1.1%), with no significant differences observed between the different frequencies used for each group. Stainless steel ultrasonic tips provoked a larger number of cracks than diamond tips. The frequency of vibration used did not have any effect on the number of cracks found.

  5. Dielectric and Insulating Properties of Embedded Capacitor for Flexible Electronics Prepared by Aerosol-Type Nanoparticle Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Amada, Hideyuki; Kumasaka, Fumiaki

    2013-05-01

    The rapid evolution in electronic equipment has created a demand for advanced devices that are flexible, thin, and light in weight. This demand is driving the development of a core technology for flexible and stretchable electronic devices. To produce wearable computers, we need to fabricate functional membranes that contain passive devices, such as capacitors and resistors, on resin sheets at low temperatures. These sheets can then serve as mounting boards for various electronic devices. By improving the technique for room-temperature aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition of a ceramic material, we have established a technology for forming a dielectric inorganic BaTiO3 film with an excellent degree of crystallinity and favorable electric properties for use in the production of flexible and stretchable electronic devices on a polyimide sheet. By this method of forming a homogeneous nanoparticle structure inside a film, we produced a capacitor film with a dielectric constant of 200 on a polyimide sheet at room temperature.

  6. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  7. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  8. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  9. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  10. Electronic properties and the nature of metal–insulator transition in NdNiO{sub 3} prepared at ambient oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, M.K.; Yadav, C.S., E-mail: shkehar@iitmandi.ac.in

    2016-06-15

    We report the electronic properties of the NdNiO{sub 3}, prepared at the ambient oxygen pressure condition. The metal–insulator transition temperature is observed at 192 K, but the low temperature state is found to be less insulating compared to the NdNiO{sub 3} prepared at high oxygen pressure. The electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the compound show large hysteresis below the metal–insulator transition. The large value of the effective mass (m*~8m{sub e}) in the metallic state indicates the narrow character of the 3d band. The electric conduction at low temperatures (T=2–20 K) is governed by the variable range hopping of the charge carriers.

  11. Electronic properties and the nature of metal-insulator transition in NdNiO3 prepared at ambient oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, M. K.; Yadav, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    We report the electronic properties of the NdNiO3, prepared at the ambient oxygen pressure condition. The metal-insulator transition temperature is observed at 192 K, but the low temperature state is found to be less insulating compared to the NdNiO3 prepared at high oxygen pressure. The electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the compound show large hysteresis below the metal-insulator transition. The large value of the effective mass (m*~8me) in the metallic state indicates the narrow character of the 3d band. The electric conduction at low temperatures (T=2-20 K) is governed by the variable range hopping of the charge carriers.

  12. Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/β-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-06-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  13. Superconductivity and metallic behavior in Pb{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub δ} structures prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winhold, M., E-mail: winhold@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Weirich, P. M.; Schwalb, C. H.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Focused electron beam induced deposition as a direct-write approach possesses great potential to meet the demands for superconducting nanostructure fabrication especially regarding its 3D patterning capabilities combined with the high resolution in the nanometer regime. So far, however, it was not possible to fabricate superconducting structures with this technique. In this work, we present a lead-based superconductor prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition by dissociation of the precursor tetraethyllead. The as-grown structures exhibit metallic behavior and a minimum resistivity in the normal state of ρ = 16 μΩcm at T = 9 K followed by a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 7.2 K.

  14. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Reduced Graphene Oxide Decorated with Chitosan Oligosaccharide as Electrode Material for Enhancing the Direct Electron Transfer of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhimin; Yang, Dongliang; Qi, Guangqin; Yuwen, Lihui; Zhang, Yuqian; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-29

    Water-dispersed reduced graphene oxide/chitosan oligosaccharide (RGO-CTSO) was prepared by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and synchronous functionalization with biocompatible chitosan oligosaccharide (CTSO). ζ potential measurement indicated that RGO-CTSO was highly stable in the acidic aqueous solution. RGO-CTSO was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the growth template of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The enhanced direct electron transfer of E. coli on the RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with GCE or RGO-modified GCE, RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was more suitable for the adhesion growth of E. coli to improve direct electron transfer. The biocompatibility and versatility of RGO-CTSO made it promising for use as an anode material in microbial fuel cells.

  15. The Preparation of Electronic Assembly Process Planning%电子装配工艺规程的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弥锐

    2011-01-01

    工艺文件是产品生产重要的技术文件之一,本文从企业生产一线工艺的角度论述了工艺文件的两大组成部分、电子产品工艺文件的成套性编制和工艺文件的管理,着重讲述了指导技术操作的工艺文件--工艺规程的编制.%The process file is one of important technical documents of product production. This paper discussed two major components of process documents, the preparation of sets of technical documents and the management of process documents from the point of production line process, highlighted the preparation of technical documents which guide the technical operation.

  16. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as a sorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabi, Ali; Dalirandeh, Zeinab [Department of Chemistry, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rad, Ali Shokuhi, E-mail: a.shokuhi@qaemshahriau.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    A new method has been developed for the separation/preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions using diphenyl carbazone/sodium dodecyl sulfate immobilized on magnetic nanoparticle Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as a new sorbent SPE and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Various influencing parameters on the separation and preconcentration of trace level cadmium ions such as, pH value, amount of nanoparticles, amount of diphenyl carbazone, condition of eluting solution, the effects of matrix ions were examined. The cadmium ions can be eluted from the modified magnetic nanoparticle using 1 mol L{sup −1} HCl as a desorption reagent. The detection limit of this method for cadmium was 3.71 ng ml{sup −1} and the R.S.D. was 0.503% (n=6). The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of sorbents and a high concentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, green tea, rice, tobacco, carrot, lettuce, ginseng, spice, tap water, river water, sea water with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • MNPs method is economical, simple, rapid and sensitive for trace analysis of Cd. • High preconcentration factor was obtained easily through this method. • A detection limit at ng mL{sup −1} level was achieved with 100.0 mL of sample. • This method provides good repeatability and extraction efficiency in a short time.

  17. Study of a sandwich structure of transparent conducting oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Po Kai; Cho, Wen Hao; Chen, Hung Ping; Hsiao, Chien Nan; Yang, Jer Ren

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conducting ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrodes having electrical resistance much lower than that of widely used transparent electrodes were prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IAD) under oxygen atmosphere. The optical parameters were optimized by admittance loci analysis to show that the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film can achieve an average transmittance of 93%. The optimum thickness for high optical transmittance and good electrical conductivity was found to be 11 nm ...

  18. Solar Wind Electron Strahl - Preparations for Measurement with Solar Orbiter's SWA/EAS Sensor after Lessons from Helios and Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the electron strahl population in the solar wind is a key diagnostic of the connectivity of the magnetic field to the solar atmosphere. As such, its measurement is fundamental to the success of the Solar Orbiter mission, with its scientific goals largely focussed around making the link between physical processes observed remotely in the near-Sun environment and the fields and particle populations detected in situ at the spacecraft. The Electron Analyser System (EAS) is part of the Solar Wind Analysers (SWA) suite of sensors which will be flown on the mission. It will make measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of electrons in the energy range of a few eV up to ~5 keV. In this presentation we first briefly review the expected capabilities of EAS. We then describe the strategies being developed to accurately categorize the electron strahl population with the sensor, with particular reference to our ongoing studies of relevant existing datasets from the Helios and Cluster missions.

  19. Conversion of Suspected Food Carcinogen 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Sulfotransferases and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Postmitochondrial Tissue Preparations of Humans, Mice, and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2016-01-01

    The food contaminant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by heat- and acid-catalyzed reactions from carbohydrates. More than 80% of HMF is metabolized by oxidation of the aldehyde group in mice and rats. Sulfo conjugation yields mutagenic 5-sulfoxymethylfurfural, the probable cause for the neoplastic effects observed in HMF-treated rodents. Considerable metabolic differences between species hinder assessing the tumorigenic risk associated with human dietary HMF uptake. Here, we assayed HMF turnover catalyzed by sulfotransferases or by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) in postmitochondrial preparations from liver, kidney, colon, and lung of humans, mice, and rats. The tissues-specific clearance capacities of HMF sulfo conjugation (CL(SC)) and ALDH-catalyzed oxidation (CL(OX)) were concentrated to the liver. The hepatic clearance CL(SC) in mice (males: 487 µl/min/kg bw, females: 2520 µl/min/kg bw) and rats (males: 430 µl/min/kg bw, females: 198 µl/min/kg bw) were considerably higher than those in humans (males: 21.2 µl/min/kg bw, females: 32.2 µl/min/kg bw). The ALDH-related clearance rates CLOX in mice (males: 3400 ml/min/kg bw, females: 1410 ml/min/kg bw) were higher than those of humans (males: 436 ml/min/kg bw, females: 646 ml/min/kg bw) and rats (males: 627 ml/min/kg bw, females: 679 ml/min/kg bw). The ratio of CL(OX) to CL(SC) was lowest in female mice. This finding indicated that HMF sulfo conjugation was most substantial in the liver of female mice, a target tissue for HMF-induced neoplastic effects, and that humans may be less sensitive regarding HMF sulfo conjugation compared with the rodent models.

