WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepare young children

  1. Pre-registration children's and young people's nurse preparation. A SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jim; McEwing, Gillian; Glasper, Edward Alan

    2006-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken into the views of nurse educators on current approaches to preparing children's and young people's nurses in the UK. A convenience sample of lead academics in 17 child health nursing departments of British universities was contacted by email and invited to liaise with colleagues to generate lists of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the educational system. Thirteen departments provided data that were analysed and themed. Major themes included the common foundation programme, clinical skills learning, clinical placements and employment. More detailed evaluative work should be undertaken before wholesale changes are made to a relatively new curriculum.

  2. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  3. The role of the psychologist in the preparation of young children for radiotherapy: short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokun, J; Klikovac, T; Vujic, D; Nikitovic, M

    2011-01-01

    Psychooncology is now recognized as an important part of the holistic approach to therapy of very young cancer patients. When the psychologist is included in a multidisciplinary team, his/her duty is to prepare the child for several procedures he/she is scheduled for. If the very young child has to be treated by radiotherapy, adequate preparation of the child before the start of radiotherapy may enable the child to undergo the whole procedure without sedation or repeated anesthesia. Such practice has started in Serbia in 2002, at the Department of Pediatric Oncology of the Institute for Radiology and Oncology of Serbia, Belgrade. In this article, we discuss the model we currently use, and we present how this approach has been successfully applied in a 5-year-old girl treated by radiotherapy.

  4. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  5. Developmental Principles for Preparing People to Work Effectively with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1983-01-01

    Presents developmental principles with related applications for children, parents, teachers, and caregivers: (1) development takes place on an existing foundation; (2) development proceeds from general to specific; (3) development proceeds in stages; (4) developmental rates and patterns differ among individuals; (5) early years of development are…

  6. A qualitative study of the pre-operative preparation of children, young people and their parents' for planned continence surgery: experiences and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Callery, Peter; Kirk, Sue

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore children's, young people's and parents' pre-operative experiences of continent stoma formation. Current research investigating continent stoma surgery focuses on surgical outcomes including complication rates, adherence to management regimes, self-management practices and levels of continence achieved. Despite reports of pre-operative anxiety in families undergoing continent stoma surgery, there has been a lack of research exploring pre-operative experiences, information needs or decision-making processes in this group. A qualitative study. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 children, young people and their parents. Data were collected at key points in the surgical process that aimed to represent a longitudinal perspective of continent stoma formation. The interviews suggested that children's, young people's and parents' information needs in relation to the long-term implications of surgery and for their day-to-day lives were not being adequately met. The preparation process was described as being positively influenced by contact with a nurse specialist, being given time to make the decision and having access to different sources of information. Decisions regarding life-long planned surgery can be challenging. The individual involvement and information needs of children, young people and their parents need to be recognised during pre-operative preparation. Health professionals need to discuss the holistic implications of continent stoma surgery and provide families with the time and opportunity to consider surgery and access relevant sources of information pre-operatively. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Osteosarcoma in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakewich, H; Perez-Atayde, A R; Goorin, A M; Wilkinson, R H; Gebhardt, M C; Vawter, G F

    1991-02-01

    The clinicopathologic features of osteosarcoma in 12 children younger than 16 years of age treated at The Children's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, during a 70-year time period are presented. Only one of six children treated before 1972 is a long-term survivor. Four of six children (67%) treated after 1972 are disease-free with an average follow-up of 8.8 years. The year 1972 marked the onset of use of effective chemotherapy in osteosarcoma, namely, high-dose methotrexate and leucovorin rescue. It would appear that the pathologic features and behavior of osteosarcoma in young children is similar to that of osteosarcoma in older children and adolescents. A combination of complete (wide) surgical resection or amputation and aggressive chemotherapy offers the best chance of long-term survival.

  8. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  9. [Young children and books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatkine, R; Bonnafé, M; Roy, J; Camus, C; Brandao, C

    1986-01-01

    Children come into contact very early with the written language. The work of Emilia Ferreiro, a student of Piaget, has shown that from early on, well before they can read, they know that the written word has a meaning. Their successive hypotheses show an elaboration which does not occur by chance. Experience shows that babies have a specific interest for a book as an object. They recognize the value of the pictures, as much representations of their mental representations as are words, whereas these two capacities evolve in a complementary fashion. The capacity to be interested by a narrative introduces a new form of organization in the chain of representations, whether they refer to absent or imaginary objects. A good story has a special place among the narratives the child hears, which actually have the specific structures of the written language. The authors of this work report a number of examples of very young children who are put in contact with books. They see in this a new model for mental health work which can be set up by virtue of meetings outside the school rooms, the mental health services, and even of the libraries, by people of different professional skills, in order to loosen the vice of the children's daily routine, and to give the child time to dream with the books, and to draw the adults in to a salutary disorder.

  10. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  11. Advice for families traveling to developing countries with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Sylvia; Steele, Russell W

    2013-09-01

    Young children are most likely to travel to developing countries with their parents to visit relatives. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of preventive vaccines and chemoprophylaxis. For infants and very young children, data defining safety and efficacy of these agents are often limited. However, accumulated experience suggests that young travelers may be managed similarly to older children and adults.

  12. Young Children's Concepts of Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Swaminathan, Sudha; Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Sarama, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Investigates, by conducting individual clinical interviews of 97 children ages 3 to 6, the criteria preschool children use to distinguish members of a class of shapes from other figures, emphasizing identification and descriptions of shapes and reasons for these identifications. Concludes that young children initially form schemas on the basis of…

  13. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  14. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  15. Supporting Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna

    2016-01-01

    What do we know about young children with delays and disabilities, and how can we help them succeed in prekindergarten through third grade? To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several…

  16. Parenting Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Linda Kreger

    1986-01-01

    Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…

  17. Sexuality and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  18. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

  19. Young children as Internet users

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola, O. (Oladipo)

    2015-01-01

    In the current available research concerning the real usage of the internet among the young children, most researchers particularly emphases on the risk and opportunities regarding the active use of the internet. Limited experimental research emphases on the role-based and impact of the parent guidelines in the context. In the current studies, internet parenting methods are well-defined and operationalized to study the influence on the real usage of the internet among children both at home an...

  20. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  1. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  2. Writing in Young Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…

  3. Writing in Young Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…

  4. Fact Sheet: Vulnerable Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…

  5. Young Children's Combinatoric Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty children, ranging in age from 4 to 10, were individually administered a series of tasks involving different combinations of 2 items selected from a discrete set of items. Analyses of their performances revealed a series of six, increasingly sophisticated, solution strategies ranging from random number selection of items to a systematic…

  6. Noticing Young Children's Mathematical Strengths and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Goff, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This paper promotes the importance of noticing young children's mathematical strengths. It draws on the philosophical positions of children's rights and competence to propose a shift in the ways in which all involved might notice the mathematical engagement, understandings, experiences and practices of young children. Noticing children's…

  7. Preparing Foster Children for School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Karla; Fisher, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing foster children for school entry by focusing on the skills necessary to succeed in kindergarten calls for early intervention. However, existing programs to enhance school readiness have not been tailored to meet the educational, emotional, and psychological needs of foster children. This is the rationale behind development of the…

  8. Malnutrition in young Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with the second highest infant and child mortality rate in South Asia. In this region, malnutrition underlies much of the high infant and under five child morbidity and mortality rates. Although struggle to tackle the issue of malnutrition among young Pakistani children has been going on since many decades, till yet a realistic solution for this growing problem has not been found. This paper aims at reviewing literature to analyse the biological, maternal, socio-cultural, environmental, and politico-economical determinants of malnutrition among young children in Pakistan so that need based interventions can be recommended to prevent and overcome this growing issue. A systematic search of national, regional, and international literature was undertaken from peer-reviewed databases for 1991-2011 including MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed. The search was augmented by reviewing the literature from WHO and UNICEF websites, books, local newspapers, and reference lists of articles thought to be relevant. Determinants of malnutrition among Pakistani children are multiple and are prevalent at the level of individual, family, and community. An analysis of biological, maternal, socio-cultural, environmental, and politico-economical factors indicate that most of these factors are interrelated; therefore, to tackle this issue, there is a need to plan composite interventions at the level of malnourished children, their families, and the Pakistani community.

  9. Seven Myths about Young Children and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…

  10. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  11. Overweight in Young Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Acculturation status is associated with overweight and obesity among Latino adults, but the relationship between maternal acculturation and overweight in Latino children is inconsistent and has not been adequately studied. Methods We analyzed 3-year follow-up data from 185 Latina mothers and children who were recruited at San Francisco General Hospital. Outcome measure was the child’s body mass index at age 3 years, adjusted for age and sex and categorized as healthy (<85%) or overweight (≥85%). Independent variables were maternal acculturation status, child health status, and child nutritional factors. Results At age 3 years, 43% of children were overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, childhood overweight was associated with maternal acculturation status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.07–3.69) and maternal obesity (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.40–9.84). Childhood overweight was also more likely among children who were reported to eat well or very well (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.46–7.58) and children whose weight was perceived as too high (OR 11.88, 95% CI 2.37–59.60), as compared to children who were reported to eat poorly/not well and children whose weight was perceived as normal, respectively. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the high rates of overweight among young Latino children should address the importance of maternal acculturation and obesity as well as maternal perceptions of children’s weight and eating habits. PMID:18514096

  12. The influence of preparation method on children's liking for vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how different preparation methods influence children’s liking for vegetables. Participants were children from three age groups (4–6 years N = 46; 7–8 years N = 25; 11–12 years N = 23) and young adults (18–25 years N = 22). The participants tasted and ranked six prepar

  13. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  14. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  15. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming

    This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…

  16. What Should Young Children Be Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lillian G.

    1988-01-01

    Kindergarten practices should reflect the best of what we know about how young children learn and develop. Discusses the following aspects of kindergarten: (1) learning knowledge, skills, dispositions, and feelings; (2) risks of academic pressures on young children; (3) development of interest, communicative competence, and social competence; (4)…

  17. Book Ownership and Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…

  18. Young Children, National Tragedy, and Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that, rather than exposing young children to media coverage of national tragedies and disasters, caregivers should read aloud to children from picture books that convey stability, calmness, and reassurance. Includes tips for helping children cope with tragedy, guidelines for selecting books, and an annotated list of 25 books that can help…

  19. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-09

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  20. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article ... and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect your child's ...

  1. Teaching Time Concepts to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    1986-01-01

    Presents many activity ideas for teaching young children about time using chronological events, clocks, and calendars. Jerome Bruner's enactive-iconic-symbolic sequence of concept development is used as a guide for these learning experiences. (LP)

  2. Teaching Time Concepts to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    1986-01-01

    Presents many activity ideas for teaching young children about time using chronological events, clocks, and calendars. Jerome Bruner's enactive-iconic-symbolic sequence of concept development is used as a guide for these learning experiences. (LP)

  3. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  4. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  5. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  6. High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner–the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy W.; Marzelli, Matt J.; Mazaika, Paul K.; Aye, Tandy; White, Neil H.; Tsalikian, Eva; Fox, Larry; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. Objective We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. Materials and methods 222 children (4–9.9 years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner. Results 205 children (92.3%), mean age 7±1.7 years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner. Conclusion Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation. PMID:24096802

  7. High success rates of sedation-free brain MRI scanning in young children using simple subject preparation protocols with and without a commercial mock scanner-the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Marzelli, Matt J.; Mazaika, Paul K. [Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States); Weinzimer, Stuart A. [Yale University, Pediatric Endocrinology, New Haven, CT (United States); Ruedy, Katrina J.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao [Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL (United States); Mauras, Nelly; Fox, Larry [Nemours Children' s Clinic, Pediatric Endocrinology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Aye, Tandy [Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford, CA (United States); White, Neil H. [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Tsalikian, Eva [University of Iowa, Pediatric Endocrinology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Reiss, Allan L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet), Stanford, CA (United States); Collaboration: on behalf of the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet)

    2014-02-15

    The ability to lie still in an MRI scanner is essential for obtaining usable image data. To reduce motion, young children are often sedated, adding significant cost and risk. We assessed the feasibility of using a simple and affordable behavioral desensitization program to yield high-quality brain MRI scans in sedation-free children. 222 children (4-9.9 years), 147 with type 1 diabetes and 75 age-matched non-diabetic controls, participated in a multi-site study focused on effects of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI scans were performed. All children underwent behavioral training and practice MRI sessions using either a commercial MRI simulator or an inexpensive mock scanner consisting of a toy tunnel, vibrating mat, and video player to simulate the sounds and feel of the MRI scanner. 205 children (92.3%), mean age 7 ± 1.7 years had high-quality T1-W scans and 174 (78.4%) had high-quality diffusion-weighted scans after the first scan session. With a second scan session, success rates were 100% and 92.5% for T1-and diffusion-weighted scans, respectively. Success rates did not differ between children with type 1 diabetes and children without diabetes, or between centers using a commercial MRI scan simulator and those using the inexpensive mock scanner. Behavioral training can lead to a high success rate for obtaining high-quality T1-and diffusion-weighted brain images from a young population without sedation. (orig.)

  8. Influence of Television Commercials on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pamela Y. Y.

    This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…

  9. Helping Young Children in Frightening Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents ways parents and other adults can help young children deal with tragedy and violence in the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States. Suggests giving reassurance and physical comfort, providing structure and stability, expecting a range of reactions, helping children to talk if they are ready, turning off the television, and…

  10. Assessment of Young Children: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    In an era of standards and norms where assessment tends to minimize or dismiss individual differences and results in punitive outcomes or no action at all, Assessment of Young Children provides teachers with an approach to assessment that is in the best interest of both children and their families. Author Lisa B. Fiore explores a variety of ways…

  11. Screen Media and Young Children: Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2010-01-01

    Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…

  12. Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…

  13. Young Children's Scripted-Story Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Renee; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    A study investigated the effects of presentation mode and type of content on young children's recall of nouns in a scripted narrative. Forty-nine children in the second month of first grade were presented a fictional narrative in which were embedded 18 target nouns classified as high-scripted, medium-scripted, or low-scripted. Subjects then viewed…

  14. A Social Desirability Questionnaire for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, LeRoy H., Jr.; Rubin, Barry M.

    1970-01-01

    A Young Children's Social Desirability Scale based on the MMPI was constructed and administered to nursery school children. Results showed that social desirability scores increased with age, showed a low positive relationship to picture vocabularly IQ, and were unrelated to sex in a high socieconomic sample. (KJ)

  15. Young Children Separate Multiple Pretend Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Bloom, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Each fictional world that adults create has its own distinct properties, separating it from other fictional worlds. Here we explore whether this separation also exists for young children's pretend game worlds. Studies 1 and 1A set up two simultaneous games and encouraged children to create appropriate pretend identities for coloured blocks. When…

  16. Using the Multiple Intelligences to Enhance Instruction for Young Children and Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the multiple intelligences are discussed in relation to working with young children and young children with disabilities. A rationale for the use of the multiple intelligences is discussed as well as practical suggestions on how they can be incorporated into early childhood programs.

  17. Behaviors of young children around microwave ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marla R; O'Connor, Annemarie; Wallace, Lindsay; Connell, Kristen; Tucker, Katherine; Strickland, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer; Quinlan, Kyran P; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2011-11-01

    Scald burn injuries are the leading cause of burn-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations for young children. A portion of these injuries occur when children are removing items from microwave ovens. This study assessed the ability of typically developing children aged 15 months to 5 years to operate, open, and remove the contents from a microwave oven. The Denver Developmental Screening Test II was administered to confirm typical development of the 40 subjects recruited. All children recruited and enrolled in this study showed no developmental delays in any domain in the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. Children were observed for the ability to open both a push and pull microwave oven door, to start the microwave oven, and to remove a cup from the microwave oven. All children aged 4 years were able to open the microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. Of the children aged 3 years, 87.5% were able to perform all study tasks. For children aged 2 years, 90% were able to open both microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. In this study, children as young as 17 months could start a microwave oven, open the door, and remove the contents putting them at significant risk for scald burn injury. Prevention efforts to improve supervision and caregiver education have not lead to a significant reduction in scald injuries in young children. A redesign of microwave ovens might prevent young children from being able to open them thereby reducing risk of scald injury by this mechanism.

  18. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  19. Do young children have adult syntactic competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, M

    2000-03-14

    Many developmental psycholinguists assume that young children have adult syntactic competence, this assumption being operationalized in the use of adult-like grammars to describe young children's language. This "continuity assumption" has never had strong empirical support, but recently a number of new findings have emerged - both from systematic analyses of children's spontaneous speech and from controlled experiments - that contradict it directly. In general, the key finding is that most of children's early linguistic competence is item based, and therefore their language development proceeds in a piecemeal fashion with virtually no evidence of any system-wide syntactic categories, schemas, or parameters. For a variety of reasons, these findings are not easily explained in terms of the development of children's skills of linguistic performance, pragmatics, or other "external" factors. The framework of an alternative, usage-based theory of child language acquisition - relying explicitly on new models from Cognitive-Functional Linguistics - is presented.

  20. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  1. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce F Benenson

    Full Text Available Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  2. Examining rhythm and melody processing in young children using FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, K; Norton, A; Cronin, K; Winner, E; Schlaug, G

    2005-12-01

    While it is often reported that musical experience can have positive effects on cognitive development in young children, the neural basis of such potential effects remains relatively unexplored. Employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for such research presents as many challenges as possibilities, not least of which is the fact that young children can find it difficult to remain still and attentive for long periods of time. Here we describe an fMRI scanning protocol designed specifically for young children using short scanning runs, a sparse temporal sampling data acquisition technique, simple rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks with a button-press response, and a child-oriented preparation session. Children were recruited as part of a large-scale longitudinal study examining the effects of musical training on cognitive development and the structure and function of the growing brain. Results from an initial analysis of 33 children and from the first five children to be re-scanned after musical training indicate that our scanning protocol is successful and that activation differences can be detected both between conditions and over time.

  3. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  4. Young Children's Development of Fairness Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position.

  5. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  6. Sound localization ability of young children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in young children. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial comparing a group of bilaterally implanted children with a group of unilaterally implanted children. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Five bilaterally implanted children

  7. Supporting Young Children with Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathleen Hebbeler; Donna Spiker

    2016-01-01

    ...? To begin with, Kathleen Hebbeler and Donna Spiker write, identifying children with delays and disabilities to receive specialized services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act poses several challenges...

  8. Emergent Biliteracy in Young Mexican Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iliana; Azuara, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between emergent biliteracy and growing up in a biliterate environment. The study focuses on two questions: (1) What knowledge of biliteracy do young bilingual preschool children develop in the early years? (2) How do context and specific language environments influence the development of biliteracy in young…

  9. Earthways: Simple Environmental Activities for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrash, Carol

    This book presents simple environmental activities designed for young children. The contents are organized seasonally and each section features subsections: The Whole Earth Home and Classroom, Bringing Nature In, The Season Garden, Seasonal Crafts, and Supplying the Missing Links. These sections provide information on how to set up an indoor…

  10. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint) and transcu......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint......, with suspected asthma. Measurements with each technique were repeated after each challenge step. A special face-mask was developed with an integrated mouthpiece which ensured mouth breathing during the measurements. The order of sensitivity of the techniques to assess methacholine-induced changes in lung...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children....

  11. Reader Response: Young Children Can Do That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kaye; Johnston, Cammie

    2000-01-01

    Describes "reader response" teaching techniques to enhance young children's critical thinking skills, build a sound literacy foundation, and clarify the relationship between reading and writing. Provides examples of response logs/journal entries, aesthetic responses such as drawings and dramatic reenactments, and student discussions…

  12. Young Children's Learning with Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…

  13. Teaching STEM Outdoors: Activities for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selly, Patty Born

    2017-01-01

    Nurture young children's innate tendencies toward exploration, sensory stimulation, and STEM learning when you connect outdoor learning with STEM curriculum. Discover the developmental benefits of outdoor learning and how the rich diversity of settings and materials in nature gives rise to questions and inquiry for deeper learning. Full of…

  14. Young Blind Children: Towards Assessment for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Iain F. W. K.; Simmons, Joyce Nesker

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the unique assessment needs of young blind children and discourages dependence on standardized tests for this population. Principles of one assessment approach (involving observation; clinical examination of mobility, language, play, socioemotional development, and academic skills; and interviews with mother and social…

  15. Anger Expression and Persistence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Xu, Qinmei; Degnan, Kathryn Amey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated anger expression during toy removal (TR) in 92 young Chinese children, two to five years of age, and its relations to their persistence in responding to obstacles during two challenging tasks with highly desirable goals [TR and locked box (LB)] and one challenging task with a less desirable goal [impossible perfect circles…

  16. How the Project Approach Challenges Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marcia V.; Lewis, Alisha L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, educators at University Primary School in Champaign, Illinois, share examples and understandings of the ways The Project Approach challenges young children to think critically about topics of importance in their world. Project investigations that provoke academic and social challenges for individuals and classroom communities of…

  17. Challenging Movement Experiences for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephen W.; Youngue, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Discusses elements for a developmentally appropriate movement program for young children ages 3-5 years old. Emphasizes four major areas from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education guidelines: child development, teaching strategies, content, and assessment. Includes a vignette of an appropriate movement class for 4-year-olds.…

  18. Coding & Robotics for Young Children? You Bet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…

  19. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  20. Language Insights for Caregivers with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2017-01-01

    How to help babies and young children right from birth to become competent in talking as well as emergent literacy is illustrated by research findings as well as with specific clinical stories. Both kinds of knowledge can serve to galvanize parents and teachers to increase awareness of infant and preschool language development and the crucial role…

  1. Young Gifted Children: Intensities and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Diana

    2009-01-01

    How do educators create and nurture environments that respect and meet the developmental needs of gifted children? They know that many young bright youngsters exhibit intense sensitivities from birth, ask many probing questions, and are often verbally sophisticated beyond their years. They may have exceptionally long attention spans within their…

  2. Missing: Children and Young People with SEBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, John; Daniels, Harry; Macnab, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the issue of missing from and missing out on education. It argues that too little is known with regard to the characteristics of children and young people missing from schooling. It postulates that many of these pupils will have social, emotional and behavioural difficulties which are largely unrecognized and thus not…

  3. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  4. Young Children's Learning with Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…

  5. Measuring Epistemic Curiosity in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Litman, Jordan A.; Valkenburg, Patti

    2014-01-01

    Epistemic curiosity (EC) is the desire to obtain new knowledge capable of either producing positive experiences of intellectual interest (I-type) or of reducing undesirable conditions of informational deprivation (D-type). Although researchers acknowledge that there are individual differences in young children's epistemic curiosity, there are…

  6. Sixth Sense: The Disabled Children and Young People's Participation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    The Disabled Children and Young Peoples Participation Project (DCYPPP) was established by Barnardos (Northern Ireland) in 2002 to explore ways of involving children and young people with disabilities in decision-making processes within Children's Services Planning of the Health and Social Services Board. Over 200 young people have participated in…

  7. EEG Studies with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.; Miller, Daniel C.; deBeus, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Describes how electroencephalogram (EEG) data are collected and how brain function is measured. Discusses studies on the effects of music experiences with adult subjects and studies focusing on the effects of music training on EEG activity of children and adolescents. Considers the implications of the studies and the future directions of this…

  8. Young Children's Haptic Exploratory Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…

  9. Media and Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…

  10. Eye tracking young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T

    2012-03-27

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties.