  20. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Po-Neng [Experimental Forest, National Taiwan University, Chushan, Nantou County, 55750, Taiwan (China); Tong, Ou-Yang [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Kuang [Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in soil are substantially increased after the DOC washing. • The removal of Zn is dominated by proton replacement at pH 2.0, rather than by complexation with DOC. • The removal of Zn is dominated by DOC complexation between pH 3.0 and pH 5.0. - Abstract: A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg{sup −1} in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L{sup −1} DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25 °C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  1. 平菇果蔬复合即食片的研制%Preparation of instant food made from Pleurotus ostreatus, hawthorn and carrot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦菲; 郭晓晓; 李波; 孙俊良

    2014-01-01

    以平菇为主要原料,配以山楂、胡萝卜等辅料,将其加工成酸甜可口、营养丰富、食用方便的片状凝胶食品.工艺流程为:平菇经切片、预煮、打浆后,与山楂浆、胡萝卜浆按一定比例混合,添加适量辅料后,经熬煮、摊片、干燥、揭片、切片、包装等工序即得成品.通过单因素试验,采用感官评定方法,确定了最佳配料组成:平菇浆100 g,山楂浆50 g,胡萝卜浆30 g,蔗糖20 g,淀粉3 g,卡拉胶0.2 g.研究为平菇和山楂的精深加工提供了有效途径.%A kind of instant food was prepared by using Pleurotus ostreatus,howthorn and carrot as the main materials.Fresh P. ostreatus was sliced,precooked,pulped,mixed with the pulps of howthorn and carrot,cooked,spread, dried,sliced and packed to obtain the final product.The optimal ingredients were acquired by single factor experiment:mushroom pulp 100 g,howthorn pulp 50 g,carrot pulp 30 g,sucrose 20 g,starch 3 g and carrageenan 0.2 g. This study provides an effective way for deep processing of P. ostreatus and howthorn.

  2. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  3. Preparation and characterization of magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds for vortex-assisted magnetic solid-phase extraction of ziram in food and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (VA-MSPE) method for the separation and preconcentration of ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate), subsequent detection of the zinc in complex structure of ziram by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been developed. The ziram content was calculated by using stoichiometric relationship between the zinc and ziram. Magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds (MCNDs) as solid-phase extraction adsorbent was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These magnetic carboxylated nanodiamonds carrying the ziram could be easily separated from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field; no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. Some important factors influencing the extraction efficiency of ziram such as pH of sample solution, amount of adsorbent, type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time and sample volume were studied and optimized. The total extraction and detection time was lower than 10min The preconcentration factor (PF), the precision (RSD, n=7), the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 160, 7.0%, 5.3µgL(-1) and 17.5µgL(-1), respectively. The interference of various ions has been examined and the method has been applied for the determination of ziram in various waters, foodstuffs samples and synthetic mixtures.

  4. Microstructural analysis and Transport Properties of MoO and MoC nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2014-07-01

    By electron-beam-induced deposition, we have succeeded in the direct fabrication of nanowires of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and molybdenum carbide (MoC) on a SiO2 substrate set in a scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare MoOx specimens of high purity, a precursor gas of molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] is used, mixed with oxygen gas. On the other hand, MoC is grown by mixing H2O gas with the precursor gas. The electrical transport properties of the nanowires are investigated by the DC four-terminal method. A highly resistive MoOx nanowire prepared from an as-deposited specimen by annealing in air shows nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and a high photoconductivity. The resistivity ρ of an as-deposited amorphous MoC (a-MoC) nanowire takes its maximum at a temperature T ~ 10 K and decreases to ~ 0 with decreasing temperature. This behavior of ρ(T) indicates the possible occurrence of superconductivity in a-MoC nanowires. The characteristic of ρ(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc ~ 4 K can be well explained by the quantum phase-slip model with a coherence length ξ(0) ~ 8 nm at T = 0.

  5. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed.

  6. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed. PMID:27359147

  7. Recovery of silica from electronic waste for the synthesis of cubic MCM-48 and its application in preparing ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieves using a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Tzong-Horng

    2012-07-01

    The electronics industry is one of the world's fastest growing manufacturing industries. However, e-waste has become a serious pollution problem. This study reports the recovery of e-waste for preparing valuable MCM-48 and ordered mesoporous carbon for the first time. Specifically, this study adopts an alkali-extracted method to obtain sodium silicate precursors from electronic packaging resin ash. The influence of synthesis variables such as gelation pH, neutral/cationic surfactant ratio, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and calcination temperature on the mesophase of MCM-48 materials is investigated. Experimental results confirm that well-ordered cubic MCM-48 materials were synthesized in strongly acidic and strongly basic media. The resulting mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 1,317 m2/g, mean pore size of about 3.0 nm, and a high purity of 99.87 wt%. Ordered mesoporous carbon with high surface area (1,715 m2/g) and uniform pore size of CMK-1 type was successfully prepared by impregnating MCM-48 template using the resin waste. The carbon structure was sensitive to the sulfuric acid concentration and carbonization temperature. Converting e-waste into MCM-48 materials not only eliminates the disposal problem of e-waste, but also transforms industrial waste into a useful nanomaterial.

  8. Structural, electronic properties of microscale (NH4)2V3O8 fabricated using a novel preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, G. S.; Enyashin, A. N.; Podval'naya, N. V.; Zhuravlev, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Gorodetsky, R. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, Q.

    2017-02-01

    A new method has been developed for the synthesis of diammonium trivanadate (NH4)2V3O8. Single crystals of (NH4)2V3O8 were synthesized on a large scale by a soft base hydrolysis of NH4VO3 in NH4OH solution in the presence of VOSO4·3H2O. The effects of vanadium(V) concentration, pH value on the product morphology and phase composition were investigated. The formation mechanism of (NH4)2V3O8 was suggested. The samples were characterized using combination of techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and thermal analysis. Electronic structure, chemical bonding and adsorption properties of the bulk compound and (001) surface were analyzed by means of DFT calculations.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane/Al2O3/Epoxy Resin Composites for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were prepared by using LCPU as modifier. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties of the LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were investigated systematically. The thermal oxidation analysis indicated that LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites can sustain higher thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE was also found to decrease with addition of LCPU and nano-Al2O3.

  10. Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Bae Choi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid (PAAc and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA. The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect.

  11. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  12. Characterization and antimicrobial property of poly(acrylic acid) nanogel containing silver particle prepared by electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Bae; Park, Jong-Seok; Khil, Myung-Seob; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-05-24

    In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA). The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect.

  13. Comparison of sample preparation methods combined with gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for the analysis of multipesticide residues in lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-06-01

    Sample preparation is always the major bottleneck in analytical chemistry for the determination of pesticide residues. Different sample preparation methods have been proposed due to the wide variety of pesticides used and the inherent complexity of the matrices. In this study, different sample preparation methods including SPE, matrix solid-phase dispersion, the quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, and safe method, and a one-step completion method were compared and evaluated for extracting pesticides from lotus seeds. Analysis was carried out using GC with electron-capture detection. The results showed that good recoveries for tested pesticides were obtained by using Florisil in the four methods, and the extraction efficiency of the one-step completion method was superior to the other three methods. The one-step completion method was confirmed to have good linearity, reproducibility, stability, and recovery for the detection of 36 pesticides in lotus seed samples. The data collected from this study are expected to prove useful in regulating the concentration of the residues in lotus seeds, as well as in protecting human health from the hazards posed by these residues.

  14. Preparation of Pt Au/C and Pt Au Bi/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Cardoso, Elisangela S.Z.; Gomes, Thiago B.; Linardi, Marcelo; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Spinace, Estevam V., E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Pt Au/C (50:50) and PtAuBi/C electrocatalysts with Pt:Au:Bi atomic ratios of 50:40:10, 50:30:20 and 50:10:40 were prepared in water/2-propanol using electron beam irradiation. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by chronoamperometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements for all electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks, which are associated with the planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure characteristic of Pt and Pt alloys. For PtAuBi/C it was also observed the presence of a mixture of BiPt alloys and bismuth phases. The average crystallite sizes for Pt/C, PtAu/C, PtAuBi/C (50:40:10), PtAuBi/C (50:30:20) and PtAuBi/C (50:10:40) were in the range of 2.0 - 4.0 nm. The activity of the electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium showed that PtAuBi/C (50:40:10) had a higher performance for ethanol oxidation compared to others electrocatalysts prepared. (author)

  15. Reprecipitation phenomena arising during the preparation of demineralised sections. III Scanning electron microscopic examinations of secondary calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, R S; Johnson, G A; Browne, R M; Rowles, S L

    1976-11-01

    Sections of teeth partly demineralized in 10% formic acid were examined by X-ray diffraction, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy. In the undemineralized circumpulpal dentin, the tubules were empty, lying in a matrix containing hydroxyapatite. In the "plume" areas of remineralisation, the tubules were filled with mineral deposits. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of brushite and monetite in these areas. In the outer layers of dentin the tubules were empty, lying in a matrix containing some residual hydroxyapatite. These findings confirmed that the remineralisation process occurred within the dentinal tubules.

  16. Azo polymers with electronical push and pull structures prepared via RAFT polymerization and its photoinduced birefringence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methacrylate monomers containing azo and electronical push and pull structure, e.g. 2-Methyl-acrylic-acid-2-{[4-(4-cyano-phenylazo-3-methyl-phenyl]-ethyl-amino-ethyl ester (MACP with cyano substituted and 2-Methylacrylic-acid-2-{ethyl-[4-(4-methoxy-phenylazo-3-methyl-phenyl]-amino}-ethyl ester (MAMP with methoxy substituted, were synthesized and polymerized using 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB as chain transfer agent and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The results showed that the polymerization displayed characteristics of ‘living’/controlled free radical polymerization. Thus, the obtained polymers, polyMACP (pMACP and polyMAMP (pMAMP, had controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weights distribution. The chain extension experiments of pMACP and pMAMP using styrene as the second monomer were successfully carried out. The photo-induced trans-cis-trans isomerization kinetic of pMACP and pMAMP in chloroform solution were described. Marked differences in rate for the trans-cis and cis-trans isomerization of pMACP and pMAMP were observed in chloroform solution due to the different electronic effects in these two polymers. Photoinduced birefringence and surface relief grating (SRG of the pMACP and pMAMP were investigated in thin film state.

  17. Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) state of sulfite oxidase prepared by one-electron reduction with Ti(III) citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Rachel; Astashkin, Andrei V; Pacheco, Andrew; Raitsimring, Arnold M; Enemark, John H

    2002-03-01

    The titration of chicken liver sulfite oxidase (SO) with the one-electron reductant Ti(III) citrate, at pH 7.0, results in nearly quantitative selective reduction of the Mo(VI) center to Mo(V), while the b-type heme center remains in the fully oxidized Fe(III) state. The selective reduction of the Mo(VI/V) couple has been established from electronic and EPR spectra. The electronic spectrum of the Fe(III) heme center is essentially unchanged during the titration, and the continuous wave (CW)-EPR spectrum shows the appearance of the well-known Mo(V) signal due to the low pH ( lpH) form of SO. Further confirmation of the selective formation of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO is provided by the approximately 1:1 ratio of the integrated intensities of the Mo(V) and low-spin Fe(III) EPR signals after addition of one equivalent of Ti(III). The selective generation of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO is unexpected, considering that previous microcoulometry and flash photolysis investigations have indicated that the Mo(VI/V) and Fe(III/II) couples of SO have similar reduction potentials at pH 7. The nearly quantitative preparation of the one-electron reduced Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO by reduction with Ti(III) has enabled the interaction between these two paramagnetic metal centers, which are linked by a flexible loop with no secondary structure, to be investigated for the first time by variable-frequency pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy. The ELDOR kinetics were obtained from frozen solutions at 4.2 K at several microwave frequencies by pumping on the narrow Mo(V) signal and observing the effect on the Fe(III) primary echo at both higher and lower frequencies within the microwave C-band region. The ELDOR data indicate that freezing the solution of one-electron reduced SO produces localized regions where the concentration of SO approaches that in the crystal structure, which results in the interpair interactions being the dominant dipolar interaction

  18. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  19. Adoption of electronic health records and preparations for demonstrating meaningful use: an American Academy of Ophthalmology survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Michael V; Chiang, Michael F; Lim, Michele C; Wedemeyer, Linda; Epley, K David; McCannel, Colin A; Silverstone, David E; Lum, Flora

    2013-08-01

    To assess the current state of electronic health record (EHR) use by ophthalmologists, including adoption rate, user satisfaction, functionality, benefits, barriers, and knowledge of meaningful use criteria. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 492 members of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). A random sample of 1500 AAO members were selected on the basis of their practice location and solicited to participate in a study of EHR use, practice management, and image management system use. Participants completed the survey via the Internet, phone, or fax. The survey included questions about the adoption of EHRs, available functionality, benefits, barriers, satisfaction, and understanding of meaningful use criteria and health information technology concepts. Current adoption rate of EHRs, user satisfaction, benefits and barriers, and availability of EHR functionality. Overall, 32% of the practices surveyed had already implemented an EHR, 15% had implemented an EHR for some of their physicians or were in the process of implementation, and another 31% had plans to do so within 2 years. Among those with an EHR in their practice, 49% were satisfied or extremely satisfied with their system, 42% reported increased or stable overall productivity, 19% reported decreased or stable overall costs, and 55% would recommend an EHR to a fellow ophthalmologist. For those with an electronic image management system, only 15% had all devices integrated, 33% had images directly uploaded into their system, and 12% had electronic association of patient demographics with the image. The adoption of EHRs by ophthalmology practices more than doubled from 2007 to 2011. The satisfaction of ophthalmologists with their EHR and their perception of beneficial effects on productivity and costs were all lower in 2011 than in 2007. Knowledge about meaningful use is high, but the percentage of physicians actually receiving incentive payments is relatively low. Given the importance

  20. Older Adults and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as take-out foods, leftovers from a restaurant meal, and meals-on wheels deliveries. Thoroughly cook ... to use 3 to 4 months Deli prepared convenience foods such as egg, chicken, ham, and macaroni ...

  1. Preparation of dual-sensitive graft copolymer hydrogel based on N-maleoyl-chitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) by electron beam radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinchen Fan; Jie Chen; Liming Yang; Han Lin; Fangqi Cao

    2009-10-01

    Organic solvent-soluble N-maleoyl-chitosan (NMCS) was synthesized by reaction of chitosan with maleic anhydride (MAH) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). N-maleoyl-chitosan-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NMCS-g-PNIPAAm) copolymer hydrogel was prepared via free radical polymerization by electron beam (EB) irradiation. The copolymer obtained was analysed by FT–IR, XRD and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the grafting yield and grafting efficiency increased with increasing radiation absorbed dose and monomer amount, and then decreased. The swelling ratio of the copolymer hydrogel was low at pH 4–5, and LCST of the hydrogel was around 32°C.

  2. Preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour deposition system assisted with hot wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiu-Hong; Chen Guang-Hua; Yin Sheng-Yi; Rong Yan-Dong; Zhang Wen-Li; Hu Yue-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance-chemical vapour deposition (MWECR-CVD) system assisted with hot wire is presented. In this system the hot wire plays an important role in perfecting the microstructure as well as improving the stability and the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film. The experimental results indicate that in the microstructure of the a-Si:H film, the concentration of dihydride is decreased and a trace of microcrystalline occurs, which is useful to improve its stability, and that in the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film, the deposition rate reaches above 2.0nm/s and the photosensitivity increases up to 4.71× 105.

  3. Comparison of the electron work function, hole concentration and exciton diffusion length for P3HT and PT prepared by thermal or acid cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tousek, J.; Touskova, J.; Ludvík, J.

    2016-01-01

    The electron work function, hole concentration and diffusion length were compared for poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer (P3HT) that is commonly used for construction of solar cells, and two types of native polythiophene (PT) samples which are prospective candidates for this purpose. The polythiophene...... samples were prepared from 2 different precursors by thermal or chemical treatment at room temperature. Cyclic voltammetry and work function measurements were used for estimating the concentration of holes. The measured data were evaluated assuming the validity of band theory based on the tight...... of conjugated polymer materials in solar cells, was measured by a modified surface photovoltage method. The approach allowed us to identify the differences in the material properties related to the processing method. Morphology of the samples determined by AFM was another tool showing these differences...

  4. Evidence for cytochrome b5 as an electron donor in ricinoleic acid biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stymne, S; Stobart, K

    1992-01-01

    The major b-type cytochrome in microsomal membrane preparations from developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) was cytochrome b5. Cytochrome P-450 was also present. The microsomal membranes had delta 12-hydroxylase activity and catalysed the NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylation of oleate to yield ricinoleic acid. CO had no effect on the hydroxylase activity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the hydrophilic cytochrome b5 fragment purified from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) floret microsomes. The anti-(cytochrome b5) IgG inhibited delta 12-hydroxylase, delta 12-desaturase and cytochrome c reductase activity in the microsomes. The results indicate that electrons from NAD(P)H were transferred to the site of hydroxylation via cytochrome b5 and that cytochrome P-450 was not involved. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1417766

  5. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  6. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  7. Unconventional Specimen Preparation Techniques Using High Resolution Low Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy to Study Cell Motility, Host Cell Invasion, and Internal Cell Structures in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heide; Ris, Hans

    2002-04-01

    Apicomplexan parasites employ complex and unconventional mechanisms for cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division that are only poorly understood. While immunofluorescence and conventional transmission electron microscopy have been used to answer questions about the localization of some cytoskeletal proteins and cell organelles, many questions remain unanswered, partly because new methods are needed to study the complex interactions of cytoskeletal proteins and organelles that play a role in cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division. The choice of fixation and preparation methods has proven critical for the analysis of cytoskeletal proteins because of the rapid turnover of actin filaments and the dense spatial organization of the cytoskeleton and its association with the complex membrane system. Here we introduce new methods to study structural aspects of cytoskeletal motility, host cell invasion, and cell division of Toxoplasma gondii, a most suitable laboratory model that is representative of apicomplexan parasites. The novel approach in our experiments is the use of high resolution low voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM) combined with two new specimen preparation techniques. The first method uses LVFESEM after membrane extraction and stabilization of the cytoskeleton. This method allows viewing of actin filaments which had not been possible with any other method available so far. The second approach of imaging the parasite's ultrastructure and interactions with host cells uses semithick sections (200 nm) that are resin de-embedded (Ris and Malecki, 1993) and imaged with LVFESEM. This method allows analysis of structural detail in the parasite before and after host cell invasion and interactions with the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole as well as parasite cell division.

  8. The annealing temperature dependence of anatase TiO2 thin films prepared by the electron-beam evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherniya, Atefeh; Raoufi, Davood

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we report on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by an electron beam evaporation method on quartz glass substrates (15 × 15 × 2 mm3 in size), followed by post-annealing at 300 °C to 600 °C for an annealing time of up to 2 h. The substrate temperature during the film deposition was kept at 150 °C. The effect of post-growth thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films were systematically studied as a function of annealing temperature. We found that the as-deposited TiO2 films are amorphous in structure, while the films started to crystallize into the anatase phase when annealed at temperatures ≥450 °C. An increase in annealing temperature results in a decrease of transmittance percentage and also in optical band gap energy. The refractive indices of the films were evaluated from the measured transmittance spectra using the envelope method. An increase in the refractive index with an increase of annealing temperature was observed.