  11. Predicting young children's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirojanakul, Pragai; Skevington, Suzanne M; Hudson, John

    2003-10-01

    This paper represents an investigation into the determinants of young children's quality of life (QOL) in Thailand. The empirical work is based upon a sample of 498 children (aged 5-8); 220 were urban children and 278 children of construction workers in Bangkok. Their QOL was assessed using a new self-report QOL measure for children. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the father's income and education, type of school, mode of transportation to school, and the amount of time that the child spent on extra study courses were significant explanatory variables. It was found that these factors had different influences on the QOL of urban children and those of construction workers. Extra sport-related activities and extra work (other than housework) improved the QOL of urban children, while the QOL of construction workers' children was directly linked to father's education and income. This result is consistent with income having a diminishing marginal effect on the QOL of children. There is also evidence that amongst construction workers' children, boys have a lower QOL than girls. The different causal explanations for the QOL of urban and construction workers' children suggests that it is context specific, and what impacts one group of children's QOL within a particular context may not impact another group in a different situation. This has important policy implications. Throughout the study we could find no significant impact of health on QOL-neither chronic, acute nor severe illness has any significant impact on QOL. This is consistent with the hypothesis that QOL is influenced by expectations (Social Science and Medicine 41 (10) (1995) 1403). Findings of the effects of social and environmental factors on children's QOL are new in this field and should be further investigated.

  12. Investigating young children's learning of mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass were developed. Prompted by the results and recommendations from the earlier study, five lessons were developed that offered rich learning experiences regarding concepts of mass. The 119 Year 1 and 2 children participating in the study were interviewed using the same protocol before and after the teaching period. The assessment data showed that the majority of these children moved from using nonstandard units to using standard units and instruments for measuring mass. The findings from this study challenge the traditional approach of using informal units for an extended period before the introduction of standard units.

  13. Young Children as Media Users and Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from...... a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place...

  14. Children, Spaces, Relations: Metaproject for an Environment for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Giulio, Ed.; Zini, Michele, Ed.

    This book describes a project on designing spaces for young children; the aim of the project is to enable a "meeting of minds" between the pedagogical philosophy of Reggio Emilia preschools and the innovative experiences within the culture of design and architecture. The book presents the project in three main sections: (1) a critical analysis of…

  15. Hyperkalemia in young children: blood pressure checked?

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Richard; Mortier, Geert; Hoeck, Van, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Hyperkalemia in young children is a rare phenomenon and in many cases caused by hemolysis in the specimen due to difficulties in obtaining a sample. However, hyperkalemia can also be a sign of a rare Mendelian syndrome known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension or pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. This disease is characterized by hyperkalemia, hypertension, and mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (with normal anion gap) despite normal glomerular filtration. Full recovery of these...

  16. Young Children and the Arts: Nurturing Imagination and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn-Bursztyn, Carol, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Young Children and the Arts: Nurturing Imagination and Creativity examines the place of the arts in the experiences of young and very young children at home and in out-of-home settings at school and in the community. There is great need for development of resources in the arts specifically designed to introduce babies and toddlers to participatory…

  17. Children and young people in immigration detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael; Steel, Zachary; Mares, Sarah; Newman, Louise

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews evidence about the impact of immigration detention and other restrictive immigration policies on the mental health of children, young people and the adults who care for them. We review the implications of this for clinicians attempting to assess or work with incarcerated child and adult refugees and asylum seekers. There are increasing numbers of adults and children seeking asylum across the globe and many nations use incarceration and other harsh and interceptive immigration practices. There is mounting evidence of the psychological harm associated with detention of already vulnerable adults and children. Australia is used as a case study. Clinicians are required to consider the intersection of mental health assessment and treatment with human rights violations, and the impact of restrictive immigration policies, not only on asylum seekers and refugees but also on clinicians, clinical practice and professional ethics.

  18. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  19. Prehension in young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, K; Gentile, A M

    2003-01-01

    Prehension was examined in 3-year old children with Down syndrome (DS, n = 3) and in typically-developing children matched in chronological age (3-year olds; n = 3) or mental age and motor experience (2-year olds; n = 3). The task required reaching to grasp dowels. Video-based movement analysis yielded temporal and kinematic measures. Children with DS were hypothesized to have deficits in feedback-dependent components of prehension (anticipatory grip-closure and deceleration of reach), whereas feedforward components (reach's acceleration phase; grasp's preshaping) were assumed to be unimpaired [Latash, 1993, Control of human movement, pp. 283-292; Latash, 1994, What is clumsiness? In: Motor Control and Down Syndrome II Proceedings of the second international conference, pp. 68-71]. The findings supported these hypotheses. In comparison to control groups, children with DS had significantly: (a) less time in deceleration of reaching, (b) fewer anticipatory grip-closures, and (c) longer movement times for dowel-lift. Young children with DS appeared to use dowel-contact to decelerate the limb and initiate grip-closure. In contrast, reach-acceleration time and grasp-preshaping did not differ across groups. These findings suggest that children with DS display qualitative differences in motor capabilities rather than simply a delayed rate of typical developmental progression.

  20. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…

  1. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  2. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  3. Computadoras y ninos pequenos (Computers and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Susan W.

    Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…

  4. I Am Safe and Secure: Promoting Resilience in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolongo, Peter J.; Hunter, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Every day, young children--around the world and in the United States--experience stress or trauma. Some children are exposed to crises such as natural disasters, community violence, abuse, neglect, and separation from or death of loved ones. These events can cause young children to feel vulnerable, worried, fearful, sad, frustrated, or lonely.…

  5. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  6. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  7. "Our Guinea Pig Is Dead!" Young Children Cope with Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Nita Davison

    1999-01-01

    Describes how children develop a concept of death, and presents suggestions for classroom experiences to help young children cope with death. Considers children's attendance at funerals and how to answer children's questions about death. Lists 14 children's books about death. (KB)

  8. Hyperkalemia in young children: blood pressure checked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Richard; Mortier, Geert; van Hoeck, Koen

    2016-12-01

    Hyperkalemia in young children is a rare phenomenon and in many cases caused by hemolysis in the specimen due to difficulties in obtaining a sample. However, hyperkalemia can also be a sign of a rare Mendelian syndrome known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension or pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. This disease is characterized by hyperkalemia, hypertension, and mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (with normal anion gap) despite normal glomerular filtration. Full recovery of these abnormalities with thiazide diuretics is essential not to miss the diagnosis of this syndrome. We describe two young patients with hyperkalemia as an incidental finding who were subsequently diagnosed with this rare endocrine disorder. Genetic testing revealed mutations in two recently discovered genes, the study of which has helped to unravel the pathophysiologic pathways.

  9. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  10. Young Children as Media Users and Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from a...... in a complex socialization, in which the child through daily interactions with family members and media texts learns how to act and behave as a competent media user...... a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place...

  11. Vitalistic causality in young children's naive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo

    2004-08-01

    One of the key issues in conceptual development research concerns what kinds of causal devices young children use to understand the biological world. We review evidence that children predict and interpret biological phenomena, especially human bodily processes, on the basis of 'vitalistic causality'. That is, they assume that vital power or life force taken from food and water makes humans active, prevents them from being taken ill, and enables them to grow. These relationships are also extended readily to other animals and even to plants. Recent experimental results show that a majority of preschoolers tend to choose vitalistic explanations as most plausible. Vitalism, together with other forms of intermediate causality, constitute unique causal devices for naive biology as a core domain of thought.

  12. Family dynamics and young children's sibling victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work.

  13. Engaging young children in collective curriculum design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.

  14. A Sense of Autonomy in Young Children's Special Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…

  15. The Early Years: Parents and Young Deaf Children Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to describe the role of reading in the lives of families with deaf children. While the time that deaf children spend reading or being read to represents only a small part of their lives at home, research highlights its importance for young children--hearing as well as deaf. Children whose parents read to them at home…

  16. Talking about Pretending: Young Children's Explicit Understanding of Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne C.; Guajardo, Nicole Ruther

    2000-01-01

    Investigated young children's ability to talk about representational aspects of pretense. Found that 5-year-olds, but very few 4-year-olds, can explain why certain actions should not be called pretending; young children discriminate between pictures of thinking and pretending based on a depiction of action; and preschoolers are less able than…

  17. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  18. Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

  19. Bullying: Young Children's Roles, Social Status, and Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…

  20. Bullying: Young Children's Roles, Social Status, and Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…

  1. The study on Young Children's breakfast and the life rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    戸井田, 英子; 加藤, 麻樹; 村澤, 初子

    2009-01-01

    Young chi ldren need wel balanced breakfast, with staple food, main dish, side dish for the physical and mental development. Previous study has shown that young children have habit to take breakfast, however the combination of menu have to be improved. In this study, we investigates young children's breakfast tendency mainly from view point of the life rhythm, lifestyle patterns and appetite. The purpose of this study is to clear the cause of the difference of combination of the menu. A ques...

  2. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonide......-dose-1, through a filter. The amount of drug trapped by the filter was used as a measure of drug released to the patient. None of the children had prior experience in the use of a Turbuhaler, but they were instructed carefully, together with their parents, in the clinic. The median dose released revealed...... an age-dependent increase, with a considerable scatter. Accordingly, the dose delivered could not be predicted in these young children. The limitation to effective use in young children appeared to be lack of sufficient co-operation, rather than physical limitations, as even some very young children...

  3. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonide......-dose-1, through a filter. The amount of drug trapped by the filter was used as a measure of drug released to the patient. None of the children had prior experience in the use of a Turbuhaler, but they were instructed carefully, together with their parents, in the clinic. The median dose released revealed...... an age-dependent increase, with a considerable scatter. Accordingly, the dose delivered could not be predicted in these young children. The limitation to effective use in young children appeared to be lack of sufficient co-operation, rather than physical limitations, as even some very young children...

  4. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Lovato; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under ...

  5. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

  7. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  8. Trajectories of Cognitive Development among American Indian Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…

  9. Reading to Young Children : A Head-Start in Life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our fi

  10. Family Context and Young Children's Responses to Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J.; Fauchier, Angele; Oliver, Pamella H.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Rios, Martha A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Family context can affect children's vulnerability to various stresses, but little is known regarding the role of family variables on children's reactions to natural disaster. This prospective study examined the influence of predisaster observed parenting behaviors and postdisaster parental stress on young children's distress following…

  11. Reading to young children : A head-start in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age 1

  12. Narrative in Young Children's Digital Art-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies have material and social properties that have the potential to create new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. The presence and development of oral narratives in young children's visual art-making on paper has been noted in previous research, but little is known about the narratives children create when they…

  13. Young Children's Computer Skills Development from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explores young children's computer skills development from kindergarten to third grade using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) dataset. The sample size of the study was 8642 children. Latent growth curve modeling analysis was used as an analytical tool to examine the development of children's computer…

  14. Reading to Young Children : A Head-Start in Life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our fi

  15. Reading to young children : A head-start in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age 1

  16. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  17. Classroom Pets and Young Children: Supporting Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2010-01-01

    Many young children have a natural attraction to and curiosity about animals. They like to observe, touch, talk to, and ask questions about them. Teachers and parents both can use this broad interest to facilitate children's development and learning in a variety of domains. Research shows that children across ages find emotional comfort in their…

  18. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  19. Self-Invented Notation Systems Created by Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyng-Na

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated self-invented notation systems created by young children aged four to six. The researcher showed the children how to feel various pitches and rhythms through singing, eurhythmy, instrumental playing, rhymes and music appreciation. The children were then provided with opportunities to create music notations and…

  20. Imitation and Representational Development in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ingram; Lewis, Vicky; Collis, Glyn M.

    2006-01-01

    Competence in object search and pretend play are argued to reflect young children's representational abilities and appear delayed in children with Down syndrome relative to social and imitative skills. This paper explores the effects on object search and play of this social strength in children with Down syndrome. Three experiments compared…

  1. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  2. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  3. Social-Emotional Characteristics of Young Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeck, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Children, particularly young children, demonstrate characteristics of giftedness in many different ways. These characteristics manifest themselves based on gender, experiences, cultural identity, personal passions and interests, and family or community. Gifted children develop asynchronously. Morelock (2000) stated that "asynchrony in the gifted…

  4. The Effects of Peer Mediation with Young Children (PMYC) on Children's Cognitive Modifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shamir, Adina

    2007-01-01

    Peer mediation with young children is a relatively novel approach aimed at teaching young children how to mediate to their peers. The main benefits of peer mediation are in developing children's mediation teaching style and cognitive modifiability. The peer mediation developed recently is based on Vygotsky's sociocultural and Feuerstein's…

  5. A Structural Analysis on Korean Young Children's Mathematical Ability and Its Related Children's and Mothers' Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…

  6. Children Explain the Rainbow: Using Young Children's Ideas to Guide Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…

  7. A Structural Analysis on Korean Young Children's Mathematical Ability and Its Related Children's and Mothers' Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…

  8. Physical training of young biathletes in step preliminary preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burla Artem A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To examine the effectiveness of different allocation of general and special physical training of young biathletes in the preparatory and competitive periods of the annual cycle at the stage of preparation. Material : The study included 24 young athletes (age 13-15 years, have been employed 1 year or more. Results : shows dynamics of the various components of fitness of young biathlon (running at 30 meters from the place of 1000 and 3000 meters, pulling up on crossbeam flexion and extension hand in the emphasis lying down, raising and lowering legs Wies, long jump with space shuttle run 4 x 9 meters. Recommended for general physical training in the preparatory period allocate 65% of the time, a special and comprehensive training - 35%. Time on general fitness is distributed as follows: Power - 50% of the time, speed and speed-power - 25%, the development of general and special endurance - 20%, improving flexibility and coordination skills - 5%. Conclusions : lessons for biathlon in the early years of training should not be aimed at increasing the level of general and special endurance. In more classes should be directed at improving the physical fitness of versatile, high-speed, speed-strength and power qualities of athletes.

  9. Effects of fast food branding on young children's taste preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C

    2007-08-01

    To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.

  10. Using Visual Supports with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)

  11. Using Visual Supports with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  13. Self-references in young children. Content, metadimensions, and puzzlement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-van Dijk, Martsje van der

    1987-01-01

    In the studies decribed in this dissertation self-references in children’s naturally occurring speech were analyzed in an attempt to acquire further insight into the development of the self-concept in young children. ... Zie: Summary

  14. Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...

  15. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  16. Young Children's Preferred Attentional Strategies for Delaying Gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian T.; Mischel, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examine young children's verbal preferences and actual use of different attentional strategies for sustaining delay of gratification. Subjects were 272 preschool and 48 elementary school boys and girls. (MP)

  17. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done...

  18. Rare cases of autoimmune hypothyroidism in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronconi, Giulia Maria; Caiulo, Silvana; Di Frenna, Marianna; Vigone, Maria Cristina; Chiumello, Giuseppe; Weber, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Acquired autoimmune hypothyroidism is common in late childhood and adolescence but is very rare in the first 3 years of life. We report on three cases of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in young children who presented with constipation, decreased appetite, and increased hours of sleep. Our cases highlight that AT may remain undiagnosed for a long time in young children owing to the rarity of the disease.

  19. Family ecology of young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, A; Chiarello, L A; Bartlett, D; Palisano, R J; Jeffries, L; Almasri, N; Chang, H-J

    2014-07-01

    Family ecology in early childhood may influence children's activity and participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to describe family functioning, family expectations of their children, family support to their children, and supports for families of young children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on children's gross motor function level. Participants were 398 children with CP (mean age = 44.9 months) and their parents residing in the USA and Canada. Parents completed four measures of family ecology, the Family Environment Scale (FES), Family Expectations of Child (FEC), Family Support to Child (FSC) and Family Support Scale (FSS). The median scores on the FES indicated average to high family functioning and the median score on the FSS indicated that families had helpful family supports. On average, parents reported high expectations of their children on the FEC and strong support to their children on the FSC. On the FES, higher levels of achievement orientation were reported by parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II than parents of children in level I, and higher levels of control were reported by parents of children in level I than parents of children in level IV. On the FEC, parents of children with limited gross motor function (level V) reported lower expectations than parents of children at all other levels. Family ecology, including family strengths, expectations, interests, supports and resources, should be discussed when providing interventions and supports for young children with CP and their families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A parental perspective on apps for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, F.L.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Beentjes, H.W.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen applications (apps) for young children have seen increasingly high rates of growth with more than a hundred thousand now available apps. As with other media, parents play a key role in young children’s app selection and use. However, to date, we know very little about how parents select

  1. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children living in urban…

  2. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children living in urban…

  3. Parenting practices and expectations among Mexican mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Camarar, P; Fox, R A

    1996-12-01

    Parenting practices and developmental expectations were examined in a sample of 221 Mexican mothers with very young children living in Guadalajara, Jalisco. They completed a Spanish version of the Parent Behavior Checklist (PBC), a 100-item rating scale that measures parents' developmental expectations, discipline, and nurturing practices. The psychometric properties of the PBC for Mexican mothers, including test-retest reliabilities, were very similar to those found for mothers of young children in the United States. Younger Mexican mothers used more frequent discipline and less nurturing with their young children than older mothers did. Married mothers nurtured their children more than unmarried mothers; young, unmarried mothers nurtured their children the least. Lower nurturing scores were associated with lower education levels, and higher nurturing scores were associated with higher education levels. Mothers from higher socioeconomic levels held higher developmental expectations for their children, and they used less frequent discipline and more frequent nurturing practices than mothers from lower socioeconomic levels. These findings are consistent with those for mothers of young children in the United States.

  4. Physical activity in young children is reduced with increasing bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Baty, Florent; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted....