  9. Electron beam assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticle in chitosan stabilizer: Preparation, stability and inhibition of building fungi studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannoo, Kanokwan; Teerapatsakul, Churapa; Punyanut, Adisak; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chitosan (CS) stabilizer were successfully synthesized using electron beam irradiation. The effects of irradiation dose, molecular weight (MW) of CS stabilizer, concentration of AgNO3 precursor and addition of tert-butanol on AgNPs production were studied. The stability of the AgNPs under different temperatures and storage times were also investigated. The AgNPs formation in CS was observed using UV-vis, FT-IR and XRD. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the obtained AgNPs was around 418 nm. The CS stabilizer and its MW, AgNO3 precursor and irradiation doses are important parameters for the synthesis of AgNPs. The optimum addition of 20% v/v tert-butanol could assist the formation of AgNPs. The AgNPs in CS stabilizer were stable over a period of one year when the samples were kept at 5 °C. The AgNPs observed from TEM images were spherical with an average particle size in the range of 5-20 nm depending on the irradiation doses. The AgNPs in CS solution effectively inhibited the growth of several fungi, i.e., Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, which commonly found on the building surface.

  10. Effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 nanorod electrodes prepared by the solvothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells: Surface reconfiguration and improved electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyong; Yao, Jianxi; Zhang, Yongzhe; Guli, Mina; Xiao, Li

    2014-06-01

    Solvothermal synthesis is considered a novel method of preparing the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which can directly synthesize material with good crystallinity at low temperatures without thermal treatment. However, how thermal treatment influences the properties of the materials synthesized by this method is still unclear, especial at the microscopic level. In this study, we applied TiO2 nanorod arrays prepared by the solvothermal method to DSSCs. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman results indicate that the crystal structure of TiO2 nanorods did not change after thermal treatment. However, the photovoltaic performance improved by 39%. Detailed analysis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results demonstrate that a surface reconfiguration occurred, shifting one thin amorphous TiO2 layer to tiny crystallite spheres. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further confirm this morphology change, and the surface states also become more suitable for dye absorption, which leads to a significant improvement in efficiency. Moreover, good electrical transport is observed due to the low concentration of surface defects. Therefore, we believe the performance improvement comes from crystalline surface and surface chemical bonding improvements. Our results could be useful in photoelectrical applications of the solvothermal synthesis method.

  11. Glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevan Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelhos dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-supported metal nanoparticles were prepared for fuel cell applications by radiation-induced reduction of metal ions precursors. Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts (Pd:Sn atomic ratio 90:10), prepared by using electron beam irradiation, were tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC). EDX analysis showed that the Pd:Sn atomic ratio is very similar to the nominal one. X-ray diffractograms of PdSn/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd (fcc) phase. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicated that Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts have good activity for glycerol electro-oxidation, at room temperature. Experiments with single ADGFC were carried out from 60 to 90 deg C, using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts and glycerol 2.0 mol.L{sup -1}, as fuel. The best performance was obtained at 85 deg C, for both electrocatalysts. The Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar performance (34 mW cm{sup -2}), at 85 deg C. (author)

  12. 复合凝聚法制备电子墨水纳米胶囊%Preparation of nanoencapsulated electronic ink by complex coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登武; 王芳; 马素德; 赵晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the nanoencapsulated electronic ink containing TiO2 nanoparticles modified with stearic acid dispersed in tetrachloroethylene(TCE)were prepared by complex coacervation using gelatin-gum acacia as wall materials, and the factors effected the dispersion ability of suspension was discussed, and the nanoencapsulated electric inks were also prepared. The results showed the dispersion was able to be obtained by optimizing the factors. The nanocapsules prepared with uniform size distribution, and the TiO2 nanoparticles were encapsulated in nanocapsules identified by TEM.%以明胶-阿拉伯树胶为壁材,四氯乙烯(TCE)为分散介质,硬脂酸表面改性的纳米TiO2为显示颗粒,Span-80为稳定剂,采用复凝聚法一步制备了电子墨水纳米胶囊.讨论了各种因素对电泳液分散体系的影响,并制备了电子墨水纳米胶囊.结果表明,通过分析影响颗粒分散稳定性影响因素,可使得显色颗粒在体系中稳定存在.而纳米胶囊化处理后,制得的纳米胶囊粒径分布均匀,TiO2纳米颗粒被包覆在纳米胶囊内.

  13. 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected types of processed and prepared foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Karen M; Jechorek, Robert P; Carver, Charles N; Horter, Barbara L; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods. Five foods--frozen lasagna, custard, frozen mixed vegetables, frozen hashbrowns, and frozen batter-coated mushrooms--were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample, a low inoculation level, a medium inoculation level, and a medium inoculation level with background flora, each in duplicate. The mean log10 counts for the methods were comparable for all 5 foods. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the 24 h Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate method were similar to those of the 72 h standard method.

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  15. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING SOLID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting and concentrating solid food samples for persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, substituted phenols, and...

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING AND PREPARING LIQUID FOOD SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-5.19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the procedures for homogenizing, extracting, and concentrating liquid food samples for neutral persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine compounds, organophosphate compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phenols.

  18. Preparing Electronic Clinical Data for Quality Improvement and Comparative Effectiveness Research: The SCOAP CERTAIN Automation and Validation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Capurro, Daniel; van Eaton, Erik; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Yanez, N David; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Flum, David R; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The field of clinical research informatics includes creation of clinical data repositories (CDRs) used to conduct quality improvement (QI) activities and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Ideally, CDR data are accurately and directly abstracted from disparate electronic health records (EHRs), across diverse health-systems. Investigators from Washington State's Surgical Care Outcomes and Assessment Program (SCOAP) Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN) are creating such a CDR. This manuscript describes the automation and validation methods used to create this digital infrastructure. SCOAP is a QI benchmarking initiative. Data are manually abstracted from EHRs and entered into a data management system. CERTAIN investigators are now deploying Caradigm's Amalga™ tool to facilitate automated abstraction of data from multiple, disparate EHRs. Concordance is calculated to compare data automatically to manually abstracted. Performance measures are calculated between Amalga and each parent EHR. Validation takes place in repeated loops, with improvements made over time. When automated abstraction reaches the current benchmark for abstraction accuracy - 95% - itwill 'go-live' at each site. A technical analysis was completed at 14 sites. Five sites are contributing; the remaining sites prioritized meeting Meaningful Use criteria. Participating sites are contributing 15-18 unique data feeds, totaling 13 surgical registry use cases. Common feeds are registration, laboratory, transcription/dictation, radiology, and medications. Approximately 50% of 1,320 designated data elements are being automatically abstracted-25% from structured data; 25% from text mining. In semi-automating data abstraction and conducting a rigorous validation, CERTAIN investigators will semi-automate data collection to conduct QI and CER, while advancing the Learning Healthcare System.

  19. Imaging the interphase of carbon fiber composites using transmission electron microscopy:Preparations by focused ion beam, ion beam etching, and ultramicrotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qing; Li Min; Gu Yizhuo; Wang Shaokai; Zhang Zuoguang

    2015-01-01

    Three sample preparation techniques, focused ion beam (FIB), ion beam (IB) etching, and ultramicrotomy (UM) were used in comparison to analyze the interphase of carbon fiber/epoxy composites using transmission electron microscopy. An intact interphase with a relatively uniform thickness was obtained by FIB, and detailed chemical analysis of the interphase was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It shows that the interphase region is 200 nm wide with an increasing oxygen-to-carbon ratio from 10% to 19% and an almost constant nitrogen-to-carbon ratio of about 3%. However, gallium implantation of FIB tends to hinder fine structure analysis of the interphase. For IB etching, the interphase region is observed with transition morphology from amorphous resin to nano-crystalline carbon fiber, but the uneven sample thickness brings difficulty for quantitative chemical analysis. Moreover, UM tends to cause damage and/or deformation on the interphase. These results are meaningful for in-depth understanding on the interphase characteristic of carbon fiber composites.

  20. Critical assessment of electron spin resonance studies on Cu(I)-NO complexes in Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by solid- and liquid-state ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, V; Hartmann, Martin; Pöppl, Andreas

    2005-10-27

    Cu(I)-NO adsorption complexes were formed over Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by (i) solid-state ion exchange of NH(4)-ZSM-5 with CuCl and (ii) liquid-state ion exchange of ZSM-5 with Cu(CH(3)COO)(2). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two different Cu(I)-NO species A and B in both systems, whose spin Hamiltonian parameters are comparable with those already reported for the Cu(I)-NO species formed over 66% Cu(II) liquid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 materials. The population of the species A and B differs for the two systems studied. Formation of species B is more favored in the solid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 when compared to the liquid-state exchanged zeolite. The X-, Q- and W-band electron spin resonance spectra recorded at 6 and 77 K reveal the presence of a rigid geometry of the adsorption complexes at 6 K and a dynamic complex structure at higher temperatures such as 77 K. This is indicated by the change in the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the formed Cu(I)-NO species in both the liquid- and solid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites from 6 to 77 K. Possible models for the motional effects found at elevated temperatures are discussed. The temperature dependence of the electron spin phase memory time measured by two-pulse electron spin-echo experiments indicates, likewise, the onset of a motional process of the adsorbed NO molecules at temperatures above 10 K. The studies support previous assignments where the NO complexes are formed at two different Cu(I) cationic sites in the ZSM-5 framework and highlight that multifrequency electron spin resonance experiments at low temperatures are essential for reliable determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the formed adsorption complexes for further comparison with Cu(I)-NO complex structures predicted by quantum chemical calculations.

  1. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  2. Preparation of anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film by low temperature annealing as an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hongche [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong-Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Anatase thin film of TiO{sub 2} was prepared by low temperature annealing. • Anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was obtained from amorphous form through solvothermal process. • Anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was used to prepare thin film on ITO glass. • Polymer solar cell fabricated on anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film showed 2.6% of PCE. - Abstract: To prepare the anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films on ITO glass, amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was synthesized through the simple sol-gel method by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a precursor. This amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin-coating, then treated at 450 °C to obtain anatase TiO{sub 2} film (for device A). For other TiO{sub 2} films, amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was treated through solvothermal process at 180 °C to obtain anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution. This anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin coating, and then annealed at 200 °C (for device B) and 130 °C (for device C), respectively. The average particle size of amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was about 1.0 nm and that of anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was 10 nm. The thickness of TiO{sub 2} films was about 15 nm for all cases. When inverted polymer solar cells were fabricated by using these TiO{sub 2} films as an electron transport layer, the device C showed the highest PCE (2.6%) due to the lack of defect, uniformness and high light absorbance of TiO{sub 2} films. The result of this study can be applied for the preparation of inverted polymer solar cell using TiO{sub 2} films as a buffer layer at low temperature on plastic substrate by roll-to roll process.

  3. Evaluation of the MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit with the PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Dry Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Crowley, Erin Sutphin; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James R; Goins, David; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A method modification validation study was conducted to validate the Applied Biosystems MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for the detection of Salmonella spp. in 375 g samples of dried pet food. The MicroSEQ assay protocol, using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin DNA Sample Preparation Kit, was compared to the reference method detailed in the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM; Chapter 5, Salmonella) for detection of Salmonella spp. For each method, 20 replicates were analyzed at a low contamination level of 0.2-2 CFU/test portion, five replicates were analyzed at a high level of contamination of 2-5 CFU/test portion, and five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/test portion (uninoculated). Statistical analysis was conducted using the Probability of Detection statistical test to determine the ability of the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit to detect Salmonella from 375 g samples of dried pet food in comparison to the FDA-BAM reference method. The results demonstrated that the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit was able to accurately detect Salmonella spp. present in dry pet food after an enrichment time of 20 h.

  4. 马铃薯氧化淀粉制备及在食品中的应用进展%Preparation and application of oxidized potato starch in food industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高鹏; 吴立根; 屈凌波; 刘亚伟; 刘洁

    2015-01-01

    马铃薯氧化淀粉是马铃薯淀粉与氧化剂在一定温度、时间、pH等作用下产生的一种淀粉衍生物。该文论述了以次氯酸盐、过氧化氢、高锰酸钾、二氧化氯等氧化剂制备马铃薯氧化淀粉的最佳工艺,阐述了马铃薯氧化淀粉在焙烤食品、蒸煮食品、油炸食品、冷冻食品等中的应用,并展望马铃薯氧化淀粉在食品行业中的发展趋势。%Oxidized potato starch is a starch derivativeof potato starch andoxidants in the roleof acertain temperature,time,pH andotherconditions. In this paper,theoxidized starch preparation processoptimization with hypochlorite,hydrogen peroxide,potassium permanganate,chlorine dioxide asoxidation were reviewed,and the applicationsofoxidized potato starch were discussed in bakery products,steamed foods,fried foods,frozen foods and soon. Lastly this paper focusedon looking forward to the development prospects and trendsofoxidized potato starch in the food industry.

  5. Qualities of food

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Mark; McMeekin, Andrew; Warde, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This book addresses current controversial debates about food quality. What is it that makes people decide that food is of good, or alternatively of dubious, 'quality'? How food is produced, how it is prepared, how it tastes and in what circumstances it is consumed are all dimensions of its quality. Chapters address a number of intriguing questions: how do people make judgements about taste?; how do such judgements come to be shared by groups or people?; what social and organisational processe...

  6. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  7. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin film by low temperature annealing as an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hongche; Oh, Seong-Geun; Im, Seung Soon

    2015-04-01

    To prepare the anatase TiO2 thin films on ITO glass, amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was synthesized through the simple sol-gel method by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a precursor. This amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin-coating, then treated at 450 °C to obtain anatase TiO2 film (for device A). For other TiO2 films, amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was treated through solvothermal process at 180 °C to obtain anatase TiO2 colloidal solution. This anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin coating, and then annealed at 200 °C (for device B) and 130 °C (for device C), respectively. The average particle size of amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was about 1.0 nm and that of anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was 10 nm. The thickness of TiO2 films was about 15 nm for all cases. When inverted polymer solar cells were fabricated by using these TiO2 films as an electron transport layer, the device C showed the highest PCE (2.6%) due to the lack of defect, uniformness and high light absorbance of TiO2 films. The result of this study can be applied for the preparation of inverted polymer solar cell using TiO2 films as a buffer layer at low temperature on plastic substrate by roll-to roll process.

  8. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  9. Long-term osseointegration of 3D printed CoCr constructs with an interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Omar, Omar; Suska, Felicia; Snis, Anders; Matic, Aleksandar; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-05-01

    In orthopaedic surgery, cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively for their high strength and wear properties, but with concerns over stress shielding and bone resorption due to the high stiffness of CoCr. The structural stiffness, principally related to the bulk and the elastic modulus of the material, may be lowered by appropriate design modifications, to reduce the stiffness mismatch between metal/alloy implants and the adjacent bone. Here, 3D printed CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants of similar macro-geometry and interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting (EBM) were evaluated following 26week implantation in adult sheep femora. Despite higher total bone-implant contact for Ti6Al4V (39±4%) than CoCr (27±4%), bone formation patterns were similar, e.g., densification around the implant, and gradual ingrowth into the porous network, with more bone in the outer half (periphery) than the inner half (centre). Raman spectroscopy revealed no major differences in mineral crystallinity, the apatite-to-collagen ratio, or the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed similar Ca/P ratio of the interfacial tissue adjacent to both materials. Osteocytes made direct contact with CoCr and Ti6Al4V. While osteocyte density and distribution in the new-formed bone were largely similar for the two alloys, higher osteocyte density was observed at the periphery of the porous network for CoCr, attributable to slower remodelling and a different biomechanical environment. The results demonstrate the possibility to achieve bone ingrowth into open-pore CoCr constructs, and attest to the potential for fabricating customised osseointegrated CoCr implants for load-bearing applications. Although cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively in orthopaedic surgery, stress shielding due to the high stiffness of CoCr is of concern. To reduce the stiffness mismatch between CoCr and bone, CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants having

  10. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  11. Getting Started for Preparing Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers in Terms of Sustainable Food Consumption: The Current Situation at a Public University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Nur; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the food consumption and nutrition perceptions of pre-service early childhood teachers using a mixed method research design. Data was gathered from 37 pre-service early childhood teachers through survey consisting of items in rating scale and open-ended questions. Descriptive analyses were conducted to report pre-service…

  12. Time 2 tlk 2nite: use of electronic media by adolescents during family meals and associations with demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and foods served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Loth, Katie; Bruening, Meg; Berge, Jerica; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    We examined the frequency of adolescents' use of electronic media (ie, television/movie watching, text messaging, talking on the telephone, listening to music with headphones, and playing with hand-held games) at family meals and examined associations with demographic characteristics, rules about media use, family characteristics, and the types of foods served at meals using an observational, cross-sectional design. Data were drawn from two coordinated, population-based studies of adolescents (Project Eating Among Teens 2010) and their parents (Project Families and Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed during 2009-2010. Frequent television/movie watching during family meals by youth was reported by 25.5% of parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significantly higher odds of mealtime media use (Pmealtime media use (Pmealtime media use was significantly associated with lower scores on family communication (Pmealtimes (Pmealtime media use was associated with lower odds of serving green salad, fruit, vegetables, 100% juice, and milk at meals, whereas higher odds were seen for serving sugar-sweetened beverages (Pmealtime media by adolescents and differences by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and parental rules suggest that supporting parents in their efforts to initiate and follow-through on setting mealtime media use rules may be an important public health strategy.

  13. Study on preparation of food grade sodium trimetaphosophate by multi-step calcination%分段煅烧法制备食品级三偏磷酸钠试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 郭玲

    2016-01-01

    High purty food grade sodium trimetaphosophate was prepared by multi-step calcination from anhy-drous sodium dihydrogen phosphate. The optimal calcination method was determined by multi-step calcination ex-periment in different conditions,and the reaction mechanism of calcination was analyzed.It was found that high pur-ty food grade products can be prepared from sodium dihydrogen phosphate by the optimal calcination method, the content of sodium trimetaphosphate in products can reach more than 99.5%.%以无水NaH2PO4为原料,通过分段煅烧制备出了高纯度食品级Na3(PO3)3。通过设计在不同条件下的分段煅烧试验,确定了较优煅烧方法,并对其反应机理进行了分析。试验表明,以无水NaH2PO4为原料,采用较优煅烧方法可以制得高纯度食品级产品,产品中三偏磷酸钠的含量可达99.5%以上。

  14. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes.