  5. Social Stories[TM] and Young Children: Strategies for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.

    2012-01-01

    Social Stories are becoming a popular intervention used to improve the social skills of children with disabilities. This article examines the use of Social Stories with young children with disabilities. Social Stories are described, creation guidelines are recommended, and strategies for Social Story implementation in the classroom are discussed.…

  6. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana

    2017-01-01

    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  7. Mazes and Maps: Can Young Children Find Their Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2014-01-01

    Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…

  8. Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…

  9. Calendar Time for Young Children: Good Intentions Gone Awry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Sallee; Ostrosky, Michaelene; Katz, Lilian

    2008-01-01

    True understanding of time, dates, and the calendar comes with maturity. Given the level of thinking required to grasp time concepts and the developmental abilities of young children, the authors suggest alternatives to calendar routines for preschool and kindergarten children. Suggested activities include picture schedules, classroom journals,…

  10. Setting Limits: Tips for Parents of Young Children. Project Enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lynne; And Others

    This pamphlet presents guidelines and tips for parents on setting limits for the behavior of young children. The need for limits and the goal of teaching children self-control are explained. Some general guidelines for limit setting are provided which include making the limits age-appropriate, recognizing the child's need for practice and…

  11. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana

    2017-01-01

    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  12. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool's reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine…

  13. Differences in language development among young children in Northeast Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that in the countryside of Northeast Netherlands children enter primary school with a language delay. Despite the apparent consensus, unequivocal evidence demonstrating that the number of young children with language delays and the magnitude of these delays is, however,

  14. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  15. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  16. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  17. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  18. The Production of Locative Prepositions by Young School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a study to examine the extent to which young English children volunteer prepositions in a simple but structured task of spatial description. Results show that children 3 to 7 years have an extensive and often inventive grasp of locative prepositions. (Author/KC)

  19. Animals in the Lives of Young Maltese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne

    2008-01-01

    Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…

  20. Longitudinal Relations Between Parenting and Child Adjustment in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…

  1. The Visual Arts as a Therapeutic Process for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergjini, Vesna

    This article discusses the use of visual arts activities to help young children cope with separation anxiety and sibling rivalry. Addressed to preschool and elementary school teachers seeking therapeutic classroom activities, the article suggests ways of using children's literature as starting points for drawing activities focused on anxiety…

  2. Storytime: Young Children's Literary Understanding in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Lawrence R.

    2007-01-01

    The author draws on his own extensive research in urban classrooms to present a grounded theoretical model of young children's understanding of picture storybooks. Advancing a much broader and deeper theory of literary understanding, the author suggests that children respond in five different ways during picture storybook readalouds; that these…

  3. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  4. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  5. Young Children Manifest Spiritualities in Their Hip-Hop Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Nadjwa E. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…

  6. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool's reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine…

  7. Cues that Trigger Social Transmission of Disinhibition in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Minato, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing a human model's actions, but not a robot's actions, could induce young children's perseverative behaviors and suggested that children's sociocognitive abilities can lead to perseverative errors ("social transmission of disinhibition"). This study investigated how the social transmission of disinhibition…

  8. Games Graffiti: Language Arts Games to Make for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenberry, Mary Anne; And Others

    This document contains materials for games which are intended to give teachers and parents of young children ideas for making learning games which will provide experiences appropriate to their interests and abilities. While the games may be used by children in small groups, they were designed primarily for the child to explore alone. The games are…

  9. How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauert, Esme Bridget

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

  10. Differences in language development among young children in Northeast Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that in the countryside of Northeast Netherlands children enter primary school with a language delay. Despite the apparent consensus, unequivocal evidence demonstrating that the number of young children with language delays and the magnitude of these delays is, however, lacki

  11. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  12. Early Education: What Should Young Children Be Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    Contrasting academic and intellectual approaches to preschool programs, this review of current research and discussion of implications for improving educational practices, identifies conditions of children's environments that facilitate their development. The review centers on risks related to pressuring young children to acquire academic concepts…

  13. The Factors Influencing Young Children's Social Interaction in Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Mee

    2015-01-01

    When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…

  14. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  15. Emotion Regulation in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Lauren; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2017-01-01

    There has been little research connecting underlying emotion processes (e.g., emotion regulation) to frequent behavior problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the stability of emotion regulation and its relationship with other aspects of child functioning. Participants included 108 children with ASD,…

  16. Parental smoking and pretend smoking in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether parental smoking was associated with smoking-related play behaviour in young children. Design Children were asked to pretend that they were grown-ups having dinner. They were invited to act out this situation in a play corner with a toy kitchen and a child-sized dini

  17. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…

  18. Preventing Problem Behaviors in Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivette, Kristine; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Morrier, Michael J.; Lambert, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Young children with disabilities acquire behavior problems as a result of many factors. When planning interventions, it is important to remember that all children may display stages of inappropriate behaviors at various times during their early development. In most cases, the problems are short-lived and typically improve with guidance and age.…

  19. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  20. Involving Parents in Teaching Social Communication Skills to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…

  1. Differences in language development among young children in Northeast Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that in the countryside of Northeast Netherlands children enter primary school with a language delay. Despite the apparent consensus, unequivocal evidence demonstrating that the number of young children with language delays and the magnitude of these delays is, however, lacki

  2. Working Memory and Fluid Intelligence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system--short-term storage or cognitive control--drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from…

  3. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  4. Supporting Military Families with Young Children throughout the Deployment Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    deployments. Prolonged separation can constitute a developmental crisis for babies, toddlers and preschool -aged children, although the homefront parent...prevention) with a new population (families with young children). Necessarily, staff and clinicians are acquiring new expertise in child development ...resilience and child well-being, Soldier and non-deploying parents must successfully meet the challenges of caregiving throughout the deployment cycle

  5. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  6. Young Children and Trust in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alat, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…

  7. Elephants and Their Young: Science and Math Activities for Young Children. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen

    This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…

  8. The effects of Peer Mediation with Young Children (PMYC) on children's cognitive modifiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shamir, Adina

    2007-03-01

    Peer mediation with young children is a relatively novel approach aimed at teaching young children how to mediate to their peers. The main benefits of peer mediation are in developing children's mediation teaching style and cognitive modifiability. The peer mediation developed recently is based on Vygotsky's sociocultural and Feuerstein's mediated learning experience theories. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of the Peer Mediation with Young Children (PMYC) programme on children's cognitive modifiability of mediators and learners and to study the effects of cognitive level of the learner and mediator on their cognitive modifiability following the programme. A sample of 178 pupils (89 mediators in Grade 3 and 89 learners in Grade 1) was randomly assigned to experimental (N=43 dyads) and control (N=46 dyads) groups. The mediators in the experimental group participated in the PMYC programme, whereas the mediators in the control group received a substitute intervention aimed at emphasizing general conditions of peer interaction. Following the intervention, mediators of both groups received a demonstration of a multimedia programme as a preparation for the peer mediation interaction and later taught it to their young counterparts. Following the teaching session (e.g. teaching of seriation problems), mediators in both groups were given a dynamic assessment measure of analogies. The learners however were given a test of seriation before and after the intervention. The findings showed that following the intervention the experimental mediators showed higher level of analogies scores, as well as higher improvement on the dynamic analogies measure as compared with control mediators. The experimental learners showed higher pre- to post-intervention achievements on the seriation problems as compared with control learners. The findings showed also that when there was a match between the mediator and learner's cognitive level (i.e. low-low or high

  9. Television viewing by young Hispanic children: evidence of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Sibinga, Erica M S; Jennings, Jacky M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2010-02-01

    To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Hispanic mothers differs by maternal language preference and to compare these differences with young children with white mothers. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Nationally representative sample. One thousand three hundred forty-seven mothers of children aged 4 to 35 months. Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (white or Hispanic) and within Hispanic race/ethnicity, stratification by maternal language preference (English or Spanish). Hours of daily television the child viewed. Bivariate analyses showed that children of English- vs Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers watched more television daily (1.88 vs 1.31 hours, P speaking Hispanic mothers watched similar amounts. However, among children aged 12 to 23 and 24 to 35 months, those of English-speaking Hispanic mothers watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.22; IRR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared with children of white mothers, children of both Hispanic subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4- to 11-month-old group. However, among 12- to 23-month-old children, those of English-speaking Hispanic mothers watched more compared with children of white mothers (IRR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.18-2.11). Among 24- to 35-month-old children, those of English-speaking Hispanic mothers watched similar amounts compared with children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers watched less (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.95). Television-viewing amounts among young children with Hispanic mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference, supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Hispanic children.

  10. Plethysmographic measurements of specific airway resistance in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    children. This article reviews the method, and proposes a protocol and criteria for quality assurance for assessment of sRaw in preschool children from 2 years of age. sRaw measurements offers a method for clinical monitoring and research during this critical period of growth and development early in life.......Validated methods for lung function measurements in young children are lacking. Plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) provides such a method applicable from 2 years of age. sRaw gauges airway resistance from the measurements of the pressure changes driving the airflow...... also been documented by this technique, and sRaw has recently been used in longitudinal studies of young children with chronic pulmonary diseases. Future developments should provide improved algorithms for thermal correction of the respired volumes and adapt the equipment to the special needs of young...

  11. Development of drawing and spatial cognition in young children

    OpenAIRE

    田口, 雅徳

    2002-01-01

    his paper identifies the factors that lead young children to make intellectual realism drawings and discusses the relationship between the development of children's drawings and their spatial cognition. Based on previous studies, the factors that cause children to make intellectual realism drawings are: drawing skills in hidden-line elimination, understanding of task content, production error in favor of canonicality, intention to communicate array-specific information, and development of spa...

  12. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  13. Welfare reforms and the cognitive development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deanna L; Salkie, Fiona J; Letourneau, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether the cognitive development of young children in poverty is affected by activities of their primary caregiver and by household income source, which are two components of family poverty experience that have been affected by recent welfare reforms. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships that caregiver activity, household income source, and family characteristics (family income adequacy, caregiver depressive symptoms, caregiver education) have with the cognitive development of 59 impoverished children less than three years old. Of the three poverty experience variables included in the multivariate analysis, only employment as the exclusive source of household income had an independent relationship (positive) with children's cognitive development. Two of the family characteristics, income adequacy and caregiver education, also were associated with the children's cognitive score, and they were both better relative predictors than the employment-only income source variable. Income adequacy was positively associated and caregiver education was negatively associated with children's cognitive development. Although recent welfare reforms, in combination with economic growth and declining unemployment, have changed the poverty experience of young families by increasing the proportion that secure at least part of their income from employment, our study provides preliminary evidence that these reforms have made little difference for most young impoverished children. Instead, our findings suggest that the cognitive development of young children is influenced as much by the actual amount of household income as by their parents' activity and source of income.

  14. Young Children's Developing Understanding of Geometric Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Mary Anne

    1999-01-01

    Presents research findings and suggestions on how children learn to categorize shapes. Discusses specific ways to present developmentally appropriate activities designed to enhance children's understanding of basic shapes. Contains 12 references. (ASK)

  15. Children's Lounge for Young Passengers in Frankfurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Openting of new rest and recreation room for unaccompanied minors Movie corner,"chill-out"zone or smack bar-Lufthansa's newly styled children's lounge at Frankfurt Airport is a children's paradise.

  16. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

  17. Maternal responsivity in mothers of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra; Warren, Steven F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal responsivity and directive behaviors in mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS). Participants included 22 mothers with a young child with DS compared to 22 mothers of chronologically age-matched typically developing (TD) children using a cross-sectional design. The dyads participated in videotaped structured activities that were coded for responsive and directive behaviors. RESULTS indicated that the mothers of children with DS used a more facilitative style with the older children while these behaviors decreased with older children with TD; one directive behavior, request for behavioral comply, increased with the older children with DS. The mothers of children with DS adapted their parenting style to be facilitative of their children's linguistic development.

  18. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2017-07-01

    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of

  19. Young children's understanding of violations of property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Federico; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present work investigated young children's normative understanding of property rights using a novel methodology. Two- and 3-year-old children participated in situations in which an actor (1) took possession of an object for himself, and (2) attempted to throw it away. What varied was who owned the object: the actor himself, the child subject, or a third party. We found that while both 2- and 3-year-old children protested frequently when their own object was involved, only 3-year-old children protested more when a third party's object was involved than when the actor was acting on his own object. This suggests that at the latest around 3 years of age young children begin to understand the normative dimensions of property rights. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing a computer game to prepare children for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Michal; Gutman, Yaira; Silner, Dina

    2004-12-01

    Computer games are a major part of the culture of children and teenagers in many developed countries. Research shows that children of the computer age prefer computer-assisted learning to any other teaching strategy. Health care workers traditionally have used dolls, games, drawings, creative arts, and even videotapes to prepare children for surgery. No studies have been conducted in Israel on using computers to help ailing children in general or to help children preparing for surgery in particular. This article discusses the potential for using computers to educate patients based on a review of the literature and interviews with children and describes the process of computer game development.

  1. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lovato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under three years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  2. Psychosocial functioning in children and young adults with juvenile arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, J A; Horgan, B; Chaitow, J; Champion, G D

    1988-02-01

    A questionnaire survey of 363 children and young adults with juvenile arthritis was conducted to assess the relations among disease severity, psychosocial functioning, and adjustment in three age groups--primary school, high school, and young adult. Parents were surveyed separately to determine which characteristics of the ill child at different ages most significantly impact the well-being of the family. Indices of psychologic functioning and disease severity were associated with adjustment in the primary school and high school groups, whereas measures of social relationships were strongly associated with adjustment only in the high school group. Relations among measures of psychologic functioning, social relationships, disease severity, and adjustment in young adults were minimal. Level of disease severity was associated with the presence of financial concerns, emotional problems, and physical strain in parents of high school children and young adults. The results emphasize the importance of using a developmental model for understanding the adjustment of individuals with chronic juvenile arthritis and their families.

  3. Child-Directed Interaction Training for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Nicole C; Clionsky, Leah N; Eyberg, Sheila M; Warner-Metzger, Christina; Abner, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of the Child-Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) phase of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Thirty mother-child dyads with children ages 3-7 years with a diagnosis of ASD participated in this randomized controlled study. Following manualized CDIT, statistically significant and meaningful improvements in child disruptive behavior and social awareness as well as maternal distress associated with child disruptive behavior occurred. Across 8 sessions, mothers learned to provide positive attention to their children's appropriate social and play behaviors. Both child and parent changes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. A relatively brief, time-limited, and accessible intervention may be efficacious for improving child and parent behaviors in families of young children with ASD. By decreasing child disruptive behaviors, CDIT may also help to prepare children to benefit further from future interventions.

  4. Fostering prosocial behavior and empathy in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, Tracy L; Gal, Diana E

    2017-08-09

    There is increasing interest in understanding ways to foster young children's prosocial behavior (i.e. voluntary acts to benefit another). We begin this review by differentiating between types of prosocial behavior, empathy, and sympathy. We argue that sympathy and some types of prosocial behaviors are most likely intrinsically motivated, whereas other types of prosocial behaviors may be extrinsically motivated. Next, we highlight work focusing on the socialization practices that have been found to predict individual differences in young children's prosocial behavior and concern for others. Although work in the area is limited, we also review some intervention programs that have shown effectiveness in improving young children's positive social behaviors. We conclude with areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Young children returning home from care: The birth parents' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Kelly, Greg; Robinson, Clive; Schubotz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    While a wide range of literature exists on the experiences of children in foster care or adoption, much less is known about children who return home from care to their birth parents. This paper focuses on the perspectives of a small sample of birth parents of young children who returned home from care. It draws on findings from the Northern Ireland Care Pathways and Outcomes Study that has been following a population (n = 374) of children who were under 5 years and in care in Northern Ireland...

  6. Young children's beliefs about the stability of traits: protective optimism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Kristi L; Chang, Bernard; Story, Tyler

    2002-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated individual differences in children's beliefs about the stability of traits, but this focus on individuals may have masked important developmental differences. In a series of four studies, younger children (5-6 years old, Ns = 53, 32, 16, and 16, respectively) were more optimistic in their beliefs about traits than were older children (7-10 years old, Ns = 60, 32, 16, and 16, respectively) and adults (Ns = 130, 100, 48, and 48, respectively). Younger children were more likely to believe that negative traits would change in an extreme positive direction over time (Study 1) and that they could control the expression of a trait (Study 3). This was true not only for psychological traits, but also for biological traits such as missing a finger and having poor eyesight. Young children also optimistically believed that extreme positive traits would be retained over development (Study 2). Study 4 extended these findings to groups, and showed that young children believed that a majority of people can have above average future outcomes. All age groups made clear distinctions between the malleability of biological and psychological traits, believing negative biological traits to be less malleable than negative psychological traits and less subject to a person's control. Hybrid traits (such as intelligence and body weight) fell midway between these two with respect to malleability. The sources of young children's optimism and implications of this optimism for age differences in the incidence of depression are discussed.

  7. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  8. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  9. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  10. The Socialization of Young Children's Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joan; Peyton, Ellice

    This report explores the possibility of constructing a conceptual framework to account for variations in learning styles observed among preschool disadvantaged children. It begins with a review of the literature on preschool intervention programs relating to ways disadvantaged children approach new experiences; gather, organize, and process…

  11. Introducing Young Children to Live Orchestral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Louie

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the innovative nature of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra's program of concerts designed especially for children ages five through eight that feature children as a participatory audience. The selection of repertoire and the types of support and resources provided for teachers are also discussed. (MDM)

  12. Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Barros, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Before starting school, many children reason logically about concepts that are basic to their later mathematical learning. We describe a measure of quantitative reasoning that was administered to children at school entry (mean age 5.8 years) and accounted for more variance in a mathematical attainment test than general cognitive ability 16 months…

  13. Observing and Supporting Young Children's Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Hannah; Hawkins, Carol J.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic and ongoing assessment of children's skills and progress is at the heart of developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood classrooms. Careful assessment enables teachers to know the children with whom they work. Effective early childhood practice focuses on the needs of the whole child, so child assessment must similarly focus…

  14. Young Children's Letter-Sound Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…

  15. Early stimulation and language development of economically disadvantaged young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Sidhu, Manjit; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of home stimulation on the language functioning of young children from low income families. The language functioning of 102 children (Mean age = 3.3 y, SD = 1.3) was assessed by the communication sub-scale of the Indian Developmental Inventory (IDI). Home visits were made to assess the quality of stimulation provided by parents to children. Seven items measuring stimulation of the child were selected from the Mohite Home Environment Inventory, a scale measuring the quality of home environment. Nearly 16 % of children from economically disadvantaged homes had language delay. Children with language delay as compared to children with adequate language skills had significantly lower stimulation at home (t = 2.59, P = 0.01), specifically parents were significantly less likely to praise their child (25 % vs. 52 %, χ (2) = 4.03, P = 0.045) or provide verbal stimulation (44 % vs. 72 %, χ (2) = 4.95, P = 0.026). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that 18 % of the variance in the communication developmental quotient (DQs) of children was accounted by stimulation and age of the child (F = 10.47, P = 0.000). Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children by providing cognitive-linguistic enriched learning experiences would go a long way in paving the way for improved language, cognition and school performance in young children.

  16. Young Children's Attention to What's Going On: Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katie G; Shimpi, Priya M; Rogoff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines children' attention to surrounding events in which they are not directly involved, a way of learning that fits with the cultural approach of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Research in instructional settings has found that attention to surrounding events is more common among Indigenous Guatemalan Mayan and some US Mexican-heritage children than among middle-class children from several ethnic backgrounds. We examine this phenomenon in a quasi-naturalistic setting to see if the cultural variation in young children's attention to surrounding events in which they were not directly involved extends beyond instructional settings. During a home visit focused on their younger sibling, 19 Guatemalan Mayan and 18 middle-class European American 3- to 5-year olds were nearby but not addressed, as their mother helped their toddler sibling operate novel objects. The Guatemalan Mayan children more frequently attended to this nearby interaction and other third-party activities, whereas the middle-class European American children more often attended to their own activities in which they were directly involved or they fussed or showed off. The results support the idea that in some Indigenous communities of the Americas where young children are included in a broad range of family and community endeavors, children may be especially inclined to attend to ongoing events, even if they are not directly involved or addressed, compared to European American children whose families have extensive experience in Western school ways.

  17. Magical beliefs and rituals in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Milanak, Melissa E; Medeiros, Bethany; Ross, Jennifer L

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one children were administered a structured interview that assessed their beliefs about magic, tricks and wishes. Children were also presented with demonstrations of magic tricks/illusions, and asked to offer explanations as to how they worked. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), a 19-item parent report measure that assesses children's rituals, habits and sensory-perceptual experiences that we have termed "compulsive-like" behavior. Results indicated that children's rituals and compulsions were positively related to their magical beliefs, and inversely related to their uses of concrete, physical explanations to describe various phenomena. In particular, children's beliefs about the effects of wishing were most consistently correlated with their compulsive-like rituals and routines. The findings extended the work on magical beliefs and obsessive-compulsive phenomena to the normative manifestation of compulsive behaviors found in typical development.

  18. Recognizing young children with high potential: U-STARS∼PLUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth

    2016-08-01

    Hands-on science is the ideal platform for observing young children's ability to solve problems, think deeply, and use their creative ingenuity to explore the world around them. Science is naturally interesting and offers authentic reasons to read for information and use math skills to collect, compile, and analyze data. This chapter will share one approach to nurturing and recognizing young children with high-potential: U-STARS∼PLUS (Using Science, Talents, and Abilities to Recognize Students∼Promoting Learning for Underrepresented Students). Each of the five components (high-end learning environments; teacher's observations of potential; engaging science activities; partnerships with parents; and capacity building for system change) will be explained. Concrete examples will be given for each area showing how it works and why it is important. Special attention will be paid to the needs of educationally vulnerable gifted children who remain underserved: racially, ethnically, and linguistically different; economically disadvantaged, and children who are twice exceptional (2e).

  19. The influence of group membership on young children's prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Harriet

    2017-08-08

    Young children can be extremely prosocial-willing to help and share with others and comfort them in distress. However, the origins of social problems like prejudice and discrimination also appear early in development. In this paper, I discuss research investigating how group membership affects children's tendency to be prosocial. Existing research on this topic has focused primarily on sharing behaviour and shown that, in general, children allocate more resources to members of their own groups. After reviewing this important literature, I make the case for extending research with young children to other forms of prosociality. This has the potential to inform our understanding of the mechanisms behind ingroup favouritism in prosociality and help us understand routes towards interventions to encourage more egalitarian behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Young children with language difficulties: a dimensional approach to subgrouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rianne; Ceulemans, Eva; Grauwels, Jolien; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    A dimensional approach was used to create bottom-up constructed subgroups that captured the behavioral heterogeneity in 36 Dutch-speaking children with language difficulties. Four subgroups were delineated based upon differences in cognitive ability, symbol understanding, joint attention and autism spectrum disorder related characteristics. Children with a different developmental disorder were found within a single cluster. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bottom-up constructed subgroups might capture the heterogeneous behavioral profiles of young children with developmental difficulties in a more meaningful way. Furthermore, joint attention and symbol understanding seem important skills to assess in young children presenting with language difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Promoting and protecting the health of children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licence, K

    2004-11-01

    The health-related behaviours adopted by children and young people can have both immediate and long-term health effects. Health promotion interventions that target children and young people can lay the foundations of a healthy lifestyle that may be sustained into adulthood. This paper is based on a selective review of evidence relating to health promotion in childhood, carried out to support the external working group on the 'Healthy Child' module of the Children's National Service Framework. This is a selective review of mainly secondary research. It focuses on injury prevention, support for parenting and the promotion of good mental health, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity amongst children and young people. In many areas, the quality of primary research into health promotion interventions aimed at children and young people is poor. Interventions are heterogeneous and not described in sufficient detail. Sample sizes tend to be small, and there are commonly problems of bias. Despite these difficulties, there is good evidence for a range of interventions, including (1) area road safety schemes; (2) combining a variety of approaches to the promotion of the use of safety equipment, including legislation and enforcement, loan/assisted purchase/giveaway schemes, education, fitting and maintenance of safety equipment; (3) school-based mental health promotion; (4) parenting support; (5) interventions that promote and facilitate 'lifestyle' activity for children, such as walking and cycling to school, and those that aim to reduce sedentary behaviours such as parent education to reduce the time children spend watching TV and using computers; and (6) controlling advertising of unhealthy food that is aimed at children. There are effective interventions to promote and protect the health of children and young people that require action across the five areas described in the Ottawa Charter. Health, social care and education services have a direct role in the

  2. Young Children's Help-Seeking as Active Information Gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…

  3. Spoken word recognition and lexical representation in very young children

    OpenAIRE

    Swingley, D.; Aslin, R.