  15. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum 1111 (Sudan); Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd [Polycomposite Sdn Bhd, No.75-2, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tajau, Rida [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [No. 107, Jalan 2, Taman Kajang Baru, Sg Jelok, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000, Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  16. Preparation of highly conjugated water-dispersible graphene-butyric acid for the enhancement of electron transfer within polyamic acid-benzoxazole: potential applications in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-15

    To break through the long time and complex procedures for the preparation of highly conjugated reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) in developing electrochemical sensor, a time-saving and simple method is investigated in this study. One novel step of the exfoliated accompanying carboxylated graphene sheet from pristine is achieved via Friedel-Crafts acylation. By electrophilic aromatic substitution, the succinic anhydride ring is opened and attaches covalently to the graphene sheet (Gs) to form exfoliated graphene with grafted 1-one-butyric acid (Gs-BA). The grafting chain converts anions in aqueous solution to maintain Gs-BA in a stable dispersion and noticeably decreases the π-π stacking of the exfoliated Gs during the drying process. The analytical results of the absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the conjugation of Gs-BA is not significantly destroyed by this chemical modification; Gs-BA retains the Gs electrical properties favorable for developing electrochemical sensors. When polyamic acid-benzoxazole (PAA-BO), a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-sensitive probe, hybridizes with Gs-BA to form Gs-BA-PAA-BO, the electron transfer rate relating to the response time improves markedly from 1.09 s(-1) to 38.8 s(-1). Additionally, it offers a high performance for H₂O₂ sensing in terms of sensitivity and response time, making this method applicable for developing glucose and choline biosensors.

  17. 脂肪组织扫描电镜样品制备方法%Adipose tissue sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔芳; 刘超; 杨建民; 王丽

    2012-01-01

    脂肪组织由于自身脂类含量丰富,采用常规扫描电镜生物样品制备法,很难达到预期效果.经过数次摸索,作者在常规制备样品基础上,增加了锇酸后固定,以使脂肪酸和磷脂蛋白得到稳定,即而稳定细胞膜结构;为使组织细胞内有机溶剂充分置换,又延长脱水时间.通过对这些具体操作细节进行改良,取得了较为满意的结果.%Conventional sample preparation technique for adipose tissue is difficult to achieve satisfactory results for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We adopted a strategy of postfix with osmium tetroxide to stabilize the fatty acids, phospholipids protein, and hence the membrane structure. Also by extending the dehydration time to fully replace the organic solvents, we achieved satisfactory results for SEM of adipose samples.

  18. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondin de; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelho dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/CCNH/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental problems and the world growing demand for energy has mobilized the scientific community in finding of clean and renewable energy sources. In this context, fuel cells appear as appropriate technology for generating electricity through alcohols electro-oxidation. Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-supported Pd and trimetallic PdAuSn (Pd:Au:Sn 50:10:40 atomic ratio) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by VC, Chronoamperometry, EDX, TEM and XRD. The catalytic activities of electrocatalysts toward ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) in a range temperature 60 to 90 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C: 33 mW.cm{sup -2} and 31 mW.cm{sup -2} for Pd/ MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts, respectively. X-ray diffractograms of electrocatalysts showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) and Au-rich (fcc) phases. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments showed that PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalyst demonstrated similar activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to electrocatalyst Pd/MWCNT. (author)

  19. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/c and PdRh/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) and bimetallic PdRh (Pd:Rh 90:10 atomic ratio) (PdRh/C) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The morphology and composition of the obtained materials were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Chronoamperometry (CA), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activities of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in a range temperature of 50 to 85 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C (25 mW.cm{sup -2}) and 75 deg C (38 mW.cm{sup -2}) for Pd/C and PdRh/C electrocatalysts, respectively. The XRD of the PdRh/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) phase. CV and CA experiments showed that PdRh/C electrocatalyst demonstrated superior activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to Pd/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  20. 广州市家庭食品安全操作及影响因素分析%Safe preparation of food and its influencing actors among families in Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蔚云; 曾美玲; 林洁如

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the status of safe preparation of food and its influencing factors among families in Guangzhou city. Methods One school was selected randomly from each of five urban districts in Guangzhou and four or five classes were sampled randomly from every school. The questionaires were distributed to the students of the classes selected and filled by the food processor in the students' family. SPSS 17.0 was used in data analysis. Results Totally 1 050 questionnaires were distributed and 1 006 eligible questionnaires were collected. The total score of safe food preparation was 15 and the median was 9. The scores for the food processors of different gender (Z = 4.594, P = 0.000), age (x2 =16.790,P = 0.001),education(x2 =16.967,P =0.002), medical background(Z = 2.426,P=0.015) ,and income of the family (x2 =21.389,P =0.000) were significantly different. Only 46.1% (464/1 006) of the subjects washed thenhands in adequate frequency and correct way and 22.4% (225/1 006) sanitized the equipment and protected the kitchen area and food from insects and pests. There were 25. 2% (254/1 006) of the subjects using separate knives and cutting boards for handling raw and cooked food and 58.3% (255/1 006) cooking food thoroughly. Only 53.0% (533/1 006) of the subjects kept the food at safe temperature. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that factors significantly related to safe food preparation were gender,income of the family,knowledge, attitude, and desire for safe food preparation. Conclusion The education on knowledge and practice about safe food preparation should be implemented in Guangzhou city, especially for the residents with low education level,low income,and male.%目的 了解广东省广州市家庭食品安全操作情况及其影响因素.方法 在广州市5个城区各随机抽取1所学校,每校随机抽取4~5个班学生,由所抽取学生的家庭食品制备者匿名填写食品操作调查表.结果 共发问卷1 050

  1. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  2. Research development of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria%利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述日; 吴清平; 吴军林

    2011-01-01

    主要从两个方面介绍了利用细菌开发天然功能性食品添加剂的发展状况:一方面是关于益生菌(双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发针对不同人群的特定益生菌功能性食品添加剂的发展前景;另一方面是关于细菌代谢产物(乳酸链球菌素、溶菌酶、聚赖氨酸)的作用机理、医疗保健功能,以及开发细菌素相关的新型功能性食品添加剂的发展前景.%The progress of preparation natural functional food additives from bacteria was introduced from two aspects. On the one hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of probiotics (lactobacillus and bifidobacterium) ,and the prospects of developing specific probiotic functional food additives for different groups of people. On the other hand is about the mechanism and health care functions of bacterial metabolites (nisin,lysozyme, polylysine) ,and the prospects of developing the new bacteriocin-related functional food additives.

  3. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  4. Nanotechnology applications in foods-packagings and importance for seafoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göknur Sürengil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology 100 nanometer scale in a small and rapidly developing science and technology field. Each area of nanotechnology to create advanced products with new techniques, medicine, health, food, packaging materials and systems, pharmaceutical, electronic industries, such as benefits. Utilization of nanotechnology in the food sector to a limited extent useful and impor¬tant, although still used. In recent years, studies worldwide food industry is seeking ways to exploit this technology the most. On the other hand more recently because of the increase in consumption of food, fresh food is prepared and to be resistant for a long time became a prio¬rity and has focused on these issues. Especially in terms of food quality and shelf life of pro¬cessed meat and fishery products and packing of fresh fruits and vegetables are underway. Na¬notechnology in the food industry creates new food and intelligent packaging systems. Especi¬ally recently developed edible films, antimicrobial packaging, biodegradable materials, such as technological systems nanosensörler food safety and shelf life can be controlled. Nanofood technology is gaining increasing importance in the world although precise information be ob¬tained about the effects on public health and the environment. In this article, nanotechnology, and aquatic products industry has been compiled to date information about the fields and met¬hods.

  5. Consumer food system participation: a community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mary K; Sobal, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and health associations of consumer participation in different stages of the food system using a survey of 663 adults in one U.S. county. Consumer food system participation by stage was 43% in food production, 47% in food processing, 65% in food distribution, 62% in food acquisition, 61% in food preparation, and 100% in food consumption. Consumers participated in an average of 3.7 of these 6 possible stages. Women and unmarried people participated in more stages. Food system participation was associated with few health problems, although people reporting some illnesses had higher food system participation.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of indium nitride and indium-rich nitrides prepared by molecular beam epitaxy for opto-electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai

    Great interest in III-nitride semiconductors has been driven by the significant technological importance of this material system. GaN and its alloy have been used in the fabrication of a range of electronic and photonic devices. Blue light emitting diode and laser diode with InGaN as the active layer have been commercialized for several years. Due to such technological importance, considerable research efforts have been made to understand the fundamental properties of III-N semiconductors. However, unlike the intensively studied GaN, InGaN and other nitride compounds, InN, which is also an important component of the III-N system, remains the least studied nitride material. This is mainly due to the difficulty in preparation of high-quality InN epilayers. Two of the main difficulties are the lack of suitable substrate material and the low dissociation temperature of InN. As a result, many fundamental parameters of InN were adopted from some very early reports based on polycrystalline InN films produced by RF sputtering method. Those reports are seemingly good but have never been repeated. This thesis reports epitaxial growth of InN and In-rich nitrides by molecular beam epitaxy. The optimum growth conditions of InN were investigated, which results in the best electrical properties of InN film reported in recent years. For the first time, non-degenerate InN film was produced and the surface charge accumulation of InN films was identified. Detailed and original structural characterizations were carried out. By collaborating with outside labs, many fundamentals properties of InN were measured or rediscovered. One of the main accomplishments in the study is the discovery of the narrow fundamental bandgap of InN, which is around 0.7 eV instead of the widely accepted 1.9 eV. This significant result provides new research guidance for the scientific community. By further preparing In-rich nitrides, the bowing parameters of InGaN and InAIN were first accurately measured. For

  7. Electronic structure and Schottky-barrier formation on GaAs (100) surfaces prepared by thermal desorption of a protective arsenic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindt, C.J.; Yamada, M.; Meissner, P.L.; Miyano, K.E.; Kendelewicz, T.; Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E. (Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4055 (United States)); Arko, A.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1992-05-15

    Soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to characterize GaAs(100) surfaces and interfaces grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and prepared by the thermal desorption of a protective As coating. The samples studied were grown and arsenic capped identically to those used in a previous study (Brillson {ital et} {ital al}., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1263 (1988)). In this previous work, unpinned'' Schottky-barrier formation was reported, with barrier heights over a wide (0.75-eV) range. This is a striking result, as it was previously believed that all metals will pin GaAs surfaces in a narrow energy range near the middle of the band gap. This large range of barrier heights later led to the suggestion that the (100) surface could become an insulating layer that could screen out the effects of metal-induced gap states. Motivated by this work, we have studied Al and Au Schottky barriers since the deposition of these two metals gave the extreme low and high barriers in the 0.75-eV range. We have also characterized the clean surfaces prepared by desorbing the As caps at different temperatures. The As 3{ital d} and Ga 3{ital d} core levels showed that the surface stoichiometry could be varied significantly with the desorption temperature. The As 3{ital d} line shape was found to be the best indication of the surface stoichiometry after the anneal. The valence-band spectra did not show any strong features which could be used to determine when the sample was completely decapped. The electronic structure of the surface layer was investigated experimentally, and no evidence of an insulating reconstruction was found. In our study of band bending, we found that the low-doped samples used here and in the earlier study showed significant photovoltages resulting in incorrect band-bending measurements. We also found that the Au measurements are made difficult by the presence of core-level shifts due to Au-Ga alloying.

  8. Mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar weldments of RAFMS and AISI 316L (N) SS prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Das, C.R. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India); Mastanaiah, P.; Patel, M. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, Rajendra [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Increase of W content in RAFM steel can result in retention of delta ferrite in the EB weld of the steel. • Presence of delta ferrite seems to affect the ductile brittle transition temperature of the weld metal. • There is improper mixing of the two base metals in the fusion zone dissimilar welds of RAFM steel and austenitic stainless steel made by EB welding. - Abstract: Effect of weld metal composition on microstructure and toughness of weld metal is studied in this paper. Weld joints of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel containing 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W were prepared using electron beam welding (EBW) process. Dissimilar weld joints between 1.0 wt.% W RAFM steel and AISI 316L (N) SS were also prepared using EBW process. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties was also studied. Microstructural observation reveals delta–ferrite in 1.4 wt.% W containing weld metal, which is absent in 1.0 wt.% W weld metal. In the case of the dissimilar weld metal, microstructure shows presence of lath martensite and retained austenite. Austenite was stable even after PWHT and its presence is attributed to high nickel (5–6 wt.%) content in the dissimilar weld metal. Hardness of RAFM steel weld metal was found to be 270–290 VHN after PWHT at 750 °C for 2 h. Impact toughness of both 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel is high (>250 J) at ambient temperature. However, after PWHT, variation of toughness with temperature is more drastic for 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel weld metal than the other. As a result, ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for the 1.4 wt.% steel weld metal is close to 0 °C while that of the 1.0 wt.% W steel is close to that of the base metal (∼−80 °C)

  9. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  10. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang;

    2015-01-01

    amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system...... was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid...

  11. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  12. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  13. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  14. 电子舌在食品安全检测领域的研究进展%Research Progress of Application of Electronic Tongue Technique in Food Safety Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云雯; 吴彦蕾; 杨彦; 赵博

    2014-01-01

    Electronic tongue technique is a novel technique which has been developed in recent years. Due to its unique advantages,it shows a promising future in environmental monitoring,biomedicine, chemical engineering,food analysis and other fields.The basic concept and classification of electronic tongue technique are introduced,its application in food safety testing field,including food traceabili-ty,food freshness,food quality classification,adulteration identification,quality control,microor-ganism and heavy metal detection are summarized and its challenges and future development directions in food safety field are discussed.%电子舌技术是近年来迅速发展起来的一项新技术,因为其独特的优点在环境监测、生物医学、化学工程、食品分析等领域展现出广泛的应用前景。介绍了电子舌技术的基本概念、分类以及在食品溯源、食品新鲜度、食品品质分级、掺假鉴别、质量监控、微生物和重金属检测等食品安全检测方面的应用,探讨了电子舌技术在食品安全领域未来的挑战和发展趋势。

  15. Preparation of a diphosphine with persistent phosphinyl radical character in solution: characterization, reactivity with O2, S8, Se, Te, and P4, and electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Nick A; Hendsbee, Arthur D; Roemmele, Tracey L; Lumsden, Michael D; Pye, Cory C; Masuda, Jason D

    2012-11-01

    A new, easily synthesized diphosphine based on a heterocyclic 1,3,2-diazaphospholidine framework has been prepared. Due to the large, sterically encumbering Dipp groups (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) on the heterocyclic ring, the diphosphine undergoes homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond in solution to form two phosphinyl radicals. The diphosphine has been reacted with O(2), S(8), Se, Te, and P(4), giving products that involve insertion of elements between the P-P bond to yield the related phosphinic acid anhydride, sulfide/disulfide, selenide, telluride, and a butterfly-type perphospha-bicyclobutadiene structure with a trans,trans-geometry. All molecules have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Variable-temperature EPR spectroscopy was utilized to study the nature of the phosphinyl radical in solution. Electronic structure calculations were performed on a number of systems from the parent diphosphine [H(2)P](2) to amino-substituted [(H(2)N)(2)P](2) and cyclic amino-substituted [(H(2)C)(2)(NH)(2)P](2); then, bulky substituents (Ph or Dipp) were attached to the cyclic amino systems. Calculations on the isolated diphosphine at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level show that the homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond to form two phosphinyl radicals is favored over the diphosphine by ~11 kJ/mol. Furthermore, there is a significant amount of relaxation energy stored in the ligands (52.3 kJ/mol), providing a major driving force behind the homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond.

  16. A simple sample preparation for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Vasiliy; Korotkov, Anton

    2017-02-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence not only of chloramphenicol but also of its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte. Validation results were satisfactory, with recoveries from 85% to 111% (meat, milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey) and a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 13% for spiked levels of 0.3, 1.0 and 5 µg kg(-)(1). The limits of detection and quantification (calculated as chloramphenicol for all forms) were 0.1 and 0.3 µg kg(-)(1), respectively. The RSD of the results of the analysis was < 10%. The duration of the analysis was less than 1 h.

  17. Milk and dairy products in the 21st century. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the journal of agricultural and food chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Lawrence K; Pearce, Lindsay E; Hill, Jeremy P; Boland, Mike J

    2002-12-04

    Dairying into the 21st century will largely continue with the trends seen in the past few decades, although there is always the possibility of an unlikely but disruptive event. The politics of globalization will potentially be important in freeing up global trade in dairy products. Production on the farm will become increasingly efficient, resulting in continuing price benefits to the consumer. At the same time, increasing attention will be paid by the consumer, producer, and manufacturer to safety and quality issues. Environmental concerns will increase in importance, and the issue of methane production may be important for the industry over the next two decades. It is unlikely that genetically modified milk will be introduced soon, even if public acceptance ceases to be an issue; however, the use of genetic markers for accelerated genetic improvement of cows will have rapidly increasing importance. Despite increasing pressure from nonmilk alternatives, milk and dairy will still be the best sources of nutrition for the young and for traditional dairy products. Consumer concerns will be of overriding importance for the industry, and the safety of dairy foods must become absolute. Recent advances in the chemical, physical, and information sciences and technologies will be utilized to gain greater understanding of the increasingly complex food systems and to support the consumer objectives.

  18. Fluoranthene and phenantrene, two predominant PAHs in heat-prepared food, do not influence the frequency of micronucleated mouse erythrocytes induced by other PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs occur in complex mixtures present in the human environment. Because of the carcinogenic properties of some of these PAHs, they raise concerns regarding health and food safety. Because the occurrence of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH4 are considered markers for other genotoxic PAHs in foodstuffs, the European Union has put a maximum level of PAH4 in some foodstuffs. Fluoranthene (Flu and phenanthrene (Phe, two other PAHs, are not classified as genotoxic and are abundant at rather high concentrations in food. Inasmuch as PAH4, Flu, and Phe are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 pathway system, it is important to clarify whether Phe and Flu influence the genotoxicity of PAH4. We have analyzed the genotoxic response of Phe and Flu, separately and together, as well as in combination with different low doses of PAH4. In all experiments we used the flow cytometer-based micronucleus test in vivo. Phe and Flu, when administered separately, did not show any dose-related effect on the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE. Nor did a mixture of Phe and Flu change the fMNPCEs. Phe and Flu did not significantly change the fMNPCE of PAH4-exposed FVB and BALB/c mice.