    2000-01-01

    Although children's knowledge of the sound patterns of words has been a focus of debate for many years, little is known about the lexical representations very young children use in word recognition. In particular, researchers have questioned the degree of specificity encoded in early lexical representations. The current study addressed this issue by presenting 18–23-month-olds with object labels that were either correctly pronounced, or mispronounced. Mispronunciations involved replacement of...

  4. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool’s reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine associations between IEP quality and school, teacher, and child characteristics. IEPs for 35 students with autism (Mage = 6.1 years; SD = 1.6) from 35 d...

  5. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-02-27

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning.

  6. Young Children Learning: A Teacher's Guide to Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Brunswick Dept. of Education, Fredericton (Canada).

    The first part of this guide describes how kindergarten children learn and develop and how teachers can enhance children's intellectual, physical, and social development in the context of their activity in a prepared, play-based environment. Topics addressed include physical development, sensory awareness, motor skills, creative movement, skilled…

  7. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  8. Association of bacteria and viruses with wheezy episodes in young children: prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    To study the association between wheezy symptoms in young children and the presence of bacteria in the airways.......To study the association between wheezy symptoms in young children and the presence of bacteria in the airways....

  9. Young Children's Self-care and Independence Tasks: Applying Self-efficacy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the theory of self-efficacy, the ways in which young children learn self-care and self-efficacy, and methods parents and other caregivers can use to encourage self-efficacy in young children. (RJC)

  10. Myoelectric hand prostheses in very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Marcus; Kasten, Philip; Thomsen, Marc

    2009-08-01

    Myoelectric prostheses have generally been provided for adolescent or adult patients. The availability of smaller-sized electric hands has enabled the introduction of myoelectric prostheses to preschool children, mainly in the Scandinavian countries. This study evaluates the acceptance of myoelectric prostheses in 41 children with unilateral upper limb deficiency between the ages of two and five years. The prosthesis was used for an average time of 5.8 hours per day. The level of amputation was found to influence the acceptance rate. Furthermore, prosthetic use training by an occupational therapist is related to successful use of the prosthesis. The general drop-out rate in preschool children is very low compared to adults. Therefore, infants can profit from myoelectric hand prostheses. Since a correct indication and an intense training program significantly influence the acceptance rate, introduction of myoelectric prostheses to preschool children should take place at specialised centres with an interdisciplinary team.

  11. Euthanasia for children and young people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    In February 2014 the Belgian parliament voted to extend the existing euthanasia law to cover children under the age of 18. The law sanctions euthanasia for children with terminal or incurable conditions who are near death, suffering 'constant and unbearable pain', and whose parents and health professionals agree with the decision. The child also has to be interviewed by a psychologist or psychiatrist to ascertain and certify their 'capacity of discernment'.

  12. Naming in young children: a dumb attentional mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L B; Jones, S S; Landau, B

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that young children selectively attend to some object properties and ignore others when generalizing a newly learned object name. Moreover, the specific properties children attend to depend on the stimulus and task context. The present study tested an attentional account: that children's feature selection in name generalization is guided by non-strategic attentional processes that are minimally influenced by new conceptual information presented in the task. Four experiments presented 3-year-old children and adults with novel artifacts consisting of distinctive base objects with appended parts. In a Name condition, subjects were asked whether test objects had the same name as the exemplar. In a Similarity condition, subjects made similarity judgments for the same objects. Subjects in two experiments were shown a function for either the base object or the parts. Both adults' naming and similarity judgments were influenced by the functional information. Children's similarity judgments were also influenced by the functions. However, children's naming was immune to influence from information about function. Instead, children's feature selection in naming was shifted only by changes in the relative salience of base objects and parts. The results are consistent with the idea that dumb attentional processes are responsible for young children's smart generalizations of novel words to new instances. Potential mechanisms to explain these findings are discussed.

  13. Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children?s social preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. The...

  14. Primary caregivers of young children are unaware of food neophobia and food preference development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Julie; Raciti, Maria M

    2016-03-30

    Issues addressed: This research explored primary caregivers' awareness of food neophobia and how food preferences develop in young children aged between 1 and 2.5 years. Methods: This qualitative study used case study methodology and comprised interviews with 24 primary caregivers of young children aged between 1 and 2.5 years. Results and conclusions: Primary caregivers of young children are unaware of food neophobia and food preference development in young children. So what? Raising primary caregivers' awareness of food neophobia and how food preferences develop in young children may encourage caregivers to decrease their children's exposure to non-core foods.

  15. Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…

  16. Identifying Hearing Loss in Young Children: Technology Replaces the Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…

  17. Let's Play: Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Guenther, Tracee; Crozier, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Watch any young child and you will likely see him or her engaged in some form of play. Play is an integral part of early childhood development in which typically developing children learn social and language skills, as well as appropriate behaviors, problem solving, and a variety of other cognitive skills. By its very definition, autism is a…

  18. Development of a Dutch intervention for obese young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.; Bouwman, L.I.; Koelen, M.A.; Lutt, M.A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide insight in the five-step development process of the best evidence, best practice intervention for obese young children ‘AanTafel!’. A set of requirements for intervention development was developed to guide the data inquiry: the use of theory, influencing f

  19. Activities for Young Gifted Children: Using the CIBER Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Peggy L.

    1994-01-01

    The acronym CIBER represents five basic principles ensuring that the needs of young gifted children are appropriately and effectively addressed: capitalize, integrate, balance, expose and enhance, and be realistic. Science activities and interdisciplinary learning activities are suggested to enhance development in cognitive, affective,…

  20. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  1. A Model of Services for Young Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Janis A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a model of services for 38 infants and young children whose primary handicap was a communication disorder or for whom a communication disorder was a related problem. Data indicated that the model was effective in producing child growth in receptive and expressive language, as well as other developmental areas. (Author/CL)

  2. Neighborhood Disadvantage: Pathways of Effects for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Dafna E.; Leventhal, Tama; Dahinten, V. Susan; McIntosh, Cameron N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used Canadian National Longitudinal data to examine a model of the mechanisms through which the effects of neighborhood socioeconomic conditions impact young children's verbal and behavioral outcomes (N = 3,528; M age = 5.05 years, SD= 0.86). Integrating elements of social disorganization theory and family stress models, and…

  3. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  4. Working with Young Children Who Are Victims of Armed Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to war and armed conflict. Although the long-term priority is always to try to unravel and reduce violence and conflict, in the short term some interventions may reduce suffering. In this article the authors report on recent evidence on psychosocial interventions designed to mitigate the impact of armed…

  5. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  6. Evolving Creativity: New Pedagogies for Young Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Keang-Ieng

    2008-01-01

    This book challenges the assumption that creativity is culture-free. Fostering creativity in the young has gained unprecedented attention in China, one of the most vigorous world economies today. This book examines Chinese kindergarten teachers' interpretations of creativity in relation to their ideas of children's learning and cognition, using…

  7. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  8. Supporting Families of Young Children with Disabilities Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Meadan, Hedda; Doubet, Sharon; Hess, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Research has frequently focused on needs, preferences, and practices of families of young children with disabilities. Surprisingly, relatively little seems to be known about how families use technology to gain information about and support their needs, even though Web-based and other information and communication technology applications have…

  9. Young Children's Approaches to Learning: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Qi; Masur, Ann; McNamee, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Recognising school readiness as a national priority, the National Education Goals Panel identified the development of young children's approaches to learning as essential for achieving readiness. Approaches to learning include inclinations, attitudes, and learning styles. Despite wide agreement that learning approaches are critical for school…

  10. The (Im)possibility of Gay Teachers for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Those who teach, or intend to teach, young children undergo careful scrutiny as to their suitability for the role of teacher. In general, professional monitoring of teaching standards and teacher qualities are reasonable expectations. However, a set of related cultural practices embedded in such monitoring purposefully and unjustly impact men who…

  11. SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement in Young Children's ESL Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Letchumanan, Krishnanveni

    2016-01-01

    Realising the clear dichotomy between schools and homes, the Malaysia government has now turned its attention to stakeholders and called for an increase involvement of parents, who are critical in transforming the education system. However, a clear line of demarcation continues to exist between the two prime educators of young children. Schools…

  12. Response Strength of Young Children in Operant Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Michael A.; Thompson, Gary

    1985-01-01

    An operant conditioning discrimination paradigm was evaluated of relationships between response behavior of young children and two stimulus components of the paradigm, the discriminative stimulus and the reinforcing stimulus. Findings revealed the effects of schedules of reinforcement, novel reinforcement, and age. (Author/CL)

  13. Facilitating Communicative Competence in Young Children: Techniques for Parents & Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Geraldine

    A practicum was implemented by a licensed speech-language pathologist working in a clinical and instructional program in a predominantly black, inner-city community in northeastern Indiana. The practicum was designed to improve the communicative competence of young children in a kindergarten-first grade setting. It was implemented because…

  14. Shared Care of Young Children: Alternative Models to Monotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews evidence for assertions related to the monotropism hypothesis and examines causal factors that might constrain the number of satisfactory caretaker relationships provided for young children. Two models of constraint derived from the earlier work of Bowlby and others are rejected; two models based on more recent theory are considered worth…

  15. Literature Helps Young Children Face Problems in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Mildred R.

    Contemporary realistic fiction allows young readers/listeners to experience events that they would never encounter in real life or practice what they might someday experience. Realistic fiction benefits children as they may: see past the limitations of their own experiences; learn to reflect on choices in their own lives; acquire sympathy for…

  16. Evidence for nonconscious behavior-copying in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, J.E. van; Baaren, R.B. van; Bekkering, H.; Hunnius, S.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral mimicry is the nonconscious copying of an interaction partner’s behavior and is affected by social dynamics. Whereas it has been studied extensively in adults, little is known about the development of mimicry. The aims of this study were twofold, first to identify whether young children

  17. Freedom of Reach for Young Children: Nonsexist Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Tish; Jones, Peg

    This handbook presents ideas for developing nonsexist early childhood education programs for young children. The book is organized into six sections. Section I presents some background information, including definitions of terms, discussions of current attitudes towards and implications of nonsexist education, traditional and nontraditional roles…

  18. Knowing the Rules: Discursive Strategies in Young Children's Power Struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides a typology of power strategies used by young children, based on observations of early childhood classrooms. Distinguishes between violent and nonviolent strategies; within nonviolent strategies, between physical and discursive strategies; within discursive strategies, between the use of rules and other strategies; and within the use of…

  19. Creative Opportunities to Improve Young Children's Balance, Strength & Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Strength, balance, and stability are important factors in performing movement skills, but are often overlooked by elementary schools when planning a quality physical education program for young children. These three interrelated structural characteristics are involved in all human movements. Movement is created by continually changing postures in…

  20. Strategic Selection of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Laura M.; McIlhagga, Kristen K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss strategic selection of literature for children and young adults based on the characteristics of written text and images as teachers and parents choose books for classroom and home settings. The topic is approached from two stances/lenses: (1) the cognitive processes used while reading and the ways different genres, topics, and…

  1. A Focus on Resiliency: Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vita L.; Higgins, Kyle; Brandon, Regina R.; Cote, Debra L.; Dobbins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a compilation of 12 characteristics of resilient young children (Table 1) drawn from research, followed by nine global classroom intervention categories (Table 2) found to be effective in supporting students in developing resilience. In this article, the analysis of resilience research is presented to provide educators with…

  2. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  3. Young Children with Physical Disabilities: Caregiver Perspectives about Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Adria; Campbell, Philippa H.; Wilcox, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver reports of problematic activities/routines with their young children with physical disabilities and types of assistive technology used as solutions were investigated in this study. In addition, caregiver competence with assistive technology use and ways in which caregivers received information and training were also examined. A subset of…

  4. Should Young School Children be Required to Study Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai; Jingting

    2014-01-01

    Now,more and more parents believe the theory that their children should take the lead as soon as possible at the starting line,requiring the young to study art in school.But after years,we witness the disadvantages of it.This essay states the drawbacks of this demand and exemplifies them through facts in daily life.

  5. Should Young School Children be Required to Study Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jingting

    2014-01-01

    Now, more and more parents believe the theory that their children should take the lead as soon as possible at the starting line, requiring the young to study art in school. But after years, we witness the disadvantages of it. This essay states the drawbacks of this demand and exemplifies them through facts in daily life.

  6. The Black Experience: Recent Resources for Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Recent titles for children and young adults that focus on the black experience are annotated. Included are four picture books; three books of poetry; five reference books (Heritage Library of African Peoples series); two books on music; five biographies; and one history book. (SLD)

  7. Assessment and Intervention for Young Children with Nonphysiological Feeding Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…

  8. Feeding Challenges in Young Children: Toward a Best Practices Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2010-01-01

    Young children often encounter feeding challenges, such as food refusal, an inability to meet nutritional needs, and limited skills to self-feed. Further, overall development can be adversely affected when an infant or a toddler has difficulties with intake of fluid and solid foods. A variety of strategies are available to address these challenges…

  9. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  10. Medicaid reimbursement of hearing services for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Margaret A; Levtov, Ruti; White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene; Foust, Terry; Thompson, Maureen

    2010-08-01

    As newborn hearing-screening programs have expanded, more and more infants and young children need hearing services. Medicaid is one of the primary sources of funding for such services and, by law, must establish payment rates that are sufficient to enlist enough providers to provide services. In this study we compared 2005 Medicaid reimbursement rates for hearing services for infants and young children in 15 states with the payment rates for the same services by Medicare and commercially available health insurance. On average, Medicaid rates for the same services were only 67 as high as Medicare and only 38 as high as commercial fees. Furthermore, most Medicaid rates declined from 2000 to 2005, and many states did not have billing codes for a significant number of the hearing services needed by infants and young children. These factors likely contribute to infants and young children with hearing loss not being able to get the hearing services they need to benefit from early identification of hearing loss. These data also raise questions about the extent to which states are meeting the federal requirement that Medicaid payments be sufficient to enlist enough providers so that care and services are adequately available to the general population in the geographic area.

  11. Screening Young Children for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Primary Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Marianne L.; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Fein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as well as emerging evidence of the efficacy of early intervention has focused attention on the need for early identification of young children suspected of having an ASSD. Several studies have suggested that while parents report concerns early in development, it may be months before children…

  12. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  13. An esthetic point of view in very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Aditi; Chawla, H S; Goyal, Ashima; Gaube, Krishan

    2005-01-01

    Extensive carious breakdown of primary anterior teeth to the cervical level and their loss in very young children invariably leads to lack of confidence and self-esteem and may cause psychological problems. The present paper deals with the management of three such cases by means of biological restorations, anterior fixed space maintainer and over-dentures.

  14. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Quality: Distal and Proximal Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…

  15. Effect of Foster Care on Young Children's Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Jennifer; Benigno, Joann P.; Wing, Christine A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines 174 young children's language outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, the first randomized trial of foster placement after institutional care. Age of foster placement was highly correlated with language outcomes. Placement by 15 months led to similar expressive and receptive language test scores as typical age…

  16. Assessment and Accountability for Programs Serving Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Barton, Lauren R.; Mallik, Sangeeta

    2008-01-01

    States currently are in the process of developing child and family outcome measurement systems for young children with disabilities to meet federal data reporting requirements for the Part C (Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities) and Part B Preschool Grants program supported through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This article…

  17. Social inequalities in young children's sports participation and outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein

    2014-12-16

    Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play sports participation and outdoor play. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's sports participation were found when using maternal educational level (p sports participation among low SEP children). Socioeconomic inequalities in children's outdoor play were found when using household income only (p sports and play outdoor sports participation. Low SEP children and ethnic minority children are more likely not to participate in sports and more likely to display low levels of outdoor play compared with high SEP children and native Dutch children, respectively. In order to design effective interventions, further research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.

  18. Cardiac Pacing and Defibrillation in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder R. Singh, MD, CCDS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.

  19. Exposure and Use of Mobile Media Devices by Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabali, Hilda K; Irigoyen, Matilde M; Nunez-Davis, Rosemary; Budacki, Jennifer G; Mohanty, Sweta H; Leister, Kristin P; Bonner, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Research on children's use of mobile media devices lags behind its adoption. The objective of this study was to examine young children's exposure to and use of mobile media devices. Cross-sectional study of 350 children aged 6 months to 4 years seen October to November 2014 at a pediatric clinic in an urban, low-income, minority community. The survey was adapted from Common Sense Media's 2013 nationwide survey. Most households had television (97%), tablets (83%), and smartphones (77%). At age 4, half the children had their own television and three-fourths their own mobile device. Almost all children (96.6%) used mobile devices, and most started using before age 1. Parents gave children devices when doing house chores (70%), to keep them calm (65%), and at bedtime (29%). At age 2, most children used a device daily and spent comparable screen time on television and mobile devices. Most 3- and 4-year-olds used devices without help, and one-third engaged in media multitasking. Content delivery applications such as YouTube and Netflix were popular. Child ownership of device, age at first use, and daily use were not associated with ethnicity or parent education. Young children in an urban, low-income, minority community had almost universal exposure to mobile devices, and most had their own device by age 4. The patterns of use suggest early adoption, frequent and independent use, and media multitasking. Studies are urgently needed to update recommendations for families and providers on the use of mobile media by young children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  1. [Dietary habits and early childhood caries intensity among young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Joanna; Stokowska, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a diet and the feeding method on caries intensity among children aged 36-48 months. Dental examination was carried out in 255 children and their mothers were asked about child's dietary habits. The population checked was divided into three groups: with dmf = 0, dmf 1-3 and dmf > or = 4. Statistically significant correlation between caries intensity and bottle feeding during sleep and frequency of eating cariogenic food were shown. Parents of young children should be educated about the influence of dietary habits on dental condition.

  2. Language disorders in young children: when is speech therapy recommended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M; Knijff, Wilma A

    2003-05-01

    Analysis of treatment recommendation given by speech therapists. Evaluation of the language abilities in the examined children and re-examination of those abilities after 12 months. Thirty-four children, aged between 2.0 and 5.3 years, referred to speech therapists by their General Practitioners because of possible language problems were included in a prospective study. The number of children receiving speech therapy and the number of speech therapy sessions received during 1 year, and the therapy effect on three quantitative language measures were compiled. In 97% of the children referred to a speech therapist, speech therapy was recommended. Most of these children showed average to above-average language scores on standardised tests for sentence development (61%) and language comprehension (79%). In addition, for most children spontaneous speech, as screened by the Groningen Diagnostic Speech Norms, was age-adequate (76%). The children's problems consisted of pronunciation difficulties or periods of stammering. After 12 months for 50% of these children speech therapy was still continued which means that the articulation problems still were present. The mean number of speech therapy sessions was 26.7. The language scores on the three language tests remained relatively stable over the 12-month interval. In young children pronunciation difficulties often lead to the recommendation for speech therapy. For a large number of children therapy takes more than a year, indicating that speech therapy cannot influence these problems to a great extent. In addition language scores remained relatively stable. Therefore, language problems and especially articulation problems in young children should be reconsidered regarding maturation and normal variations in speech motor development. A 'watchful waiting' approach should be taken more often.

  3. Adversity, Maltreatment, and Resilience in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura; Metzger, Richard; Black, Maureen M; English, Diana; Poole, Gina; Magder, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Much of the research on children in high risk environments, particularly those who have been maltreated, has focused on negative outcomes. Yet, much can be learned from some of these children who fare relatively well. The objective was to examine resilience in high-risk preschoolers, and to probe contributors to their adaptive functioning. The sample of 943 families was from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, a consortium of 5 sites, prospectively examining the antecedents and outcomes of maltreatment. Most of the families were at high risk for maltreatment, and many had been reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) by the time the children were aged 4 years. Standardized measures were used at ages 4 and 6 to assess the children's functioning in behavioral, social and developmental domains, and parental depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics. Maltreatment was determined on the basis of CPS reports. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict resilience, defined as competencies in all 3 domains, over time. Forty-eight percent of the sample appeared resilient. This was associated with no history of maltreatment (odds ratio = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.20; P = .04), a primary caregiver reporting few depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.63-2.94; P resilient during this important developmental period of transition to school. This enables clinicians to be cautiously optimistic in their work with high-risk children and their families. However, more than half the sample was not faring well. Child maltreatment and caregiver depressive symptoms were strongly associated with poor outcomes. These children and families deserve careful attention by pediatric practitioners and referral for prevention and early intervention services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet.

  5. Nonverbal communication skills in young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J

    2008-11-01

    The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early Social Communication Scales [Mundy et al. 1996, Early social communication scales (ESCS)] were used to test three types of nonverbal communicative skills, i.e., joint attention, requesting, and social interaction. Both frequency and proportion analyses were done in group comparisons. (1) Two- to three-year-old children with autism displayed deficits in joint attention ability, especially high-level skills. (2) The deficit in terms of frequency of communication was marked even compared with typically developing infants with younger mental age. (3) Young children with autism had different nonverbal communication profile compared with all three comparison groups. Early social-communicative difficulties in autism involve early triadic communications involving joint attention and possibly dyadic turn-taking skills, which has implications for both early screening and early intervention.

  6. [Negative destructive behavior in young retarded children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, A

    1983-02-01

    Twenty percent of a population of mentally retarded children, who underwent clinical observation because of behavior problems, demonstrated serious aggressive, destructive, negativistic and hyperactive behavior patterns. According to the parents this type of behavior developed between two and four years of age. It remains unclear whether this behavior is caused by a differential rate of maturation of certain brain structures or by unfavorable emotional and environmental variables. A psychotherapeutic approach to the treatment of these children led to positive results. It is supposed that if left untreated, a symptom shift can occur towards neurotic, depressive or aggressive behavior when the child gets older.

  7. A Comparison of Motor Delays in Young Children: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Developmental Delay, and Developmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Beth; Lopez, Brian R.; Heimerl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed motor delay in young children 21-41 months of age with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compared motor scores in children with ASD to those of children without ASD. Fifty-six children (42 boys, 14 girls) were in three groups: children with ASD, children with developmental delay (DD), and children with developmental concerns…

  8. A Look at Young Children's Realistic Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jane M.; Wickersham, Elaine B.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes recent realistic fiction for children produced in the United States in terms of ethnicity, stereotyped behavior, and themes. Concludes that the sample did not reflect equivalent treatment of males and females nor the culturally pluralistic makeup of U.S. society. Provides an annotated bibliography of the books analyzed. (Author/FL)

  9. Emotional Mood and Memory in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments examined affect-dependent memory in preschool/kindergarten and third-grade children. A two-list intentional learning procedure was used to assess the effects of the congruent versus incongruent relationship between happy versus sad affect during initial list learning and happy versus sad affect during a delayed-recall test.…

  10. Young Children's Metarepresentational Competence in Data Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an activity implemented in the final year of a 3-year longitudinal study of data modelling across grades 1-3. The activity engaged children in designing, implementing, and analysing a survey about their new playground. Data modelling involves investigations of meaningful phenomena, deciding what is worthy of…

  11. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  12. Violence and Young Children's Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community racked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  13. Ideas on Manipulative Math for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts…

  14. Young Children Read and Improvise: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the creative, educational, and musical growth that comes from manipulating pieces of a music game. The importance of child-centered play is discussed, with a focus on children using icons to change the melodic and word order of a song. They then "read" the icons to sing their new creation. The music manipulatives are the…

  15. A Look at Young Children's Realistic Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jane M.; Wickersham, Elaine B.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes recent realistic fiction for children produced in the United States in terms of ethnicity, stereotyped behavior, and themes. Concludes that the sample did not reflect equivalent treatment of males and females nor the culturally pluralistic makeup of U.S. society. Provides an annotated bibliography of the books analyzed. (Author/FL)

  16. How Do Young Children Learn Geometric Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Pia

    Twenty children (ages 5 and 6) from each of seven cultural groups (Caucasian, Black, Jewish, Puerto Rican, Chinese, Korean-American and native Korean) were given a copying task of 21 geometric shapes to test the cultural invariancy of Piaget's topological-projective-Euclidean concept acquisition sequence. All subjects were either middle or lower…

  17. Professional Development: Social Skills and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2006-01-01

    Learning to work and play well with others truly is a lifelong goal with a foundation in the early childhood years. Effective early childhood educators recognize that supporting children's social competence and teaching them academic skills are compatible rather than competing goals; each grows and benefits from advances in the other. Together,…

  18. Teaching Television: A Curriculum for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaczynski, Wanda; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the adaptation and testing of a curriculum designed to mediate the effects of television. Curriculum included lessons on special effects, violence, commercials, audio and video aspects. Results of the testing indicate that children in kindergarten through second grade made significant gains in their knowledge of how television works. (PD)

  19. Are Young Children Logographic Readers and Spellers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Margo; Treiman, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    According to many views of literacy development, prereaders use a logographic approach when they attempt to link print and speech. If so, these children should find pairs in which the spelling-pronunciation links are consistent with their writing system no easier to learn than arbitrary pairs. We tested this idea by comparing the ability of U.S.…

  20. Teaching Television: A Curriculum for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaczynski, Wanda; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the adaptation and testing of a curriculum designed to mediate the effects of television. Curriculum included lessons on special effects, violence, commercials, audio and video aspects. Results of the testing indicate that children in kindergarten through second grade made significant gains in their knowledge of how television works. (PD)

  1. Intervention for Young Children Displaying Coordination Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mary E.; Sugden, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The years from 3 to 6 are a time when children develop fundamental movement skills that are the building blocks for the functional movements they use throughout their lives. By 6 years of age, a typically developing child will have in place a full range of movement skills, including, running, jumping, hopping, skipping, climbing, throwing,…

  2. Musical Improvisation Behavior of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    Musical improvisation behavior of 4-, 6-, and 8-year-old children who played Orff xylophones during ten 15-minute sessions is described in this paper. Each session involved three improvisatory phases. Phase I consisted of free exploration; Phase II consisted of short verbally stimulated musical tasks (two imitation and six improvisational tasks);…

  3. Respiratory effects of tobacco smoking on infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2008-03-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) and tobacco smoke products (TSPs) are recognised global risks for human health. The present article reviews the causal role of SHS and TSPs for respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Several studies have shown an effect of TSPs exposure during pregnancy upon lung function in the newborn infant and of SHS on symptoms and lung function after birth. From 1997 to 1999 a set of systematic reviews concerning the relationship between second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory health in children was published in Thorax by Cook and Strachan, covering hundreds of published papers. The evidence for a causal relationship between SHS exposure and asthmatic symptoms and reduced lung function is quite strong, whereas the evidence related to the development of allergy is much weaker. There is recent evidence relating to an interaction between TSP exposure and genetic ploymorphisms, demonstrating that certain individuals are more susceptible to the effect of TSP exposure on lung health. In the present review, an overview is given for the effects of TSP exposure and SHS upon lung health in children, with a focus on infants and young children. There is a need for intervention to reduce TSP exposure in young children, by educating parents and adolescents about the health effects of TSP exposure. Recent legislation in many European countries related to smoking in the workplace is of great importance for exposure during pregnancy. Studies are needed to identify possible critical periods for TSPs to induce harmful effects upon lung health in young children and on environment-gene interactions in order to prevent harm.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Rhinovirus Detections in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh M; Johnson, Monika; Gil, Ana I; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Lanata, Claudio F; Williams, John V; Grijalva, Carlos G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are frequently detected in children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) but also in asymptomatic children. We compared features of ARI with HRV species (A, B, C) and determined genotypes associated with repeated HRV detections within individuals. Methods.  We used clinical data and respiratory samples obtained from children decreased appetite, and malaise were significantly higher in children with HRV-B. When codetections with other viruses were excluded (n = 155), these trends persisted, but some did not reach statistical significance. When 58 paired sequential HRV detections during asymptomatic and ARI episodes were sequenced, only 9 (16%) were identical genotypes of HRV. Conclusions.  Clinical features may differ among HRV species. Repeated HRV detections in young children frequently represented acquisition of new HRV strains.

  5. Infectious disease issues in adoption of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Krow

    2013-02-01

    To provide an update and overview of infectious disease issues in children of international adoption. International adoption by US families has decreased since 2004. Countries from where children are adopted have changed by 2011, with Ethiopia the second largest contributor of international adoptees after China. Since 2003, international adoptees are older, as fewer young children (children are declared healthy in their home countries, medical disorders are often missed or become apparent after adoption. Comprehensive evaluations by providers in the USA after adoption frequently identify unsuspected medical disorders, infections, as well as delayed or incomplete vaccination in these recently adopted children. Early identification of infections allows treatment of potential communicable diseases and updating of immunizations. All international adoptees on arrival in the USA should be evaluated by a health practitioner knowledgeable in adoption medicine to identify medical problems, especially infections.

  6. Food branding and young children's taste preferences: a reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D; Carruthers Den Hoed, Rebecca; Conlon, Martin J

    2013-08-20

    This study examines the effects of branding and packaging on young children's taste preferences. Preschool children aged 3 to 5 (n=65) tasted five pairs of identical foods in packaging from McDonald's and in matched packaging that was either plain, Starbucks-branded, or colourful (but unbranded). Children were asked if the foods tasted the same or if one tasted better. Children preferred the taste of foods wrapped in decorative wrappings, relying more on aesthetics than on familiar branding when making their choices. The findings suggest the need to explore questions beyond commercial advertising (and brand promotion) on television and other media platforms. More attention should be directed at the important role of packaging in directing children's food preferences.

  7. Children preferences of coloured fresh cheese prepared during an educational laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tesini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choices among young consumers are mainly driven by food preferences; in particular, a connection between appearance and acceptance of food has been highlighted, together with a general lack of knowledge of food processing. For these reasons, educational activities are important to increase scientific knowledge and awareness. The cheese-making educational laboratory described herein involved children, adolescents, and their parents/teachers in the preparation of fresh and naturally-coloured cheeses. At the end of the activity, both the colour preference and possible relation between preference and colour of cheese prepared were investigated administering a short questionnaire.

  8. Typhoid fever in young children in Bangladesh: clinical findings, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, Md Abu; Choudhury, Feroza Kaneez; Sheikh, Alaullah; Ahmed, Dilruba; Goswami, Doli; Hossain, Md Lokman; Brooks, Abdullah; Calderwood, Stephen B; Charles, Richelle C; Cravioto, Alejandro; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-04-01

    Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains. As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest) during acute typhoid fever in adults. We similarly assessed membrane preparation (MP) IgA responses in young children at clinical presentation, and then 7-10 days and 21-28 days later. We also assessed plasma IgA, IgG and IgM responses and T cell proliferation responses to MP at these time points. We compared responses in young children (1-5 years) with those seen in older children (6-17 years), adults (18-59 years), and age-matched healthy controls. We found that, compared to age-matched controls patients in all age cohorts had significantly more MP-IgA responses in lymphocyte secretion at clinical presentation, and the values fell in all groups by late convalescence. Similarly, plasma IgA responses in patients were elevated at presentation compared to controls, with acute and convalescent IgA and IgG responses being highest in adults. T cell proliferative responses increased in all age cohorts by late convalescence. Clinical characteristics were similar in all age cohorts, although younger children were more likely to present with loss of appetite, less likely to complain of headache compared to older cohorts, and adults were more likely to have ingested antibiotics. Multi-drug resistant strains were present in approximately 15% of each age cohort, and 97% strains had resistance to nalidixic acid. This study demonstrates that S. Typhi bacteremia is associated with comparable clinical courses, immunologic responses in various age cohorts, including in young children, and that TPTest can be used

  9. Typhoid fever in young children in Bangladesh: clinical findings, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Khanam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains.As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest during acute typhoid fever in adults. We similarly assessed membrane preparation (MP IgA responses in young children at clinical presentation, and then 7-10 days and 21-28 days later. We also assessed plasma IgA, IgG and IgM responses and T cell proliferation responses to MP at these time points. We compared responses in young children (1-5 years with those seen in older children (6-17 years, adults (18-59 years, and age-matched healthy controls.We found that, compared to age-matched controls patients in all age cohorts had significantly more MP-IgA responses in lymphocyte secretion at clinical presentation, and the values fell in all groups by late convalescence. Similarly, plasma IgA responses in patients were elevated at presentation compared to controls, with acute and convalescent IgA and IgG responses being highest in adults. T cell proliferative responses increased in all age cohorts by late convalescence. Clinical characteristics were similar in all age cohorts, although younger children were more likely to present with loss of appetite, less likely to complain of headache compared to older cohorts, and adults were more likely to have ingested antibiotics. Multi-drug resistant strains were present in approximately 15% of each age cohort, and 97% strains had resistance to nalidixic acid.This study demonstrates that S. Typhi bacteremia is associated with comparable clinical courses, immunologic responses in various age cohorts, including in young children, and that TPTest

  10. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  11. Games Children Play: The Effects of Media Violence on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…

  12. Games Children Play: The Effects of Media Violence on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…

  13. Neurophysiological characteristics in infants and young children with auditory neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangqian Xing; Xingkuan Bu; Dengyuan Wang; Ling Lu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze neurophysiological characteristics in infants and young children with auditory neuropathy (AN) and explore their clinical significance. Methods: Audiological measurements(acoustic immittance, EOAEs, ABR, CM, MLR and ERPs) and peripheral neurological tests were conducted and evaluated in 13 infants and young children with AN. Six of them received highresolution temporal bone CT scans and/or cerebral MRI examinations. Results: All of the children showed type "A" tympanograms with abseatation of stapedial reflexes. EOAEs were normal in 12 of 13 subjects. In one child who had a history of anoxia during the birth, the EOAEs were not elicited. Click-evoked ABRs were absent in 12 of 13 subjects when maximum output of the instrument was reached. The CM potentials were presented bilaterally in all individuals, which were independent of the EOAEs and ABR. Of eight cases tested, all had clear MLR and six showed normal ERPs(P300 and MMN). Peripheral neurological tests and radiological findings were within the normal ranges. Conclusion: The diagnosis of AN in infants and young children should focus on analyzing their neurophysiological characteristics,especially on CM,MLR and ERPs. Combined use of EOAEs, ABR and CM was recommended for hearing screening on newborns with high risk factors.

  14. Efficacy of Lactase Preparations for Treatment of Secondary Lactose Intolerance Caused by Diarrhea in Infants and Young Children%乳糖酶治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻继发乳糖不耐受疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆茹; 刁志英; 徐小祥

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨乳糖酶治疗婴幼儿急性腹泻继发乳糖不耐受的疗效.方法:采用尿半乳糖测定试剂盒,对腹泻患儿的尿液进行检测,将结果为阳性的60例患儿按入院先后顺序进行编号,采用随机数字表法分为治疗组32例和对照组28例.对照组给予常规治疗(胃肠粘膜保护剂、微生态制剂、预防或纠正脱水、适当抗生素治疗),治疗组在常规治疗基础上加用乳糖酶,喂奶前5 min温开水冲服,<6个月每次1/2包,≥6个月每次1包,观察两组的疗效及止泻时间.结果:治疗组总有效率90.63%,对照组总有效率57.14%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=8.93,P<0.01).治疗组止泻时间(3.25±1.87)d短于对照组的(4.61±2.07)d,差异有统计学意义(t=2.67,P<0.01).结论:应用乳糖酶治疗婴幼儿腹泻继发乳糖不耐受有较好疗效,且不改变患儿的饮食结构,有利于患儿的生长发育,具有临床应用价值.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the lactase preparations for treatment of secondary lactose intolerance caused by diarrhea in infants and young children. Methods: The urine samples of children with diarrhea were detected by urine galactose assay kit. According to the sequence of admission number, children with positive results were randomly divided into a lactase preparations intervention group and a control groups by using a random number table. The control group received conventional therapy ( gastrointestinal mucosal protective agents, probiotics, prevention or correction dehydration, and appropriate antibiotic therapy); on the basis of conventional therapy, the lactase preparations intervention group received lactase orally, with warm water 5 minutes before feeding. Clinical efficacy and the duration of diarrhea were assessed. Results: The total effective rate of the lactase preparations intervention group and the control group was 90.63% and 57.14% respectively; the difference was statistically significant x

  15. Creative Writing Strategies of Young Children: Evidence from a Study of Chinese Emergent Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…

  16. Relationship between Young Children's Habitual Computer Use and Influencing Variables on Socio-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun Ah; Chun, Hui Young; Jwa, Seung Hwa; Choi, Mi Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between young children's habitual computer use and influencing variables on socio-emotional development. The participants were 179 five-year-old children. The Internet Addiction Scale for Young Children (IASYC) was used to identify children with high and low levels of habituation to computer use. The data…

  17. [Septic arthritis in two young children caused by unusual gram-negative pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, J; Verhage, J; Bosboom, R W; Brus, F

    2000-07-29

    Two children, a girl aged 2 years and a boy aged 10 months, were moderately ill with signs of inflammation of the left and the right knee, respectively. Both had had pharyngitis, and the boy also had paronychia of the right foot. The Gram preparation of synovial fluid showed Gram-positive cocci in the girl, while Kingella kingae was cultured. In the boy, a Moraxella was cultured from the synovial fluid using an aerobic blood culture system. Both recovered without sequelae after adequate antibiotic treatment. The micro-organisms cultured were Gram-negative bacteria, which are rarely seen in septic arthritis and are difficult to demonstrate. In young children, septic arthritis often presents with mild symptoms and inconclusive laboratory findings. Even if the Gram preparation of the synovial fluid shows no micro-organisms, unusual pathogens may be isolated by means of an aerobic blood culture system.

  18. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  19. Autism and Mental Retardation of Young Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN ZHANG; CHENG-YE JI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.

  20. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  1. Resilience in young children involved with child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Kierra M P; Font, Sarah A

    2017-06-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk of poor developmental outcomes. However, some children display resilience, meaning they are high-functioning despite their adverse experiences. To date, few research studies have examined protective factors among very young maltreated children. Yet, domains of resilience, and the protective factors that promote resilience among maltreated children, are likely to differ by developmental stage. Drawing on ecological systems theory and life course theory, we examined how protective factors at multiple ecological levels across early childhood were related to social and cognitive resilience among very young children involved with child protective services. The results demonstrated that the buffering effects of protective factors varied by social or cognitive resilience and the cumulative effects of protective factors were more consistently related to later resilience than protective factors at specific time points. In addition, the influence of specific protective factors on resilience slightly varied by initial in-home or out-of-home placement. These findings have important policy and research implications for promoting optimal development among children involved in child protective services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multimodal representations of gender in young children's popular culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstrand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article poses questions regarding learning and representation in relation to young children's popular culture. Focusing on gender, the article builds on multimodal, social semiotic analyses of two different media texts related to a specific brand and shows how gender and gender differences are represented multimodally in separate media contexts and in the interplay between different media. The results show that most of the semiotic resources employed in the different texts contribute in congruent ways to the representation of girls as either different from or inferior to boys. At the same time, however, excerpts from an encounter with a young girl who engages with characters from the brand in her role play are used as an example of how children actively make meaning and find strategies that subvert the repressive ideologies manifested in their everyday popular culture.

  3. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; K. A. Brown; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1996-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an altern...

  4. Visual Statistical Learning in Children and Young Adults: How Implicit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBertels

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual statistical learning (VSL is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham, Slemmer, & Johnson, 2002. However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels, Franco, and Destrebecqz (2012 addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments.Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in visual statistical learning may follow a developmental trajectory.

  5. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  6. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  7. Factors influencing the consumption of seafood among young children in Perth: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This formative study sought to explore the factors that influence the consumption of fish and seafood among 4–6 year old children in the Perth metropolitan area. Focus groups were conducted with mothers of young children to gain insights into the enablers and barriers to regular seafood consumption in children, and the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of their mothers to including seafood as a regular part of their children's diet. Methods Purposive sampling techniques were used to select and recruit mothers of children aged between four and six years from within the Perth metropolitan area. A total of seven focus groups were conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to code data generated and to extract major themes. Results Findings indicated that all children of study participants had tried fish and seafood products, with some being exposed to a wide variety from an early age. Across focus groups, several dominant factors were apparent in influencing the frequency and type of seafood purchased and consumed. Perceived cost, freshness, availability/accessibility, and the level of confidence to prepare a meal to suit all family members were significant determinants of whether seafood featured regularly on the household menu. The influence of others in the family (particularly the husband or partner also tended to impact upon the likelihood of serving fish and seafood, and the types of products mothers were willing to serve. Conclusion Findings from this qualitative study indicate that interventions seeking to promote seafood (particularly fish as an integral part of a healthy diet should address existing negative attitudes and beliefs around the storage and preparation of seafood. The influence of dominant male influences within the family unit should also be considered. Strategies directed at parents and children should include experimental 'hands-on' components to encourage experimentation, particularly

  8. Storied Selves: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Young Children's Literate Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Elias, Martille

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of research demonstrates that as young children acquire literacy they also approximate literate roles and relationships. Such literate identifications, or storied selves, are complex, sometimes contradictory and under construction for young people. Less research has focused on "how" young children's storied selves are…

  9. Young Children's Learning in Art Museums: A Review of New Zealand and International Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreni, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the existing literature in relation to the benefits of art museum education for the young, as well as to emphasise the literature gap in early childhood education research pertaining to access to and use of art museums by young children, a review of literature that discussed museum education for young children was undertaken. A…

  10. Children Explain the Rainbow: Using Young Children's Ideas to Guide Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any activities, and ideally, to design activities from their perspectives and understandings. Specifically, this research focuses on 5- and 6-year old children's explanations of rainbows, and there are three main findings. First, our analysis demonstrates that opportunities to discuss their ideas revealed children's different perceptions of the phenomena of rainbows. Secondly, this research emphasizes that peer-to-peer interaction in the co-construction of science concepts provided support to the children to learn from, and with, each other. Third, children's initial explanations provided the teacher-researcher (second author) with a starting point to scaffold her teaching from. Although rainbows are quite an abstract topic to try to reproduce in the classroom, the children demonstrated their often sophisticated understandings of natural science phenomena, as well as their creative ideas as related to rainbows. In order to foster an appreciation of themes in natural science, it is crucial to build from what children already know and can do, and to use these emergent theories and considerations in designing curriculum. Thus, we draw implications for the importance of teaching science at the early childhood level and for using children's ideas as starting points in planning instruction.

  11. Brain bases of morphological processing in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M; Ip, Ka I; Shih Ju Hsu, Lucy; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2015-08-01

    How does the developing brain support the transition from spoken language to print? Two spoken language abilities form the initial base of child literacy across languages: knowledge of language sounds (phonology) and knowledge of the smallest units that carry meaning (morphology). While phonology has received much attention from the field, the brain mechanisms that support morphological competence for learning to read remain largely unknown. In the present study, young English-speaking children completed an auditory morphological awareness task behaviorally (n = 69, ages 6-12) and in fMRI (n = 16). The data revealed two findings: First, children with better morphological abilities showed greater activation in left temporoparietal regions previously thought to be important for supporting phonological reading skills, suggesting that this region supports multiple language abilities for successful reading acquisition. Second, children showed activation in left frontal regions previously found active in young Chinese readers, suggesting morphological processes for reading acquisition might be similar across languages. These findings offer new insights for developing a comprehensive model of how spoken language abilities support children's reading acquisition across languages.

  12. Engineering Children's Literature: Development of an engineering storybook for young children

    OpenAIRE

    Dorie, Brianna L.; Cardella, Monica

    2011-01-01

    While the notions of doctor, teacher and firefighter are ubiquitous in young literature,there is a lack of engagement about engineering (Holbrook et al., 2008). Picture books are a compelling medium for introducing concepts to children at a young age. Story books have the ability to present new information, increase stimulation of the imagination, and deliver messages both moral and social. In a school setting, story books have been shown to impact kindergartener’s mathematical achievement wh...

  13. Young children and their conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt; Røn Larsen, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The article presents findings from a practice research project dealing with the everyday life of 0–2 year olds across family and different day-care settings. From a critical psychological perspective, it explores three related issues: Young children's conduct of everyday life in and across...... different institutional settings; professional pedagogical work related to supporting children's conduct of everyday life, and finally, the restricted political and bureaucratic conditions for exactly these forms of pedagogical practice. The article addresses the theoretical challenge of understanding...... children through their conduct of everyday life in the field of tension between being someone who is dependent on others, being taken care of and arranged for – and, at the same time, someone who is actively participating, arranging and contributing to the reproduction and change of the collective life...

  14. Visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Annie; Chartrel, Estelle

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments investigated visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-5 years were asked to recognize a visually presented target letter after a 3s inspection time, from among two distracters: a highly and a moderately similar letter. Visual letter recognition improved rapidly between 3 and 5 years and was a function of the "uniqueness" of letter shape and of letter frequency. In Experiment 2, children aged 4-6 years were asked to recognize a target letter from among 2 distracters, after having traced over the letter in a "blind" condition, with their hand guided by the experimenter. Proprioceptive recognition developed more slowly than visual recognition, and was not a function of letter frequency. The results are discussed in terms of integration versus differentiation of perceptual information, and of the tendency to base recognition on local rather than global similarity.

  15. Evidence for the validity of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity questionnaire (CAPA) with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Elizabeth; Larkin, Dawne; Hands, Beth; Howard, Barbara; Parker, Helen

    2009-09-01

    Attraction to physical activity is important to an individual's intrinsic motivation to engage in play, games and sports. While there are instruments designed to measure attraction to physical activity in middle childhood years, the lack of authentic measures in young children has impeded research in this area. In this study we sought to address the validity of a scale to tap young children's attraction to physical activity. Evidence for validity was based on internal consistency, content analysis, and factor structure. Australian school children (180 boys and 154 girls) from school year two, aged 6-8 years, were individually administered a modified version of the Children's Attraction to Physical Activity Scale (CAPA) [Brustad RJ. Who will go out to play? Parental and psychological influences on children's attraction to physical activity. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1993;5:210-23; Brustad RJ. Attraction to physical activity in urban school children: parental socialization and gender influences. Res Q Exerc Sport 1996;67:316-23]. The results indicated that internal consistency was acceptable for most of the subscales when negative statements were excluded from the analyses. Factor analysis revealed that the liking of games and sports, liking of physical exertion and exercise, and the importance of exercise subscales were more robust. Second order factor analysis indicated that the overall construct of attraction to physical activity was viable in this age group. With some modifications, the scale appears to provide a valid approach to the measurement of attraction to physical activity in young children.

  16. Prevalence and Measurement of Dental Caries in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Hsu, Kuei-Ling C; Afful, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in preschool children was historically considered to have a unique and more intense pattern of decay and was known by a variety of terms. In 1999, the term early childhood caries (ECC), along with a classification system, was proposed to facilitate epidemiologic research of dental caries in young children. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of those early childhood caries recommendations on the prevalence and measurement of caries in preschool children. A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was performed. Key search words included: ECC, dental decay, dental caries, carious dentin, baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, maxillary anterior caries, and labial caries. English language studies and studies on more than 100 children younger than six years old were eligible for selection. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2011 to 2012 were used to assess ECC prevalence using different operational definitions. There were 87 articles selected for this review. The term ECC was used in 55 percent of the selected articles as the primary outcome measure. The majority of studies used a cross-section study design, but diagnostic criteria varied greatly. Caries experience in young children may be shifting away from majority of untreated surfaces to a majority of restored surfaces. Little difference was observed by dental surface type in the distribution of decayed and filled surfaces in primary teeth. Although the term early childhood caries is widely used, varied use of diagnostic criteria and operational definitions continue to limit comparability across studies. Emerging changes in the proportion of decayed and filled surfaces in the United States also raises questions regarding the ECC case definition limiting our ability to understand the epidemiology of dental caries in preschool children.

  17. Intravenous Laser Therapy in Young Children with Thermal Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Bocharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the laboratory and clinical effects of combined intravenous laser therapy in young children with thermalinjuries in the acute period of burn disease.Subjects and methods. Forty children whose mean age was 2.67±0.35 years were examined; thermal injuries accounted for 25.05±1.01% of the total body surface area; of them degrees IIIaIIIb was 19.04±0.85%. A comparison group (n=15 received conventional therapy without taking into account and correcting baseline and current hemostasiological disorders. On day 1, a study group (n=25 had programmed anticoagulant therapy and intravenous laser therapy at different radiation frequencies with a Mustang 20002+ laser therapy apparatus (patent for invention No. 2482894 in addition to the conventional therapy. The laser therapy cycle was 6 to 16 sessions. The investigators estimated and compared the following examined parameters: white blood cell count; leukocytic index of intoxication; plasma average mass molecules at a wavelength of 254 nm; toxogenic granularity of neutrophils; wound exudate discharge time; surgical plasty area; and hospitalization time.Results. The positive laboratory and clinical effects of the performed combined intravenous laser therapy in the combined therapy of burn disease in young children were comparatively shown in the study group patients. The significant decrease in the level of an inflammatory response and endogenous intoxication led to a rapider burn wound cleansing, active epithelization, and reduced surgical plasty volumes.Conclusion. Combined intravenous laser therapy signif icantly exerts antiinflammatory and detoxifying effects in young children with 40% thermal injuries in the acute period of burn disease. Abolishing a systemic inflammatory response by combined intravenous laser therapy initiated early regenerative processes in the burn wound and caused reductions in surgical plasty volumes and hospitalization time, which optimizes ther

  18. Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Moussu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.

  19. Restricted Object Use in Young Children with Autism: Definition and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Cornelia Taylor; Yoder, Paul

    2007-01-01

    There are currently no measures of restricted object use in young children with autism. In this study the object play of 27 young children with autism was measured in a semi-structured context to quantify restricted object use. It was hypothesized that children who engaged in less restricted object use would show better responding, joint…

  20. Meaningful Informed Consent with Young Children: Looking Forward through an Interactive Narrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Fiona; Howitt, Christine; Rennie, Léonie

    2016-01-01

    Ideas about ethical research with young children are evolving at a rapid rate. Not only can young children participate in the informed consent process, but researchers now also recognize that the process must be meaningful for them. As part of a larger study, this article reviews children's rights and informed consent literature as the foundation…

  1. Low Motor Assessment : A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.A.J.; Nakken, H.; Van der Meulen, B.F.; Lunenborg, C.B.

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor

  2. Influences on Young Children's Knowledge: The Case of Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that effective road safety education for young children needs to incorporate constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives on learning. Excerpts interviews with young children highlighting the variety of influences affecting children's road safety knowledge and examination of a road safety curriculum to illustrate the value of a dual…

  3. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  4. Community-Based Book Reading Programs for Parents and Young Children in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Community-based volunteer programs to support children's book reading have existed in Japan for the past 70 years or so. Recently, because of the national emphasis on providing child-rearing support for families with young children, more programs are being offered to encourage parent-child shared book reading starting when children are very young.…

  5. Low Motor Assessment : A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Selma Anne Jose; Nakken, Han; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.; Lunenborg, Carolien B.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor impairmen

  6. Welcome In! How the Academy Can Warrant Recognition of Young Children as Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane

    2017-01-01

    The academy has tended to marginalise young children as researchers (YCAR), even in matters affecting them, which denies young children agency and amounts to social injustice. Drawing on the YCAR study, which adopted a qualitative "jigsaw" methodology to co-research with children aged four to eight years (n = 138), their parents,…

  7. Movement Imagery in Young and Congenitally Blind Children: Mental Practice without Visuo-spatial Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Susanna; Ittyerah, Miriam

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments examined the question of whether blindfolded young children and congenitally blind children show mental practice effects for blind movements that cross the body midline. Results suggested that young children with sight can show mental practice effects in the absence of visual cues. (GLR)

  8. Meaningful Informed Consent with Young Children: Looking Forward through an Interactive Narrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Fiona; Howitt, Christine; Rennie, Léonie

    2016-01-01

    Ideas about ethical research with young children are evolving at a rapid rate. Not only can young children participate in the informed consent process, but researchers now also recognize that the process must be meaningful for them. As part of a larger study, this article reviews children's rights and informed consent literature as the foundation…

  9. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  10. Preparing for Success: A Practical Guide for Young Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Gaunt, Helena

    2012-01-01

    If you are interested in performance, music therapy, music production, arts administration, instrument making, music teaching or research, and whatever music tradition you come from, this book will prepare you for success. It tells you about today's music business and gives expert advice that will help you get to where you want to be. It shows you…

  11. Children and Young People in Russia: Global Challenges of Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present-day world’s development is becoming more and more uneven and new global challenges are emerging. Russia should respond to them by enhancing its economic competitiveness, preserving and increasing its population and human potential, first of all, that of children and young people. The paper points out that for the Russian Federation with its vast territory and substantial reserves of natural resources the most important geopolitical challenges consist in the preservation and increase of population and human potential. The authors prove that the formation of the population of Russia is under double “pressure” of high mortality and low fertility; therefore, natural movement (decline is not completed by mechanical movement. In addition, the article determines that the share of young people in the total population is decreasing. For the first time in the history of Russia the share of children has become lower than the proportion of the elderly. In 2013 in 56 Russian regions, the proportion of children and adolescents accounted for less than 20% of the population (in the early 2000s, there were 41 such regions, and in 1990 – three. In addition to the reduction in the number of the population, child health potential is also deteriorating: about 35% of children in Russia are born ill or become ill in the near future (the figure is 30% in the Vologda Oblast. The number of adolescents aged 15–17 who are accounted for severe mental disorders is continuously increasing. The greatest socio-economic damage to the society comes from suicides that are widely spread among young people (the younger generation (persons up to 24 years old accounts for one third of all the potential years of life lost from suicides. At the same time, young people consider health more valuable than does the population as a whole (4.5 points vs 4.4 points on a five-point scale. But young people underestimate the importance of self-preservation behavior. World

  12. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    nutritional status and hemoglobin levels in the young children of rural area. 2. Malnutrition and anemia have higher prevalence, there is a need for health education to the mothers, especially antenatal mothers.

  13. Computed tomography in young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, T.; Woo, M.; Okazaki, H.; Nishida, N.; Hara, T.; Yasuhara, A.; Kasahara, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1985-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors.

  14. Teaching young children a theory of nutrition: conceptual change and the potential for increased vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripshover, Sarah J; Markman, Ellen M

    2013-08-01

    In two experiments, we used a novel approach to educating young children about nutrition. Instead of teaching simple facts, we provided a rich conceptual framework that helped children understand the need to eat a variety of healthy foods. Using the insight that children's knowledge can be organized into coherent belief systems, or intuitive theories, we (a) analyzed the incipient knowledge that guides young children's reasoning about the food-body relationship, (b) identified the prerequisites that children need to conceptualize food as a source of nutrition, and (c) devised a strategy for teaching young children a coherent theory of food as a source of diverse nutrients. In these two experiments, we showed that children can learn and generalize this conceptual framework. Moreover, this learning led children to eat more vegetables at snack time. Our findings demonstrate that young children can benefit from an intervention that capitalizes on their developing intuitive theories about nutrition.

  15. Growth in Very Young Children Undergoing Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may improve growth, but this is not well understood. Here, we analyzed data from 153 children in 18 countries who commenced chronic peritoneal dialysis at <24 months of age. From diagnosis to last observation, 57 patients were fed on demand, 54 by NG tube, and 10 by gastrostomy; 26 switched from NG to gastrostomy; and 6 returned from NG to demand feeding. North American and European centers accounted for nearly all feeding by gastrostomy. Standardized body mass index (BMI) uniformly decreased during periods of demand feeding and increased during NG and gastrostomy feeding. Changes in BMI demonstrated significant regional variation: 26% of North American children were obese and 50% of Turkish children were malnourished at last observation (P < 0.005). Body length decreased sharply during the first 6 to 12 months of life and then tended to stabilize. Time fed by gastrostomy significantly associated with higher lengths over time (P < 0.001), but adjustment for baseline length attenuated this effect. In addition, the use of biocompatible peritoneal dialysate and administration of growth hormone independently associated with improved length, even after adjusting for regional factors. In summary, growth and nutritional status vary regionally in very young children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis. The use of gastrostomy feeding, biocompatible dialysis fluid, and growth hormone therapy associate with improved linear growth. PMID:22021715

  16. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  17. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior.

  18. Early identification of Asperger syndrome in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; König, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9 years) with either Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 43) or AS (n = 62). The introductory questions and 36 items, which contribute to the diagnostic algorithm of the ADI-R, were subjected to content analysis and stepwise discriminant function analysis. Eight meaningful items were found, which were shown to be good predictors of AS and to discriminate between the children with AS and those with ADHD. The short interview was especially useful for the assessment and screening of children up to 11 years in our sample, because in this subgroup, sensitivity was even higher (.92) and specificity was also excellent (.90). Eight items with high discriminatory power allowed sensitive and economic screening for young children with suspected AS.

  19. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low seaf

  20. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  1. Reading and Reinterpreting Picture Books on Children's Television: Implications for Young Children's Narrative Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunkun; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane

    2016-01-01

    "Bookaboo" is a television programme aiming to promote literacy and reading among young children. In each episode, a celebrity reads a book to Bookaboo, a dog who plays the drums in a rock band, in order to help him overcome stage fright. Using the episode featuring the picture book (Cowell and Layton in "That Rabbit Belongs to…

  2. Researching Early Intervention and Young Children's Perspectives--Developing and Using a "Listening to Children Approach"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige-Smith, Alice; Rix, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article, by Alice Paige-Smith and Jonathan Rix, considers the current context of early intervention in England from the perspective and experiences of two families and in particular focuses on two young children identified as having Down syndrome. This case study research has emerged from previous research conducted by the authors, both of…

  3. Practitioners' Views on Involving Young Children in Decision Making: Challenges for the Children's Rights Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the key findings and discussion from a research project and subsequent report: "Involving young children in decision making: An exploration of practitioners' views". This research explored early childhood practitioners'--childcare workers, kindergarten, pre-primary and grade 1-2 teachers--views on decision making…

  4. Reading and Reinterpreting Picture Books on Children's Television: Implications for Young Children's Narrative Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunkun; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane

    2016-01-01

    "Bookaboo" is a television programme aiming to promote literacy and reading among young children. In each episode, a celebrity reads a book to Bookaboo, a dog who plays the drums in a rock band, in order to help him overcome stage fright. Using the episode featuring the picture book (Cowell and Layton in "That Rabbit Belongs to…

  5. Neurotoxicity versus Neuroprotection of Anesthetics: Young Children on the Ropes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaga Rebollar, Ramón; García Palacios, María V; Morales Guerrero, Javier; Torres Morera, Luis M

    2017-08-01

    Normal brain development in young children depends on a balance between excitation and inhibition of neurons, and alterations to this balance may cause apoptosis. During the perioperative period, both surgical stimuli and anesthetics can induce neurotoxicity. This article attempts to expand the perspective of a topical issue-anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity-by also considering the protective effect of general anesthetics against surgery-induced neurotoxicity, all of which may generate some controversy in the current literature. The "new" major factor influencing neurotoxicity-nociceptive stimulus-is discussed together with other factors to develop clinical and research strategies to obtain a balance between neurotoxicity and neuroprotection.

  6. Factors associated with intelligence in young children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieda Handayani Kawanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction Despite the considerable number of children with Down syndrome in Indonesia, there is little data available on the success of intervention programs. This study was performed to define factors affecting the intelligence of young children with Down syndrome. Objective To determine factors associated with lower intelligence in children with Down syndrome, including growth parameters and participation in intervention programs. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011. Subjects were 60 children with Down syndrome aged 2-6 years who were enrolled in an intervention program at both the Medical Rehabilitation Department, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, and the Growth and Development Clinic, Harapan Kita Women’s and Children’s Hospital. Parents’ data was obtained through self history-taking and perusal of medical records. Subjects’ anthropometric data (body weight, body height, and head circumference was obtained through measurements using calibrated instruments. A psychologist administered IQ tests on the subjects. Rresults of the anthropometric and IQ tests were given to parents one week following the examinations. Results From the 111 children with Down syndrome registered in the intervention programs, 60 children (36 boys and 24 girls met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of subjects was 4 years 6 months. Most subjects were well-nourished. Fifty-five subjects had microcephaly. Eeighty-two percent of subjects participated in the program regularly and 70% of subjects had started in the program at less than 1 year of age. Subjects’ mean IQ was 52.8. Analysis showed that girls, subjects who were overweight and obese, subjects with microcephaly, those with irregular attendance in the program, and those living under the poverty line were at highest risk for severe mental retardation. Conclusion Factors associated with the intelligence in children with Down syndrome were female gender

  7. Nutritient intake of young children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Lindmark

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic disorder resulting in obesity. The diets for young children with PWS must balance the importance of preventing development of obesity with the need to supply sufficient energy and essential nutrients. Objective: To investigate the nutritional intake for children with PWS 2, 3, and 4 years of age and compare it with Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR and intake of healthy controls. Design: Assessments of food intake for six children 2–4 years of age were performed twice a year. At the age of 2 and 3 years data was obtained by using food recall interviews and at 4 year of age a pre-coded food-diary was used. Results: The energy intake for the 2-year-old children was 3.25 MJ/day (SD 0.85 and for the 3- and 4-year olds 3.62 MJ/day (SD 0.73 and 4.07 MJ/day (SD 0.39 MJ, respectively. These intakes are 61%, 68%, and 77% of the estimated energy requirements in NNR for healthy 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children, respectively, and 60% and 66% of the energy intakes of 2- and 4-year-old children in reference populations. The children's BMI-for-age score and length growth was within the normal range during the study period. The intake of fat was about 25 E% in all age groups and reduced when compared with reference populations. In 25% of the assessments the fat intake was 20 E% or below. The intake of iron was below recommendations in all age groups both with and without supplementation. The mean intake of vitamin D and tocopherol was below recommendations when intakes were determined excluding dietary supplementations. Conclusions: More large-scale investigations on nutritional intake are needed to further investigate dietary challenges for this patient group.

  8. Role of young child formulae and supplements to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who...... consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child...... (repertoire-foods); and (ii) by introducing new foods (non-repertoire-foods). Most of the children consumed neither YCFs, nor supplements (61.6%). Nutritional adequacy with repertoire-foods alone was ensured for only one child in this group, against 74.4% of the children consuming YCFs and supplement. When...

  9. Objective assessments of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B L K; Kreiner-Møller, E; Bisgaard, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are common childhood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency in young children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis to assess the pathology behind such diagnoses. METHODS: We investigated 255 children at six years...... of age from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort assessing rhinitis history, specific immunoglobulin E relevant to rhinitis symptoms, nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency by acoustic rhinometry before and after decongestion. Associations were studied...... (P = 0.000) and nonallergic rhinitis (P = 0.014) were directly and significantly associated with nasal eosinophilia, but this association was stronger for allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis are of different pathologies as suggested from their different...

  10. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional source of variance in language ability. Results demonstrated emergent dimensionality of language across development with distinct factors of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse skills by third grade, confirming that discourse skills are an important source of variance in children's language ability and represent an important additional dimension to be accounted for in studying growth in language skills over the course of childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  11. Exploring Korean young children's ideas about living things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Re

    interventions facilitated the children in developing scientific ideas about certain living things. Several of the children's ideas and concepts changed and corresponded to scientific viewpoints. However, others maintained their existing ideas, which were not scientifically based. The study revealed the complexity of teaching kindergarten children a scientific understanding of living things and that teaching the interconnectedness among objects was essential to elaborate concepts. The results of the research suggested improvements for the conceptual change teaching methodology used in the classroom. The study provided insight into the effects of teacher-children interactions and teaching interventions. The study also indicated that the interview and observation research methodology used in this study was a useful vehicle to explore the children's initial ideas and conceptual development in teaching and learning science. The findings of the study suggest that teacher education for teachers of young children should include a complex of instructions because teaching and learning concepts of living things and other related science concepts are complex processes.

  12. Young Children's Mathematics References during Free Play in Family Childcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Shawnee M.; Berghout Austin, Ann M.; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Ota, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about children's discussion of mathematics topics during unstructured play. Ginsburg, Lin, Ness, and Seo [2003. Young American and Chinese children's everyday mathematical activity. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5(4), 235-258. Retrieved from…

  13. Astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春艳; 申昆玲; 王树欣; 刘亚谊; 照日格图

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was to assess certain epidemiological and clinical characteristics of astrovirus infection in children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Methods From September 1999 to August 2001, a total of 288 children with diarrhea below 5 years old hospitalized at Beijing Children's Hospital were studied. Fecal specimens collected from each patient were tested for astrovirus by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and further serotyped by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using serotype-specific primers. Results Astrovirus antigen was positive in 9.0% of the patients, and the rate of coinfection with rotavirus was 19.2% among the astrovirus positive patients. The patients with astrovirus infection were at the age of 7 days to 17 months, most (92.3%) of them were less than 12 months. Astrovirus infection occurred mainly between October and March of the following year. Main symptoms included watery stool, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Increased activity of myocardial enzyme was seen in 4 patients. Of the 22 astrovirus positive specimens, 14 were successfully serotyped by RT-PCR and they were all serotype 1. Conclusions The overall incidence of astrovirus infection in young children with diarrhea hospitalized at the Beijing Children's Hospital was 9.0%. The predominant serotype was type 1. Astrovirus may play an important role in viral diarrhea in young children in Beijing, China.

  14. Uncertainty Monitoring by Young Children in a Computerized Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Beran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans show sophisticated metacognitive abilities, including the ability to monitor uncertainty. Unfortunately, most measures of uncertainty monitoring are limited to use with adults due to their general complexity and dependence on explicit verbalization. However, recent research with nonhuman animals has successfully developed measures of uncertainty monitoring that are simple and do not require explicit verbalization. The purpose of this study was to investigate metacognition in young children using uncertainty monitoring tests developed for nonhumans. Children judged whether stimuli were more pink or blue—stimuli nearest the pink-blue midpoint were the most uncertain and the most difficult to classify. Children also had an option to acknowledge difficulty and gain the necessary information for correct classification. As predicted, children most often asked for help on the most difficult stimuli. This result confirms that some metacognitive abilities appear early in cognitive development. The tasks of animal metacognition research clearly have substantial utility for exploring the early developmental roots of human metacognition.

  15. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.

  16. Multiple representations and mechanisms for visuomotor adaptation in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahej, Pierre-Karim; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Olivier, Isabelle; Ginhac, Dominique; Rolland, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we utilized transformed spatial mappings to perturb visuomotor integration in 5-yr-old children and adults. The participants were asked to perform pointing movements under five different conditions of visuomotor rotation (from 0° to 180°), which were designed to reveal explicit vs. implicit representations as well as the mechanisms underlying the visual-motor mapping. Several tests allowed us to separately evaluate sensorimotor (i.e., the dynamic dimension of movement) and cognitive (i.e., the explicit representations of target position and the strategies used by the participants) representations of visuo-proprioceptive distortion. Our results indicate that children do not establish representations in the same manner as adults and that children exhibit multiple visuomotor representations. Sensorimotor representations were relatively precise, presumably due to the recovery of proprioceptive information and efferent copy. Furthermore, a bidirectional mechanism was used to re-map visual and motor spaces. In contrast, cognitive representations were supplied with visual information and followed a unidirectional visual-motor mapping. Therefore, it appears that sensorimotor mechanisms develop before the use of explicit strategies during development, and young children showed impaired visuomotor adaptation when confronted with large distortions.

  17. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time.

  18. Variation and repetition in the spelling of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Decker, Kristina; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury

    2015-04-01

    A number of investigators have suggested that young children, even those who do not yet represent the phonological forms of words in their spellings, tend to use different strings of letters for different words. However, empirical evidence that children possess a concept of between-word variation has been weak. In a study by Pollo, Kessler, and Treiman (2009), in fact, prephonological spellers were more likely to write different words in the same way than would be expected on the basis of chance, not less likely. In the current study, preschool-age prephonological and phonological spellers showed a tendency to repeat spellings and parts of spellings that they had recently used. However, even prephonological spellers (mean age∼4 years 8 months) showed more repetition when spelling the same word twice in succession than when spelling different words. The results suggest that children who have not yet learned to use writing to represent the sounds of speech show some knowledge that writing represents words and, thus, should vary to show differences between them. The results further suggest that in spelling, as in other domains, children have a tendency to repeat recent behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Young children with fetal alcohol spetrum disorder - communication profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari de Beer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the communication profiles of five young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD from 4 to 58months of age. A collective case-study design following a quantitative and descriptive approach was used to describe the communication profilesof the participants. The results are described according to the participants’ case histories and a four-level early communication assessment framework.The significant findings were that all participants were in foster care, and presented with incomplete case histories, general developmentaldelays and delays regarding all aspects of their communication abilities. An increase in the severity of the spectrum disorder across the participants’combined communication profiles was also identified. Participants presented with complex multiple neurodevelopmental needs thatshould be viewed within a developmental systems and ecological framework. The importance of early identification, diagnosis and assessmentof infants and young children prenatally exposed to alcohol, the identification of precursors to communication impairment at a very early age,and the need for individualised early communication intervention to improve developmental outcomes within a family-centred approach arediscussed. Suggestions for future research to accumulate knowledge about FASD in the field of early communication intervention are made.

  20. Young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder--communication profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Mari; Kritzinger, Alta; Zsilavecz, Ursula

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the article is to describe the communication profiles of five young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from 4 to 58 months of age. A collective case-study design following a quantitative and descriptive approach was used to describe the communication profiles of the participants. The results are described according to the participants' case histories and a four-level early communication assessment framework. The significant findings were that all participants were in foster care, and presented with incomplete case histories, general developmental delays and delays regarding all aspects of their communication abilities. An increase in the severity of the spectrum disorder across the participants' combined communication profiles was also identified. Participants presented with complex multiple neurodevelopmental needs that should be viewed within a developmental systems and ecological framework. The importance of early identification, diagnosis and assessment of infants and young children prenatally exposed to alcohol, the identification of precursors to communication impairment at a very early age, and the need for individualised early communication intervention to improve developmental outcomes within a family-centred approach are discussed. Suggestions for future research to accumulate knowledge about FASD in the field of early communication intervention are made.

  1. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  2. Preparing Early Childhood Teachers to Work With Young Dual Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Marlene; Castro, Dina C; Cronin, Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Teacher preparation is clearly linked to the quality of early childhood programs. In order for young dual language learners (DLLs) to be academically successful, teacher preparation should focus on those skills and abilities relevant to students' particular needs. This article reviews the content of professional preparation for early educators working with young DLLs and briefly discusses the importance of developing the cultural and linguistic diversity of the early childhood workforce. It identifies 6 content areas: (a) understanding language development, (b) understanding the relationship between language and culture, (c) developing skills and abilities to effectively teach DLLs, (d) developing abilities to use assessment in meaningful ways for DLLs, (e) developing a sense of professionalism, and (f) understanding how to work with families.

  3. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  4. The Relation between Mathematics and Working Memory in Young Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mathematics and working memory in young children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Children with FASD and comparison children (4 to 6 years old) completed standardized tests of mathematics and working memory. Children with FASD showed impairments on mathematics (applied…

  5. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  6. The Relation between Mathematics and Working Memory in Young Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mathematics and working memory in young children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Children with FASD and comparison children (4 to 6 years old) completed standardized tests of mathematics and working memory. Children with FASD showed impairments on mathematics (applied…

  7. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  8. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  9. The impact of preparation and support procedures for children with sickle cell disease undergoing MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejda, Katherine R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Child Life Program, Memphis, TN (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); Hansbury, Eileen N. [Baylor International Hematology Center of Excellence and the Texas Children' s Center for Global Health, Houston, TX (United States); McCarville, Mary Elizabeth; Helton, Kathleen J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Hankins, Jane S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Hematology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) often undergo MRI studies to assess brain injury or to quantify hepatic iron. MRI requires the child to lie motionless for 30-60 min, thus sedation/anesthesia might be used to facilitate successful completion of exams, but this poses additional risks for SCD patients. To improve children's ability to cope with MRI examinations and avoid sedation, our institution established preparation and support procedures (PSP). To investigate the impact of PSP in reducing the need for sedation during MRI exams among children with SCD. Data on successful completion of MRI testing were compared among 5- to 12-year-olds who underwent brain MRI or liver R2*MRI with or without receiving PSP. Seventy-one children with SCD (median age 9.85 years, range 5.57-12.99 years) underwent a brain MRI (n = 60) or liver R2*MRI (n = 11). Children who received PSP were more likely to complete an interpretable MRI exam than those who did not 30 of 33; 91% vs. 27 of 38; 71%, unadjusted OR = 4.1 (P = 0.04) and OR = 8.5 (P < 0.01) when adjusting for age. PSP can help young children with SCD complete clinically interpretable, nonsedated MRI exams, avoiding the risks of sedation/anesthesia. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary Function in Children and Young Adults With Ataxia Telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Lederman, Howard M.; Aherrera, Angela D.; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Ryan, Timothy; Wright, Jennifer; Collaco, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Pulmonary disease contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in people with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). To determine the association between age and lung function in children and young adults with A-T and to identify factors associated with decreased lung function, pulmonary function tests were performed in 100 consecutive people with A-T. Methods Children and adults ranging from 6 to 29 years of age and with the diagnosis of A-T were recruited, and underwent pulmonary function tests. Results The mean forced vital capacity % predicted (FVC %) in the population was 56.6 ± 20.0. Males and females between 6 and 10 years of age had similar pulmonary function. Older females were found to have significantly lower FVCs % than both older males (P < 0.02) and younger females (P < 0.001). The use of supplemental gamma globulin was associated with significantly lower FVC %. A modest correlation was found between higher radiation-induced chromosomal breakage and lower FVC % in males. No significant change in FVC % was found in a subset of subjects (n = 25) who underwent pulmonary function testing on two or more occasions over an average of 2 years. Conclusion In children and young adults with A-T, older females and people who required supplemental gamma globulin had significantly lower lung function by cross-sectional analysis. Stable lung function is possible over a 2-year period. Recognition of groups who are at higher risk for lower pulmonary function may help direct care and improve clinical outcomes in people with A-T. PMID:23401357

  11. The role of parenting stress in young children's mental health functioning after exposure to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Campbell, Christina A; Ferguson, Monette; Crusto, Cindy A

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluates the associations of young children's exposure to family violence events, parenting stress, and children's mental health functioning. Caregivers provided data for 188 children ages 3 to 5 years attending Head Start programming. Caregivers reported 75% of children had experienced at least 1 type of trauma event, and 27% of children had experienced a family violence event. Child mental health functioning was significantly associated with family violence exposure after controlling for children's age, gender, household income, and other trauma exposure (β = .14, p = .033). Stress in the parenting role partially mediated the relationship between family violence exposure and young children's mental health functioning (β = .12, p = .015, 95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.21]). Interventions for young children exposed to family violence should address the needs of the child, as well as the caregiver while also building healthy parent-child relationships to facilitate positive outcomes in children faced with trauma.

  12. Effects of War, Terrorism and Armed Conflict on Young Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Mann, Shiri

    2016-12-01

    Millions of children have been maimed, displaced, orphaned and killed in modern warfare that targets civilian populations. Several reviews have documented the impact of political trauma on children's mental health but none has focused specifically on young children (ages 0-6). Since developmental factors influence the young child's perception and experience of traumatic events, this developmental period is characterized by a unique spectrum of responses to political trauma. This systematic review, comprising 35 studies that included a total of 4365 young children, examined the effects of exposure to war, conflict and terrorism on young children and the influence of parental factors on these effects. Results showed that effects include PTSD and post-traumatic stress symptoms, behavioral and emotional symptoms, sleep problems, disturbed play, and psychosomatic symptoms. Correlations emerged between parental and children's psychopathology and, additionally, family environment and parental functioning emerged as moderators of the exposure-outcome association for children.

  13. Leukotriene inhibitors for bronchiolitis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Ouyang, Jing; Sharma, Atul N; Liu, Songqing; Yang, Bo; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Rufu

    2015-03-16

    Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory illness of the bronchioles common among infants and young children. It is often caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Management of bronchiolitis varies between clinicians, reflecting the lack of evidence for a specific treatment approach. The leukotriene pathway has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis. Leukotriene inhibitors such as montelukast have been used in infants and young children with bronchiolitis. However, the results from limited randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are controversial and necessitate a thorough evaluation of their efficacy for bronchiolitis in infants and young children. To assess the efficacy and safety of leukotriene inhibitors for bronchiolitis in infants and young children. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1946 to April week 4, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to May 2014), CINAHL (1981 to May 2014), LILACS (1982 to May 2014), Web of Science (1985 to May 2014), WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov (6 May 2014). RCTs comparing leukotriene inhibitors versus placebo or another intervention in infants and young children under two years of age diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Our primary outcomes were length of hospital stay and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included clinical severity score, percentage of symptom-free days, percentage of children requiring ventilation, oxygen saturation, recurrent wheezing, respiratory rate and clinical adverse effects. We used standard Cochrane Collaboration methodological practices. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and extracted data, such as general information, participant characteristics, interventions and outcomes. We assessed risk of bias and graded the quality of the evidence. We used Review Manager software to pool results and chose random-effects models for meta-analysis. We included five studies with a total of 1296 participants under two years of age hospitalised with bronchiolitis. Two

  14. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…

  15. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  16. Participation in Home, Extracurricular, and Community Activities among Children and Young People with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlin, Margo N.; Palisano, Robert J.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Kang, Lin-Ju; Polansky, Marcia; Almasri, Nihad; Maggs, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Participation in home, extracurricular, and community activities is a desired outcome of rehabilitation services for children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gross motor function on participation among children and young people with CP. Method: Five hundred…

  17. In Search of an Aesthetic Pathway: Young Children's Encounters with Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Lee Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Aesthetic experiences have proved as a valuable tool to enhance quality childhood life and learning; yet, how young children perceive such experiences is little known. This study investigated the aesthetic experiences and responses of Hong Kong young children through drama improvisation. Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of rhizome was used to form a…

  18. Implications of Emotion Regulation on Young Children's Emotional Wellbeing and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djambazova-Popordanoska, Snezhana

    2016-01-01

    Effective regulation of both positive and negative emotions plays a pivotal role in young children's emotional and cognitive development and later academic achievement. A compelling body of evidence has highlighted the symbiotic relationship between emotion regulation competencies and young children's emotional health, in particular their mood and…

  19. Singaporean Parents' Views of Their Young Children's Access and Use of Technological Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Chan, Yvonne; Goh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Debates continue about the access young children have to technological devices, given the increasingly accessible and available technology in most developed countries. Concerns have been expressed by parents/caregivers and researchers, and questions have been raised about possible risks and benefits of these devices on young children who, in some…

  20. Measuring Young Children's Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities: Highlights from the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Young children with disabilities are increasingly attending inclusive early childhood programs with their typically developing peers. Within these programs, research efforts and practice have supported young children's understanding and acceptance of peers with disabilities. However, there is limited information about the measures used to assess…

  1. Young Children Engaging with Technologies at Home: The Influence of Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Christine; Stevenson, Olivia; Adey, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article is about the ways in which young children engage with technological toys and resources at home and, in particular, the ways in which the family context makes a difference to young children’s engagement with these technologies. The data reviewed come from family interviews and parent-recorded video of four case study children as they…

  2. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults (

  3. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  4. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  5. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  6. Learning Vocabulary through E-Book Reading of Young Children with Various Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today's classroom, many children's e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration…

  7. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  8. Arts Education and Creativity Enhancement in Young Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; He, Mavis W. J.; Ye, Shengquan Sam

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing Hong Kong young children's gains in creativity and their teachers' application of arts education after a one-year artists-teachers collaborative arts education project that involves various art forms (i.e. drama, visual arts and integrated). Participants included 790 young children, 217 parents and 65 teachers…

  9. Interactions between working memory and language in young children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugs, B.A.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    The underlying structure of working memory (WM) in young children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) was examined. The associations between the components of WM and the language abilities of young children with SLI were then analyzed. The Automated Working Memory Assessment and four

  10. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  11. A Focus on Exploratory Tasks in Lesson Study: The Canadian "Math for Young Children" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Catherine D.; Flynn, Tara C.; Bennett, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase our understanding of what mathematics young children are capable of when provided with playful yet purposeful opportunities to learn, Canadian researchers initiated lesson study over 4 years with teams of teachers of young children (ages 4-7). The lesson study process followed a lesson study cycle of goal setting,…

  12. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  13. Functionally Approached Body (FAB) Strategies for Young Children Who Have Behavioral and Sensory Processing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2005-01-01

    Functionally Approached Body (FAB) Strategies offer a clinical approach to help parents of young children with behavioral and sensory processing strategies. This article introduces the FAB Strategies, clinical strategies developed by the author for understanding and addressing young children's behavioral and sensory processing challenges. The FAB…

  14. Stretching and Young Children: Should We or Shouldn't We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to continue the discussion of "should we or shouldn't we?" Specifically, this article addresses whether or not young children need to spend time participating in static stretching activities during physical education class. Is it a worthwhile use of already limited time to ask young children to stretch? Do they need…

  15. Social Class and Japanese Mothers' Support of Young Children's Education: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The impact of social class backgrounds on young children's educational experiences has attracted increasing attention in early childhood research. However, few longitudinal studies related to social class and parental involvement in young children's education are available, especially in East Asian contexts. In this longitudinal qualitative study,…

  16. Disorders of Conduct in Young Children: Developmental Considerations, Diagnoses, and Other Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of conduct are the most common reason for preschoolers to be referred for psychological services. If these problems are severe enough, these young children will be diagnosed with a "DSM-IV-TR" diagnosis or a diagnosis from another diagnostic systems, such as the "DSM-PC" or "DC: 0-3". Whether or not these young children receive a…

  17. Science and Young Children: The Message from the National Science Education Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Bell, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the "National Science Education Standards" released by the National Research Council in 1995, as it relates to teaching young children. Focuses on two areas: "Science Teaching Standards," how teachers should be facilitating scientific understanding in young children; and "Science Content Standards," what…

  18. Pathways to Bilingualism: Young Children's Home Experiences Learning English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more young children in the United States have the experience of speaking a language other than English at home, and many parents choose to educate their children bilingually. This study explored the home-language experiences, in English and Spanish, of three young Latino girls ages 15 months, 16 months, and 30 months,…

  19. Arts Education and Creativity Enhancement in Young Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; He, Mavis W. J.; Ye, Shengquan Sam

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing Hong Kong young children's gains in creativity and their teachers' application of arts education after a one-year artists-teachers collaborative arts education project that involves various art forms (i.e. drama, visual arts and integrated). Participants included 790 young children, 217 parents and 65 teachers…

  20. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  1. Buried Treasure: The Impact of Computer Use on Young Children's Social, Cognitive, Language Development and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, Katy; Li, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, young children are being exposed to computers at home and at school despite disagreement regarding the appropriateness and potential impact of technology on young children's development. Many views that predominant the debates lack empirical support and are too broad in their scope. This study examines the existing empirical studies…

  2. Children's and Young People's Reading in 2012: Findings from the 2012 National Literacy Trust's Annual Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This report reveals that children and young people are reading less and more are embarrassed to be seen reading, while many also believe that their parents don't care if they spend time reading. However, not only are children and young people reading less and developing more negative attitudes towards reading, but there is also a clear correlation…

  3. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Obesity in Young Children: A Review of Existing Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Vickii B.

    2007-01-01

    It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…

  4. The Impact of Being Homeless on Young Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Tenisha L.

    2012-01-01

    Families with young children are the fastest growing population of the homeless. Homeless young children (under the age of 5) are especially vulnerable as early childhood professionals consider the early years to be the most critical developmental period in all domains (cognitive, social-emotional, physical, and language). The disruptions to a…

  5. Family Literacy Programmes and Young Children's Language and Literacy Development: Paying Attention to Families' Home Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Ann; Sadiq, Assadullah

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on the impact of family literacy programmes on young children's language and literacy learning. After defining family literacy, we present a brief historical overview of family literacy programmes, including persistent questions regarding their effectiveness with respect to young children's language and…

  6. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  7. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  8. Alternative vaccination schedule preferences among parents of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F; Schaffer, Sarah; Singer, Dianne; Butchart, Amy; Davis, Matthew; Freed, Gary L

    2011-11-01

    Increasing numbers of parents use alternative vaccination schedules that differ from the recommended childhood vaccination schedule for their children. We sought to describe national patterns of alternative vaccination schedule use and the potential "malleability" of parents' current vaccination schedule choices. We performed a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents of children 6 months to 6 years of age. Bivariate and multivariate analyses determined associations between demographic and attitudinal factors and alternative vaccination schedule use. The response rate was 61% (N = 748). Of the 13% of parents who reported following an alternative vaccination schedule, most refused only certain vaccines (53%) and/or delayed some vaccines until the child was older (55%). Only 17% reported refusing all vaccines. In multivariate models, nonblack race and not having a regular health care provider for the child were the only factors significantly associated with higher odds of using an alternative schedule. A large proportion of alternative vaccinators (30%) reported having initially followed the recommended vaccination schedule. Among parents following the recommended vaccination schedule, 28% thought that delaying vaccine doses was safer than the schedule they used, and 22% disagreed that the best vaccination schedule to follow was the one recommended by vaccination experts. More than 1 of 10 parents of young children currently use an alternative vaccination schedule. In addition, a large proportion of parents currently following the recommended schedule seem to be "at risk" for switching to an alternative schedule.

  9. Kingella kingae: an emerging pathogen in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagupsky, Pablo; Porsch, Eric; St Geme, Joseph W

    2011-03-01

    Kingella kingae is being recognized increasingly as a common etiology of pediatric osteoarticular infections, bacteremia, and endocarditis, which reflects improved culture methods and use of nucleic acid-amplification techniques in clinical microbiology laboratories. K kingae colonizes the posterior pharynx of young children and is transmitted from child to child through close personal contact. Day care attendance increases the risk for colonization and transmission, and clusters of K kingae infections among day care center attendees have been reported. Key virulence factors in K kingae include type IV pili and a potent RTX toxin. In previously healthy children, >95% of K kingae infections are diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 48 months. Among children with underlying medical conditions, K kingae disease may occur at older ages as well. The clinical presentation of K kingae disease is often subtle and may be associated with normal levels of acute-phase reactants, which underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion. K kingae is usually susceptible to ß-lactam antibiotics, and infections typically respond well to medical treatment, with the exception of cases of endocarditis.

  10. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J S

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  11. Growing Up in a Violent World: The Impact of Family and Community Violence on Young Children and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Betsy McAlister

    1997-01-01

    Describes the impact of violence on young children. Discusses the prevalence of children's exposure to violence, research on violence and young children, the impact of media violence on children, and characteristics of children who live with violence and those who witness violence. Recommends comprehensive, multidimensional strategies to address…

  12. Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron A; Kreiborg, Sven

    Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)......Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)...

  13. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  14. Homicidal abuse of young children: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy J Castellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of females, the illegitimate, and the malformed, killing by ritualistic sacrifice or to conserve resources was carried out with impunity. The middle ages and later saw a decline in these practices albeit limited. One hundred years into the industrial revolution, with harsh child labor in public view, legal remedies were sought to protect children but with little effect. The domestic abuse of children was not addressed until a pivotal 19th-century case, in which the rights of animals were invoked to intervene on behalf of a child. In the 20th century, physicians began to look closely at anatomical findings; patterns due to trauma, especially inflicted trauma, began to emerge. “Battered child syndrome” was followed by “shaken baby syndrome,” the latter prompted by the recurrent findings of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages, and brain injury with the absence of impact injuries and no plausible accidental or natural disease explanation. In the 21st century, high-quality studies and an emphasis on evidenced-based medicine substantiated the existence of injury patterns resulting from homicidal violence. However, progress has been uneven. A case of child abuse that reached the US Supreme Court resulted in an ill-cited dissent that seems to have amplified an already toxic medicolegal environment, perhaps unjustifiably. The difficulties in balancing the welfare of society with that of caregivers in the aftermath of homicidal abuse will no doubt continue.

  15. Young Children's Motor Interference Is Influenced by Novel Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Johanna E; Endedijk, Hinke M; Stapel, Janny C; Hunnius, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood onward, individuals use behavior copying to communicate liking and belonging. This non-verbal signal of affiliation is especially relevant in the context of social groups and indeed both children and adults copy in-group more than out-group members. Given the societal importance of inter-group interactions, it is imperative to understand the mechanistic level at which group modulations of copying occur early in development. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of novel group membership on young children's motor behavior during a simultaneous movement-observation and -execution task. Four- to six-year-olds (n = 65) first gained membership to one of two novel groups based on their color preference and put on a vest in their chosen color. Subsequently, they were instructed to draw a straight line back-and-forth on a tablet computer that was concurrently displaying a stimulus video in which a model moved her arm congruently or incongruently to the child's instructed direction. In half of the stimulus videos the model belonged to the in-group, while in the other half the model belonged to the out-group, as identified by the color of her dress. The deviations into the uninstructed direction of the children's drawings were quantified as a measure of how much observing the models' behaviors interfered with executing their own behaviors. The motor interference effect, namely higher deviations in the incongruent trials than in the congruent trials, was found only for the out-group condition. An additional manipulation of whether the models' arms followed a biological or non-biological velocity profile had little effect on children's motor interference. The results are interpreted in the context of the explicit coordinative nature of the task as an effect of heightened attention toward interacting with an out-group member. This study demonstrates that already during early childhood, novel group membership dynamically influences

  16. Prevalence of early childhood caries among very young urban Boston children compared with US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Martha E; Dietrich, Thomas; Singh, Harpreet K; Henshaw, Michelle M; Kressin, Nancy R

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in 1- to 3-year-old children seeing primary-care pediatricians at two urban medical centers in Boston to the prevalence of ECC in similarly aged US children surveyed as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and to assess risk factors for ECC among this cohort of children compared with risk factors among similarly aged US children. Characteristics of 787 1- to 3-year-old children from two urban Boston medical centers were compared with those of 3,644 similarly aged US children surveyed as part of NHANES III. Demographic and social characteristics and ECC prevalence by putative risk factors were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was fit to assess putative risk factors and difference between groups simultaneously. Race, age, previous dental visit, parents' education, and household income were significantly associated with ECC prevalence. Parents' place of birth was a significant effect modifier with lower ECC among Boston children of immigrants than among US children of immigrants. Lower ECC prevalence among urban Boston children of immigrant parents compared with US children of immigrant parents may reflect changing immigrant composition in the United States since NHANES III or a different immigrant composition in the Boston area compared with the United States. This finding reinforces the need for further research of immigrants in order to understand cultural practices that may affect oral health. Finally, low ECC prevalence among very young children reinforces the importance of early intervention in reducing ECC.

  17. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children’s screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages...... children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group....... (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. Subjects/Methods: The study is a part of the prospective cohort study...

  18. Zigging and Zooming All over the Place: Young Children's Meaning Making and Movement in the Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This article draws attention to the walking and running of young children as a key element of their multimodal communicative practices. In addition, the article argues that the walking and running of young children can be seen as a place-making activity, acknowledging the power of young children to create meaning in their world. Drawing on…

  19. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  20. Peer-Mediated AAC Instruction for Young Children with Autism and other Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Many young children with developmental disabilities (DD) have significant delays in social, communication, and play skills. For those children learning to use augmentative and alternative communication (.AAC% successful social interactions with peers will require explicit instruction on the same system for both communication partners. Peer-mediated (PM) interventions are recommended best practice based on more than 30 years of research with young children with autism and other DDs. Integratin...

  1. The development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia after cochlear implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to survey and compare the development of auditory skills in young children with Mondini dysplasia and profoundly-deaf young children with radiologically normal inner ears over a period of 3 years after cochlear implantation. A total of 545 young children (age 7 to 36 months with prelingual, severe to profound hearing loss participated in this study. All children received cochlear implantation. Based on whether or not there was a Mondini dysplasia as diagnosed with CT scanning, the subjects were divided into 2 groups: (A 514 young children with radiologically normal inner ears and (B 31 young children with Mondini dysplasia. The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS was used to assess the children's auditory skills that include vocalization changes, spontaneous alerting to sounds in everyday living environments, and the ability to derive meaning from sounds. The assessment was performed prior to surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months after implant device switch-on. The mean scores for overall auditory skills were not significantly different between groups A and B at pre-surgery, 1, 12, 24, and 36 months post-surgery, but were significantly different at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery. The mean scores for all auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia showed significant improvement over time. The mean scores for the three subcategories of auditory skills in children with Mondini dysplasia also showed significant differences at pre-surgery, 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, however, there were no significant differences at 12, 24, and 36 months. Overall, the auditory skills of young children with Mondini dysplasia developed rapidly after cochlear implantation, in a similar manner to that of young children with radiologically normal inner ears. Cochlear implantation is an effective intervention for young children with Mondini dysplasia.

  2. Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William J; Mauger, David T; Paul, Ian M; Moy, James N; Boehmer, Susan J; Szefler, Stanley J; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard B; Cabana, Michael D; Covar, Ronina; Holguin, Fernando; Lemanske, Robert F; Martinez, Fernando D; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Beigelman, Avraham; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Blake, Kathryn; Chmiel, James F; Daines, Cori L; Daines, Michael O; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah A; Gower, W Adam; Israel, Elliot; Kumar, Harsha V; Lang, Jason E; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lima, John J; Ly, Ngoc; Marbin, Jyothi; Morgan, Wayne J; Myers, Ross E; Olin, J Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Raissy, Hengameh H; Robison, Rachel G; Ross, Kristie; Sorkness, Christine A; Thyne, Shannon M; Wechsler, Michael E; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-08-18

    young children with mild persistent asthma, as-needed use of acetaminophen was not shown to be associated with a higher incidence of asthma exacerbations or worse asthma control than was as-needed use of ibuprofen. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; AVICA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01606319.).

  3. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Rebecca W; McGowan, Richard S; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Ecologically realistic, spontaneous, adult-directed, longitudinal speech data of young children were described by acoustic analyses. The first 2 formant frequencies of vowels produced by 6 children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first 2 formant frequencies between ages 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present study adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech.

  4. Measured energy expenditure in critically ill infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwals, W J; Lally, K P; Woolley, M M; Mahour, G H

    1988-05-01

    Technological limitations have impeded accurate energy expenditure assessment in critically ill infants and young children. Instead, a predicted energy expenditure (PEE) is derived based on weight, heat loss, activity, growth requirements, and degree of stress. This study compared actual measured energy expenditure (MEE) with conventional predicted values in 20 critically ill infants and children using a validated metabolic cart designed for use in this age group. All patients were studied either within 4 days of major surgery or during an acute disease process necessitating intensive care. All were severely stressed clinically and were studied while mechanically ventilated in a temperature-controlled environment. The study interval ranged from 1 to 12 hr and averaged 4 hr after a stabilization period of 30 min. The mean MEE was significantly lower than the mean PEE (52.2 +/- 16 kcal/kg/day vs 101.8 +/- 17 kcal/kg/day, P less than 0.001) with a mean MEE/PEE of 52.6 +/- 17% (range 26 to 92%). In a subgroup of 7 paralyzed patients, the mean MEE was significantly lower than in the 13 nonparalyzed patients when compared with PEE and predicted basal metabolic rate (PBMR). The coefficient of variance, conventionally recognized to be approximately 15% for PEE, averaged 6.35% for MEE in this study. These data indicate that if PEE is used as the sole guide for caloric repletion in the stressed infant or child, these patients will be substantially overfed.

  5. Maternal communication style, problem-solving and dietary adherence in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Atkinson, Leslie; Donaldson, Caroline; Noyes, Kathryn; Payne, Anne; Kelnar, Chris

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children is increasing markedly however young children have been overlooked in paediatric adherence research despite the unique challenges their care presents. We investigated the relation between maternal communication style and adherence to the dietary regimen in 40 children with T1D, aged 2-8 years, and their mothers. Mothers completed measures of children's sugar consumption, parent-child communication quality, and child psychological functioning. Mothers and children engaged in a videotaped problem-solving task related to the dietary regimen, with maternal utterances analysed for behavioural control style (e.g., commands versus suggestions) and cognitive complexity (e.g., provision of labels versus questions). Maternal communications which engaged children, behaviourally and cognitively, in the task were associated with better adherence, medical, communication quality, and child adjustment outcomes. We conclude that adherence and health (medical and psychological) are optimized when young children are given opportunities to participate in their care.

  6. Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel; Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Grobler, Adri; Moen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    "Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS", demonstrates how a concurrent mixed method design assisted cross-cultural comparison and ecological descriptions of resilience in young South African children, as well as validated alternative ways to measure resilience in young children. In a longitudinal randomised control trial, which investigated psychological resilience in mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, we combined a qualitative projective story-telling technique (Düss Fable) with quantitative data (Child Behaviour Checklist). The children mostly displayed adaptive resilience-related behaviours, although maladaptive behaviours were present. Participating children use internal (resolve/agency, positive future expectations, emotional intelligence) and external protective resources (material resources, positive institutions) to mediate adaptation. Children's maladaptive behaviours were exacerbated by internal (limited problem-solving skills, negative emotions) and external risk factors (chronic and cumulative adversity).

  7. Evaluation of a Brief Intervention to Improve the Nursing Care of Young Children in a High HIV and AIDS Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The HIV epidemic in South Africa is putting great strain on health services, including the inpatient care of young children. Caregivers and young children (107 pairs and 17 nurses participated in an intervention to improve the care of young children in hospital in a high HIV and AIDS setting. The intervention addressed caregiver expectations about admission and treatment, responsive feeding, coping with infant pain and distress, assistance with medical procedures, and preparation for discharge and home care. Following a preparatory and piloting phase, measures of nurse burnout, caregiver physical and emotional well-being, and caregiver-child interaction were made before and after intervention. No changes were found between before and after intervention on assessments of caregiver wellbeing. However, mothers in the postintervention phase rated nurses as more supportive; mother-child interaction during feeding was more relaxed and engaged, and babies were less socially withdrawn. While the intervention proved useful in improving certain outcomes for children and their caregivers, it did not address challenging hospital and ward administration or support needed by caregivers at home following discharge. To address the latter need, the intervention has been extended into the community through home-based palliative care and support.

  8. Effect of physical activity on vascular characteristics in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nikmah S; Evelein, Annemieke M V; Geerts, Caroline C; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2015-05-01

    Physical activity has long been proposed as an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in adults. We assessed whether physical activity already has an effect on childhood vasculature. In the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-in-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, we performed vascular ultrasound to measure carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and functional properties (distensibility, elastic modulus) at 5 and 8 years of age. Child typical physical activities were inquired using a questionnaire completed by parents. Linear regression was used with physical activity level, expressed as a standardized value of time-weighted metabolic equivalent (MET) as the independent variable and vascular properties as dependent variables with further confounder adjustment and evaluation for possible body mass index and sex effect modifications. In 595 5-year-old children and in 237 of those who had reached the age of 8 years, we did not find statistically significant associations between total time-weighted MET and each vascular parameter, neither in pooled nor stratified analysis. However, sport activities were associated with thinner cIMT (-3.20 µm/SD, 95% CI -6.34, -0.22, p = 0.04) at 5 years of age; a similar pattern was seen for organized sport. This effect was strongest in children in the highest body mass index tertile (-5.38 µm/SD, 95% CI -10.54, -0.19, p = 0.04). At the age of 8 years, higher sport level tended to be associated with higher vascular distensibility (2.64 × 10(3) kPa/SD, 95% CI -0.18, 5.45, p = 0.07) although this was not statistically significant. Sport activity may have beneficial effects on arteries of young children, particularly those with higher relative body weight. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auzias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory

  10. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzias, G; Viellard, M; Takerkart, S; Villeneuve, N; Poinso, F; Fonséca, D Da; Girard, N; Deruelle, C

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory that could be part

  11. Young children's agent-neutral representations of action roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Gräfenhain, Maria; Clüver, Annette; Dalhoff, Ann Christin Schulze; Sternkopf, Anika

    2014-12-01

    Recent developmental research has shown that young children coordinate complementary action roles with others. But what do they understand about the logical structure of such roles? Do they have an agent-neutral conception of complementary action roles, grasping that such roles can be variably filled by any two agents or even by one agent over time? Accordingly, can they make use of such representations for planning both their own and others' actions? To address these questions, 3- and 4-year-olds were introduced to an activity comprising two action roles, A and B, by seeing either two agents performing A and B collaboratively or one agent performing A and B individually. Children's flexible inferences from these demonstrations were then tested by asking them later on to plan ahead for the fulfillment of one of the roles either by themselves or by someone else. The 4-year-olds competently drew inferences in all directions, from past individual and collaborative demonstrations, when planning how they or someone else would need to fulfill the roles in the future. The 3-year-olds, in contrast, showed more restricted competence; they were capable of such inferences only when planning in the immediate present. Taken together, these results suggest that children form and use agent-neutral representations of action roles by 3 years of age and flexibly use such representations for episodic memory and future deliberation in planning their own and others' actions by 4 years of age. The findings are discussed in the broader context of the development of understanding self-other equivalence and agent-neutral frames of references.

  12. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals

  13. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzias, G.; Viellard, M.; Takerkart, S.; Villeneuve, N.; Poinso, F.; Fonséca, D. Da; Girard, N.; Deruelle, C.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory that could be part

  14. Beyond the Single Text: Nurturing Young Children's Interest in Reading and Writing for Multiple Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carol A.; Milewicz, Elizabeth J.; Smolkin, Laura B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes children's early use of oral and written language for different purposes. Advocates fostering early appreciation of a variety of texts to cultivate children's disposition to read and write for enjoyment, information, and communication. Presents ideas for using the talking, reading, and writing done every day by young children to develop…

  15. Language Immersion Programs for Young Children? Yes . . . but Proceed with Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    A dual immersion program in Chinese and English at the 3e International School in Beijing is helping children become fluent in both languages, even though many students spoke neither language when they entered the school. Children enter the program as young as two years old. Studies indicate that bilingual children have higher levels of cognitive…

  16. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  17. An appropriate tool for appetite testing and evaluation in young children in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18–30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad li

  18. Evidence for Atypical Auditory Brainstem Responses in Young Children with Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Daphne Ari-Even; Muchnik, Chava; Shabtai, Esther; Hildesheimer, Minka; Henkin, Yael

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize the auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) of young children with suspected autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and compare them with the ABRs of children with language delay and with clinical norms. Method: The ABRs of 26 children with suspected ASDs (21 males, five females; mean age 32.5 mo) and an age-…

  19. Pointing to "That": Deixis and Shared Intentionality in Young Children's Collaborative Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Carol

    2014-01-01

    In this article I present examples of young children's interaction in collaborative group work in mathematics and consider how the children shared intentions, that is, how they influenced the thinking of another. By analysing the children's use of deixis as an aspect of indexicality, I examined how the students pointed out mathematical…

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Infants and Young Children Exposed to War-Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although millions of the world's children are growing up amidst armed conflict, little research has described the specific symptom manifestations and relational behavior in young children exposed to wartime trauma or assessed factors that chart pathways of risk and resilience. Method: Participants included 232 Israeli children 1.5 to 5…

  1. A Component Analysis of Toilet-Training Procedures Recommended for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian D.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the combined and sequential effects of 3 toilet-training procedures recommended for use with young children: (a) underwear, (b) a dense sit schedule, and (c) differential reinforcement. A total of 20 children participated. Classroom teachers implemented a toilet-training package consisting of all 3 procedures with 6 children. Of the 6…

  2. Genetic and Environmental Processes in Young Children's Resilience and Vulnerability to Socioeconomic Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Cohen, Julia; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Some children exposed to socioeconomic (SES) deprivation are resilient and function better than expected, given the level of deprivation they have experienced. The present study tested genetic and environmental contributions to young children's resilience and vulnerability to SES deprivation. Children's resilience was assessed by the difference…

  3. Physical and Relational Aggression in Young Children: The Role of Mother-Child Interactional Synchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Holly N.; Menna, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the quality of parent-child interactions, specifically interactional synchrony (IS), and physical and relational aggression in young children. Seventy-three children (3-6 years; 44 males, 29 females) and their mothers participated in this study. The children's level of aggression was assessed through…

  4. Media as Social Partners: The Social Nature of Young Children's Learning from Screen Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.; Smith, Erin I.

    2011-01-01

    Television has become a nearly ubiquitous feature in children's cultural landscape. A review of the research into young children's learning from television indicates that the likelihood that children will learn from screen media is influenced by their developing social relationships with on-screen characters, as much as by their developing…

  5. Technology Can Help Young Children Succeed. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c70

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with disabilities are discovering that carefully selected computer software and mobile apps can provide many benefits such as improved self-esteem, a longer attention span, and inclusion among family and other children that help their children succeed at home and in school. PACER's Simon Technology Center (STC) can help…

  6. Perceptions of Parents of Young Children with and without Disabilities Attending Inclusive Preschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of parents of children with and without disabilities whose young children attend an inclusive, early childhood education program that influence their perceptions of inclusion and inclusive preschool programs. Participants included parents of preschool children without disabilities (n=64) and parents…

  7. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  8. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  9. Technology Can Help Young Children Succeed. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c70

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with disabilities are discovering that carefully selected computer software and mobile apps can provide many benefits such as improved self-esteem, a longer attention span, and inclusion among family and other children that help their children succeed at home and in school. PACER's Simon Technology Center (STC) can help…

  10. Young Children's Initiation into Family Literacy Practices in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Hannon, Peter; Lewis, Margaret; Ritchie, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a study that explored young children's digital literacy in the home. The aim of the study was to identify the range of digital literacy practices in which children are engaged in the home and to explore how these are embedded into family life and involve family members. Four children, two girls and two boys aged between 2 and…

  11. 5 Evidence-Based Recommendations for Teaching Math to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Children have a natural interest in math, and the "Teaching Math to Young Children" practice guide (ED544376) aims to help teachers capitalize on that interest to make children's preschool and school experience more engaging and beneficial. In this practice guide summary, readers will find: (1) An overview of the guide's five…

  12. Arts and Young Children. Early Childhood Music Lessons from "Mr. Holland's Opus."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Advocates instruction in the arts to develop young children's creative and global thinking skills. Suggests that music instruction can help special needs children to learn in other ways. For example, children who have trouble learning to read may benefit from rhythm instruction to help them keep a beat. Singing and playing musical instruments can…

  13. Scaffolding Young Children's Reflections with Student-Created PowerPoint Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Christine; Kedem, Yore; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated young children's reflections about their learning experiences through Student-Created PowerPoint Presentations (SCPP). The study was conducted in a K/1 classroom in a university-affiliated school while the children completed a project titled "Who Measures What in Our Neighborhood?" The participants were 14 children (five…

  14. Reflections on Practical Approaches to Involving Children and Young People in the Data Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Evans, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on key methodological issues emerging from children and young people's involvement in data analysis processes. We outline a pragmatic framework illustrating different approaches to engaging children, using two case studies of children's experiences of participating in data analysis. The article highlights methods of…

  15. Language Immersion Programs for Young Children? Yes . . . but Proceed with Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    A dual immersion program in Chinese and English at the 3e International School in Beijing is helping children become fluent in both languages, even though many students spoke neither language when they entered the school. Children enter the program as young as two years old. Studies indicate that bilingual children have higher levels of cognitive…

  16. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  17. Verbal and Operant Responses of Young Children to Vocal Versus Instrumental Song Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.; Cassidy, Jane W.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study that investigated the effects of the presence or absence of lyrics in children's musical selections on young children's responses to music. The children responded to either recorded lullabies performed by a women singing, or a solo instrument, or separate pieces with and without lyrics. (MJP)

  18. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  19. Developing Scales to Measure Parental Mediation of Young Children's Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikken, Peter; Jansz, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    With children using digital media at ever younger ages, media-education becomes a pressing issue for parents. As there is hardly any research on how parents guide the online activities of toddlers and young children an internet-survey was held among 792 Dutch parents of children aged between 2 and 12 years. Factor analysis revealed that for the…

  20. Reflections on Practical Approaches to Involving Children and Young People in the Data Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Evans, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on key methodological issues emerging from children and young people's involvement in data analysis processes. We outline a pragmatic framework illustrating different approaches to engaging children, using two case studies of children's experiences of participating in data analysis. The article highlights methods of…