  19. 新食品原料壳寡糖的酶法生产研究%Enzymatic preparation of chitooligosaccharide, a new food raw material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游清徽; 杨萍; 徐贤柱; 裘梁; 董德刚; 王曼莹

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo solve the problem of the applications of chitosan, which is a polymer, in food industry, we focused on two issues: the cleaner production process and the food security. The characters of en-do-type chitosanase EC.3.2.1.132, and its applications were studied in the production of chitosan saccharide, a new food raw material.Methods Through the extensive screening, a strain with high enzyme activity and stable performance was got, then the endo-type chitosanase was purified . By various methods of biological engineering technology, we built a recombinant engineering yeast, which can efficiently express the aimed en-zyme after the optimization of fermentation conditions, and then a simple and easy purification method was es-tablished, with a circular cleaner production process, and was applied to the industrial production of the chito-san saccharide, a new food raw material.Results The wild type Aspergillus strains Jxsd -01 could produce enzyme about 10 U/mL, and the recombinant of the gene in the engineering yeast could improve the expression system, the enzyme protein expression was 0.95 g/L. The content of the chitosan saccharide in enzymatic pro-duction was as high as 98%, with the polymers from 2 to 10. The conversion rate of raw material was more than 95%, without waste water or waste residue in the process of production.Conclusion The application of en-do-type chitosanase in food industry can make the production process of the chitosan saccharide cleaner, safer and more efficient, so it has the value of wide application.%目的:针对高分子原料壳聚糖在食品工业应用中的两大难题--清洁生产与安全食用,研究了内切壳聚糖酶EC.3.2.1.132在新食品原料壳寡糖工业生产中的应用。方法通过广泛筛查,选育产酶活性高、性能稳定、具有单一内切模式的野生菌种。综合应用生物工程技术构建高效表达的基因重组工程菌,经优化发酵条件、建立简易纯化方法,获得

  20. Food Follies: Food Safety for College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This project involves the production and dissemination of a basic food storage and safety course geared toward college students. The course covers basic preparation, sanitation, proper cooking temperatures, chilling and storage, as well as common pathogens to be aware of. MALS

  1. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaček, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoníček, B.; Rosmus, J.; Čamra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Řež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  2. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  3. Wasted Food, Wasted Energy: The Embedded Energy in Food Waste in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Michael E. Webber

    2010-01-01

    This work estimates the energy embedded in wasted food annually in the United States. We calculated the energy intensity of food production from agriculture, transportation, processing, food sales, storage, and preparation for 2007 as 8080 ± 760 trillion BTU. In 1995 approximately 27% of edible food was wasted. Synthesizing these food loss figures with our estimate of energy consumption for different food categories and food production steps, while normalizing for different production volumes...

  4. Chitosan–silver oxide nanocomposite film: Preparation and antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shipra Tripathi; G K Mehrotra; P K Dutta

    2011-02-01

    The chitosan–silver oxide encapsulated nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting method. The prepared film was characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal studies, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the film was studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The antibacterial activity of the composite film against pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured by agar diffusion method. Our observations suggest that chitosan as biomaterial based nanocomposite film containing silver oxide has an excellent antibacterial ability for food packaging applications.

  5. Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Martin, Joe; Okot-Kotber, Moses; Seib, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    The color of wheat kernels often impacts the color and thereby the value of wheat-based foods. A line of hard white winter wheat (B-W HW) with bright appearing kernels has been developed at the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center. The objective of this study was to compare the color of several foods made from the B-W HW wheat with those of 2 hard white wheat cultivars, Trego and Lakin. The B-W HW kernels showed higher lightness (L*, 57.6) than Trego (55.5) and Lakin (56.8), and the increased lightness was carried over to its bran and whole-wheat flour. Alkaline noodle and bread crumb made from the B-W HW whole-wheat flour showed slightly higher lightness (L*) than those made from Trego and Lakin. The sum of soluble and bound phenolics extracted from the 3 wheat brans, which had not been preextracted to remove lipids, was found to be 17.22 to 18.98 mg/g. The soluble phenolic acids in the brans were principally vanillic, ferulic, and syringic. The bound phenolic acids in the brans were dominated by ferulic, which accounted for 50.1% to 82.2% of total identified bound phenolic acids. Other bound phenolic acids were protocatechuic, caffeic, syringic, trans-cinnamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and vanillic. The lightness (L*) values of coarse wheat brans correlated positively with their levels of bound protocatechuic (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (r = 0.75, P < 0.01).

  6. Preparation of a Microbial Time-temperature Indicator by Using the Vegetative Form of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for Monitoring the Quality of Chilled Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shahrokh Esfahani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Time-temperature indicators are used in smart packaging, and described as intelligent tools attached to the label of food products to monitor their timetemperature history. Since the previous studies on microbial time-temperature indicators were only based on pH-dependent changes, and they were long-time response indicators, in the present work, a new microbial time-temperature indicator was designed by using the alpha amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens vegetative cells.Material and Methods: The designed time-temperature indicator system consists of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, specific substrate medium and iodine reagent. The relation of the timetemperatureindicator’ response to the growth and metabolic activity (starch consumption and production of reduced sugars of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the time-temperature indicator was considered at 8 and 28˚C. Finally, in order to adjust time-temperature indicator endpoint, the effect of the inoculum level was investigated at 8ºC.Results and Conclusion: In the designed system, a color change of an iodine reagent to yellow progressively occurs due to the starch hydrolysis. The effect of the inoculum level showed the negative linear relationship between the levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inoculated in the medium and the endpoints of the time-temperature indicators. The endpoints were adjusted to 156, 72 and 36 hours at the inoculum levels of 102, 104 and 106 CFU ml-1, respectively. The main advantages of the time-temperature indicator is low cost and application for monitoring the quality of chilled food products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  7. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  8. Multi-functional sample preparation procedure for measuring phytoestrogens in milk, cereals, and baby-food by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with subsequent determination of their estrogenic activity using transcriptomic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Gaudin-Hirret, Isabelle; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Cariou, Ronan; Elliott, Christopher; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    A method dedicated to the determination of a multiple range of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptor compounds in infant food products was developed, with as double objective the specific measurement of 13 parameters and the evaluation of the estrogenic potency associated to this quantitative profile. A combined enzymatic and acidic chemical hydrolysis followed by a double purification on two successive C(18) and SiOH Solid Phase Extraction cartridges permitted to efficiently purify milk, cereals and baby-food samples while eliminating naturally occurring estrogen hormones. A specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric measurement authorised unambiguous identification and quantification of the target compounds. The proposed methodology was fully validated and applied to a set of around 30 real samples, demonstrating the presence of phytoestrogens at levels globally ranging from several microgkg(-1) (ppb) to several tens mgkg(-1) (ppm). The prepared sample extracts were proven to be suitable and compatible with the evaluation of their induced biological transcriptional activity on MCF-7 cell lines. Because permitting to cope with difficult issues such as low-dose and mixture effects, this proposed methodology may appear of particular interest for further exposure assessment studies and hazard characterisation investigations related to this class of endocrine disruptor compounds.

  9. Food oral processing: conversion of food structure to textural perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, H; Vinyard, C J; Essick, G K; Foegeding, E A

    2013-01-01

    Food oral processing includes all muscle activities, jaw movements, and tongue movements that contribute to preparing food for swallowing. Simultaneously, during the transformation of food structure to a bolus, a cognitive representation of food texture is formed. These physiological signals detected during oral processing are highly complex and dynamic in nature because food structure changes continuously due to mechanical and biochemical breakdown coupled with the lubricating action of saliva. Multiple and different sensations are perceived at different stages of the process. Although much work has focused on factors that determine mechanical (e.g., rheological and fracture) and sensory properties of foods, far less attention has been paid to linking food transformations that occur during oral processing with sensory perception of texture. Understanding how food structure influences specific patterns of oral processing and how these patterns relate to specific textural properties and their cognitive representations facilitates the design of foods that are nutritious, healthy, and enjoyable.

  10. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Griglio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

  11. [New food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  12. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  13. Food consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today’s industrial food system has created a food supply that is more plentiful and inexpensive than at any time in history. Nearly a fifth of the U.S. workforce is engaged in producing, manufacturing, distributing, preparing, or selling this food. Food is at the nexus of some of the most signific...

  14. Role of research and regulation in 50 years of pest management in agriculture. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Willis B

    2002-07-17

    Pest management techniques have evolved over the past 50 years. Inorganic chemical pesticides were replaced by synthetic organic chemicals, and now biopesticides constitute a significant part of pest management technology. Requirements for the regulatory approval of pesticides changed dramatically in 1996 with the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). The FQPA directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make more rigorous and conservative evaluation of risks and hazards and mandates a special emphasis on the safety of infants and children. The EPA provides incentives for the industry to register materials that are designated "reduced risk". The future for the registrant industry will include continued reduction in numbers of registrants through mergers and acquisitions. Conventional chemicals will remain as important pest management components, and the processes of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput bioassays will allow the rapid synthesis and testing of large numbers of candidate compounds. Biopesticides will become more important tools in pest management, with microbial pesticides and transgenic crops being likely to play important crop protection roles. There will be a continuing need for research-based approaches to pest control.

  15. 双螺杆挤压制备谷物营养早餐的研究%Preparation of a nutritional Eereal Breakfast Food through Extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋长兴; 魏益民

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of com, rice, and millet was extruded in Brabender Lab-station of DSE-25 Twin-Screw Extruder. The effects of multi-grain, sucrose, and distilled monoglyceride on the extrudate qualities and extrusion system parameters were studied. The best recipe for the nutritional cereal breakfast food was determined as follows: corn 60%, rice 20%, millet 20%, sucrose 8%, saccharin 0.1% and salt 0.5%. Under these conditions, the product obtained had improved qualities of color, texutre and flavor.%以玉米、大米、小米的混合粉为材料,采用DSE-25型双螺杆挤压膨化实验室工作站加工谷物营养早餐食品,研究物料配比、蔗糖和单干酯添加量对产品质量指标和设备系统参数的影响,获得谷物营养早餐食品较优配方:玉米、大米、小米混合比例6∶2∶2(m/m),砂糖8%,甜蜜素0.1%,食盐0.5%.在此条件下,产品口感酥脆、颜色金黄、风味独特.

  16. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  17. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  18. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Ren Yiping [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhao Hangmei [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang Ying [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China)]. E-mail: y_zhang@zju.edu.cn

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  19. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Hangmei; Zhang, Ying

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 microg kg(-1) for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 microg kg(-1) in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 microg kg(-1) detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  20. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p < 0.05) from 56% at baseline to 25% at post-treatment. Dyad cholesterol intake at dinner also significantly decreased over time; however, changes in energy intake, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at dinner were not significant. A large effect size was found for changes in parent ratings of enjoyment of cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention.