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Sample records for prepare alkaloids binary

  1. Studies on preparation of some alkaloid complexes and solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A A

    1990-12-31

    Describes the various methods available in the literature for the determination of different classes of alkaloids spectrochemical (e.g.spectrophotometry and colorimetry, fluorimetry and phosphorimetry, nephelometry and reiractometry), electrochemical (e.g. polarography, amperometry, conductometry, coulometry and potentiometry), volumetric (e.q. acid-base, iodometry , bromimetry , oxidimetry, complexometry and precipitation ) and miscellaneous methods (e.g.gasliquid chromatography, gravimetry, thermometry and rediometry ) has been discussed. 31 tabs; 29 figs; 402 refs.

  2. Studies on preparation of some alkaloid complexes and solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the various methods available in the literature for the determination of different classes of alkaloids spectrochemical (e.g.spectrophotometry and colorimetry, fluorimetry and phosphorimetry, nephelometry and reiractometry), electrochemical (e.g. polarography, amperometry, conductometry, coulometry and potentiometry), volumetric (e.q. acid-base, iodometry , bromimetry , oxidimetry, complexometry and precipitation ) and miscellaneous methods (e.g.gasliquid chromatography, gravimetry, thermometry and rediometry ) has been discussed

  3. Preparation of Mesoporous SBA-16 Silica-Supported Biscinchona Alkaloid Ligand for the Asymmetric Dihydroxylation of Olefins

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    Shaheen M. Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optically active cinchona alkaloid was anchored onto mesoporous SBA-16 silica and the as-prepared complex was used as a heterogeneous chiral ligand of osmium tetraoxide for the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins. The prepared catalytic system provided 90–93% yield of vicinal diol with 92–99% enantioselectivity. The ordered mesoporous SBA-16 silica was found to be a valuable support for the cinchona alkaloid liganded osmium catalyst system which is frequently used in chemical industries and research laboratories for olefin functionalization.

  4. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine ...

  5. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v, adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE–acetonitrile–water (4:0.5:5, v/v, adding triethylamine (TEA (10 mM to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Preparative separation of six rhynchophylla alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla wall by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-12-12

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-acetonitrile-water (4:0.5:5, v/v), adding triethylamine (TEA) (10 mM) to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM) to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Semi-automated separation of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine: preparation of their N-oxides and NMR comparison with diastereoisomeric rinderine and echinatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of structure and, particularly, stereochemical variation of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids can present challenges for analysis and the isolation of pure compounds for the preparation of analytical standards and for toxicology studies. To investigate methods for the separation of gram-scale quantities of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine and to compare their NMR spectroscopic data with those of their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine. Lycopsamine and intermedine were extracted, predominantly as their N-oxides and along with their acetylated derivatives, from commercial samples of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) root. Alkaloid enrichment involved liquid-liquid partitioning of the crude methanol extract between dilute aqueous acid and n-butanol, reduction of N-oxides and subsequent continuous liquid-liquid extraction of free base alkaloids into CHCl3 . The alkaloid-rich fraction was further subjected to semi-automated flash chromatography using boronated soda glass beads or boronated quartz sand. Boronated soda glass beads (or quartz sand) chromatography adapted to a Biotage Isolera Flash Chromatography System enabled large-scale separation (at least up to 1-2 g quantities) of lycopsamine and intermedine. The structures were confirmed using one- and two-dimensional (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectroscopy. Examination of the NMR data for lycopsamine, intermedine and their heliotridine-based analogues echinatine and rinderine allowed for some amendments of literature data and provided useful comparisons for determining relative configurations in monoester dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. A similar NMR comparison of lycopsamine and intermedine with their N-oxides showed the effects of N-oxidation on some key chemical shifts. A levorotatory shift in specific rotation from +3.29° to -1.5° was observed for lycopsamine when dissolved in ethanol or methanol respectively. A semi-automated flash

  8. Preparation of NiFe binary alloy nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work,an idea which applies binary alloy nanocrystal floating gate to nonvolatile memory application was introduced.The relationship between binary alloy’s work function and its composition was discussed theoretically.A nanocrystal floating gate structure with NiFe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 dielectric layers was fabricated by magnetron sputtering.The micro-structure and composition deviation of the prepared NiFe nanocrystals were also investigated by TEM and EDS.

  9. Quality Assessment of Kumu Injection, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation, Using HPLC Combined with Chemometric Methods and Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Alkaloids by Single Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiao; Yang, Xin; Xu, Hui

    2018-04-09

    Kumu injection (KMI) is a common-used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. rich in alkaloids. An innovative technique for quality assessment of KMI was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with chemometric methods and qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS). Nigakinone (PQ-6, 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one), one of the most abundant alkaloids responsible for the major pharmacological activities of Kumu, was used as a reference substance. Six alkaloids in KMI were quantified, including 6-hydroxy- β -carboline-1-carboxylic acid (PQ-1), 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one (PQ-2), β -carboline-1-carboxylic acid (PQ-3), β -carboline-1-propanoic acid (PQ-4), 3-methylcanthin-5,6-dione (PQ-5), and PQ-6. Based on the outcomes of twenty batches of KMI samples, the contents of six alkaloids were used for further chemometric analysis. By hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), radar plots, and principal component analysis (PCA), all the KMI samples could be categorized into three groups, which were closely related to production date and indicated the crucial influence of herbal raw material on end products of KMI. QAMS combined with chemometric analysis could accurately measure and clearly distinguish the different quality samples of KMI. Hence, QAMS is a feasible and promising method for the quality control of KMI.

  10. Azeotropic binary solvent mixtures for preparation of organic single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Anthony, J.E.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Here, a new approach is introduced to prepare large single crystals of π-conjugated organic molecules from solution. Utilizing the concept of azeotropism, single crystals of tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN) with dimensions up to millimeters are facilely self-assembled from homogeneous

  11. Azeotropic binary solvent mixtures for preparation of organic single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kjellander, B.K.C.; Anthony, J.E.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Here, a new approach is introduced to prepare large single crystals of p-conjugated organic molecules from solution. Utilizing the concept of azeotropism, single crystals of tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN) with dimensions up to millimeters are facilely self-assembled from homogeneous

  12. Tunable porous nanoallotropes prepared by post-assembly etching of binary nanoparticle superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayabhaskararao, Thumu; Altantzis, Thomas; Houben, Lothar; Coronado-Puchau, Marc; Langer, Judith; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Vuković, Lela; Král, Petr; Bals, Sara; Klajn, Rafal

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles has been used to prepare hundreds of different colloidal crystals, but almost invariably with the restriction that the particles must be densely packed. Here, we show that non-close-packed nanoparticle arrays can be fabricated through the selective removal of one of two components comprising binary nanoparticle superlattices. First, a variety of binary nanoparticle superlattices were prepared at the liquid-air interface, including several arrangements that were previously unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed the particular role of the liquid in templating the formation of superlattices not achievable through self-assembly in bulk solution. Second, upon stabilization, all of these binary superlattices could be transformed into distinct “nanoallotropes”—nanoporous materials having the same chemical composition but differing in their nanoscale architectures.

  13. Preparative separation of C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dahui [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China); Shu, Xikai; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xi, Xingjun; Zheng, Zhenjia [China National institute of Standardization, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v). Mesaconitine (I), hypaconitine (II), and deoxyaconitine (III) were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR. (author)

  14. Preparative separation of C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH‑zone-refining counter-current chromatography

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    Dahui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v. Mesaconitine (I, hypaconitine (II, and deoxyaconitine (III were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and NMR.

  15. Solid state amorphisation in binary systems prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Sagarzazu, A.; Bonyuet, D.; D'Angelo, L.; Villalba, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study of amorphisation in different systems prepared by mechanical alloying under the same experimental conditions was carried out, milling up to 50 and 100 h in some cases. The systems studied were: AlTi, AlNi, AlFe, FeNi, FeCo, NiMo, NiW, NiCo, MoW, CoMo. These systems were chosen to study the effect of Al-transition metal, transition metal-transition metal and also systems with large and small negative heat of mixing, different and similar crystal structures, atomic sizes and diffusion coefficients. Calculations based on the Miedema model for alloy formation and amorphisation on all the alloys studied were performed. The experimental results from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the systems based on Fe (FeNi, FeCo and FeAl) did not amorphised, even after milling for 100 h, and formed a stable solid solution with a nanometric grain size of 7 nm. The systems NiMo, NiW, MoW and CoMo (systems with small negative heat of mixing), showed amorphisation after 50 h of milling. NiAl and TiAl form an intermediate amorphous phase after around 20 h of milling and with further milling they recrystallize into a fcc solid solution. Agreement between the theoretical calculations based on the Miedema model and the experimental results was found in most of the systems.

  16. Supercritical fluid chromatography for separation and preparation of tautomeric 7-epimeric spiro oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Pan, Huiqin; Yao, Changliang; Hou, Jinjun; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Luying; Feng, Ruihong; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-02-05

    Increasing challenge arising from configurational interconversion in aqueous solvent renders it rather difficult to isolate high-purity tautomeric reference standards and thus largely hinders the holistic quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Spiro oxindole alkaloids (SOAs), as the markers for the medicinal Uncaria herbs, can easily isomerize in polar or aqueous solvent via a retro-Mannich reaction. In the present study, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is utilized to separate and isolate two pairs of 7-epimeric SOAs, including rhynchophylline (R) and isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxine (C) and corynoxine B (CB), from Uncaria macrophylla. Initially, the solvent that can stabilize SOA epimers was systematically screened, and acetonitrile was used to dissolve and as the modifier in SFC. Then, key parameters of ultra-high performance SFC (ultra-performance convergence chromatography, UPC 2 ), comprising stationary phase, additive in modifier, column temperature, ABPR pressure, and flow rate, were optimized in sequence. Two isocratic UPC 2 methods were developed on the achiral Torus 1-AA and Torus Diol columns, suitable for UV and MS detection, respectively. MCI gel column chromatography fractionated the U. macrophylla extract into two mixtures (R/IR and C/CB). Preparative SFC, using a Viridis Prep Silica 2-EP OBD column and acetonitrile-0.2% diethylamine in CO 2 as the mobile phase, was finally employed for compound purification. As a result, the purity of four SOA compounds was all higher than 95%. Different from reversed-phase HPLC, SFC, by use of water-free mobile phase (inert CO 2 and aprotic modifier), provides a solution to rapid analysis and isolation of tautomeric reference standards for quality control of TCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2014-12-01

    This review covers pyrrolizidine alkaloids isolated from natural sources. Topics include: aspects of structure, isolation, and biological/pharmacological studies; total syntheses of necic acids, necine bases and closely-related non-natural analogues.

  18. Expedient preparation of nazlinine and a small library of indole alkaloids using flow electrochemistry as an enabling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeshov, Mikhail A; Musio, Biagia; Murray, Philip R D; Browne, Duncan L; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-05

    An expedient synthesis of the indole alkaloid nazlinine is reported. Judicious choice of flow electrochemistry as an enabling technology has permitted the rapid generation of a small library of unnatural relatives of this biologically active molecule. Furthermore, by conducting the key electrochemical Shono oxidation in a flow cell, the loading of electrolyte can be significantly reduced to 20 mol % while maintaining a stable, broadly applicable process.

  19. Preparative isolation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography by changing the length of the separation column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Dong, Hongjing; Yang, Bin; Liu, Dahui; Duan, Wenjuan; Huang, Luqi

    2011-12-01

    pH-Zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied for the preparative separation of alkaloids from Dactylicapnos scandens. The two-phase solvent system was composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v), where 20 mM of triethylamine (TEA) was added to the upper phase as a retainer and 5 mM of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the aqueous phase as an eluter. In this experiment, the apparatus with an adjustable length of the separation column was used for the separation of alkaloids from D. scandens and the resolution of the compounds can be remarkably improved by increasing the length of the separation column. As a result, 70 mg protopin, 30 mg (+) corydine, 120 mg (+) isocorydine and 40 mg (+) glaucine were obtained from 1.0 g of the crude extracts and each with 99.2%, 96.5%, 99.3%, 99.5% purity as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by positive ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory active constituents and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Senecio plants and their preparations by LC-UV and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pinghong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lulin; Jiang, Wei; Niu, Yan; Shao, Qing; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Quancheng; Yan, Licheng; Wang, Shufang

    2015-11-10

    Two Senecio plants, Senecio cannabifolius Less. and its variety S. cannabifolius Less. var. integrifolius (Kiodz.) Kidam., were both used as the raw material of Feining granule, a traditional Chinese medicine product for treating respiratory diseases. In this study, the chemical profiles of these two plants were investigated and compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A total number of 83 constituents, including 55 organic acids, 11 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 3 terpenes and 10 other types of compounds, were characterized. The results indicated that the levels of most flavonoids were higher in S. cannabifolius than in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, however, the levels of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were higher in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in S. cannabifolius. Fifteen constituents were evaluated on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells, and eleven of them showed inhibition effect against nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, the levels of ten major constituents (including seven anti-inflammatory active ones) and two PAs in Feining granule from two Senecio plants were determined and compared by the LC-UV and LC-MS methods, respectively. It was found that one organic acid (homogentisic acid) and two PAs (seneciphylline and senecionine) had higher contents in the preparation of S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in that of S. cannabifolius, however, the situations were inverse for the levels of four organic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and isochlorogenic acid B). Based on the above results, S. cannabifolius might be a better raw material for Feining granule than S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, because it contained more anti-inflammatory constituents and less hepatotoxic PAs than the latter. However, more pharmacological evaluations should be carried out to support the selection. The results in this study were helpful

  1. Study on preparation and thermal property of binary fatty acid and the binary fatty acids/diatomite composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Min; Kao, Hongtao; Wu, Zhishen; Tan, Jinmiao

    2011-01-01

    This study prepared a series of binary phase change materials by mixing decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid each other. The phase-transition temperature of binary fatty acid and its corresponding mixing proportion are calculated with phase diagram thermodynamic method. The results are verified by the experimental result of the heat absorption curve and the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis curve. The results show that the calculation method of phase diagram thermodynamic calculation can be taken as a basis for mixing proportion of binary fatty acid phase change materials. In addition, the decanoic-dodecanoic acid/diatomite composite phase change material (PCM) are prepared and its microstructure, thermal property and thermal reliability are characterized. The result shows that the decanoic-dodecanoic acid is uniformly adsorbed into diatomite and the form-stable PCM are formed. The phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the decanoic-dodecanoic acid/diatomite composite PCMs is 16.74 o C and 66.8114 J/g, respectively.

  2. Preparative Separation of Alkaloids from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don Benn. by Conventional and pH-Zone-Refining Countercurrent Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC modes were compared by separation of major alkaloids from crude extract of Picrasma quassioides. The conventional HSCCC separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:4.5:5.5, v/v/v/v with 200 mg loading. pH-Zone-refining CCC was performed with two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–n-butanol–water (3:2:7:9, v/v/v/v where triethylamine (10 mM was added to the upper organic stationary phase and hydrochloric acid (5 mM was added to the lower aqueous phase with 2 g loading. From 2 g of crude extract, 87 mg of 5-methoxycanthin-6-one (a, 38 mg of 1-methoxy-β-carboline (b, 134 mg of 1-ethyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (c, 74 mg of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-β-carboline (d, 56 mg of 1-vinyl-4,8-dimethoxy-β-carboline (e and 26 mg of 1-vinyl-4-dimethoxy-β-carboline (f were obtained with purities of over 97.0%. The results indicated that pH-zone-refining CCC is an excellent separations tool at the multigram level.

  3. Alkaloids from Delphinium pentagynum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Jesús G; Ruiz, Juan García; Herz, Werner

    2004-07-01

    Aerial parts of a collection of Delphinium pentagynum Lam. from Niebla, Southern Spain, furnished one diterpene alkaloid, 2-dehydrodeacetylheterophylloidine, two norditerpene alkaloids, 14-demethyl-14-isobutyrylanhweidelphinine and 14-demethyl-14-acetylanhweidelphinine, the known alkaloids 14-deacetylnudicauline, methyllycaconitine, 14-deacetyl-14-isobutyrylnudicauline, 14-acetylbrowniine, browniine, delcosine, lycoctonine, 18-methoxygadesine, neoline, karakoline and the aporphine alkaloid magnoflorine. Structures of the alkaloids were established by MS, 1D and 2-D NMR techniques.

  4. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct preparation of a graphene oxide modified monolith in a glass syringe as a solid-phase extraction cartridge for the extraction of quaternary ammonium alkaloids from Chinese patent medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Licheng; Wang, Shuai; Li, Yijing; Guo, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Packed cartridges have been widely used in solid-phase extraction. However, there are still some drawbacks, such as they are blocked easily and the method is time-consuming. In view of the advantages of monoliths, a monolithic extraction material has been directly synthesized in a glass syringe without any gap between the monolith and syringe inner wall. The monolithic syringe was modified with graphene oxide by loading graphene oxide dispersion onto it. The content of graphene oxide and the surface topography of the monolith have been evaluated by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, which confirmed the successful modification. This prepared graphene oxide-modified monolithic syringe was directly used as a traditional solid-phase extraction cartridge. As expected, it shows good permeability and excellent capability for the extraction of quaternary ammonium alkaloids. The sample loading velocity (1-6 mL/min) does not affect the recovery. Under the optimal conditions, good linearities (R = 0.9992-0.9998) were obtained for five quaternary ammonium alkaloids, and the limits of detection and quantification were 0.5-1 and 1-2 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of quaternary ammonium alkaloids in Chinese patent medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    glaucine as hydrochloride bases and salts were presented in more details. Data from leading world pharmacopoeias (Ph. Eur. Ill/s 2000, DAB 1996, USP 23, JP XIII, BP 1993, Ph. Jug. IV were used in the study of application of the pure alkaloids in pharmaceutical forms with predetermined doses. A comparative study of these data shows that a great number of preparations are produced worldwide based on alkaloids and alkaloids with modified structure. These medicines have found use in modern therapeutic practice in many countries. Most products are produced on the basis of caffeine, theophylline, ephedrine, atropine, scopolamine, reserpine and pilocarpine.

  7. Fe-Mn binary oxide incorporated into diatomite as an adsorbent for arsenite removal: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fangfang; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Liu, Ruiping; Zhao, Xu

    2009-10-15

    Fe-Mn binary oxide incorporated into diatomite (FMBO-diatomite) was prepared by a simple coating method, and exhibited high oxidation and adsorption ability for arsenite [As(III)]. After being incorporated by Fe-Mn binary oxide, the surface area of diatomite increased 36%, and the pore volume increased five times. The pHzpc of FMBO-diatomite was determined to be 8.1. These characteristics are responsible for the increased As(III) adsorption efficiency. The adsorption equilibria of As(III) on FMBO-diatomite were described well by a Langmuir isotherm model due to the homogeneous distribution of Fe-Mn binary oxide on a diatomite surface. As(III) was oxidized into As(V), and then adsorbed by FMBO-diatomite. The oxidation and adsorption efficiencies for As(III) depended deeply on the pH of solution. When the pH was raised to 8.1, the As(III) adsorption efficiency of FMBO-diatomite was almost equal to the As(III) oxidation efficiency. Silicate and phosphate had negative effects on As(III) adsorption. Also the influence of silicate and phosphate with the pH variation was different.

  8. RIA for indol alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, H.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of RIAs for indol alkaloids (ajmaline, ergotamine, ergocristine, ergometrine, and lysergic acid) is described, and applications for this RIA and the RIA for raubasine and serpentine are mentioned. The indol alkaloide RIAs are shown to be suitable both for alkaloid distribution measurements in Catharantus and Rauwolfia plants and C. purpurea sclerotia as well as for the selection of high-efficiency strains and the optimisation of cultures of plant tissues and saprophytic fungi. (orig./MG) [de

  9. TOXIC PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS OF ECHIUM AMOENUM FISCH. & MEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRA MEHRABANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are present in some species of Echium (Boraginaceae. In this study petals of Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey. (Gol-e-Gavzaban as a popular herbal medicine in Iran, were investigated for pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The alkaloids were separated and purified by preparative TLC and characterized by IR, one and two dimensional 1H and 13C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Four toxic alkaloids namely: echimidine I, echimidine isomer II, 7-angeloyl retronecine III and 7-tigloyl retronecine IV were identified.

  10. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite as composite phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Junbing [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjiner@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Zhu, Panpan; Wang, Changhong [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Li, Xinxi [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The expanded graphite enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient greatly. • The aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic was utilized to disperse EG. • The combination of composite was physical without chemical reaction. • The reduction on total latent heat was slight after the adding EG. - Abstract: The binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) were prepared via adding different mass rate of EG to binary nitrate salts consisting of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} (6:4) by aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic. The morphology and chemical composition of EG and the composite PCM were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Laser thermal conductivity instrument and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were employed to measure thermo physical properties. Drawing the conclusion from investigation, that EG had enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient which largely increased to 4.884 W/(m K) and reduced total latent heat by mostly 11.0%. The morphology and phase structure results indicated that EG were well dispersed into and physically combined with molten salts. In general, the prepared composite PCM could be a suitable phase change material for thermal energy storage.

  11. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite as composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Junbing; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Panpan; Wang, Changhong; Li, Xinxi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expanded graphite enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient greatly. • The aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic was utilized to disperse EG. • The combination of composite was physical without chemical reaction. • The reduction on total latent heat was slight after the adding EG. - Abstract: The binary nitrate salts/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) were prepared via adding different mass rate of EG to binary nitrate salts consisting of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 (6:4) by aqueous solution method adopting ultrasonic. The morphology and chemical composition of EG and the composite PCM were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Laser thermal conductivity instrument and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were employed to measure thermo physical properties. Drawing the conclusion from investigation, that EG had enhanced thermal conductivity coefficient which largely increased to 4.884 W/(m K) and reduced total latent heat by mostly 11.0%. The morphology and phase structure results indicated that EG were well dispersed into and physically combined with molten salts. In general, the prepared composite PCM could be a suitable phase change material for thermal energy storage

  12. Characterization of binary gold/platinum nanoparticles prepared by sonochemistry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Takatani, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Hori, F.; Taniguchi, R.; Iwase, A.; Oshima, R.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions with Au 3+ and Pt 4+ ions and additives of surfactants (SDS or PEG-MS) were irradiated with an ultrasound at 200 kHz with an input power of 4.2 W/cm 2 , and colloidal nanoparticles were prepared. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, EDX and 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the structures of nanoparticles were changed with the surfactants; Au and Pt nanoparticles were prepared individually by using SDS, and bimetallic Au/Pt alloy nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were produced in the presence of PEG-MS

  13. Hierarchical opal grating films prepared by slide coating of colloidal dispersions in binary liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmok; Kim, Seulgi; Kim, Seulki; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-02-15

    There are active researches on well ordered opal films due to their possible applications to various photonic devices. A recently developed slide coating method is capable of rapid fabrication of large area opal films from aqueous colloidal dispersion. In the current study, the slide coating of polystyrene colloidal dispersions in water/i-propanol (IPA) binary media is investigated. Under high IPA content in a dispersing medium, resulting opal film showed a deterioration of long range order, as well as a decreased film thickness due to dilution effect. From the binary liquid, the dried opal films exhibited the unprecedented topological groove patterns with varying periodic distances as a function of alcohol contents in the media. The groove patterns were consisted of the hierarchical structures of the terraced opal layers with periodic thickness variations. The origin of the groove patterns was attributed to a shear-induced periodic instability of colloidal concentration within a thin channel during the coating process which was directly converted to a groove patterns in a resulting opal film due to rapid evaporation of liquid. The groove periods of opal films were in the range of 50-500 μm, and the thickness differences between peak and valley of the groove were significantly large enough to be optically distinguishable, such that the coated films can be utilized as the optical grating film to disperse infra-red light. Utilizing a lowered hydrophilicity of water/IPA dispersant, an opal film could be successfully coated on a flexible Mylar film without significant dewetting problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  15. Research on the Preparation and Performance of Binary Modified Maltodextrin Water-Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maltodextrin (MD of different dextrose equivalent (DE values, 1,3-propanesultone, and maleic anhydride as raw materials, a novel binary modified maltodextrin (BMMD was synthesized and further applied as a water-reducing agent. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV. The rheological behavior of the sample solution and strengths for concrete were also determined and the adsorption was tested by TOC. The influence of the process parameters to degree of substitution (DS and the dosage on the fluidity of cement paste were investigated. The results show that the optimal conditions of sulfonation were the MD of DE 15, m (sulfonated agent/m (MD of 1.4, the catalyst amount of 1% by mass MD, and the reaction time of 12 h; the optimal conditions of esterification were m (esterified agent/m (SMD of 0.6, the reaction temperature of 90°C, and the reaction time of 4 h. The optimal dosages of sulfonated maltodextrin (SMD and BMMD were 0.475% and 0.45%, respectively. In this dosage, the main dispersion capacity of BMMD attributes to two kinds of anchoring groups (SO3-  &  COO- and the appropriate molecular weight of MD.

  16. Novel Euglenoid Derived Alkaloid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Disclosed herein is a purified toxin isolated from Euglena sanguinea. More specifically the toxin, termed euglenophycin, is an alkaloid having herbicidal and...

  17. Preparation of poly (vinyl alcohol) membranes grafted with n-vinyl pyridine/ acrylic acid binary monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, A.; Ali, A.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) films were grafted with two monomers using gamma radiation, acrylic acid and N-vinyl pyridine. The influence of different parameters on the grafting yield was investigated as: the comonomer concentration and composition, and irradiation dose. The suitable conditions of the process had been determined to prepare PVA membranes have both properties of the two monomers, acrylic acid and vinyl pyridine as comonomer concentration and composition, and irradiation dose. Some properties of the membranes had been investigated as maximum swelling and grafting. Also the ability of the grafted films to adsorb some heavy metals and dyes was elaborated and discussed.(author)

  18. Cation-exchanger fabric prepared by electron beam - induced graft copolymerization of binary monomer mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, Yu.V.; Kim, H.J.; Lim, Y.J.; Perelygin, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Applying the electron-beam preirradiation method in air the sorption-active polypropylene fiber, containing sulfonic acid (R-SO 3 H) groups, was prepared by simultaneous graft copolymerization of sodium styrenesulfonate with acrylic acid in water solution. The effect of reaction conditions on the grafting yield and reaction mechanism was examined. It was found that the received CEF contains groups of strong acid (R-SO 3 H) and weak acid (R-COOH) in almost equal proportion. The ion-exchange properties of the CEF towards Cu(II) and Co(II) ions were investigated depending on the form of the CEF and a pH of the solution. It was shown that the utilization of the CEF in Na- form allows to make the best use of its ion-exchange capacity. (author)

  19. Automated preparation method for colloidal crystal arrays of monodisperse and binary colloid mixtures by contact printing with a pintool plotter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Klaus; Neumann, Thomas; Wang, Jianjun; Jonas, Ulrich; Knoll, Wolfgang; Ottleben, Holger

    2007-03-13

    Photonic crystals and photonic band gap materials with periodic variation of the dielectric constant in the submicrometer range exhibit unique optical properties such as opalescence, optical stop bands, and photonic band gaps. As such, they represent attractive materials for the active elements in sensor arrays. Colloidal crystals, which are 3D gratings leading to Bragg diffraction, are one potential precursor of such optical materials. They have gained particular interest in many technological areas as a result of their specific properties and ease of fabrication. Although basic techniques for the preparation of regular patterns of colloidal crystals on structured substrates by self-assembly of mesoscopic particles are known, the efficient fabrication of colloidal crystal arrays by simple contact printing has not yet been reported. In this article, we present a spotting technique used to produce a microarray comprising up to 9600 single addressable sensor fields of colloidal crystal structures with dimensions down to 100 mum on a microfabricated substrate in different formats. Both monodisperse colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystal systems were prepared by contact printing of polystyrene particles in aqueous suspension. The array morphology was characterized by optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed regularly ordered crystalline structures for both systems. In the case of binary crystals, the influence of the concentration ratio of the large and small particles in the printing suspension on the obtained crystal structure was investigated. The optical properties of the colloidal crystal arrays were characterized by reflection spectroscopy. To examine the stop bands of the colloidal crystal arrays in a high-throughput fashion, an optical setup based on a CCD camera was realized that allowed the simultaneous readout of all of the reflection spectra of several thousand sensor fields per array in parallel. In agreement with

  20. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi, E-mail: yamaura@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi [Tohoku Steel, Co., Ltd., 23 Nishigaoka, Murata, Murata-machi, Shibata 989-1393 (Japan); Furuya, Yasubumi [North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, Hirosaki University, 2-1-3 Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x} (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} and Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 80} alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction.

  1. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi; Nakajima, Takashi; Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi; Furuya, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe 25 Co 75 alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe 1−x Co x (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe 25 Co 75 alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe 25 Co 75 and Fe 20 Co 80 alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction

  2. Preparation of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Grafted With Acrylic Acid/Styrene Binary Monomers For Selective Permeation of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy El-Sayed, A.; Abd El-Rehim, H.A.; Ali, A.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been made to modify water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), by grafting acrylic acid and styrene (AAc/Sty) binary monomers using gamma rays as initiator. The factors that affect the preparation process and grafting yield were studied and more economical grafts under the most favorable reaction conditions were obtained. It was found that the high degree of grafting of such system was obtained in presence of ethanol-water mixture in which water plays a significant role in enhancing the graft copolymerization. The critical amount of water to afford maximum grafting yield has been evaluated. The effect of comonomer composition on the grafting yield was also investigated and it was observed that using a mixture of AAc/Sty monomers influence the extent of grafting of each monomer onto the PVA substrate and the phenomenon of synergism occurs during such reaction. Also, degree of grafting increases as the content of the solvent decreases in the reaction medium. The permeation of heavy metals such as Ni and Co through the grafted membranes was investigated and efficiency of separation process is also determined

  3. Isolation, Identification, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Activity of Alkaloid Compound from Peperomia pellucida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachriyah, E.; Ghifari, M. A.; Anam, K.

    2018-04-01

    The research of the isolation and xanthine oxidation inhibition activity of alkaloid compound from Peperomia pellucida has been carried out. Alkaloid extract is isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Alkaloid isolate is identified spectroscopically by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR, and LC-MS/MS. Xanthine oxidase inhibition activity is carried out by in vitro assay. The result showed that the alkaloid isolated probably has piperidine basic structure. The alkaloid isolate has N-H, C-H, C = C, C = O, C-N, C-O-C groups and the aromatic ring. The IC50 values of ethanol and alkaloid extract are 71.6658 ppm and 76.3318 ppm, respectively. Alkaloid extract of Peperomia pellucida showed higher activity than ethanol extract.

  4. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  5. Mass-spectrometry-directed analysis and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloid cis/trans isomers in Gynura japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lianxiang; Xiong, Aizhen; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Wenzhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-08-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are highly hepatotoxic natural chemicals that produce irreversible chronic and acute hepatotoxic effects on human beings. Purification of large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is necessary for toxicity studies. In this study, an efficient method for targeted analysis and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloid cis/trans isomers from herbal materials was developed for the first time. Targeted analysis of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids was performed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (precursor ion scan and daughter ion scan), and the purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was achieved with a mass-directed auto purification system. The extraction and preparative liquid chromatography conditions were optimized. The developed method was applied to analysis of Gynura japonica (Thunb.) Juel., a herbal medicine traditionally used for detumescence and relieving pain but is potentially hepatotoxic as it contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Twelve pyrrolizidine alkaloids (six cis/trans isomer pairs) were identified with reference compounds or characterized by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and five individual pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including (E)-seneciphylline, seneciphylline, integerrimine, senecionine, and seneciphyllinine, were prepared from G. japonica roots with high efficiency. The results of this work provide a new technique for the preparation of large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloid reference substances, which will also benefit toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and treatments for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced toxicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line (Kijjoa et. al., 2007). Recently, Davis’s and coworkers, reported two new cytotoxici- ty peridoacridine alkaloids viz... 10 sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer. Excitingly, it displayed promising selective cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. 12.3.1. BISINDOLE ALKALOIDS Bis-indole alkaloids, consisting of two indole moieties...

  7. Nerinine and homolycorine, amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babashpour-Asl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Many members of the Amaryllidaceae are regarded as toxic. The toxic constituents that occur in the whole family are referred to as the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. The main aim of this study was the identification of alkaloid compounds from Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin, a medicinal plant from Amaryllidaceae. Methods: Planar and column chromatography techniques were used for isolation of alkaloid components. GC/MS analysis was carried out for the identification of alkaloid compounds. Results: Silica gel column chromatography of the alkaloidal extract of G. transcaucasicus bulbs afforded seven fractions. Preparative thin layer chromatography of these fractions led to the isolation of compounds 1 (nerinineand 2 (homolycorine. Galantamine was not detected in any of these fractions. Conclusion: Our findings showed that G. transcaucasicus could be a new source of bioactive alkaloids for possible applications in pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Inhibitive action of alkaloids and non alkaloid fractions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2.0 MHCl solution by non-alkaloidal and alkaloidal fractions of the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (NAEPA and AEPA respectively) was studied using gravimetric and gasometric techniques at 303 and 323 K. The results revealed that the extracts functioned as good corrosion inhibitors.

  9. Four alkaloids from Annona cherimola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Chang, F R; Pan, W B; Wu, Y C

    2001-04-01

    Four alkaloids, annocherine A, annocherine B, cherianoine, and romucosine H, along with one known alkaloid, artabonatine B, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the stems of Annona cherimola. Their structures were identified on the basis of both analysis of their spectral data and from chemical evidence.

  10. Alkaloids from Isopyrum thalictroides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istatkova, Ralitsa; Philipov, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    Two new aporphine-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids thaliphine and isothaliphine with a new type of ether bridge were isolated from the roots and rhyzomes of Isopyrum thalictroides L. (Ranunculaceae). Their structures were established by physical and spectral analysis. The known alkaloid N-methylglaucine was isolated for the first time from a plant of the family Ranunculaceae.

  11. Molecular docking study of Papaver alkaloids to some alkaloid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nofallah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: More than 40 different alkaloids have been obtained from opium the most important of which are morphine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine and tabaine. Opioid alkaloids produce analgesia by affecting areas of the brain that have peptides with pharmacological pseudo-opioid properties. These alkaloids show important effects on some intracellular peptides like mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Therefore, studying the effects of these alkaloids on different receptors is essential. Methods: Molecular docking is a well-known method in exploring the protein-ligand interactions. In this research, five important alkaloids were docked to crystal structure of human mu opioid receptor (4DKL, human delta opioid receptor (4EJ4 and human kappa opioid receptor (4DJH which were retrieved from protein databank. The 3D-structures of alkaloids were drawn by chembiooffice2010 and minimized with hyperchem package and submitted to molecular docking utilizing autodock-vina. Flexibility of the proteins was considered. The docking studies were performed to compare the affinity of these five alkaloids to the mentioned receptors. Results: We computationally docked each alkaloid compound onto each receptor structure and estimated their binding affinity based on dock scores. Dock score is a criteria including binding energy which utilized here for prediction and comparison of the binding affinities. Binding interactions of the docked alkaloids in receptor pockets were also visually inspected and compared. Conclusion: In this approach, using docking study as a computational method provided a valuable insight of opioid receptor pocket structures which would be essential to design more efficient drugs in pain managements and addiction treatments.

  12. CNS active ergot alkaloid dihydro derivatives. Tritium labelling and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.A.; Nugent, R.P.; Filer, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    The ergot alkaloids are an important class of medicinally useful substances and this report describes the high specific activity tritium labelling of two dihydro derivatives; namely, dihydroergotamine and dihydrobromocriptine. The former was prepared by the direct tritiation of ergotamine itself. However, efforts to perform an analogous direct tritiation on bromocriptine were unsuccessful and a multistep synthesis was required. (author)

  13. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  14. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.; Iyer, S.S.; Badheka, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2- 14 C, benzoic acid-1- 14 C, benzoic acid-ring 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C and cinnamic acid-2- 14 C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium megalanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, M; Gonzalez-Coloma, A; Gutierrez, C; Cabrera, R; Henriquez, J; Villarroel, L

    1998-11-01

    Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, megalanthonine (1) and lycopsamine (2), have been isolated from Heliotropium megalanthum. The structure of the novel compound 1 was determined by spectroscopic methods. The insecticidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of compounds 1 and 2 have been evaluated.

  16. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gerhards

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines. All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine. Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes.

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joao Sammy N.; Machado, Luciana L.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Overk, Cassia R.; Ping Yao; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Helindicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. (author)

  18. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,João Sammy N.; Machado,Luciana L.; Pessoa,Otília D. L.; Braz-Filho,Raimundo; Overk,Cassia R.; Yao,Ping; Cordell,Geoffrey A.; Lemos,Telma L. G.

    2005-01-01

    Helindicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. Um novo alcaló...

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Joao Sammy N.; Machado, Luciana L.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.; Lemos, Telma L.G. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Overk, Cassia R.; Ping Yao; Cordell, Geoffrey A. [University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy

    2005-11-15

    ndicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. (author)

  20. Quinolizidine alkaloids from the curare adjuvant Clathrotropis glaucophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagen, Anne Lise; Gertsch, Jürg; Becker, Rita; Heilmann, Jörg; Sticher, Otto

    2002-12-01

    The bark of Clathrotropis glaucophylla (Fabaceae) is used as admixture of curare arrow poison by the Yanomami; Amerindians in Venezuela. A new quinolizidine alkaloid (QA), (-)-13alpha-hydroxy-15alpha-(1-hydroxyethyl)-anagyrine [(-)-clathrotropine], was isolated from the alkaloid extract of C. glaucophylla bark, together with eleven known QAs: (-)-anagyrine, (-)-thermopsine, (-)-baptifoline, (-)-epibaptifoline, (-)-rhombifoline, (-)-tinctorine, (-)-cytisine, (-)-N-methylcytisine, (-)-lupanine, (-)-6alpha-hydroxylupanine and (+)-5,6-dehydrolupanine. The isolation and structure elucidation were performed with the aid of chromatographic (TLC, HPLC and CC) and spectroscopic (UV and 1D/2D NMR) methods, and mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first time quinolizidine alkaloids have been isolated from an arrow poison ingredient. It is also the first report on Clathrotropis species being used for preparation of arrow poison.

  1. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine “asmachilca”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M.; Boppré, Michael; Monzón, Julio; Betz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respiratory allergies, common cold and bronchial asthma. However, its attractiveness to pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated a potential for toxicity for human consumers. Aim of the study To determine if commercial asmachilca samples, including fully processed herbal teas, contain potentially toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Materials and methods Two brands of “Asmachilca” herbal tea bags and four other commercial samples of botanical materials for preparing asmachilca medicine were extracted and analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the characteristic retention times and mass spectra of known dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Other suspected dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on MS/MS profiles and high resolution molecular weight determinations. Further structure elucidation of isolated alkaloids was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Results Asmachilca attracted many species of moths which are known to pharmacophagously gather dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Analysis of 5 of the asmachilca samples revealed the major presence of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters rinderine and supinine, and their N-oxides. The 6th sample was very similar but did not contain supinine or its N-oxide. Small quantities of other dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters, including echinatine and intermedine, were also detected. In addition, two major metabolites, previously undescribed, were isolated and identified as dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters with two “head-to-tail” linked viridifloric and/or trachelanthic acids. Estimates of total pyrrolizidine alkaloid and N

  2. Selective reduction of peptidic ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvak, L.; Stuchlík, J.; Schreiberová, M.; Sedmera, Petr; Havlíček, Vladimír; Flieger, Miroslav; Čejka, J.; Kratochvíl, B.; Jegorov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2000), s. 1762-1776 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : indole alkaloids * ergot alkaloids * ergopeptides Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2000

  3. Preparation of PLLA/PMMA and PLLA/PS binary blend nanoparticles by incorporation of PLLA in methyl methacrylate or styrene miniemulsion homopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Becker Peres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miniemulsion homopolymerization reactions of methyl methacrylate (MMA and styrene (STY using poly(L-lactide as co-stabilizer were carried out in order to prepare poly(L-lactide/poly(methyl methacrylate (PLLA/PMMA and poly(L-lactide/polystyrene (PLLA/PS binary blend nanoparticles. The effect of PLLA concentration on methyl methacrylate (MMA and styrene (STY homopolymerization reactions was evaluated. It was found that the incorporation of PLLA resulted on acceleration of MMA and STY homopolymerization reactions and led to a molar mass increase of up to 70% for PS in PLLA/PS blend nanoparticles in relation to those prepared without PLLA, which can be attributed to an increase of reaction loci viscosity (gel effect. PLLA also acted as an efficient co-stabilizer, since it was able to retard diffusional degradation of droplets when no other kind of co-stabilizer was used. Two isolated Tgs were found in both PLLA/PMMA and PLLA/PS blend nanoparticles which can be associated to blend immiscibility. TEM images corroborate these results, suggesting that immiscible PLLA/PMMA and PLLA/PS blend nanoparticles could be formed with two segregated phases and core-shell morphology.

  4. ALKALOIDAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF THREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mattock's test for unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (hepatotoxic) revealed that only C. retusa contained these alkaloids amongst the three species. This indicated that this is a potentially toxic specie. The alkaloids of C. retusa were toxic to albino (Wistar) rats. Marked microscopic lesions were found, principally in the liver.

  5. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  6. Alkaloids from Mongolian species Berberis sibirica Pall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istatkova, R.; Philipov, S.; Tuleva, P.; Amgalan, A.; Samdan, J.; Dangaa, S.

    2007-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Berberis sibirica Pall. 6 isoquinoline alkaloids of protoberberine, protopine, benzphenanthridine and proaporphine type were isolated. The known alkaloids (-)-tetrahydropseudocoptisine, pseudoprotopine, (+)-chelidonine and (+)-glaziovine are new for the family Berberidaceae. From the roots of B. sibirica 10 isoquinoline alkaloids of protoberberine, benzylisoquinoline, bisbenzylisoquinoline, aporphine-benzylisoquinoline and proaporphine-benzylisoquinoline type were isolated. 1,10-Di-O-methylpakistanine has been reported for the first time as a natural alkaloid. The known alkaloids (-)-isothalidezine and (+)-armepavine have been found for the first time in the family Berberidaceae. All structures were determined by physical and spectral data. (authors)

  7. Artificially phase-separated binary self-assembled monolayers composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolate and 10-carboxy-1-decanethiolate on Au(1 1 1): A comparative study of two preparing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phong, Pham Hong; Tomono, Hyroyuki; Nishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kakiuchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Two methods have been compared for preparing artificially phase-separated two-component SAMs on Au(1 1 1) composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolates (AUTe) and 10-carboxyl-1-decanethiolates (CDTe), which would form, thermodynamically, a homogeneously mixed binary SAMs. The first method starts with the formation of a phase-separated binary SAM of AUTe and 2-hydroxy-1-ethanethiolate (HETe) as a template of the artificially phase-separated SAM, followed by the selective desorption of HETe domains and succeeding filling of the vacancy with CDTe. The second method utilizes fluoren-9-ylmethyl N-(11-mercaptoundecyl) carbamate (FMUCe) instead of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol in preparing the template. After the filling with CDTe, the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group is removed to obtain AUTe domains. Both methods yield artificially phase-separated binary SAMs having AUTe domains of tens nanometer across. The molecularly flat SAM surface with nanometer-scale domains of different acid-base and electrostatic properties are thus created. For preparing binary SAMs with a higher degree of phase separation, the second method is a better choice; a more clear-cut phase separation is achieved

  8. Lycopodium alkaloids from Palhinhaea cernua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fu-Wei [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luo, Ji-Feng; Wang, Yue-Hu, E-mail: wangyuehu@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei [Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Natural Products, Guizhou Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Liu, Fang [College of Landscape and Horticulture, Yunnan Agricultural University (China); Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, (China)

    2012-07-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, acetyllycoposerramine M and palcernine A were isolated from whole plant extracts of Palhinhaea cernua L. together with ten previously identified compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the Flack parameter. (author)

  9. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  10. Cinchona alkaloids in asymmetric organocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelli, T.; Hiemstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the applications of cinchona alkaloids as asymmetric catalysts. In the last few years, characterized by the resurgence of interest in asymmetric organocatalysis, cinchona derivatives have been shown to catalyze an outstanding array of chemical reactions, often with remarkable

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Bosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely-recognized that the view that herbal remedies have no adverse effects and/or toxicity is incorrect; some traditionally-used plants can present toxicity. The well-established popular use of Ageratum conyzoides has led to its inclusion in a category of medicinal crude drugs created by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Ageratum belongs to the Eupatorieae tribe, Asteraceae, and is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. harvested in Brazil (commercial, flowering and non-flowering samples were prepared according to the prescribed method and analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides, were detected in the analyzed extracts, lycopsamine and its N-oxide being known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. Together with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids identified by HPLC-HRMS, thirteen phenolic compounds were identified, notably, methoxylated flavonoids and chromenes. Toxicological studies on A. conyzoides are necessary, as is monitoring of its clinical use. To date, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Bosi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely-recognized that the view that herbal remedies have no adverse effects and/or toxicity is incorrect; some traditionally-used plants can present toxicity. The well-established popular use of Ageratum conyzoides has led to its inclusion in a category of medicinal crude drugs created by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Ageratum belongs to the Eupatorieae tribe, Asteraceae, and is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. harvested in Brazil (commercial, flowering and non-flowering samples were prepared according to the prescribed method and analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides, were detected in the analyzed extracts, lycopsamine and its N-oxide being known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. Together with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids identified by HPLC-HRMS, thirteen phenolic compounds were identified, notably, methoxylated flavonoids and chromenes. Toxicological studies on A. conyzoides are necessary, as is monitoring of its clinical use. To date, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.

  13. Isolation, biosynthesis and biological activity of alkaloids of Tylophora asthmatica, a versatile medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    Tylophorine and related new alkaloids have been isolated from Tylophora asthmatics, Pergularia pallida and Ficus hispida plants. Biosynthesis of this group of alkaloids has been carried out using various labelled precursors for the first time and from the systematic degradation of the isolated radiolabelled tylophorine, it has been concluded that these alkaloids arise from one molecule each of tyrosine, phenylalanine and ornithine. The interactions of Tylophora alkaloids particularly tylophorinidine with biomolecules such as lysozyme and bovine serum albumin have also been studied and binding characteristics determined. It was found that Tylophora alkaloid extract possesses antianaphylactic activity as observed in passive peritoneal anaphylaxis in rats. The drug also possessed mild antihistaminic and anticholinergic activities. Studies of the extract on the bronchial smooth muscle both in vivo and in vitro did not reveal bronchiodilator potential of the drug. In addition, the distribution and metabolism of the drug was studied in vivo using 14 C radiolabelled alkaloids prepared by biosynthetic method. This study further revealed its usefulness since the drug is absorbed by vital organs and also it is not metabolised into fragments which could cause some other damage. Tylophora alkaloids have also been found to be anti-mutagenic. 10 tables, 5 figures, 24 refs. (author)

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Binary Eutectic Ceramic Prepared by Bridgman Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caiyu; Wang, Shunheng; Liu, Juncheng; Zhai, Shuoyan

    2018-01-01

    Directionally solidified Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 (EAG) eutectic ceramic was prepared via vertical Bridgman method with high-frequency induction heating. The effects of the growth rate on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic were investigated. The experimental results showed that there were no pores or amorphous phases in the directionally solidified Al2O3/EAG eutectic ceramic. Al2O3 phase was embedded in the EAG matrix phase, and the two phases were intertwined with each other to form a typical binary eutectic “hieroglyphic” structure. With the increase of growth rate, the phase size and spacing of the solidified Al2O3/EAG ceramic both decreased, and the growth rate and phase spacing satisfied the λ2v ≈ 60 formula of Jackson-Hunt theory. The cross section microstructure of the solidified ceramic always exhibited an irregular eutectic growth, while the longitudinal section microstructure presented a directional growth. The mechanical properties of the solidified ceramic gradually increased with the increase of growth rate, and the maximum hardness and fracture toughness could reach 21.57 GPa and 2.98 MPa·m1/2 respectively. It was considered that the crack deflection and branching could enhance the toughness of the solidified ceramic effectively. PMID:29601545

  15. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  16. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  17. Peculiarities of tropane alkaloids determination in Datura Stramonium L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Анатолійович Міщенко

    2015-12-01

    ,25% calculated as atropine.Conclusion: Having analyzed the assay methods, described in the PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf», applied for the determination of tropane group alkaloids in Datura leaves, certain differences in tests preparation were determined. Nevertheless, both of the methods allow determination of tropane group alkaloids content in Datura leaves samples. The obtained experimental data are relevant and were considered when developing the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine Monograph «Stramonium leaf»

  18. Heterogeneous catalysis in liquid-phase oxidation of olefin--2. Dependence of the structure of vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene on the method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehira, K; Hayakawa, T; Ishikawa, T

    1978-01-01

    Dependence of the structure of vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene on the method of preparation was studied in an extension of previous work by using three series of binary oxide catalysts, D, E, and F, which were prepared by coprecipitation from acidic, neutral, and alkaline media, respectively. The specific activity at 60/sup 0/C, 1 atm oxygen, and benzene solvent decreased in the order D > E > F, but all three series showed maximum activity at 90% chromium. The selectivity for epoxide also followed the order D > E > F, but the maximum selectivity occurred at 50% chromium for D, 75% for E, and 90% for F. Comparison of these results with X-ray diffraction and ESR spectral structural analysis of the various chromium(III) vanadate phases supported the previously proposed mechanism, with cyclohexene autoxidation initiated by free radical decomposition of cyclohexene hydroperoxide occurring on a different type of active site.

  19. Alkaloids from Boophone haemanthoides (Amaryllidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nair, J. J.; Rárová, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Bastida, J.; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2013), s. 1705-1710 ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Alkaloid * Amaryllidaceae * Boophone haemanthoides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000328588200011

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio sp from Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Vasquez, Liliana; Reina Artiles, Matias; Gonzalez Coloma, Azucena; Cabrera Perez, Raimundo; Ruiz Mesia, Lastenia

    2011-01-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic) were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon), F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt) and F. solani (Mart), no significant activity being observed. (author)

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio sp from Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Vasquez, Liliana; Reina Artiles, Matias [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez Coloma, Azucena [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Cabrera Perez, Raimundo [Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife (Spain). Unidad de Fitopatologia, Facultad de Biologia; Ruiz Mesia, Lastenia [Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana (LIPNAA-UNAP), AA.HH. Nuevo San Lorenzo, San Juan, Iquitos (Peru). Lab. de Investigacion en Productos Naturales Antiparasitarios de la Amazonia

    2011-07-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic) were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon), F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt) and F. solani (Mart), no significant activity being observed. (author)

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of senecio sp from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ruiz Vásquez and Matías Reina Artiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon, F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt and F. solani (Mart, no significant activity being observed.

  3. Facile preparation of 3D hierarchical coaxial-cable-like Ni-CNTs@beta-(Ni, Co) binary hydroxides for supercapacitors with ultrahigh specific capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manyu; Ma, Xiaowei; Bi, Han; Zhao, Xuebing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yuesheng; Che, Renchao

    2017-09-15

    A facile chemical method for Co doping Ni-CNTs@α-Ni(OH) 2 combining with an in situ phase transformation process is successfully proposed and employed to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical Ni-CNTs@β-(Ni, Co) binary hydroxides. This strategy can effectively maintain the coaxial-cable-like structure of Ni-CNTs@α-Ni(OH) 2 and meanwhile increase the content of Co as much as possible. Eventually, the specific capacitances and electrical conductivity of the composites are remarkably enhanced. The optimized composite exhibits high specific capacitances of 2861.8F g -1 at 1A g -1 (39.48F cm -2 at 15mAcm -2 ), good rate capabilities of 1221.8F g -1 at 20A g -1 and cycling stabilities (87.6% of capacitance retention after 5000cycles at 5A g -1 ). The asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) constructed with the as-synthesized composite and activated carbon as positive and negative electrode delivers a high specific capacitance of 287.7F g -1 at 1A g -1 . The device demonstrates remarkable energy density (96Whkg -1 ) and high power density (15829.4Wkg -1 ). The retention of capacitance remains 83.5% at the current density of 5A g -1 after 5000cycles. The charged and discharged samples are further studied by ex situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, XRD and SEM to figure out the reasons of capacitance fading. Overall, it is believable that this facile synthetic strategy can be applied to prepare various nanostructured metal hydroxide/CNT composites for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Catharanthus alkaloids XXXII: isolation of alkaloids from Catharanthus trichophyllus roots and structure elucidation of cathaphylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, G A; Farnsworth, N R

    1976-03-01

    Further examination of the cytotoxic alkaloid fractions of Catharanthus trichophyllus roots afforded nine alkaloids. Two of these alkaloids, lochnericine and horhammericine, are responsible for part of the cytotoxic activity. The structure elucidation of cathaphylline, a new beta-anilino acrylate derivative, is described.

  5. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  6. Extractions of isoquinoline alkaloids with butanol and octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Jana; Babica, Jan; Marek, Radek; Paulová, Hana; Táborská, Eva; Dostál, Jirí

    2010-09-01

    Six different isoquinoline alkaloids (sanguinarine, chelerythrine, berberine, coptisine, allocryptopine, and protopine) were extracted by butanol and octanol from aqueous solution, pH 4.5. The samples were analyzed by HPLC. Butanol extraction was non-selective, alkaloids passed into organic phase in 83-98%. Octanol extraction provided more selective yields: sanguinarine 99%, chelerythrine 94%, berberine 18%, coptisine 16%, allocryptopine 7.5%, protopine 7%. Further, we tested octanol treatment of extract from Dicranostigma lactucoides. The octanol extraction yields were also selective: sanguinarine 98%, chelerythrine 92%, chelirubine 92.5%, protopine 6% and allocryptopine 3.5%. 6-Butoxy-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine and 6-butoxy-5,6-dihydrochelerythrine were prepared and their NMR and MS data are reported and discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of tropane alkaloids by heart cutting reversed phase - Strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhai; Gamache, Paul; Guo, Zhimou; Steiner, Frank; Du, Nana; Liu, Xiaoda; Jin, Yan; Liu, Xingguo; Liu, Lvye

    2018-01-01

    Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract. The chromatographic conditions were systematically optimized in terms of column type, mobile phase composition and flow rate. To improve peak capacity and obtain symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, a polar group embedded C18 column combined with chaotropic salts was used in the first dimension. To remove the disturbance of non-alkaloids, achieve unique selectivity and acquire symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, an SCX column combined with phosphate buffer was used in the second dimension. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, precision (0.54-0.82%), recovery (94.1-105.2%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the three analytes varied between 0.067-0.115mgL -1 and 0.195-0.268mgL -1 , respectively. The method demonstrated superiority over 1DLC method in respect of resolution (less alkaloid co-eluted), sample preparation (no pretreatment procedure) and transfer rate (minimum component loss). The optimized RP - SCX 2DLC approach was subsequently applied to quantify target alkaloids in five herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets from three different manufactures. The results demonstrated that the developed heart cutting RP - SCX 2DLC approach represented a new, strategically significant methodology for the quality evaluation of tropane alkaloid in related herbal medicines that involve complex chemical matrix. Copyright

  8. New pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium crassifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsam, H; Yassa, N; Sarkhail, P; Shafiee, A

    2000-05-01

    Heliotropium crassifolium Boiss, (Boraginaceae) from a population of Ilam, western region of Iran was studied for pyrrolizidine alklaoids (PAs). Four alkaloids have been identified: europine 1, europine N-oxide 2 and a new pyrrolizidine alkaloids ilamine 3 and its N-oxide 4, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS data.

  9. Two New Acridone Alkaloids from Glycosmis macrantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdah Md Akim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and chromatographic separation of the extracts of dried stem barks of Glycosmis macrantha lead to isolation of two new acridone alkaloids, macranthanine (1 and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (2, and a known acridone, atalaphyllidine (3. The structures of these alkaloids were determined by detailed spectral analysis and also by comparison with reported data.

  10. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  11. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of herbal teas made from the leaves of comfrey (Symphytum officinale): reduction of N-oxides results in order of magnitude increases in the measurable concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Brine, Dolores R; Collins, Bradley J; Handy, Robert W; Sparacino, Charles M; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E

    2004-10-01

    To determine the relative quantities of two hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symphytine and echimidine, in teas prepared from comfrey leaves (Symphytum officinale), and to determine the potential contribution of the N-oxide forms of these alkaloids to levels of the parent alkaloids. Comfrey leaves were purchased from three commercial sources and used to prepare tea in a manner consistent with the methods used by consumers. An extraction scheme was devised for extraction of the alkaloids, and a gas chromatographic method was developed to quantify the two major alkaloids, symphytine and echimidine. Recognising that the N-oxide derivatives of these alkaloids have also been identified in comfrey preparations, chemical reduction was applied to determine the total quantities of the alkaloids as free bases and as N-oxide derivatives. The concentration of symphytine and echimidine varied considerably between teas prepared from leaves purchased from the different vendors of plant material. Moreover, a much higher concentration of symphytine was found in the tea when steps were included to reduce N-oxides prior to analysis. The treatment of pure symphytine with hot water did not generate the N-oxide derivative de novo. Since the pyrrolizidine alkaloids are known to be hepatotoxic, consumption of herbal teas made from comfrey leaves may be ill-advised. The concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in such teas may be underestimated substantially unless the concentration of N-oxides is taken into consideration.

  13. Racemic alkaloids from the fungus Ganoderma cochlear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Long; Dou, Man; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Seven pairs of new alkaloid enantiomers, ganocochlearines C-I (1, 3-8), and three pairs of known alkaloids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. The chemical structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 3-10 were assigned by ECD calculations. Biological activities of these isolates against renal fibrosis were accessed in rat normal or diseased renal interstitial fibroblast cells. Importantly, the plausible biosynthetic pathway for this class of alkaloids was originally proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  15. Synthesis of some 11C-labelled alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laangstroem, B.; Antoni, G.; Halldin, H.; Svaerd, H.; Bergson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Using ( 11 C)-methyl iodide in N-alkylation reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF), the alkaloids N-( 11 C-methyl)-morphine, N-( 11 C-methyl)-codeine, 6-N(methyl)-9, 10-dihydroergotamine, 6-N-( 11 C-methyl)-bromocriptine and N-( 11 C-methyl)-nicotine have been synthesized in radiochemical yields of 50-95%, within 5-10 min of introducing ( 11 C)-methyl iodide into the reaction vial. ( 11 C)-Methyl iodide was obtained within 4-7 min from ( 11 C)-carbon dioxide prepared by the 14 N(p,α) 11 C reaction. (Authors)

  16. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them,

  17. A Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylcyclopropane (3 + 2) Cycloaddition Approach to the Melodinus Alkaloids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldberg, Alexander F. G.

    2011-08-19

    A palladium-catalyzed (3+2) cycloaddition of a vinylcyclopropane and a β-nitrostyrene is employed to rapidly assemble the cyclopentane core of the Melodinus alkaloids. The ABCD ring system of the natural product family is prepared in six steps from commercially available materials.

  18. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  19. A review on indole alkaloids isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla and their pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagijimana, Andre; Wang, Xiaoming; Pan, Guixiang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Hong; Olaleye, Olajide

    2013-04-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks, Rubiaceae, is one of the original plants of the important Chinese crude drug, Gou-teng, mainly used for the treatment of convulsion, hypertension, epilepsy, eclampsia, and cerebral diseases. The pharmacological activities of this plant are related to the presence of active compounds predominantly indole alkaloids. In this article, we have reviewed some reports about the pharmacological activities of the main indole alkaloids isolated from U. rhynchophylla. This review paper will contribute to the studies on the chemistry, safety and quality control of medicinal preparations containing Uncaria species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on effect of L-arginine on solubility and dissolution of Zaltoprofen: Preparation and characterization of binary and ternary cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherje, Atul P.; Patel, Forum; Murahari, Manikanta; Suvarna, Vasanti; Patel, Kavitkumar

    2018-02-01

    The present study demonstrated the binary and ternary complexes of Zaltoprofen (ZPF) with β-CD and HP-β-CD. The products were characterized using solubility, in vitro dissolution, and DSC studies. The mode of interaction of guest and host was revealed through 1H NMR and FT-IR studies. A significant increase was noticed in the stability constant (Kc) and complexation efficiency (CE) of β-CD and HP-β-CD due to addition of L-Arg in ternary complexes. The ternary complexes showed greater increase in solubility and dissolution of ZPF than binary complexes. Thus, ternary system of ZPF could be an innovative approach for its solubility and dissolution enhancement.

  1. OVIPOSITION AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOIDAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1000 ppm concentration and ovicidal activity at 25-100 ppm concentration against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Water treated with alkaloidal extract at 1000ppm received significantly more egg rafts of vector mosquitoes ...

  2. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  3. NOVEL ALKALOID FROM Rauvolfia capixabae(APOCYNACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanamar Almeida Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new sarpagine-type alkaloid, Na-methylrauflorine (1, was isolated from Rauvolfia capixabaetogether with isoreserpiline (2,Nb-oxide-isoreserpiline (3, ajmalicine (4, perakine (5 and vinorine (6 alkaloids. These compounds were characterized based on their spectral data basis, mainly one- (1H, 13C, APT and two-dimensional(1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HMQC and HMBC NMR, and mass spectra, also involving comparison with data from the literature.

  4. Importance of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Bee Products

    OpenAIRE

    OZANSOY, GÖRKEM; KÜPLÜLÜ, ÖZLEM

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidinealkaloids are one of the groups of harmful chemicals of plants, which arenatural toxins. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in about 3% of all floweringplants of widespread geographical distribution are known as one of thecomponents of the hepatotoxic group of plant origin and referred as hepatotoxicpyrrolizidine alkaloids. According to researches, bee products is regarded asone of the main food sources in the exposure of people to pyrrolizidinealkaloids. Consumption of pyrrolizidine ...

  5. Classification of Opium by UPLC-Q-TOF Analysis of Principal and Minor Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    Opium is the raw material for the production of heroin, and the characterization of opium seizures through laboratory analysis is a valuable tool for law enforcement agencies to trace clandestine opium production and trafficking. In this work, a method for opium profiling based on the relative content of five principal and 14 minor opium alkaloids was developed and validated. UPLC-Q-TOF was adopted in alkaloid analysis for its high selectivity and sensitivity, which facilitated the sample preparation and testing. The authentic sample set consisted of 100 "Myanmar" and 45 "Afghanistan" opium seizures; based on the data set of the 19 alkaloid variables in them, a partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model was successfully achieved. Minor alkaloids were found to be vitally important for opium profiling, although combined use of both principal and minor alkaloids resulted in the best geographical classification result. The developed method realized a simple and accurate way to differentiate opium from Myanmar and Afghanistan, which may find wide application in forensic laboratories. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Visual identification of alkaloids in some medicinal plants: common alkaloid reagents versus bromocresol green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa F, Esfahani HR, Gamooshi RA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: Alkaloids are a group of nitrogenous compounds with potential effects on the physiological behavior of human and animals. Some of these compounds are considered important drugs in modern medicine, such as atropine and morphine. Plants are considered the most important source of alkaloids. Therefore, investigating the presence of alkaloids in different plants is very important. Usually, alkaloids in plants are identified by methods such as those of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer, among others, which require milligrams of alkaloids for identification. In the present study, a fast and sensitive procedure for detecting of alkaloids in plants is presented.   "n"nMethods: Twelve dried plants samples were investigated for the presence alkaloids. After extracting the total alkaloid into methanol using a Soxhlet extractor, a few milligrams of the extract was transferred to a separatory funnel, buffered to pH 4.7, the bromocresol green (BCG solution (10-4 M was added, mixed and extracted with CHCl3 until a yellow color was observed in the CHCl3 layer, indicating the presence of the alkaloid. The crude extracts were also investigated by the standard methods of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer for the presence of alkaloids.   "n"nResults: Investigation of the 12 plant samples for the presence of alkaloids by the standard reagents of Dragendorf, Wagner, and Meyer showed that only Camelia sinensis (flowers, Echium amoenum Fisch & Mey (flowers, and Stachys (aerial parts are devoid

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of CdS Growth Time on the Optical Properties of One-Pot Preparation of CdS-Ag2S Binary Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour, M.; Izadian, L.; Molaei, M.

    2018-02-01

    CdS-Ag2S binary nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile one-pot microwave irradiation method. The effect of initial nucleation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) using 3 min, 5 min, and 7 min of microwave irradiation on the optical properties of the final compound was studied. The composition and crystal structure of the compounds were verified using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. They revealed that existence of Ag and Cd elements with an atomic ratio of 0.19 crystalizes in the form of monoclinic Ag2S and hexagonal CdS. Scanning electron microscope images showed a spherical morphology of the resultant compound, and transmission electron microscope images showed the formation of fine particles of CdS-Ag2S composites with an average size of 5-7 nm and 10-14 nm for CdS and Ag2S, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the initial growth time of CdS has a crucial effect on the emission of binary compounds such that for 3 min and 5 min of irradiation of CdS solution, the binary compound obtains strong red and considerable near-IR emission (850 nm), but for longer time, it rapidly quenches. The results indicate that the strong red emission can be tuned from 600 nm up to 700 nm with prolonging nucleation time of CdS. This study also emphasized that the origin of red emission strongly depends on the size and defects created in the CdS QDs.

  9. Preparation, structural characterization, and in vitro cell studies of three-dimensional SiO2-CaO binary glass scaffolds built ofultra-small nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Honglin; Li, Wei; Ao, Haiyong; Li, Gen; Tu, Junpin; Xiong, Guangyao; Zhu, Yong; Wan, Yizao

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffolds hold great promises in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, for the first time, 3D SiO 2 -CaO binary glass nanofibrous scaffolds have been fabricated via a combined method of template-assisted sol-gel and calcination by using bacterial cellulose as the template. SEM with EDS, TEM, and AFM confirm that the molar ratio of Ca to Si and fiber diameter of the resultant SiO 2 -CaO nanofibers can be controlled by immersion time in the solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate and ethanol. The optimal immersion time was 6h which produced the SiO 2 -CaO binary glass containing 60at.% Si and 40at.% Ca (named 60S40C). The fiber diameter of 60S40C scaffold is as small as 29nm. In addition, the scaffold has highly porous 3D nanostructure with dominant mesopores at 10.6nm and macropores at 20μm as well as a large BET surface area (240.9m 2 g -1 ), which endow the 60S40C scaffold excellent biocompatibility and high ALP activity as revealed by cell studies using osteoblast cells. These results suggest that the 60S40C scaffold has great potential in bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  11. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  12. Alkaloids as Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors in Anticancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Sehroon

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and anticancer drug discovery is a very hot area of research at present. There are various factors which control and affect cancer, out of which enzymes like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) play a vital role in the growth of tumor cells. Inhibition of this enzyme is a very useful target for the prevention of various types of cancers. Alkaloids are a diverse group of naturally occurring compounds which have shown great COX-2 inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. In this mini-review, we have discussed different alkaloids with COX-2 inhibitory activities and anticancer potential which may act as leads in modern anticancer drug discovery. Different classes of alkaloids including isoquinoline alkaloids, indole alkaloids, piperidine alkaloids, quinazoline alkaloids, and various miscellaneous alkaloids obtained from natural sources have been discussed in detail in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  14. Two New Alkaloids from Narcissus serotinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Viladomat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family is well known for the presence of an exclusive group of alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. Narcissus serotinus L. is a plant belonging to this family and its geographical distribution is mainly located along the Mediterranean coast. In the present work, specimens collected near Casablanca (Morocco were used to study the alkaloid content of this species. Starting with 350 g of the whole plant we used standard extraction and purification procedures to obtain fractions and compounds for GC-MS and NMR analysis. As well as five known alkaloids, we isolated two new compounds: 1-O-(3´-acetoxybutanoyllycorine and narseronine. The latter has been previously published, but with an erroneous structure.

  15. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  16. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  17. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G.; Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O.; Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Delprete, Piero G.

    2012-01-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-β-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC 50 values of 16.0 and 40.7 μg per mL, respectively. (author)

  18. The expanding universe of alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, V; Laflamme, P

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of many of the major gene families responsible for the generation of central intermediates and for their decoration, together with the development of large genomics and proteomics databases, has revolutionized our capability to identify exotic and interesting natural-product pathways. Over the next few years, these tools will facilitate dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biosynthesis of alkaloids, which will far surpass that which we have learned in the past 50 years. These tools will also be exploited for the rapid characterization of regulatory genes, which control the development of specialized cell factories for alkaloid biosynthesis.

  19. Antioxidative properties of harmane and beta-carboline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, S Y; Mak, I T; Dickens, B F

    1991-07-15

    beta-Carboline alkaloids are derived as a result of condensation between indoleamine (e.g. tryptamine) and short-chain carboxylic acid (e.g. pyruvic acid) or aldehyde (e.g. acetaldehyde), a reaction that occurs readily at room temperature. These compounds have been found endogenously in human and animal tissues and may be formed as a byproduct of secondary metabolism: their endogenous functions however, are not well understood. Indoles and tryptophan derivatives exhibit antioxidative actions by scavenging free radicals and forming resonance stabilized indolyl radicals. Harmane and related compounds exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbiturate reactive products) in a hepatic microsomal preparation incubated with either enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/NADPH) or non-enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/dihydroxyfumarate) oxygen radical producing systems. Alkaloids with hydroxyl substitution and a partially desaturated pyridyl ring were found to have the highest antioxidative potencies. Substitution of a hydroxyl group by a methoxyl group at the 6-position resulted in a decrease of greater than 10-fold in the antioxidative activities. Harmane showed high efficacy in an enzymatic system but low efficacy in a non-enzymatic system. The antioxidative effects of harmane in the former system may be attributed to its ability to inhibit oxidative enzymes in the microsomal system. These results suggest that beta-carbolines may also serve as endogenous antioxidants.

  20. Amides and an alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-08-01

    A total of 16 phenolic compounds, including one new and five known N-cinnamoyl phenylethylamides, one new pyrrole alkaloid named portulacaldehyde, five phenylpropanoid acids and amides, and derivatives of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, were isolated and identified from a polar fraction of an extract of Portulaca oleracea. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic analyses.

  1. Semisynthetic dimers of antiparkinsonic ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka; Kuzma, Marek; Jegorov, A.; Sedmera, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2001), s. 1045-1056 ISSN 0385-5414 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : ergot alkaloids * antiparkinsonic activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.970, year: 2001

  2. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehyro-pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants compose about 5% of the world’s flowering plants and they commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of PA toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions and routes of exposure, toxin metab...

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: occurrence, biology, and chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2017-01-04

    Covering: 2013 up to the end of 2015This review covers the isolation and structure of new pyrrolizidines; pyrrolizidine biosynthesis; biological activity, including the occurrence of pyrrolizidines as toxic components or contaminants in foods and beverages; and formal and total syntheses of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids and closely related non-natural analogues.

  4. Copper catalysed synthesis of indolylquinazolinone alkaloid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ful reactions using copper catalyst have been reported in literature.9. The reported methods6 for the synthesis of bouchar- datine were reported, either via harsher reactions con- dition or multi-step sequence. Therefore, we are inter- ested in identifying mild reaction conditions for the construction of quinazolinone alkaloids.

  5. [Pharmacokinetic study of six aconitine alkaloids in aconiti lateralis radix praeparata in beagle dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ri-Ping; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Yai; Yu, Liang-Wen; Zhu, Yue-Lan; Li, Geng

    2014-02-01

    To study the pharmacokinetics characteristics of six Aconitum alkaloids aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), hypaconitine (HA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA) and benzoylhypaconine (BHA) in beagle dogs. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitation of six Aconitum alkaloids in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata decoction. UPLC/MS/MS system coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was performed in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Sample preparation was performed with solid-phase extraction(SPE) on a 3 mL HLB cartridge before the analysis. The separation was applied on a Waters C8 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and a gradient elution of methanol and 0.2% formic acid-water was used as mobile phase. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the results of the analysis through the DAS 2. 1 software (Drug and Statistics for Windows). The results showed that the fitting model for the six Aconitum alkaloids was the one-compartment model pharmacokinetics. The method is successfully used for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of the six Aconitum alkaloids in beagle dog plasma, it can help monitor the ADME/Tox process when taking Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata by observing the pharmacokinetic process. The results provide a good reference for clinical treatment and safe application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata.

  6. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Sandjo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues, which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity.

  7. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... or by reduction using lithium aluminum hydride. The piperidines were subjected to hydrogenation to remove the N-benzyl group. The compounds were tested for hypoglycaemic activity by Novo Nordisk, but no activity was observed.Another approach towards a synthetic piperidine monoterpene was attempted. The strategy...... involved preparation of a diol, which through treatment of its ditosyl derivative with an amine would afford a piperidine monoterpene. Antirrhinoside was protected as its 5,6-O-monoacetonide via its 5,6:4',6'-O-diacetonide. The 5,6-O-isopropylidene-derivative was hydrogenated to give the 3,4-dihydro...

  8. [Alkaloids and lignans from stems of Piper betle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangzhong; Yin, Yan; Huang, Wenquan; Sun, Kuizong; Cheng, Chunmei; Bai, Lian; Dai, Yun

    2010-09-01

    Alkaloids and lignans from the stems of Piper betle were studied. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. From the ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract, ten compounds were isolated and identified as piperine (1), pellitorine (2), N-isobutyl-2E,4E-dodecadienamide (3), dehydropipernonaline (4), piperdardine (5), piperolein-B (6), guineensine (7), (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4-heptadienamide (8), syringaresinol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9),pinoresinol (10). All Compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated firstly from the genus.

  9. Determination of opium and strychnos alkaloids by radiometric titrations with potassium thallium(I) iodide reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.; Singh, N.J.; Tandon, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The titrations were carried out by the batch method in test tubes, using 204 Tl-labelled potassium thallium(I) iodide as precipitant for alkaloids such as codeine, morphine, narcotine, papaverine, thebaine, strychnine and brucine. Direct and reverse titrations were investigated including sensitivity and accuracy. Codeine and narcotine were determined in some pharmaceutical preparations such as codeine sulfate tablets, codopyrin tablets and coscopin syrup

  10. A synthetic entry to the tetra cyclic ABDE core of akuammiline alkaloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, M.; Hadida, S.; Bosch, J. [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    3-(2-Pyridyl)indole 3a, prepared by Pd(0=-catalyzed cross-coupling of the 3-indolylzinc derivative 1 with halo pyridine 2a), was converted to tetracycle 8.a substructure of akuammiline alkaloids, by a sequence involving the skeletal rearrangement of an intermediate spiroindolenine generated from 1-acyl-2-(3-indolyl)-4-piperidinemethanol mesylate 7 as the crucial step. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. An in vitro comparison of the cytotoxic potential of selected dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and some N-oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants containing dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) can be found throughout the world and their invasive, weedy nature often results in PA contamination of feed and food. Other PA-containing plants may be purposefully or accidentally included in food or herbal preparations. Poisoning can be acu...

  12. 2,6-Lutidine-isatinecate, a semi-synthetic pyrrolizidine alkaloid: X-ray and N. M. R. studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewes, S.E.; Field, J.S.; Pitchford, A.T.; Van Rooyen, P.H.; Dillen, J.L.M.

    1985-09-01

    A semi-synthetic pyrrolizidine alkaloid has been prepared from a necic acid and a pyridine base moiety. N.M.R. and X-ray analyses of this compound were carried out in order to establish the relationship between the structure and chemical shift.

  13. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  14. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  15. Single cell subtractive transcriptomics for identification of cell-specifically expressed candidate genes of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Christian; Beuerle, Till; Hollmann, Julien; Ober, Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    Progress has recently been made in the elucidation of pathways of secondary metabolism. However, because of its diversity, genetic information concerning biosynthetic details is still missing for many natural products. This is also the case for the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. To close this gap, we tested strategies using tissues that express this pathway in comparison to tissues in which this pathway is not expressed. As many pathways of secondary metabolism are known to be induced by jasmonates, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing species Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale of the Boraginales order were treated with methyl jasmonate. An effect on pyrrolizidine alkaloid levels and on transcript levels of homospermidine synthase, the first specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, was not detectable. Therefore, a method was developed by making use of the often observed cell-specific production of secondary compounds. H. indicum produces pyrrolizidine alkaloids exclusively in the shoot. Homospermidine synthase is expressed only in the cells of the lower leaf epidermis and the epidermis of the stem. Suggesting that the whole pathway of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis might be localized in these cells, we have isolated single cells of the upper and lower epidermis by laser-capture microdissection. The resulting cDNA preparations have been used in a subtractive transcriptomic approach. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction has shown that the resulting library is significantly enriched for homospermidine-synthase-coding transcripts providing a valuable source for the identification of further genes involved in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Approaches to the synthesis of mesembrine and related alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.B.

    1983-10-01

    After a survey of the methods reported in the literature for the synthesis of mesembrine and related octahydroindoles, a novel synthetic approach to these alkaloids is presented, based on the use of the vinylogous urethane, 1-methyl-3-(3,4-di-methoxyphenyl)-2-ethoxycarbonylmethylenepyrrolidine, and its immediate precursor, N-methyl-/3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-thiopyrrolidone. Since the most convenient approach to the latter compound is via the corresponding lactam, attempts to prepare this material using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and using methyl 3,4-di-methoxyphenylacetate are presented. Attempts to prepare mesembrine from the 3-aryl vinylogous urethane are then presented, firstly by investigation in a series of model reactions, followed by a sequence designed to lead to mesembrine itself. The failure to prepare mesembrine from the vinylogous urethane leads to the design of a new synthetic route, the crucial step in which is an alkylation on sulphur and sulphide contraction with a halomethyl vinyl ketone, to form a vinylogous amide intermediate. In an appendix the preparation, spectroscopic properties and reactivity towards alkylation of various extended enamines are discussed

  17. Preparation and evaluation of azithromycin binary solid dispersions using various polyethylene glycols for the improvement of the drug solubility and dissolution rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Adeli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Azithromycin is a water-insoluble drug, with a very low bioavailability. In order to increase the solubility and dissolution rate, and consequently increase the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs (such as azithromycin, various techniques can be applied. One of such techniques is "solid dispersion". This technique is frequently used to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble compounds. Owing to its low solubility and dissolution rate, azithromycin does not have a suitable bioavailability. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of azithromycin by preparing its solid dispersion, using different Polyethylene glycols (PEG. Preparations of solid dispersions and physical mixtures of azithromycin were made using PEG 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 and 20000 in various ratios, based on the solvent evaporation method. From the studied drug release profile, it was discovered that the dissolution rate of the physical mixture, as the well as the solid dispersions, were higher than those of the drug alone. There was no chemical incompatibility between the drug and polymer from the observed Infrared (IR spectra. Drug-polymer interactions were also investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD and Scanning Election Microscopy (SEM. In conclusion, the dissolution rate and solubility of azithromycin were found to improve significantly, using hydrophilic carriers, especially PEG 6000.

  18. Safety assessment of food and herbal products containing hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids: interlaboratory consistency and the importance of N-oxide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Colegate, Steven M; Edgar, John A

    2008-01-01

    Two recent mass spectrometry-based reports concerning Senecio scandens yielded remarkably dissimilar pyrrolizidine alkaloid constituents. In both studies, and in a related analysis of Senecio scandens and Tussilago farfara using micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the presence of hazardous N-oxides of the alkaloids was either not considered or was inadequately considered. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of the methodologies used in these, and similar, studies in assessing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and the safety of food, food supplements and medicines for human use. To highlight essential analytical requirements for confident assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products for human use. Direct infusion-ESI MS and HPLC-ESI MS were used to analyse samples derived from liquid-liquid partitioning experiments and from strong cation exchange, solid-phase extraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. A simple solvent partitioning experiment using pure senecionine and senecionine-N-oxide, two constituents reported in one of the mass spectrometry-based studies of S. scandens, clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of the reported method to detect and quantitate hazardous pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide components. A preliminary LCMS analysis of commercially-prepared extracts of comfrey roots (Symphytum officinale and S. uplandicum s. l.) was used as a model to highlight the analytical importance of N-oxides in the safety assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing medicinal herbs. This study highlighted significant differences in the reported identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the same plant species, and clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of some procedures to include N-oxides in the assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products.

  19. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively.

  20. Hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Li, Gen-Tao; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Liu, Ji-Kai; Wang, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Five new hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, rauvovertine A (1), 17-epi-rauvovertine A (2), rauvovertine B (3), 17-epi-rauvovertine B (4), and rauvovertine C (5) together with 17 known analogues were isolated from the stems of Rauvolfia verticillata. Compounds 1/2 and 3/4 were obtained as C-17 epimeric mixtures due to rapid hemiacetal tautomerism in solution. The structures of 1-5 were established by spectroscopic analysis and with the aid of molecular modeling. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against human tumor HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480 cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alkaloids of root barks of Zanthoxylum spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlemwerger, Sandra Virginia Alves; Sales, Edijane Matos; Costa, Rafael dos Santos; Velozo, Eudes da Silva; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2012-01-01

    In 1959, Gottlieb and Antonaccio published a study reporting the occurrence of lignan sesamin and triterpene lupeol in Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba. In this work we describe the phytochemical study of the root bark of the Z. tingoassuiba which allowed the identification of the lupeol, sesamin, and alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, chelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadin, predicentine, 2, 3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine. The investigation of hexane and methanol extracts of the root bark of Z. rhoifolium and Z. stelligerum also investigated showed the presence of alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophen anthridine and angoline. The occurrence of 2,3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine is first described in Z. tingoassuiba and Z. stelligerum. This is also the first report of the presence of hesperidin and neohesperidin in roots of Z. stelligerum (author)

  2. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Diaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  3. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and diterpenes from Villasenoria orcuttii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Gonzalez, Karina; Vivar, Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Reyes-Lezama, Marisol [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, DF, (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    The chemical study of Villasenoria orcuttii, the only species of the genus Villasenoria, afforded three acyclic diterpenes, two of them described for the first time. Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, florosenine and floridanine, among other known compounds were also isolated. The absolute configuration of floridanine was determined by X-ray analysis using anomalous dispersion with Cu K{sub {alpha}} radiation, and its {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were corrected. (author)

  5. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Onosmakaheirei Teppner (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Maria Orfanou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA 3΄-O-acetylechinatine N-oxide (7, along with two more known PAs (5, 6, two known flavonoids (3, 4, one known alkannin (1, two known triterpenoids, one known sterol, and allantoin (2 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onosma kaheirei. In addition, the retention indeces of the reduced PAs 6 and 7 were determined in a DB-5 WCOT column, to aid their detection by GC/MS in the future.

  6. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and diterpenes from Villasenoria orcuttii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L.; González, Karina; Vivar, Alfonso Romo de; Reyes-Lezama, Marisol; Villaseñor, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The chemical study of Villasenoria orcuttii, the only species of the genus Villasenoria, afforded three acyclic diterpenes, two of them described for the first time. Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, florosenine and floridanine, among other known compounds were also isolated. The absolute configuration of floridanine was determined by X-ray analysis using anomalous dispersion with Cu K α radiation, and its 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were corrected. (author)

  7. Histrionicotoxin alkaloids finally detected in an ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Tappey H.; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Spande, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Workers of the ant Carebarella bicolor collected in Panama were found to have two major poison-frog alkaloids, cis- and trans-fused decahydroquinolines (DHQs) of the 269AB type, four minor 269AB isomers, two minor 269B isomers, and three isomers of DHQ 271D. For the first time in an ant, however......) sp., were found to have a very similar DHQ complex but failed to show HTXs. Several new DHQ alkaloids of MW 271 (named in the frog as 271G) are reported from the above ants that have both m/z 202 and 204 as major fragment ions, unlike the spectrum seen for the poison-frog alkaloid 271D, which has...... only an m/z 204 base peak. Found also for the first time in skin extracts from the comparison frog Oophaga granulifera of Costa Rica is a trace DHQ of MW 273. It is coded as 273F in the frog; a different isomer is found in the ant....

  8. Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shardendu K; Tripathi, Garima; Kishore, Navneet; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Archana; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2017-09-08

    Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis. Alkaloids are categorized in quite a few groups according to their structures and isolation from both terrestrial and marine sources. These new drugs might be a watershed in the battle against tuberculosis. This review summarizes alkaloids, which were found active against Mycobacteria since last ten years with special attention on the study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and mode of action with their impact in drug discovery and development against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  10. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  11. New Perspectives in the Chemistry of Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids ?

    OpenAIRE

    Plodek, Alois; Bracher, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from marine organisms are a rich source of novel leads for drug development. Among these natural products, polycyclic aromatic alkaloids of the pyridoacridine type have attracted the highest attention as lead compounds for the development of novel anti-cancer and anti-infective drugs. Numerous sophisticated total syntheses of pyridoacridine alkaloids have been worked out, and many of them have also been extended to the synthesis of libraries of analogues of the alkaloids...

  12. Labelled precursors for biosynthetic studies on naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Pokorny, Frank; Wenzel, Matthias; Wurm, Kathi; Schneider, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    The isotope labelled monocyclic ketones 5 and 8, postulated precursors to the presumably acetogenic naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids, have been synthesized for biogenetic experiments to Ancistrocladaceae and Dioncophyllaceae plants. Key step of the preparation of 1-(2'-[carbonyl- 14 C] acetyl-3',5'-dibenzyloxyphenyl-2-propanone ([ 14 C]-13 is the C-acetylation of the arylpropanone 10 with the mixed pivalic acetic anhydride ([ 14 C]-11). The resulting pyrylium salt [ 14 C]-12, which is stable and can be stored, is cleaved directly before the feeding experiment to give the diketone [ 14 C]-13 and deprotected to give the free phenolic target molecule [ 14 C]-5. This synthetic route is applicable also to the preparation of 1-(2'-[ 13 C 2 ]acetyl-3'hydroxyphenyl)-2-propanone ([ 13 C 2 ]-5) for biosynthetic experiments with NMR analysis. For the preparation of the oxygen-poorer 13 C-labelled diketone 1-(2'-[methyl- 13 C] acetyl-3'-hydr oxyphenyl)-2-propanone [ 13 C]-8, an 'indanone-route' has been elaborated. (Author)

  13. Preparation and evaluation of icariside II-loaded binary mixed micelles using Solutol HS15 and Pluronic F127 as carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Wang, Jing; Sun, E; Yang, Lei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-11-01

    An effective anti-cancer drug, icariside II (IS), has been used to treat a variety of cancers in vitro. However, its poor aqueous solubility and permeability lead to low oral bioavailability. The aim of this work was to use Solutol®HS15 and Pluronic F127 as surfactants to develop novel mixed micelles to enhance the oral bioavailability of IS by improving permeability and inhibiting efflux. The IS-loaded mixed micelles were prepared using the method of ethanol thin-film hydration. The physicochemical properties, dissolution property, oral bioavailability of the male SD rats, permeability and efflux of Caco-2 transport models, and gastrointestinal safety of the mixed micelles were evaluated. The optimized IS-loaded mixed micelles showed that at 4:1 ratio of Solutol®HS15 and Pluronic F127, the particle size was 12.88 nm with an acceptable polydispersity index of 0.172. Entrapment efficiency (94.6%) and drug loading (9.7%) contributed to the high solubility (11.7 mg/mL in water) of IS, which increased about 900-fold. The SF-IS mixed micelle release profile showed a better sustained release property than that of IS. In Caco-2 cell monolayer models, the efflux ratio dramatically decreased by 83.5%, and the relative bioavailability of the mixed micelles (AUC 0-∞ ) compared with that of IS (AUC 0-∞ ) was 317%, indicating potential for clinical application. In addition, a gastrointestinal safety assay also provided reliable clinical evidence for the safe use of this micelle.

  14. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  15. New Perspectives in the Chemistry of Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Plodek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites from marine organisms are a rich source of novel leads for drug development. Among these natural products, polycyclic aromatic alkaloids of the pyridoacridine type have attracted the highest attention as lead compounds for the development of novel anti-cancer and anti-infective drugs. Numerous sophisticated total syntheses of pyridoacridine alkaloids have been worked out, and many of them have also been extended to the synthesis of libraries of analogues of the alkaloids. This review summarizes the progress in the chemistry of pyridoacridine alkaloids that was made in the last one-and-a-half decades.

  16. Tolerating Toxins: Grasshoppers that Feast on Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids §.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housecroft, Catherine E

    2018-03-30

    The elegant grasshopper (Zonocerus elegans) and the variegated grasshopper (Z. variegatus) are among insects that deliberately consume and store pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are subsequently used in defence mechanisms.

  17. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  18. UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of selected pyrrolizidine alkaloids in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolechová, Martina; Cáslavský, Josef; Pospíchalová, Markéta; Kosubová, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Alkaloids known as secondary metabolites are grouped by typical structural characteristics into large families such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) comprising more than 350 individual heterocyclic compounds. The PAs present a serious health risk to human and livestock; hence there is a need for methods that allow these dangerous plant toxins to be determined. In this study, a fast, reliable and sensitive approach is proposed to identify and quantify PAs in feed samples. PAs including monocrotaline, senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline and retrorsine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sample preparation was based on a modified QuEChERS approach. The mean recovery, precision, matrix effects and limits of quantification were assessed for three matrices within the method validation. The presented method was used to inspect 41 various feed samples, where the presence of PAs was expected. Roughages and feed for rabbits contained the highest levels of PAs, in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary alkaloid sequestration in a poison frog: an experimental test of alkaloid uptake in Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantak, Maggie M; Grant, Taran; Reinsch, Sherri; McGinnity, Dale; Loring, Marjorie; Toyooka, Naoki; Saporito, Ralph A

    2013-12-01

    Several lineages of brightly colored anurans independently evolved the ability to secrete alkaloid-containing defensive chemicals from granular glands in the skin. These species, collectively referred to as 'poison frogs,' form a polyphyletic assemblage that includes some species of Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Myobatrachidae, Bufonidae, and Eleutherodactylidae. The ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods has been demonstrated experimentally in most poison frog lineages but not in bufonid or eleutherodactylid poison frogs. As with other poison frogs, species of the genus Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) consume large numbers of mites and ants, suggesting they might also sequester defensive alkaloids from dietary sources. To test this hypothesis, fruit flies dusted with alkaloid/nutritional supplement powder were fed to individual Melanophryniscus stelzneri in two experiments. In the first experiment, the alkaloids 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine 235B' and decahydroquinoline were administered to three individuals for 104 days. In the second experiment, the alkaloids 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 239Q and decahydroquinoline were given to three frogs for 153 days. Control frogs were fed fruit flies dusted only with nutritional supplement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses revealed that skin secretions of all experimental frogs contained alkaloids, whereas those of all control frogs lacked alkaloids. Uptake of decahydroquinoline was greater than uptake of 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine, and uptake of 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine was greater than uptake of decahydroquinoline, suggesting greater uptake efficiency of certain alkaloids. Frogs in the second experiment accumulated a greater amount of alkaloid, which corresponds to the longer duration and greater number of alkaloid-dusted fruit flies that were consumed. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that bufonid poison frogs sequester alkaloid-based defenses from dietary

  20. Alkaloids from single skins of the Argentinian toad Melanophryniscus rubriventris (ANURA, BUFONIDAE): An unexpected variability in alkaloid profiles and a profusion of new structures

    OpenAIRE

    Garraffo, H Martin; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Mar?a F; Heit, Cecilia; Spande, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of single-skins of ten Melanophryniscus rubriventris toads (five collections of two toads each) captured during their breeding season in NW Argentina has revealed a total of 127 alkaloids of which 56 had not been previously detected in any frog or toad. Included among these new alkaloids are 23 new diastereomers of previously reported alkaloids. What is particularly distinguishing about the alkaloid profiles of these ten collections is the occurrence of many of the alkaloids, w...

  1. Densities and derived thermodynamic properties of binary (alkanol + boldine) mixtures in the compressed liquid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Zenteno, Moisés S.; Pérez-López, Hugo I.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured densities for {alkanol (ethanol or 1-propanol) + boldine} mixtures. ► Liquid densities are reported in the ranges of (1 to 20) MPa and (313 to 363) K. ► Thermodynamic derived properties were calculated using an empirical correlation. ► Extrapolated densities at atmospheric pressure agree with the literature data. - Abstract: In this work, densities of two binary systems of {alkanol (ethanol and 1-propanol) + boldine} are measured at temperatures from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa using an Anton Paar vibrating tube densimeter. Each (alkanol + boldine) system was prepared at five diluted compositions with respect to the alkaloid. These are (x 2 = 0.0012, 0.0074, 0.0136, 0.0196, 0.0267) and (x 2 = 0.0018, 0.0046, 0.0077, 0.0112, 0.0142) mixed in ethanol and 1-propanol, respectively. Experimental densities are correlated using an empirical 6-parameter equation with deviations within 0.04%. Extrapolated densities at atmospheric pressure agree with the literature data. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated.

  2. The synthesis of 3H-putrescine and subsequent biosynthesis of 3H-jacobine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio jacobaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.L.; Buhler, D.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the preparation of tritiated putrescine dihydrochloride ([2,3- 3 H]-1,4-diaminobutane dihydro-chloride) from succinonitrile (1,4-butanedinitrile) and 3 H 2 O, with a radiochemical yield of 16%. Tritiated jacobine and other pyrrolizidine alkaloids were then biosynthesized in Senecio jacobaea using 3 H-putrescine-2HCl as the precursor with a radiochemical yield of 0.9% into total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Jacobine accounted for 36% of the total. This synthetic method provides a relatively inexpensive source for the preparation of these labelled compounds. (author)

  3. Antimicrobial potential of alkaloids and flavonoids extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaloids and flavonoids are secondary metabolites extracted from different medicinal plants. Tamarix aphylla a traditionally valuable medicinal plant; was used for the extraction of alkaloids and flavonoids in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methodology: The leaves of the plant were collected from ...

  4. Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Bao, Mei-Fen; Liu, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells.

  5. New derivatives of alkaloids peganine, vazicinone and garmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agedilova, M.T.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.; Kazantsev, A.V.; Shul'ts, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    It was studied the chemical modification of chinazolin alkaloids peganine and vasicinone and indolin alkaloid garmine. The corresponding halogen-, alkyl-, cetyl and hydrazone derivatives and its salts were obtained. The structure of synthesized compounds was definite by following spectral methods: IR, UV, 1 H, 13 C and 11 B NMR spectroscopy

  6. ALKALOIDS OF SOME EUROPEAN AND MACARONESIAN SEDOIDEAE AND SEMPERVIVOIDEAE (CRASSULACEAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1992-01-01

    Some 22 pyrrolidine and piperdine alkaloids were detected in the leafy parts of Sedum acre, S. aetnense, S. anglicum, S. brissemoreti, S. farinosum, S. fusiforme, S. lancerottense, S. melanantherum, and S. nudum. In addition to the alkaloids known from S. acre, 1-(2-pyrrolidyl)-propan-2-one and

  7. Studies of interaction between two alkaloids and double helix DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yantao; Peng, Tingting; Zhao, Lei; Jiang, Dayu; Cui, Yuncheng

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the study on the interaction of two alkaloids (matrine and evodiamine) and hs-DNA by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), DNA melting and viscosity experiments. The spectroscopic studies suggested that two alkaloids can bind to DNA through an intercalative mode. The viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation also indicated that two alkaloids can intercalate to DNA. The binding constants (K A ) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined. At the same time, some significant thermodynamic parameters of the binding of the alkaloids to DNA were obtained. Competitive binding studies revealed that alkaloids had an effect on ethidium bromide (EB) bound DNA. In addition, it was also proved that the fluorescence quenching was influenced by ionic strength. - Highlights: • Interaction between two alkaloids and DNA is studied by spectral methods. • The binding constant and the binding sites between two alkaloids and DNA are obtained. • There are a classical intercalative mode between alkaloids and DNA. • The binding of matrine with DNA is weaker than that of evodiamine. • It is important for us to understand the alkaloids–DNA interactions at a molecular level

  8. Heterosis and heritability estimates of purine alkaloids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry cocoa beans displayed high content of purine alkaloids (2.1 and 8.8 mg g-1 for caffein and theobromine, respectively), and polyphenols (25 and 2978 μg g-1 for catechin and epicatechin, respectively). Among the five cocoa clones, SNK16 was the highest in purine alkaloid (caffein and theobromin) and flavanol ...

  9. Pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-Shan; Yu, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Xia

    2003-02-01

    The pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline extracted from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq Jacks were reviewed. The alkaloids mainly act on cardiovascular system and central nervous system including the hypotension, brachycardia, antiarrhythmia, and protection of cerebral ischemia and sedation. The active mechanisms were related to blocking of calcium channel, opening of potassium channel, and regulating of nerve transmitters transport and metabolism, etc.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  11. Estimation of total alkaloid in Chitrakadivati by UV-Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajanal, Manjunath; Gundkalle, Mahadev B; Nayak, Shradda U

    2012-04-01

    Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids. Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG). Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients.

  12. Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45) and two reports of cases (n = 15–156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots. PMID:25184557

  13. Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-09-02

    Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these "food supplements", relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19-45) and two reports of cases (n = 15-156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50-500 g instead of 3-30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw "caowu" (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled "caowu" developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots.

  14. Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45 and two reports of cases (n = 15–156 managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person and types (raw instead of processed of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots.

  15. POSSIBILITY FOR APPLICATION OF LIQUEFIED GASES FOR PURIFICATION OF BARBERRY ALKALOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko D.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Biologically active substances (BAS of barberry roots represented by alkaloids of isoquinoline group are perspective substances for development of preparations with multiple pharmacological activities. However, now manufacture of them in Ukraine is stopped. One of the reasons of this is out-of-date production technologies of alkaloids involving use of toxic and/or flammable solvents. In the article possibility for application of liquefied gases in technology of obtaining of alkaloids from barberry roots has been studied. Materials and methods. Initial raw herb drug were barberry (Berberis vulgaris roots harvested in spring on the territory of Southern Ukraine. Their moisture content was 11%, comminuting degree was 0,5-1,4 mm. At the first stage purification of raw herb drug from lipophilic impurities (defatting was made with use of some liquefied gases: tetrafluoroethane, isobutane, difluorochloromethane and difluoromethane. Extraction of the alkaloid sum was made with difluoromethane mixed with various quantities of liquid ammonia or diethylamine as alkaline agent. Crude extracts were exposed to two-level liquefied-gas purification. At first the alkaloid bases were transformed into saline forms with aqueous solutions of acids and purified from ballast impurities with liquefied freon-22. Then alkaloid salts were reextracted from aqueous phase in the base form with liquefied mixture of difluoromethane and ammonia. Mixing of liquid phases was provided by creation of alternate gradients of temperatures and, as consequence, pressures between separators feeding alternately cool water into jacket of one of them, and warm water – into jacket of another one. Quantity of lipophilic ballast impurities and also weight of extractives were determined gravimetrically. Quantitative analysis of the alkaloid sum was made by titrimetric method after sedimentation of alkaloids with volumetric solution of phosphomolybdic acid. Results and discussion

  16. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  17. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  18. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  19. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of ergot alkaloids in human primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-11

    Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the species Claviceps. Toxic effects after consumption of contaminated grains are described since mediaeval times. Of the more than 40 known ergot alkaloids six are found predominantly. These are ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergosine and ergometrine, along with their corresponding isomeric forms (-inine-forms). Toxic effects are known to be induced by an interaction of the ergot alkaloids as neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. Nevertheless data concerning cytotoxic effects are missing and therefore a screening of the six main ergot alkaloids was performed in human primary cells in order to evaluate the toxic potential. As it is well known that ergot alkaloids isomerize easily the stability was tested in the cell medium. Based on these results factors were calculated to correct the used concentration values to the biologically active lysergic (-ine) form. These factors range from 1.4 for the most stable compound ergometrine to 5.0 for the most unstable ergot alkaloid ergocristine. With these factors, reflecting the instability, several controverse literature data concerning the toxicity could be explained. To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of ergot alkaloids, human cells in primary culture were used. These cells remain unchanged in contrast to cell lines and the data allow a better comparison to the in vivo situation than using immortalized cell lines. To characterize the effects on primary cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were used. The parameters necrosis (LDH-release) and apoptosis (caspase-3-activation, DNA condensation and fragmentation) were distinguished. The results show that depending on the individual structure of the peptide ergot alkaloids the toxic properties change. While ergometrine as a lysergic acid amide did not show any effect, the peptide ergot alkaloids revealed a different toxic potential. Of

  20. Alkaloid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kenneth; Ebild, S.J.; Christensen, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    %) as methanol-d containing 5% aqueous NHOH (30%) as eluents were successful, even though elution of alkaloids with pK of the corresponding acid above 10 proved difficult. Alkaloid extracts of Huperzia selago containing complex aliphatic alkaloids and Triclisia patens containing bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids...

  1. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  2. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae); Alkaloides {beta}-indolopiridoquinazolinicos de Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: anahjanuario@unifran.br; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrenonol, {beta}-amyrenonol, 3{alpha}-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3{alpha}-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  3. The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, Jose A; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Feilding, Amanda; Perez-Castillo, Ana; Riba, Jordi

    2017-07-13

    Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro. In neurospheres prepared from progenitor cells obtained from the subventricular and the subgranular zones of adult mice brains, all compounds stimulated neural stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation into adult neurons. These findings suggest that modulation of brain plasticity could be a major contribution to the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca. They also expand the potential application of B. caapi alkaloids to other brain disorders that may benefit from stimulation of endogenous neural precursor niches.

  4. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  5. excess molar volumes, and refractive index of binary mixtures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    type polynomial equation to derive the binary coefficients and estimate the standard ... prepared for each system, and their densities and absolute viscosities were .... divided arbitrarily into three types, namely, chemical, physical, and structural.

  6. Analytical chemical study of alkaloid fraction of methanolic extract of Croton baillonianus (AUBL) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes R, Cesar M.; Benavides, Angelyne; Pizza, Cosimo; Napolitano, Asunta; Basarello, Carla; Piacente, Sonia; Carbone Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study has been to extract and isolate the alkaloids from leaves of Croton baillonianus, corresponding to the methanolic extract by exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 followed by a purification by high performance liquid chromatography, obtaining six alkaloids. Two low polarity alkaloid and two glycoside alkaloids were analyzed by Electronic System impact mass spectrometry; these alkaloids belong to bencylisoquinolinic type; the study has connection to the determination of its antioxidant, antiulcerose and cytotoxic properties. (author).

  7. Prenylindole alkaloids from Raputia praetermissa (Rutaceae) and their chemosystematic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Lisandra V.; Veiga, Thiago Andre M.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da, E-mail: dmfs@power.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The dichloromethane extract from the stems of Raputia praetermissa afforded four new compounds, 4-deoxyraputindole C (1), raputimonoindole A-B (2, 3), and hexadecanyl 2-hydroxy- 4-methoxy-cinnamate (5), besides the alkaloids 5-(4-methoxymethylfuran-2-yl)-1H-indole (raputimonoindole C), furoquinolines maculosidine, robustine, evolitrine and dictamnine. The hexane extract yielded N-methyl-4-methoxyquinoline-2(1H)-one, skimmianine, cycloartenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol and sitostenone. The anthranilate alkaloid content indicates that the genus is strongly related to those included in Cusparieae tribe, but differs from Neoraputia by the absence of prenylindole alkaloids in the late, whose species have previously been placed in Raputia. (author)

  8. A new strain of Claviceps purpurea accumulating tetracyclic clavine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, B; Erge, D; Maier, W; Gröger, D

    1982-05-01

    A new strain of Claviceps was isolated from a blokked mutant of Claviceps purpurea. This strain accumulates substantial amounts of clavine alkaloids (2 g/l). The alkaloid fraction is composed of chanoclavine-I ( approximately 10%) and a mixture of agroclavine/elymoclavine (90%). Most suitable for alkaloid production in submerged culture is an ammoncitrate/sucrose medium. The genealogy of the new strain, designated Pepty 695/ch-I is the following one: Pepty 695/S (ergotoxine producer) --> Pepty 695/ch (secoergoline producer) --> Pepty 695/ch-I (tetracyclic clavine producer).

  9. A Concise Synthesis of the Erythrina Alkaloid 3–Demethoxyerythratidinone via Combined Rhodium Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung Min; David, Ramoncito A.; Yuan, Yu; Lee, Chulbom

    2010-01-01

    The total synthesis of the erythrina alkaloid 3–demethoxyerythratidinone has been achieved via a strategy based on combined rhodium catalysis. The catalytic tandem cyclization effected by the interplay of alkynyl and vinylidene rhodium species allows for efficient access to the A and B rings of the tetracyclic erythrinane skeleton in a single step. The synthesis also features rapid preparation of the requisite precursor for the double ring closure and thus has been completed in only 7 total steps in 41% overall yield. PMID:21090648

  10. 2,6-Lutidine-isatinecate, a semi-synthetic pyrrolizidine alkaloid: X-ray and n.m.r. studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, S.E.; Field, J.S.; Pitchford, A.T.; Van Rooyen, P.H.; Dillen, J.L.M.

    1985-01-01

    A semi-synthetic pyrrolizidine alkaloid has been prepared from a necic acid and a pyridine base moiety. N.m.r. and X-ray analyses of this compound were carried out in order to establish the relationship between the structure and chemical shift

  11. A novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ying, Zheming; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Cuiyu; Jiang, Mingyue; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    A novel alkaloid named oleraciamide C (1), with six known compounds, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), uracil (3), catechol (4), 4-aminophenol (5), vanillic acid (6) as well as 3-hydroxypyridine (7), were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Additionally, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), 4-aminophenol (5), 3-hydroxypyridine (7) were obtained from the plant for the first time. Structure of the new compound was determined using spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Others were elucidated through 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectra and comparison with literature data. Notably, Compound 1 possessed an unusual bis-substituted eight-membered ring linked with the β-glucopyranose moiety. The cytotoxicity of compound 1 was evaluated against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  12. Influence of Nonpolar Substances on the Extraction Efficiency of Six Alkaloids in Zoagumhwan Investigated by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array (UPLC-PDA detection method was established for the determination of six alkaloids in Zoagumhwan (ZGW, and further for investigating the influence of nonpolar substances on the extraction efficiency of these alkaloids. The method was based on a BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column and mobile phase of aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile including 0.05% buffer solution under gradient elution. ZGW samples of ZGW I, II, III and IV were obtained and prepared by pre-processing the crude materials of Coptidis rhizoma and Evodiae fructus using four technologies, namely direct water decoction, removal of nonpolar substances in Evodiae fructus by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by SFE and removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by steam distillation. The developed and validated UPLC-PDA method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough based on the facts that the six alkaloids showed good regression (r > 0.9998, the limit of detections and quantifications for six alkaloids were less than 28.8 and 94.5 ng/mL, respectively, and the recovery was in the range of 98.56%–103.24%. The sequence of the total contents of six alkaloids in these samples was ZGW II > ZGW IV > ZGW III > ZGW I. ZGW II, in which nonpolar substances, including essential oils, were firstly removed from Evodiae fructus by SFE, had the highest content of the total alkaloids, indicating that extraction efficiency of the total alkaloids could be remarkably increased after Evodiae fructus being extracted by SFE.

  13. Bioactive alkaloids produced by fungi. I. Updates on alkaloids from the species of the genera Boletus, Fusarium and psilocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Sualeh, Mohammad; Baig, Mirza Tasawer; Zoha, Sms

    2010-07-01

    Fungi, in particular, are able in common with the higher plants and bacteria, to produce metabolites, including alkaloids. Alkaloids, along with other metabolites are the most important fungal metabolites from pharmaceutical and industrial point of view. Based on this observation, the authors of this review article have tried to provide an information on the alkaloids produced by the species of genera: Boletus, Fusarium and Psilocybef from 1981-2009. Thus the review would be helpful and provides valuable information for the researchers of the same field.

  14. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Feeny, Paul

    1983-06-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval weights, and showed reduced survivorship. The benzylisoquinolines tested were not equally effective as toxins or feeding inhibitors. Some produced dramatic effects while others produced no effects. The relative responses of the three caterpillar species to the six alkaloids were similar. Those benzylisoquinolines with a methylene-dioxyphenyl (1,3-benzodioxole) group were consistently the most toxic or repellent while laudanosine, a relatively simple benzylisoquinoline, was generally innocuous. Available host records indicate that benzylisoquinoline-containing plants are avoided by the larvae of these moth species.

  15. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the sponge Oceanapia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Das, B.; Naik, C.G.

    having di-hetro atom rings, from the ethyl acetate extract of the sponge. The compounds exhibited moderate to high activities against some microorganisms and clinical isolates. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS spectroscopic...

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, M.; Wittig, M.; Reinhard, A.; Ohe, von der K.; Blacquière, T.; Raezke, K.P.; Michel, R.; Schreier, P.; Beuerle, T.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One

  17. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    , antimicrobial properties etc. Herein is reported isolation and structure determination of two such alkaloids: 16-debromo aplysamine-4 1 and purpuramine 1 2 from the sponge @iP. purpurea@@ collected from Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. The structures...

  18. DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALOIDS AND TANNINS IN THE CRASSULACEAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; VANHAM, CHJ; ELEMA, ET; VANDENENT, MMVX; WILDEBOER, M; ZWAVING, JH

    Alkaloid and tannin levels of 36 species of the Crassulaceae were compared. The taxa investigated were Crassula multicava, Echeveria venezuelensis, Pachyphytum compactum, Kalanchoe (two sop.), Bryophyllum daigremontianum, Sedum (23 spp.), Aeonium (four spp.) and Sempervivum (three spp.). Apart from

  19. Simultaneous determination of aconitum alkaloids in rat body fluids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performance liquid chromatography. ... were in the range of 85.63 - 90.94% for all analysis of the three aconitum alkaloids with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 14%. Positive linear relationships were observed in correlation coefficients that ...

  20. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  1. Studies on the Alkaloids of the Calycanthaceae and Their Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Biao Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids.

  2. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stap...

  3. Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the root bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don by response surface methodology. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  4. New zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Xinyu; Si, Xiali; Liang, Hong; Tu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qingying

    2018-01-31

    Four new zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids, rhynchophyllioniums A-D (1-4), together with eight known alkaloids (5-12), were isolated from the hook-bearing stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD, and the zwitterionic forms and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates, including the monoterpene indole alkaloids with free C-22 carboxyl group and those with C-22 carboxyl methyl ester, were proved to be naturally coexisting in the herb by LC-MS analysis. This is the first report of monoterpene indole alkaloids that exist in the form of zwitterion. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of all isolates against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines are reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the α-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 μM), but it did not inhibit β-glucosidase, α- or β-mannosidase, or α- or β-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc 3 Man 7-9 (GlcNAc) 2 -oligosaccharides

  6. New bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Laureliopsis philippiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Dan; Thi, Loi Pham; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Laureliopsis philippiana resulted in isolation of a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid (1) named laureliopsine A. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods, including 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR experiments. This finding of a bisbenzylisoquinoline al...

  7. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in commercial comfrey products (Symphytum sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, J M; Eppley, R M; Taylor, W C; Andrzejewski, D

    1994-05-01

    The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum sp.) and the widespread use of decoctions of this plant as a beverage (herbal tea) are of increasing concern. A method for the extraction and solid-phase concentration and capillary gas chromatographic determination of these alkaloids and their N-oxides in botanical materials has been developed and was applied to eleven comfrey-containing products purchased from retail health-food outlets in the Washington, DC, area during May-June 1989. Nine of the 11 products were found to contain measurable quantities of one or more of the alkaloids, in ranges from 0.1 to 400.0 ppm. Products containing comfrey leaf in combination with one or more other ingredients were found to contain the lowest alkaloid levels. Highest levels were found in bulk comfrey root, followed by bulk comfrey leaf. The species of the bulk material was verified by thin-layer chromatography and other means.

  8. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  9. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Peter P.; Chou, Ming W.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP), at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i) similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii) the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the tumorigenicity induced by

  10. Application of electron ionization mass spectrometry for mulungu alkaloid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, Luis Guilherme Pereira; Guaratini, Thais; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Bizaro, Aline Cavalli; Silva, Denise Brentan da

    2012-01-01

    Erythrina verna is a medicinal plant used to calm agitation popularly known as mulungu. We purchased the barks of E. verna from a commercial producer and analyzed the alkaloid fraction of the bark by CG-MS and HRESI-MS. Five erythrinian alkaloids were identified: erysotrine, erythratidine, erythratidinone, epimer, and 11-hydroxyeritratidinone. Here we report the compound 11-hydroxyeritratidinone for the first time as a natural product. (author)

  11. Hybrid Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids Obtained as Artifacts from Rauvolfia tetraphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-10-01

    Five new hybrid monoterpenoid indole alkaloids bearing an unusual 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxopiperidin-6-yl moiety, namely rauvotetraphyllines F-H (1, 3, 4), 17-epi-rauvotetraphylline F (2) and 21-epi-rauvotetraphylline H (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against five human cancer cell lines.

  12. Hybrid Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids Obtained as Artifacts from Rauvolfia tetraphylla

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five new hybrid monoterpenoid indole alkaloids bearing an unusual 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxopiperidin-6-yl moiety, namely rauvotetraphyllines F–H (1, 3, 4), 17-epi-rauvotetraphylline F (2) and 21-epi-rauvotetraphylline H (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against five human cancer cell lines. Graphical Abstract Electronic supp...

  13. Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanuš, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2008-01-01

    Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward ...

  14. Indole Alkaloids Inhibiting Neural Stem Cell from Uncaria rhynchophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Xin; Jiang, Li-Ping; Guo, Ying; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Ya-Ping; Yu, Hao-Fei; Wang, Bei; Ding, Cai-Feng; Zhu, Pei-Feng; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Yun-Li; Chen, Yong-Bing; Wang, Yi-Fen; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is commonly recognized as a traditional treatment for dizziness, cerebrovascular diseases, and nervous disorders in China. Previously, the neuro-protective activities of the alkaloids from U. rhynchophylla were intensively reported. In current work, three new indole alkaloids (1–3), identified as geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4-oxide (2), and 3β-sitsirikine N 4-oxide (3), as well as 26 known analogues were isolated from U. rhynchophylla. However, in the ne...

  15. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A New Microextraction Technique for the Assay of Alkaloids in Chinese Compound Formula-Based Polyether Sulfone Membrane Fiber Decorated by TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinjie; Wei, Yingqin; Hou, Baojuan; Zhou, Guowei

    2017-03-01

    A new nanocomposite membrane was used to clean up impurities from complex samples and the obvious synergy was obtained in this paper. The nanocomposite membrane was prepared by dispersing TiO2 nanoparticles in chloroform and filled in the pores and lumen of polyether sulfone membrane fiber. The novel microextraction method showed the ideal selective extraction effect for alkaloids in the formulae composed of Rhizoma coptidis and the excellent clean-up efficiency compared with the single membrane method. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: chloroform as accepted phase; the number of nanocomposite membrane fiber bars, 7; extraction time, 30 min; pH of the sample solution, 10.55; desorption solvent, methanol. The limit of detection for the described alkaloids was estimated at 0.122 μg mL-1. The recovery of the four alkaloids in complex samples ranged from 93.24% to 97.94% with relative standard deviation of <4.99 (n = 5). The validated method had been successfully applied to study the transfer rate of alkaloids in the producing process of Qihuang capsule and the ideal transfer rate of alkaloids was obtained in this paper. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  18. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. Young

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization. The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine.

  19. COSMIC probes into compact binary formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn

    2018-01-01

    The population of compact binaries in the galaxy represents the final state of all binaries that have lived up to the present epoch. Compact binaries present a unique opportunity to probe binary evolution since many of the interactions binaries experience can be imprinted on the compact binary population. By combining binary evolution simulations with catalogs of observable compact binary systems, we can distill the dominant physical processes that govern binary star evolution, as well as predict the abundance and variety of their end products.The next decades herald a previously unseen opportunity to study compact binaries. Multi-messenger observations from telescopes across all wavelengths and gravitational-wave observatories spanning several decades of frequency will give an unprecedented view into the structure of these systems and the composition of their components. Observations will not always be coincident and in some cases may be separated by several years, providing an avenue for simulations to better constrain binary evolution models in preparation for future observations.I will present the results of three population synthesis studies of compact binary populations carried out with the Compact Object Synthesis and Monte Carlo Investigation Code (COSMIC). I will first show how binary-black-hole formation channels can be understood with LISA observations. I will then show how the population of double white dwarfs observed with LISA and Gaia could provide a detailed view of mass transfer and accretion. Finally, I will show that Gaia could discover thousands black holes in the Milky Way through astrometric observations, yielding view into black-hole astrophysics that is complementary to and independent from both X-ray and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  20. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  1. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  2. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  3. Forensic determination of ricin and the alkaloid marker ricinine from castor bean extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S M; Miller, M L; Allen, R O

    2001-09-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/ MS) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS methods were developed for the presumptive identification of ricin toxin and the alkaloid marker ricinine from crude plant materials. Ricin is an extremely potent poison, which is of forensic interest due to its appearance in terrorism literature and its potential for use as a homicide agent. Difficulties arise in attempting to analyze ricin because it is a large heterogeneous protein with glycosylation. The general protein identification scheme developed uses LC/MS or MALDI-TOF for size classification followed by the use of the same instrumentation for the analysis of the tryptic digest. Fragments of the digest can be searched in an online database for tentative identification of the unknown protein and then followed by comparison to authentic reference materials. LC fractionation or molecular weight cutoff filtration was used for preparation of the intact toxin before analysis. Extracts from two types of castor beans were prepared using a terrorist handbook procedure and determined to contain 1% ricin. Additionally, a forensic sample suspected to contain ricin was analyzed using the presented identification scheme (data not shown). The identification of the alkaloid ricinine by GC/MS and LC/MS was shown to be a complementary technique for the determination of castor bean extracts.

  4. Evaluation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography stationary phases for analysis of opium alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohsen; Taheri, Mohammadreza; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Rezadoost, Hassan; Ghassempour, Alireza; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-08-18

    The separation of a mixture containing five major opium alkaloids, namely morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine has been investigated in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode using five different stationary phases: bare silica, zwitterion, aminopropyl, diol and cyanopropyl. In order to propose the appropriate column for separation and purification, retention behaviors of the five natural opioids have been studied on mentioned HILIC stationary phases. The mechanism of separation in diverse HILIC media, based on the formation of water-rich layer on surface of the HILIC stationary phases and the physicochemical properties of opium alkaloids, such as pKa (acidic pK) and the octanol-water distribution coefficient (log Do/w) are discussed. Chromatographic responses including modified limit of detection LOD m , signal to noise ratio (S/N) m , and defined modified R Sm have considered for suggestion of the suitable column for quantitative/qualitative and preparative purposes. According to the obtained results, diol stationary phase is best suited for analytical chromatography, whereas bare silica and zwitterionic stationary phases are appropriate for preparative applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium transoxanum Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Delnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The plants belonging to the genus Heliotropium L. (Boraginaceae are the main sources of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. In the present study, we have investigated the PAs of the aerial parts of Heliotropium transoxanum Bunge, a perennial species native to Iran. Methods: Silica gel column chromatography and silica gel PTLC were applied for the isolation of PAs present in the total methanol extract of H. transoxanum. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS spectral analyses. Results: Three PAs, heliotrine (1, lasiocarpine (2 and heliotrine N-oxide (3,with known mutagenic and genotoxic properties, were isolated from the aerial parts of H. transoxanum. Conclusion: The results of this study on the presence of toxic PAs in H. transoxanum introduce this herb as a poisonous species and also suggest it as an appropriate source for the isolation of heliotrine and lasiocarpine for further toxicological and pharmacological studies.

  6. Advances in vinca-alkaloids: Navelbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, M; Extra, J M; Espie, M; Leandri, S; Besenval, M; Krikorian, A

    1989-01-01

    Vinorelbine (Navelbine) is a new semisynthetic vinca alkaloid which chemically differs from vinblastine by substitutions on the catharantine moiety of the molecule. It has shown promising experimental antitumor activity against experimental murine tumors as well as continuous cell lines of human neoplastic origin and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. Acute subacute and chronic toxicity extensively studied in rodents, dogs and primate has shown that hematotoxicity was almost the sole side-effect; neurotoxicity appears very limited. Almost exclusive affinity of NVB for mitotic tubulin and tubulin associated protein accounts for this pattern of toxicity. Phase I and II studies have been conducted in humans. Dose limiting side-effect appears to be neutropenia: the drug is slightly emetogenic, induces little alopecia, almost no neurotoxicity, and no other toxicity. Although preliminary, results of phase II studies already suggest significant activity of NVB in non small lung cancer (33% response rate in 78 evaluable patients), advanced breast cancer (53% response rate in 33 pts without significant chemotherapy for the target progression) and Hodgkin's disease (90% response rate after 4 weekly courses in 31 pts). Thus extensive pharmacological studies and ongoing clinical studies confirm that chemical modifications of the catharantine moiety of vinca alcaloid can lead to active agents with broader spectrum of activity and easily manageable side effects.

  7. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-03-01

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  8. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  11. Ornithine decarboxylase, polyamines, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids in senecio and crotalaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, H; Birecki, M; Cohen, E J; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here-using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors-endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence-with relatively very high levels of these compounds-in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence.

  12. Incorporation of 2H-labelled cadaverines into the quinolizidine alkaloids in Baptisia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, D.J.; Sheldrake, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of 2 H-labelled cadaverines into the quinolizidine alkaloids, sparteine and N-methylcytisine, in Baptisia australis has been studied in order to gain more information about the formation of these alkaloids. (author)

  13. Alkaloids in bufonid toads (melanophryniscus): temporal and geographic determinants for two argentinian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Wilham, J M; Spande, T F; Garraffo, H M; Gil, R R; Silva, G L; Vaira, M

    2007-04-01

    Bufonid toads of the genus Melanophryniscus represent one of several lineages of anurans with the ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods for chemical defense. The alkaloid profile for Melanophryniscus stelzneri from a location in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, changed significantly over a 10-year period, probably indicating changes in availability of alkaloid-containing arthropods. A total of 29 alkaloids were identified in two collections of this population. Eight alkaloids were identified in M. stelzneri from another location in the province of Córdoba. The alkaloid profiles of Melanophryniscus rubriventris collected from four locations in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy, Argentina, contained 44 compounds and differed considerably between locations. Furthermore, alkaloid profiles of M. stelzneri and M. rubriventris strongly differed, probably reflecting differences in the ecosystem and hence in availability of alkaloid-containing arthropods.

  14. Biosynthesis, asymmetric synthesis, and pharmacology, including cellular targets, of the pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole marine alkaloids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Mourabit, A.; Zancanella, M.A.; Tilvi, S.; Romo, D.

    The pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole (P-2-AI) alkaloids are a growing family of marine alkaloids, now numbering well over 150 members, with high topographical and biological information content. Their intriguing structural complexity, rich and compact...

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  16. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  17. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  18. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  19. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  20. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  1. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  2. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  3. THE ALKALOID CYTISINE IN THE CELL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaliev A.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are vegetative establishments of complex and original structure with nitrous heterocycles in the basis. For a long time they drew researchers’ attention because of their unique and specific physiological effect on alive organisms. Not all the representatives of the globe’s flora contain these unique substances. Alkaloid cytisine is to be found mainly in the plants of the fabaceous family - Fabaceae. For the cytisine production the seeds of Thermopsis lanceolata R.Br (T. lanceolata R.Br and Cytisus laburnum (C. laburnum are used as a raw material. The object of the research is T. lanceolata cell culture. Sterile sprouts are used at the first stage of the experiment. Callus genesis is accompanied with dedifferentiation. It leads to the cellular organization simplification. Based on an important property of a plant cell, such as totipotency, there appears the formation of the “de novo” biosynthetic device. The cultivation algorithm consists of two basic stages: (i the cultivation conditions optimization of callus with a high level of the primary metabolites biosynthesis (Aspartat – lysine; (ii the research of cultivation chemical and physical factors influence on the secondary metabolite (cytisine biosynthesis and accumulation. During the cultivation the Murashige and Skoog classical recipe of nutrient medium will be used. Optimization of the cultivation conditions will concern the phytohormones, macro- and micronutrients content, as the purpose of optimization is the production of the determined high-level competence embriogenical callus. The main problem is genetic heterogeneity of a cellular population and instability of morpho-physiological processes. The correct management of higher plants cells population is possible at the synchronization of a cellular cycle phases. The references analysis has shown that it is almost impossible to synchronize cellular cycles in the culture of plant tissue. The application of chemical

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  5. [A method for the determination of ergot alkaloids in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, C; Baltes, W; Krönert, W; Weber, R

    1988-02-01

    A suitable method has been developed for the routine analysis of the ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergometrinine, ergosine, ergosinine, ergotamine, ergotaminine, ergocornine, ergocorninine, alpha-ergocryptine, alpha-ergocryptinine, beta-ergocryptine, beta-ergocryptinine, ergocristine and ergocristinine in cereal products. The method consists of food extraction, cleaning of the crude extract by a modified form of the Extrelut method, and identification and quantitative determination of the alkaloids by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results are confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Market investigations have shown contaminations in ecological as well as in conventional products, with rye products mainly being contaminated. Within the EEC, a maximum value of 0.05% ergot respectively a total alkaloid content of 1 mg/kg in cereals used for food production is prescribed. This value was not exceeded in any of the investigated samples.

  6. Calcium, membranes and accumulation of alkaloids in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovkova, M.Ya.; Buzuk, G.N.; Grinkevich, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Ca 2+ effect upon metabolism of aporphines and protopines has been studied in Glaucium flavun, which alkaloids are of an essential interest for the medicine practice. It has been shown that calcium produces the inhibiting effect both on catabolitic splitting and metabolism of glaucine and protopine. It has been anticipated that calcuium introduced into an expert plant stabilizes membranes of intracellular structures and prevents 14 C alkaloid entering from an environment to metabolically active cell compartments, which contain ferments realizing transformations of the above compounds. The level of membrane permeability is probably the main mechanism, through which a control of metabolism processes occurs, and hence, a control of alkaloid accumulation processes under in vivo conditions

  7. A new alkaloid from the fruit of Nandina domestica Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cai-Ying; Liu, Jian-Qun; Zhang, Rui; Shu, Ji-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A new steroidal alkaloid, (20S,22R,24R)-24-ethyl-3-oxocholest-4-en-22-amino, named as nandsterine (1), together with 10 known alkaloids, palmatine (2), O-methylbulbocapnine (3), nantenine (4), dehydronantenine (5), glaucine (6), didehydroglaucine (7), dehydrocorydaline (8), jatrorrhizine (9), magnoflorine (10) and berberine (11), was isolated from the fruit of Nandina domestica Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparing with the published data. Compound 1 was a new class of steroidal alkaloid isolated from the family Berberidaceae, meanwhile compounds 2, 3, 6-8 and 10 were obtained from N. domestica for the first time. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (human leukaemia) with IC50 values of 52.1 μM.

  8. Manzamine alkaloids: isolation, cytotoxicity, antimalarial activity and SAR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Penta; Ganguly, Swastika; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan

    2014-11-01

    The infectious disease Malaria is caused by different species of the genus Plasmodium. Resistance to quinoline antimalarial drugs and decreased susceptibility to artemisinin-based combination therapy have increased the need for novel antimalarial agents. Historically, natural products have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Identification of natural products and their semi-synthetic derivatives with potent antimalarial activity is an important method for developing novel antimalarial agents. Manzamine alkaloids are a unique group of β-carboline alkaloids isolated from various species of marine sponge displaying potent antimalarial activity against drug-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium. In this review, we demonstrate antimalarial potency, cytotoxicity and antimalarial SAR of manzamine alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new spermidine macrocyclic alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gustavo; Martinho, Ana; Soengas, Raquel González; Duarte, Ana Paula; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-10-01

    The isolation and structural elucidation of a macrocyclic alkaloid, characterized by the presence of a 13-membered macrolactam ring containing a spermidine unit N-linked to a benzoyl group is hereby reported. The structure of this previously unknown spermidine alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola (Celastraceae) leaves has been elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy (including bidimensional analysis) and further characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and polarimetry. A route for the biosynthesis of this new bioactive macrocycle is proposed and the cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated against two ATCC cell lines - one normal-derived (MCF10A) and one cancer-derived cell line (MCF7) - using the MTT assay. The alkaloid revealed to be non-cytotoxic against both cell lines. The IC50 values from the cells were also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Steroidal glyco alkaloids and molluscicidal activity of Solanum asperum Rich. fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania M.S. [Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saude, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Campus Avancado Anisio Teixeira]. E-mail: sarmento@pesquisador.cnpq.br; Camara, Celso A. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Freire, Kristerson R.L.; Silva, Thiago G. da; Agra, Maria de F.; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal extract of the green fruits of Solanum asperum afforded a new compound, solanandaine along with solasonine and solamargine. The total crude alkaloids as well as the isolated pure alkaloids exhibited significant molluscicidal activity. (author)

  11. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  12. Indole alkaloids and other constituents of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Atsuko; Kumashiro, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Machiko; Nagakura, Naotaka; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nishi, Toyoyuki; Tanahashi, Takao

    2005-06-01

    From the dried roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were isolated five new indole alkaloids, N(b)-methylajmaline (1), N(b)-methylisoajmaline (2), 3-hydroxysarpagine (3), yohimbinic acid (4), isorauhimbinic acid (5), a new iridoid glucoside, 7-epiloganin (6), and a new sucrose derivative, 6'-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)glomeratose A (7), together with 20 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. The inhibitory activities of the selected alkaloids on topoisomerase I and II and their cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lines were assessed.

  13. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  14. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  15. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina.

  16. Five new indole alkaloids from the leaves of Rauvolfia yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chang-An; Liu, Xi-Kui

    2013-09-01

    Five new indole alkaloids, rauvoloids A-E (1-5), together with two known ones, raucaffrinoline (6) and perakine (7) were isolated from the leaves of Rauvolfia yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Structurally, rauvoloids A (1), B-C (2-3) and D (4) with unusual substitution patterns (no substitution, Cl and (1E)-3-oxo-butenyl, respectively) at C-20, are the first examples of perakine-type alkaloids with C18 and C22 skeletons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2014-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutarimide alkaloids and a terpenoid benzoquinone from Cordia globifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua; Gyeltshen, Thinley; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-05-28

    Three new compounds, a meroterpene (2) having a cyclopropane moiety named globiferane and glutarimide alkaloids named cordiarimides A (3) and B (4), were isolated from the roots of Cordia globifera. Compounds 2-4 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity. Cordiarimide B (4) exhibited radical scavenging activity, as it inhibited superoxide anion radical formation in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XXO) assay, and also suppressed superoxide anion generation in differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells when induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This is the first report on the presence of glutarimide alkaloids in the genus Cordia.

  19. Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Janet S W; Poon, W T; Ma, C K; Chen, M L; Pang, K S; Mak, Tony W L; Chan, H B

    2013-12-01

    In this report, we describe a case of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related Budd-Chiari syndrome in Hong Kong. A 10-month-old boy presented with ascites, right pleural effusion, and hepatomegaly after consumption of herbal drinks for 3 months. His clinical (including imaging) features were compatible with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disease entity in paediatric patients. In our case, extensive workup performed to look for the underlying cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome was unrevealing, except for toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure in his herbal drinks.

  20. Antioxidant Potential of Cyclopeptyide Alkaloids Isolated from Zizyphus Oxphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, W.A.; Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.; Rauf, A.; Haq, M.Z.U.; Qayum, M.; Khan, A.Z.; Nisar, M.; Obaidullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the antioxidant potential of five cyclopeptide alkaloids isolated from Zizyphus oxyphylla including Oxyphylline-D 1, Nummularin-C 2, Nummularin-R 3, Oxyphylline-B 4, Oxyphylline C 5 using DPPH free radical assay, nitric oxide radical assay and reducing power assay. The isolated alkaloids demonstrated marked antioxidant potential in a concentration dependent manner. Among the tested molecules, the compounds, 2 was most potent with IC50 values of 27.23, 32.03 and 22.45 μg/ml in DPPH free radical assay, nitric oxide radical assay and reducing power assay respectively. (author)

  1. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  2. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  3. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  4. Alkaloids and Phenolic Compounds from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) and Vasorelaxant Activity of Two Indoquinoline Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Teles, Yanna Carolina Ferreira; Monteiro, Matheus Morais de Oliveira; Mendes Junior, Leônidas das Graças; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Silva, Tânia Maria Sarmento; Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de

    2017-01-06

    The follow-up of phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) aims to strengthen the chemosystematics and pharmacology of Sida genera and support the ethnopharmacological use of this species as hypotensive herb. The present work reports phytoconstituents isolated and identified from aerial parts of S. rhombifolia by using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The study led to the isolation of scopoletin ( 1 ), scoporone ( 2 ), ethoxy-ferulate ( 3 ), kaempferol ( 4 ), kaempferol-3- O -β-d-glycosyl-6''-α-d-rhamnose ( 5 ), quindolinone ( 6 ), 11-methoxy-quindoline ( 7 ), quindoline ( 8 ), and the cryptolepine salt ( 9 ). The alkaloids quindolinone ( 6 ) and cryptolepine salt ( 9 ) showed vasorelaxant activity in rodent isolated mesenteric arteries.

  5. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  6. Effect of processing on the alkaloids in Aconitum tubers by HPLC-TOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015, only processed Aconitum tubers can be clinically applied, and the effect of processing is unclear. This research aimed to explore the effect of processing on cardiac efficacy of alkaloids in Aconitum tubers. First, the chemical ingredients in unprocessed and processed Aconitum tubers were identified and compared by using high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS and multivariate pattern recognition methods. Then the representative alkaloids in Aconitum tubers, aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine, which belong to diester-diterpenoid alkaloids, monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids, respectively, were selected for further validation of attenuated mechanism. Subsequent pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats were used for validate the effect of processing on cardiac functions. After processing the Aconitum tubers, it was found that the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were reduced, and those of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids were increased, suggesting that diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were transformed into monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids. Through further decocting the aconitine in boiling water, it was confirmed that the three alkaloids could be progressively transformed. Pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats showed that aconitine at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg and aconine at a dose of 10 mg/kg enhanced the cardiac function, while benzoylaconine at a dose of 2 mg/kg weakened the cardiac function. The effect of processing is attributed to the transformation of the most toxic diester-diterpenoid alkaloids into less toxic monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids.

  7. Effects of Supplementation of Alkaloid and Non Alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus Leaves on Egg Production and Lipid Profil in Layer Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves on productive performance and the contents of lipid fractions in layer chickens. Forty two layer chickens aged 30 weeks were distributed to seven treatment groups. Each treatment group contained six layer chickens maintained in an individual cage, respectively. The present experiment used completely randomized experimental design. The seven treatment groups were as follows: 1 Control, layer chickens were fed diet without supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid extracted from Sauropus androgynus (P0; 2 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P1; 3 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P2; 4 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P3; 5 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P4; 6 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P5; 7 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P6. Layer chickens were fed experimental diet with 2,750 kcal/kg Metabolizable Energy (ME and 16.0% protein. Diet and drinking water were fed ad libitum. Experimental results showed that supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected productive performance in layer chickens. It appear that non alkaloid supplementation had no advantage in improving productive performance, whereas supplementation of 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet might have advantages in improving productive performance as indicated by better egg production and lower feed conversion ratio. Treatment had no effect on glucose and triglyceride concentration in serum, but it affected total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL+VLDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index in serum. Cholesterol concentration in serum was significantly increased in P4 and P6, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was

  8. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  9. Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids provide a warning sign to overuse of the ethnomedicine Arnebia benthamii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Latif; He, Yi; Hao, Jia-Chen; Semotiuk, Andrew; Liu, Quan-Ru; Mazari, Paras

    2018-01-10

    From early times man has used medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments and basic health care needs. The use of herbal medicines has increased day by day and with this, so do reports of adverse events, poisoning, and suspected toxicity. Similarly, the indigenous communities of Neelum Valley in Azad Kashmir commonly use Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M.Johnst. for medicinal purposes to treat various human aliments. Besides their medicinal uses, it also contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). This explorative study underscores two major aspects about this herbal medicine. Firstly we aimed to document the traditional therapeutic uses of Arnebia benthamii in Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir. Secondly, to determine the presence or absence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and if they are within the suggested limit for the use of herbs in excess. Interviews, group discussions, and inquiries were carried out from July to September 2016 with local indigenous and elder people. In the laboratory, the plant was investigated for pyrrolizidine alkaloids by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 30 respondents were interviewed. They explained the preferred preparation, parts used, and treatment indications. Treatment of fever along with kidney and liver problems are the three principle uses. Among the different parts of Arnebia benthamii, 43% respondents preferred aerial parts for the herbal formulation, followed by whole plants, and leaves. Decoction was the major mode of preparation and all herbal preparations were administrated orally. This study reports, for the first time according to our literature review, a study of Arnebia benthamii with regard to PA determination. By using column Zorbax SB-Aq and acetonitrile-water gradient as the mobile phase, HPLC results showed that the aerial parts of the plant were PA positive, and (1) Europine, Heliotrine (2), Lycopsamine (3), and Echimidine (4) were identified. This study

  10. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new indole alkaloid from Rauvolfia serpentina hairy root culture: the first naturally occurring alkaloid of the raumacline group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, Yuri; Gerasimenko, Irina; Kolshorn, Heinz; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-05-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 10-hydroxy- N(alpha)-demethyl-19,20-dehydroraumacline ( 1), was isolated as a mixture of E- and Z-isomers from hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz (Apocynaceae) and the structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The new indole alkaloid represents the first naturally occurring alkaloid of the raumacline group and its putative biosynthetical pathway is discussed.

  12. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  13. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Alkaloids from single skins of the Argentinian toad Melanophryniscus rubriventris (ANURA, BUFONIDAE): An unexpected variability in alkaloid profiles and a profusion of new structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, H Martin; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, María F; Heit, Cecilia; Spande, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    GC-MS analysis of single-skins of ten Melanophryniscus rubriventris toads (five collections of two toads each) captured during their breeding season in NW Argentina has revealed a total of 127 alkaloids of which 56 had not been previously detected in any frog or toad. Included among these new alkaloids are 23 new diastereomers of previously reported alkaloids. What is particularly distinguishing about the alkaloid profiles of these ten collections is the occurrence of many of the alkaloids, whether known or new to us, in only one of the ten skins sampled, despite two skins being obtained from each breeding site of the five populations. Many of the alkaloids are of classes known to have structures with branched-chains (e.g. pumiliotoxins and tricyclic structures) that are considered to derive from dietary mites. A large number of previously reported and new alkaloids are also of unclassified structures. Only a very few 3,5-disubstituted-indolizidine or -pyrrolizidine alkaloids are observed that have a straight-chain carbon skeleton and are likely derived from ant prey. The possible relationship of these collections made during the toad's brief breeding episodes to sequestration of dietary arthropods and individual alkaloid profiles is discussed.

  15. Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

    1996-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract.

  16. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  17. Clustered Ergot Alkaloids Modulate Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Fišerová, Anna; Weignerová, Lenka; Stibor, I.; Halada, Petr; Přikrylová, Věra; Sedmera, Petr; Pospíšil, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2002), s. 415-424 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901; GA ČR GA310/98/0347 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clustered * ergot * alkaloids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.043, year: 2002

  18. Repellence and attraction of Apis mellifera foragers by nectar alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroncová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites present naturally in nectar, such as alkaloids, may change the behavioural responses of floral visitors and affect pollination. Some studies have shown that nectar containing low concentrations of these secondary metabolites is preferred by honey bee foragers over pure nectar. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by dependence or addictive behaviour, a simple taste preference, or by other conditions such as self-medication. In our choice experiment, free-flying bees were presented with artificial flowers holding 20% sucrose containing 0.5−50 μg ml−1 of one of the naturally occurring nectar alkaloids - caffeine, nicotine, senecionine, and gelsemine. Nectar uptake was determined by weighing each flower and comparing the weight to that of the control flower. Our experimental design minimized memorizing and marking; despite this, caffeine was significantly preferred at concentrations 0.5−2 μg ml−1 over control nectar; this preference was not observed for other alkaloids. All of the compounds tested were repellent at concentrations above 5 μg ml−1. We confirmed previous reports that bees exhibit a preference for caffeine, and hypothesize that this is not due only to addictive behaviour but is at least partially mediated by taste preference. We observed no significant preference for nicotine or any other alkaloid.

  19. Reviewing colchicaceae alkaloids – perspectives of evolution on medicinal chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Sonny; Rønsted, Nina

    2014-01-01

    . In this review an approach of taking phylogenetic classification into account in evaluating colchicine and related phenethylisoquinoline alkaloids from the family Colchicaceae will be applied. Following on the trends of utilizing evolutionary reasoning in inferring mechanisms in eg. drug resistance in cancer...

  20. In vitro anticancer activity and cytotoxicity of some papaver alkaloids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The Vero and HeLa cell lines were treated with various concentrations (1-300 μg/mL) of alkaloids for 48 h. Values for cytotoxicity measured by MTT assay were expressed as the concentration that causes a 50% decrease in cell viability (IC50) (μg/mL). Results: Berberine and macranthine were the ...

  1. Indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia bahiensis A.DC. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucilia; Marques Braga, Raquel; Koch, Ingrid; Sumiko Kinoshita, Luiza

    2002-06-01

    Four indole alkaloids, 12-methoxy-N(a)-methyl-vellosimine, demethoxypurpeline, 12-methoxyaffinisine, and 12-methoxy-vellosimine, in addition to picrinine, vinorine, raucaffrinoline, normacusine B, norseredamine, seredamine, 10-methoxynormacusine B, norpurpeline and purpeline, were isolated from the bark or leaf extracts of Rauvolfia bahiensis.

  2. Rauvotetraphyllines A-E, new indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia tetraphylla

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Kong, Ling-Mei; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Five new indole alkaloids rauvotetraphyllines A–E (1–5), together with eight known analogues, were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s13659-012-0012-5 and is accessible for authorized users.

  3. Synthesis of the new derivatives of alkaloid glaucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukusheva, G.K.; Zhumagalieva, Zh.Zh.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.; Kazantsev, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of aporphine alkaloid glaucine by reactions of halogenation, amino-methylation, acetylation and with esters of boronic acid new derivatives of glaucine were synthesized. The structures of obtained compounds were determined on basis of IR, 13 C, 1 H, 11 B NMR spectral data

  4. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  5. Three new alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Kang, Jie; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-01

    From the fruits of Morus alba, three new alkaloids, mulbaines A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR).

  6. Effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Mingsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne. The rats that were administered high, medium, and low doses of motherwort alkaloids, tanshinone capsules, a model and a control group. Each group of rats was subjected to gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. On the first day of testing, the control and model groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of sterilized saline solution and the remaining groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of Staphylococcus epidermidis in addition to the gavage. The thicknesses of the rats’ auricles were measured for five consecutive days following the injections. Anticoagulated blood was used for erythrocyte rheology index measurement. In addition, the entire ear of each rat was removed for morphological examination. Compared to the model group, the group administered motherwort alkaloids exhibited significantly reduced swelling, improved localized auricle proliferation, and reduced blood viscosity. This result suggests motherwort alkaloids are effective in rat ear acne.

  7. Mechanistic Insights to the Cytotoxicity of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nair, J. J.; Rárová, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Bastida, J.; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 171-182 ISSN 1934-578X Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Alkaloid * Amaryllidaceae * Apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.884, year: 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920242

  8. Analysis of alkaloid phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the compounds of alkaloids extracts from the leaves of Datura stramonium, which can be the basis for the synthesis of new antibiotics. ... The chemical compositions of the leaves of ethanolic extract of D.

  9. Spatiotemporal oscillations of morphinan alkaloids in opium poppy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahdi Rezaei

    2018-04-30

    Apr 30, 2018 ... biosynthesis is coordinated tightly by the enzymatic function of SalAT enzyme. Meanwhile, despite ... Therefore, determination of the alkaloid profile of each individual plant .... well-known technique, IMS offers low detection limit, fast response ...... ion mobility spectrometry with ammonia reagent gas. Talanta.

  10. The role of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrittwieser, J.H.; Resch, V.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are not only one of the most intensively studied classes of natural products, their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities also makes them indispensable drug ingredients in both traditional and modern medicine. Among the methods for their production, biotechnological approaches are

  11. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  12. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: A spectrum of potential health consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs ha...

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of Fusarium oxysporum, two of F. sambucinum, and two of Trichoderma sp). Fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...

  16. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Negreiros Neto, Themístocles; Gardner, Dale; Hallwass, Fernando; Leite, Ana Jéssica Matias; de Almeida, Camila Guimarães; Silva, Laura Nunes; de Araújo Roque, Alan; de Bitencourt, Fernanda Gobbi; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira; Giordani, Raquel Brandt

    2016-10-01

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were utilized as strains to test some activities of this alkaloid, such as antibiofilm and antibacterial. Meanwhile, monocrotaline obtained from Crotalaria retusa seeds, was used as the starting material for synthesis of necine base derivatives with anti-Trichomonas vaginalis potential. Alkaloids were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and GC-MS analysis. Usaramine demonstrated a highlighted antibiofilm activity against S. epidermidis by reducing more than 50% of biofilm formation without killing the bacteria, thus it could be assumed as a prototype for the development of new antibiofilm molecules for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes. Monocrotaline activity against T. vaginalis was evaluated and results indicated inhibition of 80% on parasite growth at 1mg/mL, in addition, neither cytotoxicity against vaginal epithelial cells nor hemolytic activity were observed. On the other hand, retronecine showed no anti-T. vaginalis activity while azido-retronecine was more active than monocrotaline killing 85% of the parasites at 1mg/mL. In conclusion, pyrrolizidine alkaloids are suggested as promising prototypes for new drugs especially for topical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster: Functional analyses and evolutionary aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Haarmann, T.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Jung, M.; Tudzynski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, 15-16 (2009), s. 1822-1832 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Claviceps purpurea * Ergot fungus * Ergot alkaloid gene cluster Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2009

  18. NAUCLEFOLININE: A NEW ALKALOID FROM THE ROOTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    NAUCLEFOLININE: A NEW ALKALOID FROM THE ROOTS OF. NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA. D. Ngnokam1*, J.F. Ayafor1, J.D. Connolly2 and J.M. Nuzillard3. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon. 2Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland.

  19. Effect Of CARICAPRYL-99 Seed Alkaloid Extract On The Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percectage toxicity (10, 50 and 150 mg/kg) were separately administered orally, daily for three days to ...

  20. [Recent results on the pharmacodynamics of Strychnos malgaches alkaloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanaivo, P; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, S; Frappier, F

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of Strychnos (Loganiaceae) shrubs and trees was initiated by their traditional uses of their inherent poisons on arrows: this led to the discovery of strychnine and curare alkaloids. Subsequently, phytochemical investigation of several Strychnos species has shown great structural diversity of the alkaloid constituent which also display various biological effects, i.e. convulsive and relaxant effects on muscles, and antimicrobial, antitumor and antihypertensive properties. Ethnobotanical field work conducted in different regions of Madagascar revealed that infusion of three Strychnos species, S. mostueoides, S. myrtoides and S. diplotricha, is used in association with subcurative doses of chloroquine to treat chronic malaria. Bioassayfractionation led to the isolation of two major bioactive components, strychnobrasiline and malagashanine. Whereas strychnobrasiline is a previously known chemical compound, malagashanine is the first in a series of a new subtype of Strychnos alkaloids. These two alkaloids are devoid of intrinsic antimalarial effects, both in vitro (IC50 = 73.0 micrograms/ml for strychnobrasiline and 69.1 micrograms/ml for malagashanine) and in vivo (10 mg/kg conferred a 5% suppression of parasitemia). When these alkaloids are combined with chloroquine at doses much lower than required for antiplasmodial effects, they greatly enhance the chloroquine action in a dose dependent manner as seen by the isobologram method. Several minor alkaloids structurally related to malagashanine were also isolated from Madagascan Strychnos. They all enhance, to greater or lesser degrees, the chloroquine effectiveness. Interestingly, there is a positive correlation between the ethnomedical use of the three Strychnos species as chloroquine adjuvants and the chloroquine-potentiating effects of malagashanine and strychnobrasiline isolated from them. After preliminary toxicological studies, infusion of stem barks of S. myrtoides in association with chloroquine

  1. Genetic variation of piperidine alkaloids in Pinus ponderosa: a common garden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Elizabeth A; Kelsey, Rick G; St Clair, J Bradley

    2009-02-01

    Previous measurements of conifer alkaloids have revealed significant variation attributable to many sources, environmental and genetic. The present study takes a complementary and intensive, common garden approach to examine genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa alkaloid production. Additionally, this study investigates the potential trade-off between seedling growth and alkaloid production, and associations between topographic/climatic variables and alkaloid production. Piperidine alkaloids were quantified in foliage of 501 nursery seedlings grown from seed sources in west-central Washington, Oregon and California, roughly covering the western half of the native range of ponderosa pine. A nested mixed model was used to test differences among broad-scale regions and among families within regions. Alkaloid concentrations were regressed on seedling growth measurements to test metabolite allocation theory. Likewise, climate characteristics at the seed sources were also considered as explanatory variables. Quantitative variation from seedling to seedling was high, and regional variation exceeded variation among families. Regions along the western margin of the species range exhibited the highest alkaloid concentrations, while those further east had relatively low alkaloid levels. Qualitative variation in alkaloid profiles was low. All measures of seedling growth related negatively to alkaloid concentrations on a natural log scale; however, coefficients of determination were low. At best, annual height increment explained 19.4 % of the variation in ln(total alkaloids). Among the climate variables, temperature range showed a negative, linear association that explained 41.8 % of the variation. Given the wide geographic scope of the seed sources and the uniformity of resources in the seedlings' environment, observed differences in alkaloid concentrations are evidence for genetic regulation of alkaloid secondary metabolism in ponderosa pine. The theoretical

  2. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  3. Antiparasitic activities of acridone alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Vieira, Paulo C; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

    2009-07-01

    Eleven acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. were examined for in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 and Leishmania donovani L82. An assay with KB cells was developed in order to compare in vitro toxicity of alkaloids with the selective action on the parasites. Nine of the compounds had IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.3 to 11.6 {mu}M against P. falciparum. In contrast, a small number of compounds showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and none had activity against L. donovani. Among the alkaloids three had IC{sub 50} < 1.0 {mu}M against P. falciparum, whereas against T. b. rhodesiense five had IC{sub 50} < 10 {mu}M. The characterization of the acridone alkaloids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin-9 (10H)-one (1), 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro [3,2-b] acridin-5(10H)-one (2) and 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2Hpyrano[ 2,3-a]acridin-12(7H)-one (3), is discussed, as well as the structure-activity relationship of all compounds assayed. Isolation and spectral data of alkaloids 1-3 are described for the first time although their cytotoxicities to cancer cells have been described before. (author)

  4. Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal medicines commonly used in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2017-04-18

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries for the management and treatment of various ailments due to the belief that they pose only little or no health risk and side effects, and also, in part, due to their availability, affordability and/or self-supply. However, the increasing information over the recent years on the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, herbal food and tea products has raised concerns about the safety of herbal medicines with respect to contamination. To this day, little is known on the occurrence of toxic PAs in herbal medicines, especially in tropical West Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the PA content of 70 well-known and widely patronized plant-derived medicinal preparations, which are commercialized in Ghana and some West African countries, in order to ascertain their potential health risk. PAs of the herbal medicinal products, sourced from specialized drugstores and mostly regulatory approved, were analyzed for their PA content by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method. The results show that a total of 60% of the analyzed herbal products were PA positive, indicating an average PA-concentration of 25.0μg/kg. The maximum PA level (1290.0μg/kg) was attributed to a regulatory-approved herbal medicine not known, according to the list of declared ingredients, to contain PA-plant parts. Interestingly, higher PA content (average, 30.2μg/kg) was detected in regulatory-approved herbal medicines, in contrast to lower amount (average, 8.0μg/kg) detected in non-regulatory-approved products. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that herbal medicines containing PA plants as ingredients, as well as some of those containing plant species not known to produce PAs, are likely to contain hepatotoxic PA at levels higher than the daily dose in food and herbal medicinal products proposed by the European Medicines Agency (i.e. 0.35μg PA per day for 50kg adult and 0.14μg PA per day for 20kg children

  5. A Facile Synthesis of Deaza-Analogues of the Bisindole Marine Alkaloid Topsentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Favi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of substituted ethyl 1-[(tert-butoxycarbonylamino]-2-methyl-5- (1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl-4-[(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-ylcarbonyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylates were prepared in excellent yields (82-98% by one-pot reactions between β-dicarbonyl compounds 12a–e and 1,2-diaza-1,3-diene (DD 13. Derivatives 10a,c–e, deazaanalogues of the bis-indole alkaloid topsentin, screened by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA in the in vitro one dose primary anticancer assay against a panel of about 60 human tumor cell lines, showed no significant activity, with the exception of compound 9e, which showed moderate activity against the HOP-92 cell line of the non small cell lung cancer sub-panel and the SNB-75 cell line of the CNS sub-panel.

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Natural and Unnatural 2-, 5-, and 7-Oxygenated Carbazole Alkaloids from N-Arylcyclohexane Enaminones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Tamariz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A palladium-catalyzed synthesis of the carbazole framework is described, including the preparation of 2-, 5-, and 7-oxygenated natural and unnatural carbazole alkaloids. A series of N-arylcyclohexane enaminones, generated by condensation of cyclohexane-1,3-dione with diverse anilines, were aromatized by a Pd(0-catalyzed thermal treatment to afford the corresponding diarylamines. The latter were submitted to a Pd(II-catalyzed cyclization and methylation processes to provide the desired carbazoles, including clausine V. Following an inverse strategy, a new and short total synthesis of glycoborine is also reported.

  7. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

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    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  8. Construction of binary status information system using PC network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnianto, K.; Azriani, A.; Teddy, S.

    1998-01-01

    Binary status information system is a part of establishing reactor parameter with Pc that function as MPR-30 Process Computer. Binary Alarm system, consist of interface hardware and input binary module terminal, prepare the information that be displayed in text message and graphical form. Monitor software give facilities that binary status of RSG-GAS components can be monitored using computer network (LAN). This program consist of two part : reside in server computer and reside in user computer. Program in server acquire data from interface and than store it in data base (Access file). Than, user computer read this file and display it in Dynamic Process and Instrumentation Diagram. The number of user computer can be more then one because data base was designed for multi-user operation

  9. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  12. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  13. Comparison of a specific HPLC determination of toxic aconite alkaloids in processed Radix aconiti with a titration method of total alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezso; Borcsa, Botond; Heydel, Barbara; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István; Ma, Yan; Widowitz, Ute; Bauer, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) roots are only applied after processing. Nevertheless, several cases of poisoning by improperly processed aconite roots have been reported. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable analytical method to assess the amount of toxic aconite alkaloids in commercial aconite roots, and to compare this method with the commonly used total alkaloid content determination by titration. The content of mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine in 16 commercial samples of processed aconite roots was determined by an HPLC method and the total alkaloid content by indirect titration. Five samples were selected for in vivo toxicological investigation. In most of the commercial samples, toxic alkaloids were not detectable, or only traces were found. In four samples, we could detect >0.04% toxic aconite alkaloids, the highest with a content of 0.16%. The results of HPLC analysis were compared with the results obtained by titration, and no correlation was found between the two methods. The in vivo results reassured the validity of the HPLC determination. Samples with mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine content below the HPLC detection limit still contained up to 0.2% alkaloids determined by titration. Since titration of alkaloids gives no information selectively on the aconitine-type alkaloid content and toxicity of aconite roots this method is not appropriate for safety assessment. The HPLC method developed by us provides a quick and reliable assessment of toxicity and should be considered as a purity test in pharmacopoeia monographs.

  14. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  15. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  16. Biogenetically inspired synthesis and skeletal diversification of indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Haruki; Oikawa, Hideaki; Oguri, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    To access architecturally complex natural products, chemists usually devise a customized synthetic strategy for constructing a single target skeleton. In contrast, biosynthetic assembly lines often employ divergent intramolecular cyclizations of a polyunsaturated common intermediate to produce diverse arrays of scaffolds. With the aim of integrating such biogenetic strategies, we show the development of an artificial divergent assembly line generating unprecedented numbers of scaffold variations of terpenoid indole alkaloids. This approach not only allows practical access to multipotent intermediates, but also enables systematic diversification of skeletal, stereochemical and functional group properties without structural simplification of naturally occurring alkaloids. Three distinct modes of [4+2] cyclizations and two types of redox-mediated annulations provided divergent access to five skeletally distinct scaffolds involving iboga-, aspidosperma-, andranginine- and ngouniensine-type skeletons and a non-natural variant within six to nine steps from tryptamine. The efficiency of our approach was demonstrated by successful total syntheses of (±)-vincadifformine, (±)-andranginine and (-)-catharanthine.

  17. Urease and serine protease inhibitory alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat; Afza, Nighat; Malik, Abdul; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2008-12-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6., 3'-Hydroxyepiglucoisatisin (3), Epiglucoisatisin (2) were found to be potent urease inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values 25.63 +/- 0.74, 37.01 +/- 0.41 and 31.72 +/- 0.93, 47.33 +/- 0.31 microM against Bacillus pasteurii & Jack bean urease, respectively. Compounds 3 and 2 also showed potent inhibitory potential against alpha-chymotrypsin with IC(50) values of 23.40 +/- 0.21 and 27.45 +/- 0.23 microM, respectively.

  18. A Submarine Journey: The Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scolaro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In his most celebrated tale “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, Oscar Wilde stated that “those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril”. This sentence could be a prophetical warning for the practitioner who voluntarily challenges himself with trying to synthesize marine sponge-deriving pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. This now nearly triple-digit membered community has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years, both in terms of new representatives and topological complexity − from simple, achiral oroidin to the breathtaking 12-ring stylissadines A and B, each possessing 16 stereocenters. While the biosynthesis and the role in the sponge economy of most of these alkaloids still lies in the realm of speculations, significant biological activities for some of them have clearly emerged. This review will account for the progress in achieving the total synthesis of the more biologically enticing members of this class of natural products.

  19. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Characterization of Half-Calycanthaceous Alkaloid Derivatives

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    Shaojun Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 29 novel tetrahydropyrroloindol-based calycanthaceous alkaloid derivatives were synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile in good yields. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against nine strains of bacteria and a wide range of plant pathogen fungi. Bioassay results revealed that majority of the compounds displayed similar or higher in vitro antimicrobial activities than the positive control. The biological activities also indicated that substituents at R4 and R5 significantly affect the activities. Notably, compound c4 was found to be most active among the tested calycanthaceous analogues and might be a novel potential leading compound for further development as an antifungal agent. The results could pave the way for further design and structural modification of calycanthaceous alkaloids as antimicrobial agents.

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from seven wild-growing Senecio species in Serbia and Montenegro

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    BORIS M. MANDIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Senecio (family Asteraceae is one of the largest in the world. It comprises about 1100 species which are the rich source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most important sources of human and animal exposure to plant toxins and carcinogens. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids of seven Senecio species (S. erucifolius, S. othonnae, S. wagneri, S. subalpinus, S. carpathicus, S. paludosus and S. rupestris were studied. Fourteen alkaloids were isolated and their structures determined from spectroscopic data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR and MS. Five of them were identified in S. erucifolius, four in S. othonnae, two in S. wagneri, four in S. subalpinus, two in S. carpathicus, three in S. paludosus and three in S. rupestris. Seven pyrrolizidine alkaloids were found for the first time in particular species. The results have chemotaxonomic importance. The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial activity of some alkaloids were also studied.

  1. Occurrence of theobromine synthase genes in purine alkaloid-free species of Camellia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mariko; Kitao, Naoko; Mizuno, Kouichi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Kato, Misako

    2009-02-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) are purine alkaloids that are present in high concentrations in plants of some species of Camellia. However, most members of the genus Camellia contain no purine alkaloids. Tracer experiments using [8-(14)C]adenine and [8-(14)C]theobromine showed that the purine alkaloid pathway is not fully functional in leaves of purine alkaloid-free species. In five species of purine alkaloid-free Camellia plants, sufficient evidence was obtained to show the occurrence of genes that are homologous to caffeine synthase. Recombinant enzymes derived from purine alkaloid-free species showed only theobromine synthase activity. Unlike the caffeine synthase gene, these genes were expressed more strongly in mature tissue than in young tissue.

  2. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

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    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  3. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Maria Amelia R.; Batista, Andrea N. de L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Santos, Luciana de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Nogueira, Paulo J. de C.; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo L. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Latif, Abdul; Arfan, Mohammad [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemical Sciences

    2011-07-01

    Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM). (author)

  4. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Maria Amelia R.; Batista, Andrea N. de L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Santos, Luciana de A.; Nogueira, Paulo J. de C.; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo L.; Latif, Abdul; Arfan, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM). (author)

  5. [Pharmacokinetic of four alkaloids of Yanshu injection in Beagel dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Xue, Mei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Luyong

    2012-06-01

    For studying the pharmacokinetic of Yanshu injections in Beagel dogs, a sensitive and reproducible LC-MS method for quantitative determination of matrine, oxymatrine, sophocarpine and oxysophocarpine in dog's plasma were developed and validated using monocrotaline as an internal standard after iv of Yanshu injections (Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Heterosmilacis Japonicae Rhizoma). The separation of plasma samples was performed on a CN column by isocratic elution with methanol-10 mmol x L(-1) NH4Ac-0.02% HCOOH-H2O 90:10 as the mobile phase. The plasma concentration of four kinds of alkaloids were calculated in dog plasta by detection of healthy dogs given Yanshu injection fluid after in twelve hours of plasma samples, All data of concentration-time of four kinds of alkaloids were treated with pharmacokinetics program DAS 2. 0. MT, OMT, SP and OSP have a good linear relationship in 0.01-16.0, 0.02-60.0, 0.01-4.0, 0.02-16.0 mg x L(-1), respectively. The average recoveries were more than 90% and the RSD of precision and stability of the test were less than 6.4% iv 1.2 g x kg(-1) Yanshu injection, four kinds of alkaloids in rats meet the two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model, Cmax and the concentration of the original liquid in the proportion of the basic line, the AUC(0-infinity) of matrine and oxymatrine, sophocarpine and oxysophocarpine compared to the original both in the proportion of liquid increases, the MRT(0-infinity) and t(1/2z) of matrine and sophocarpine were less than oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine; four kinds of alkaloids apparent volume of distribution matrine > oxymatrine, sophocarpine > oxysophocarpine. A method with high recovery rate and good stabilitywas established to determine the blood concentration of MT, OMT, SP, OSP in Yanshu injection and applied in its pharmacokinetics successfully.

  6. Tetracyclic indole alkaloids with antinematode activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fandong; Ma, Qingyun; Huang, Shengzhuo; Yang, Shuang; Fu, Linran; Zhou, Liman; Dai, Haofu; Yu, Zhifang; Zhao, Youxing

    2017-06-01

    A new tetracyclic indole alkaloid, 17-O-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetradehydrogeissoschizine, together with seven known ones, were isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparing with the literature data. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6-8 showed potent to moderate antinematode activities against Panagrellus redivevus at a concentration of 250 μg/mL.

  7. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rute; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-06-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed in plants throughout the world, frequently in species relevant for human consumption. Apart from the toxicity that these molecules can cause in humans and livestock, PA are also known for their wide range of pharmacological properties, which can be exploited in drug discovery programs. In this work we review the current body of knowledge regarding the chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and food safety of PA.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium confusum Coincy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, Houari; Tomassini, Lamberto; Venditti, Alessandro; Marouf, Abderrazak; Bennaceur, Malika; Serafini, Mauro; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    Four pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely 7-O-angeloyllycopsamine N-oxide 1, echimidine N-oxide 2, echimidine 3 and 7-O-angeloylretronecine 4, were isolated for the first time from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Echium confusum Coincy, through bioassay-guided approach. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. All the isolates compounds showed moderate activities in inhibiting AChE, with IC50 0.276-0.769.

  9. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  10. Macrophage activating activity of pyrrole alkaloids from Morus alba fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-01-09

    The fruits of Morus alba have been traditionally used as a tonic to enhance immune responses. The macrophage activating constituents of Morus alba fruits were purified using various column chromatography techniques. The structures of isolated compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation such as 1D and 2D NMR analysis. The macrophage activating activities of isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-12 in RAW 264.7 cells. The phagocytic activity was also evaluated. Five pyrrole alkaloids, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (1), 2-formyl-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (2), 2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (3), 2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (4) and Morrole A (5) were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba. Morrole A (5) is first reported in nature and other pyrrole alkaloids (1-4) are first reported from Morus species. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 3 and 4 significantly activated macrophage activity by the enhancement of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-12 production, and the stimulation of phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Pyrrole alkaloids, including a new compound, were isolated from Morus alba fruits. These compounds activated macrophage activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  12. Synthesis of Lycodine-Type Lycopodium Alkaloids Using C-H Functionalization Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, James

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes our syntheses of several lycodine-type Lycopodium alkaloids by the late-stage C-H functionalization of lycodine derivatives. Lycodine-type alkaloids are well-known for their neurological activity. For example, huperzine A is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and the complanadine family of molecules has been shown to induce the secretion of Nerve Growth Factor. Due to these properties, lycodine-type alkaloids serve as interesting lead compounds for the deve...

  13. Alkaloids in Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae): (With 2 Tables & 1 Figure)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amador, MC; Muñoz Ocotero, V; García Castañeda, JM; González Esquinca, AR

    2007-01-01

    A comparison was made between plants of Solanum torvum Sw that grow in Chiapas, Mexico, and plants of the same species originating from India. This was effected to establish either similarities or differences between these plants in total alkaloid contents and presence of solasodine, an important alkaloid for the partial synthesis of steroids. The total alkaloid content (0.12%) of the plants coming from Chiapas and India was the same. However, solasodine was found only in the plants of Chiapa...

  14. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. To determine whether the attraction of the butterflies to the plant is an accurate indicator of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides. The alkaloid fraction of a methanolic extract of G. spilanthoides was analysed using HPLC with electrospray ionisation MS and MS/MS. Two HPLC approaches were used, that is, a C18 reversed-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, and a porous graphitic carbon column with a basic mobile phase. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were confirmed, with the free base forms more prevalent than the N-oxides. The major alkaloids detected were lycopsamine and intermedine. The porous graphitic carbon HPLC column, with basic mobile phase conditions, resulted in better resolution of more pyrrolizidine alkaloids including rinderine, the heliotridine-based epimer of intermedine. Based on the MS/MS and high-resolution MS data, gymnocoronine was tentatively identified as an unusual C9 retronecine ester with 2,3-dihydroxy-2-propenylbutanoic acid. Among several minor-abundance monoester pyrrolizidines recognised, spilanthine was tentatively identified as an ester of isoretronecanol with the unusual 2-acetoxymethylbutanoic acid. The butterflies proved to be reliable indicators for the presence of pro-toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides, the first aquatic plant shown to produce these alkaloids. The presence of the anti-herbivory alkaloids may contribute to the plant's invasive capabilities and would certainly be a consideration in any risk assessment of deliberate utilisation of the plant. The prolific growth of the plant and the structural diversity of its pyrrolizidine alkaloids may make it ideal for investigating biosynthetic

  15. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by graphite–chitosan binary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphite chitosan binary (GCB) composite was prepared for hexavalent chromium adsorption from studied water. GCB was characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques.Wide porous sorptive surface of 3.89 m 2 g − 1 and absorptive functionalities of GCB was due to 20% (w/w) graphite support on ...

  16. Gas chromatographic analysis of dimethyltryptamine and beta-carboline alkaloids in ayahuasca, an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana Paula Salum; De Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Moura, Sidnei; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Silva, Wagner Abreu E; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Ayahuasca is obtained by infusing the pounded stems of Banisteriopsis caapi in combination with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. P. viridis is rich in the psychedelic indole N,N-dimethyltryptamine, whereas B. caapi contains substantial amounts of beta-carboline alkaloids, mainly harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine, which are monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Because of differences in composition in ayahuasca preparations, a method to measure their main active constituents is needed. To develop a gas chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of dimethyltryptamine and the main beta-carbolines found in ayahuasca preparations. The alkaloids were extracted by means of solid phase extraction (C(18)) and detected by gas chromatography with nitrogen/phosphorous detector. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.02 mg/mL for all analytes. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 0.02-4.0 mg/mL (r(2 )> 0.99). The method was also precise (RSD ayahuasca was developed and validated. The method can be useful to estimate administered doses in animals and humans for further pharmacological and toxicological investigations of ayahuasca. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Is comfrey root more than toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids? Salvianolic acids among antioxidant polyphenols in comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, Adriana; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Josuran, Roland; Grubelnik, Andreas; Esslinger, Nils; Peter, Samuel; Bräm, Sarah; Meier, Nadja; Wolfram, Evelyn

    2018-02-01

    Comfrey root preparations are used for the external treatment of joint distortions and myalgia, due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Up to date, key activity-determining constituents of comfrey root extracts have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, we applied different approaches to further characterize a comfrey root extract (65% ethanol). The phenolic profile of comfrey root sample was characterized by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Rosmarinic acid was identified as main phenolic constituent (7.55 mg/g extract). Moreover, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid (isomers of salvianolic acid A, B and C) were identified and quantified for the first time in comfrey root. In addition, pyrrolizidine alkaloids were evaluated by HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS and acetylintermedine, acetyllycopsamine and their N-oxides were determined as major pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the comfrey root sample. Lastly, the antioxidant activity was determined using four assays: DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, reducing power assay and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Comfrey root extract exhibited significant antioxidant activities when compared to known antioxidants. Thus, comfrey root is an important source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity which may contribute to the overall bioactivity of Symphytum preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New alkaloids of the sarpagine group from Rauvolfia serpentina hairy root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, Yuri; Gerasimenko, Irina; Kolshorn, Heinz; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-07-01

    Three new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, 19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine (1), 19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine-17-al (2), and 10-hydroxy-19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine (3), along with 16 known alkaloids 4-19 were isolated from hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina, and their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Taking into account the stereochemistry of the new alkaloids and results of preliminary enzymatical studies, the putative biosynthetical relationships between the novel alkaloids are discussed.

  19. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem El-Shazly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties.

  20. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  1. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  2. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  3. A rapid cleanup method for the isolation and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dean E; Porter, Andrew; O'Neill, Terry; Harris, Roger K; Rottinghaus, George E

    2004-01-01

    Preparations from comfrey (Symphytum officinale and S. x uplandicum) root and leaf contain varying levels of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Reference compounds for comfrey are not commercially available, and there is currently no rapid extraction or analytical method capable of determining low levels in raw materials or as adulterants in commercially available extracts. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using an Ergosil cleanup column that specifically binds the PAs. With this method, powdered comfrey root was extracted by sonication and shaking with basic chloroform. The extract was applied to the cleanup column under vacuum, washed with 2 mL acetone-chloroform (8 + 2, v/v) followed by 2 mL petroleum ether to remove excess chloroform. The column was dried under vacuum, and the PAs were eluted with 2 successive 1 mL aliquots methanol. Percent recoveries of the PAs following Ergosil SPE had an overall average of 96.8%, with RSD of 3.8% over a range of 1.0 to 25.0 g extracted in 100 mL. Average precision of the method (n = 3 over 4 extraction concentrations) gave an overall RSD of 6.0% for the 5 alkaloids, with a range of 0.8% (5 g in 100 mL) to 11.2% (25 g in 100 mL). Recovery optimization testing showed that 1.0 g comfrey root extracted in 100 mL yielded the greatest recovery (% dry weight) of the PAs, with an extraction efficiency and accuracy of 94.2%, and RSD of 1.7% (n = 9). The unique properties of the Ergosil cleanup column provide rapid sample cleanup, volume reduction, and concentration of PAs from comfrey extracts, and allow the eluant to be analyzed directly by traditional chromatographic methods.

  4. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  5. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  6. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  7. Lidocaine/L-Menthol Binary System: Cocrystallization versus Solid-State Immiscibility

    OpenAIRE

    Corvis , Yohann; Négrier , Philippe; Lazerges , Mathieu; Massip , Stéphane; Léger , Jean-Michel; Espeau , Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We present the synthesis, structure determination, and thermodynamic properties of a never reported cocrystal prepared with lidocaine and L-menthol. The temperature-composition phase diagram of the lidocaine/L-menthol binary system was achieved using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction experiments. The present study demonstrates that the only way to perform a phase equilibrium survey of the lidocaine/L-menthol system is to prepare the binary mixture...

  8. Identifying the related compounds using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bromotyrosine alkaloids from marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This sponge has tremendous chemical diversity of bromotyrosine alkaloids. Here we have used the proteomics approach in identifying related bromotyrosine alkaloids based on the predicated mass...

  9. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  10. Independent Recruitment of a Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase for Safe Accumulation of Sequestered Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Grasshoppers and Moths

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide,...

  11. Molekulare Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Flavin-abhängigen Monooxygenasen in verschiedenen Pyrrolizidin-Alkaloid-adaptierten Insekten

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Linzhu

    2013-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respect...

  12. New method for the study of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis using biotransformation of deuterium-labeled precursor in tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahchy, A. E.; Boisbrun, M.; Chretien, F.; Henry, M.; Chapleur, Y.; Laurain-Mattar, D.; Ptak, A.; Dupire, F.

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation of deuterated-4'-O-methylnorbelladine into alkaloids galanthamine and lycorine in tissue cultures of Leucojum aestivum was demonstrated using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. GC-MS screening was also carried to investigate other native and deuterated alkaloids. A total of six labeled alkaloids were identified indicating that 4'-O-methyl-d3-norbelladine is incorporated into three different groups of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids that are biosynthesized by three modes of intramolecular oxidative phenol coupling. (authors)

  13. Analysis of Alkaloids from Physalis peruviana by Capillary GC, Capillary GC-MS, and GC-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Rollmann, B; Tilquin, B

    1993-04-01

    The alkaloid composition of the aerial parts and roots of PHYSALIS PERUVIANA was analysed by capillary GC (GC (2)), GC (2)-MS and GC (2)-FTIR. Eight alkaloids were identified, three of those alkaloids are 3beta-acetoxytropane and two N-methylpyrrolidinylhygrine isomers, which were not previously found in the genus PHYSALIS. A reproduction of the identification of alkaloids detected in the plant by the use of retention indices has been proposed.

  14. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL 10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL 10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological activity of the alkaloids of Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, C.A.; Novák, M.; Khan, I.

    1984-01-01

    The cultivated Erythroxylum varieties E. coca var. coca, E. coca var. ipadu, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. novogranatense var. truxillense contain 18 alkaloids, identified so far, belonging to the tropanes, pyrrolidines and pyridines, with cocaine as the main alkaloid. The biological

  16. Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of conium alkaloids and their adducts with C60 fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotnyi, M. A.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Poluyan, N. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Dovbeshko, G. I.

    2016-08-01

    Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of the components of Conium alkaloids (Conium maculatum) in aqueous environment were determined by model calculations and experiment. With the help of FT-IR spectroscopy the possibility of formation of an adduct between γ-coniceine alkaloid and C60 fullerene was demonstrated, which is important for further application of conium analogues in biomedical purposes.

  17. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction – The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid...

  18. Renieramycins H and I, two novel alkaloids from the sponge Haliclona cribricutis Dendy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Pramanik, B.N.

    The known alkaloid, mimosamycin 1, along with its moon- and di hydroxy derivaties, 4-hydroxy mimosamycin 2 and 1, 4-dihydroxymimosamycin 3 and two new dimeric alkaloids: namely renieramycins H and I 4 and 5 have been isolated from the MeOH extract...

  19. Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are potent liver toxins that have been identified in over 6,000 plants throughout the world. Alkaloids are nitrogen-based compounds with potent biological activity. About half of the identified PAs are toxic and several cause cancer (carcinogenic). PA-containing plants...

  20. [Effects of Total Alkaloids of Harmaline on Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-shuang; Sun, Jian-ning; Yu, Hui-ling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of total alkaloids of harmaline on learning and memory in vascular dementia rats, and its mechanism. The model rats of vascular dementia were established with bilateral carotid artery ligation. After 30 days, the model rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, nicergoline tablets 7 mg/kg group, and 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg dose groups of total alkaloids of harmaline, the rats were given medicine for 30 days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze, histomorphology in hippocampal CA1 area were observed by HE staining, BAX and BCL-2 protein expression in hippocampal CA1 area were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with model group, 25 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the third and fourth day significantly, 12.5 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the fourth day. 25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups of total alkaloids of harmaline significantly increased the times crossing the target. Total alkaloids of harmaline improved the neurons pathological changes of rat in the hippocampus CA1 area, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg of total alkaloids of harmaline downregulated the expression of apoptosis proteins BAX, upregulated the protein expression of BCL-2. Total alkaloids of harmaline can improve the learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats, which probably is related to inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus cell.

  1. Total alkaloid content in various fractions of Tabernaemonata sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, N.; Ningsih, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) is one of the Apocynaceae family plants containing alkaloid compound. Traditionally, it is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. It is found to have a new bisindole alkaloid compound that shows a potent cytotoxic activity in human cancer. This study aimed to know the total alkaloid content in some fractions of ethanolic extract of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. leaf powder was extracted by maceration method in 70% ethanol solvent. Then, the extract was fractionated in a separatory funnel using water, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total alkaloid content in each fraction was analyzed with visible spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG). The total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction were (0.0312±0.0009)% and (0.0281±0.0014)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total alkaloid content in hexane was not detected. The statistical analysis, performed in SPSS, resulted in a significant difference between the total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The total alkaloid in water fraction of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. was higher than the one in ethyl acetate fraction.

  2. Isolation of alkaloid stachydrin from capparis spinosa L. and her new derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmaganbetov, Zh.S.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.; Kazantsev, A.V.; Serperov, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Phirrolidine alkaloid stachydrin was isolated from capparis spinosa L. New chemical derivatives of this new alkaloid were synthesized by reactions of halogenation (with bromine) and by reactions with methyl iodine and hydrochloric acid. The structures and composition of obtained compounds were determined on the basis of IR, 1 H NMR spectral data and elemental analysis

  3. [Comparative study on alkaloids of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant of Dendrobium huoshanense ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-dong; Gao, Feng; Lin, Xin; Jin, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To compare the composition and content of alkaloid of Dendrobium huoshanense tissue-culture seedling and wild plant. A comparative evaluation on the quality was carried out by HPLC and TLC methods including the composition and the content of alkaloids. Remarkable variation existed in the two kinds of Dendrobium huoshanense. For the tissue-culture plant, only two alkaloids were checked out by both HPLC and TLC while four alkaloids were observed in the wild plant. The alkaloid content of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant was(0. 29 ± 0. 11)%o and(0. 43 ± 0. 15) %o,respectively. Distinguished difference is observed in both composition and content of alkaloids from the annual shoots of different provenances of Dendrobium huoshanense. It suggested that the quality of tissue-culture seedling of Dendrobium huoshanense might be inconsistent with the wild plant. Furthermore, the established alkaloids-knock-out HPLC method would provide a new research tool on quality control of Chinese medicinal materials which contain unknown alkaloids.

  4. Anagyrine desensitization of peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A potential biomarker of quinolizidine alkaloid teratogenesis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagyrine, a teratogenic quinolizidine alkaloid found in certain Lupinus spp., has been proposed to undergo metabolism by pregnant cattle to a piperidine alkaloid which acts inhibit fetal movement, the putative mechanism behind crooked calf syndrome. The objective of this study was to test the hypot...

  5. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel),

  6. Two new tropolonic alkaloids from Colchicum speciosum Steven bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tayyeb*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Colchicum belongs to the family Colchicaceae, which comprises of 19 genera, and 225 species worldwide. They have been recognized for more than 2000 years for their noticeable biological properties. The Colchicum species are well known for presence of tropolonic alkaloids, mainly colchicine. Colchicine, is still the drug of choice for treatment of gout, and is used for the treatment of a number of proinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet’s disease. Clinical studies have proved colchicine to posses potent anti-tumor activity. Colchicum speciosum Steven is an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in northern, central and western regions of Iran.  Methods: In the present study, the phytochemical composition of MeOH extract from bulbs of C. speciosum collected fromSavadkouh region, Iranwas investigated by combination of HPLC-PDA-MS spectrometry and NMR specroscopy. The fractionation of MeOH extract was carried out by partitioning on CH2Cl2, EtOAc and water. Results: The isolation and purification of CH2Cl2 portion by combination of reverse and normal phase chromatography resulted in the isolation, purification and identification of two new tropolonic alkaloids, compounds (1 and (2, as well as two known compound colchicine (3 and demecolcine (4. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H NMR and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of isolated compounds were established by aid of circular dichroism. Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of CH2Cl2 extract of C. speciosum by combination of HPLC, column chromatography and hyphenated spectroscopic techniques led to identification two new alkaloids with potential as lead compounds.

  7. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde.

  8. Complete inhibition of fetal movement in the day 40 pregnant goat model by the piperidine alkaloid anabasine but not related alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four chemically similar alkaloids, anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), are potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists of fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human TE-671 cells. Based on results with these cells, we hypothesized that these alk...

  9. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio; Mendiola, Judith; Thomas, Olivier P.; Nogueiras, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  10. A Short Synthetic Route to the Calystegine Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    An efficient strategy is described for the synthesis of enantiopure calystegine alkaloids. The key step employs a zinc-mediated fragmentation of benzyl-protected methyl 6-iodo-glycosides followed by in situ formation of the benzyl imine and Barbier-type allylation with zinc, magnesium, or indium...... metal. Stereochemistry in the pivotal allylation is controlled by the choice of the metal. The functionalized 1,8-nonadienes, thus formed, are converted into cycloheptenes by ring-closing metathesis. Regioselective hydroboration and oxidation give the corresponding cycloheptanones, which are deprotected...

  11. An azafluorenone alkaloid and a megastigmane from Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nidia C.; Siqueira, Joao M. de; Rodrigues, Ricardo P.; Correia, Rodolfo P.; Garcez, Walmir S.

    2013-01-01

    The azafluorenone alkaloid 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-azafluoren-9-one and the megastigman (–)-(5R*, 6S*)-megastigman-3-one-10,7-olide were isolated from aerial parts of Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae), along with the known compounds (3S*,5S*,8R*)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (grasshopper ketone), N-trans-feruloyltyramine, (–)-anonaine, (–)-asimilobine, liriodenine and (–)-syringaresinol. This is the first description of the presence of megastigmanes in Annonaceae. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. (author)

  12. Two new similar alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiyu; Ying, Zheming; Gao, Mingzhe; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Xu, Liang; Tao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Wenjie; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Two novel alkaloids named oleraciamide A (1) and oleraciamide B (2) were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer spectrometry techniques are employed to determine their structures. Oleraciamide A (1) was evaluated no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 80 μM over 72 h against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  13. Isopalhinine A, a unique pentacyclic Lycopodium alkaloid from Palhinhaea cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liao-Bin; Gao, Xiu; Liu, Fei; He, Juan; Wu, Xing-De; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2013-07-19

    A new pentacyclic (5/6/6/6/7) Lycopodium alkaloid named isopalhinine A (1), which possesses a sterically congested architecture built with a tricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decane (isotwistane) moiety and a 1-azabicyclo[4.3.1]decane moiety, and palhinines B (2) and C (3) were isolated from Palhinhaea cernua. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectra, optical rotation calculation, and X-ray diffraction experiment. A possible biogenetic pathway was also proposed.

  14. Aedes aegypti Larvicidal Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from Maytenus oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Seindé; Nirma, Charlotte; Falkowski, Michael; Dusfour, Isabelle; Boulogne, Isabelle; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Coke, Maïra; Azam, Didier; Girod, Romain; Moriou, Céline; Odonne, Guillaume; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Eparvier, Véronique

    2017-02-24

    Four new sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-4) with a β-dihydroagrofuran skeleton and a new triterpenoid (5) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Maytenus oblongata stems. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and ECD experiments. The M. oblongata stem EtOAc extract and the pure compounds isolated were tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions, and compounds 2 and 3 were found to be active.

  15. An azafluorenone alkaloid and a megastigmane from Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Nidia C., E-mail: nidiayoshida@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Divinpolis, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Ricardo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Correia, Rodolfo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Garcez, Walmir S., E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The azafluorenone alkaloid 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-azafluoren-9-one and the megastigman (-)-(5R*, 6S*)-megastigman-3-one-10,7-olide were isolated from aerial parts of Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae), along with the known compounds (3S*,5S*,8R*)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (grasshopper ketone), N-trans-feruloyltyramine, (-)-anonaine, (-)-asimilobine, liriodenine and (-)-syringaresinol. This is the first description of the presence of megastigmanes in Annonaceae. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. (author)

  16. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio, E-mail: erikluis18@gmail.co [Center of Marine Bioproducts, Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Chemistry; Mendiola, Judith [Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri (IPK), Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Parasitology; Thomas, Olivier P. [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France). Lab. de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes; Nogueiras, Clara [University of Havana, San Lazaro y L, Havana (Cuba). Faculty of Chemistry. Center of Natural Products

    2011-07-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  17. A Novel Antimicrobial Phenanthrene Alkaloid from Bryopyllum pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Ebere Okwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenenthrene alkaloid identified as 1-ethanamino 7 hex-1-yne-5I-one phenanthrene was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (syn. B. calcinum kalanchoe pinnata a versatile Nigeria medicinal plant. The structure was elucidated using NMR, IR, UV and MS spectral data. Antimicrobial studies showed that the isolated compound successfully inhibited Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. This result authenticates the use of bryophyllum pinantum in phytomedicine for disease prevention and treatment of infections.

  18. Immunoassay approach for diagnosis of exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Fan; Lian, Wei; Wang, Huali; Zheng, Jiang; Lin, Ge

    2017-07-03

    Numerous pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) poisoning cases have been documented worldwide. Protein covalent binding with reactive metabolites generated from metabolic activation of PAs to form pyrrole-protein adducts is suggested to be a primary mechanism of PA-induced toxicities. The present study aimed to develop antibodies for diagnosis of PA exposure. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits and proven to specifically recognize pyrrole-protein adducts regardless of amino acid residues modified by the reactive metabolites of PAs. The developed antibodies were successfully applied to detect pyrrole-protein adducts in blood samples obtained from PA-treated rats and exhibited a potential for the clinical diagnosis of PA exposure.

  19. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B

    2015-10-19

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Curare Alkaloids: Constituents of a Matis Dart Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca Garcia, Gonzalo R; Hennig, Lothar; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Bussmann, Rainer W; Tsetlin, Victor I; Giannis, Athanassios

    2015-11-25

    A phytochemical study of dart and arrow poison from the Matis tribe led to the identification of D-(-)-quinic acid, L-malic acid, ethyldimethylamine, magnoflorine, and five new bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (BBIQAs), 1-5. D-Tubocurarine could not be identified among these products. BBIQA (3) contains a unique linkage at C-8 and C-11'. All structures were characterized by a combination of NMR and HRESIMS data. The effects of Matis poison and individual BBIQAs (1-3) on rat muscle nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique.

  1. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  2. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  3. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  4. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Khan, Morgan F; Schriemer, David C; Cram, Dustin; Nowak, Jacek; Facchini, Peter J

    2010-11-18

    Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well-defined metabolite profile facilitates

  5. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  6. Thermoelectric properties of p-type pseudo-binary (Ag0.365Sb0.558Te) x -(Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3)1-x (x=0-1.0) alloys prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, J.L.; Xue, H.F.; Xiu, W.J.; Jiang, L.; Ying, P.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, pseudo-binary (Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te) x -(Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ) 1- x (x=0-1.0) alloys were prepared using spark plasma sintering technique, and the composition-dependent thermoelectric properties were evaluated. Electrical conductivities range from 7.9x10 4 to 15.6x10 4 Ω -1 m -1 at temperatures of 507 and 318 K, respectively, being about 3.0 and 8.5 times those of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 alloy at the corresponding temperatures. The optimal dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the sample with molar fraction x=0.025 reaches 1.1 at 478 K, whereas that of the ternary Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 alloy is 0.58 near room temperature. The results also reveal that a direct introduction of Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te in the Bi-Sb-Te system is much more effective to the property improvement than naturally precipitated Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te in the Ag-doped Ag-Bi-Sb-Te system. - Graphical abstract: The temperature dependence of the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT for different (Ag 0.365 Sb 0.558 Te) x -(Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 ) 1- x (x=0-1.0) alloys prepared by spark plasma sintering

  7. Investigation of Symphytum cordatum alkaloids by liquid-liquid partitioning, thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczek, Tomasz; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Mietkiewicz-Capala, Agnieszka; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    From the alkalised crude extract of Symphytum cordatum (L.) W.K. roots, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were extracted as free tertiary bases and polar N-oxides in a merely one-step liquid-liquid partitioning (LLP) in separation funnel and subsequently pre-fractionated by preparative multiple-development (MD) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. In this way three alkaloid fractions of different polarities and retention on silica gel plates were obtained as: the most polar N-oxides of the highest retention, the tertiary bases of medium retention, and diesterified N-oxides of the lowest retention. The former fraction was reduced into free bases by sodium hydrosulfite and purified by LLP on Extrelut-NT3 cartridge. It was further analysed together with the two other fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface on XTerra C 18 column using a gradient elution. Based on MS n spectra, 18 various alkaloids have been tentatively determined for the first time in this plant as the following types of structure: echimidine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-sarracinyl-9-viridiflorylretronecine (two diasteroisomers), echimidine (two diasteroisomers), lycopsamine (two diasteroisomers), dihydroechinatine-N-oxide, dihydroheliospathuline-N-oxide, lycopsamine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-acetyllycopsamine-N-oxide, symphytine-N-oxide (two diasteroisomers) and 2'',3''-epoxyechiumine-N-oxide

  8. Investigation of Symphytum cordatum alkaloids by liquid-liquid partitioning, thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroczek, Tomasz [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland)]. E-mail: tmroczek@pharmacognosy.org; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine [Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Ecole de Pharmacie Geneve-Lausanne, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Glowniak, Kazimierz [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Mietkiewicz-Capala, Agnieszka [Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Medical University, 1 Chodzki St., 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Hostettmann, Kurt [Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et Phytochimie, Ecole de Pharmacie Geneve-Lausanne, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2006-05-04

    From the alkalised crude extract of Symphytum cordatum (L.) W.K. roots, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were extracted as free tertiary bases and polar N-oxides in a merely one-step liquid-liquid partitioning (LLP) in separation funnel and subsequently pre-fractionated by preparative multiple-development (MD) thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on silica gel plates. In this way three alkaloid fractions of different polarities and retention on silica gel plates were obtained as: the most polar N-oxides of the highest retention, the tertiary bases of medium retention, and diesterified N-oxides of the lowest retention. The former fraction was reduced into free bases by sodium hydrosulfite and purified by LLP on Extrelut-NT3 cartridge. It was further analysed together with the two other fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ion-trap mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface on XTerra C{sub 18} column using a gradient elution. Based on MS {sup n} spectra, 18 various alkaloids have been tentatively determined for the first time in this plant as the following types of structure: echimidine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-sarracinyl-9-viridiflorylretronecine (two diasteroisomers), echimidine (two diasteroisomers), lycopsamine (two diasteroisomers), dihydroechinatine-N-oxide, dihydroheliospathuline-N-oxide, lycopsamine-N-oxide (three diasteroisomers), 7-acetyllycopsamine-N-oxide, symphytine-N-oxide (two diasteroisomers) and 2'',3''-epoxyechiumine-N-oxide.

  9. Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids as Potential Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hulcová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of well-known substances like glycogen synthase, tau-protein, and β-catenin. Recent studies have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer´s disease, bipolar disorder, stroke, more than 15 types of cancer, and diabetes. GSK-3β is one of the most attractive targets for medicinal chemists in the discovery, design, and synthesis of new selective potent inhibitors. In the current study, twenty-eight Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of various structural types were studied for their potency to inhibit GSK-3β. Promising results have been demonstrated by alkaloids of the homolycorine-{9-O-demethylhomolycorine (IC50 = 30.00 ± 0.71 µM, masonine (IC50 = 27.81 ± 0.01 μM}, and lycorine-types {caranine (IC50 = 30.75 ± 0.04 μM}.

  10. Modulatory Effects of Eschscholzia californica Alkaloids on Recombinant GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Fedurco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham. contains a variety of natural compounds including several alkaloids found exclusively in this plant. Because of the sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic effects, this herb is currently sold in pharmacies in many countries. However, our understanding of these biological effects at the molecular level is still lacking. Alkaloids detected in E. californica could be hypothesized to act at GABAA receptors, which are widely expressed in the brain mainly at the inhibitory interneurons. Electrophysiological studies on a recombinant α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor showed no effect of N-methyllaurotetanine at concentrations lower than 30 μM. However, (S-reticuline behaved as positive allosteric modulator at the α3, α5, and α6 isoforms of GABAA receptors. The depressant properties of aerial parts of E. californica are assigned to chloride-current modulation by (S-reticuline at the α3β2γ2 and α5β2γ2 GABAA receptors. Interestingly, α1, α3, and α5 were not significantly affected by (R-reticuline, 1,2-tetrahydroreticuline, codeine, and morphine—suspected (S-reticuline metabolites in the rodent brain.

  11. Indole Alkaloids Inhibiting Neural Stem Cell from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Jiang, Li-Ping; Guo, Ying; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Ya-Ping; Yu, Hao-Fei; Wang, Bei; Ding, Cai-Feng; Zhu, Pei-Feng; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Yun-Li; Chen, Yong-Bing; Wang, Yi-Fen; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2017-10-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is commonly recognized as a traditional treatment for dizziness, cerebrovascular diseases, and nervous disorders in China. Previously, the neuro-protective activities of the alkaloids from U. rhynchophylla were intensively reported. In current work, three new indole alkaloids (1-3), identified as geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4 -oxide (2), and 3β-sitsirikine N 4 -oxide (3), as well as 26 known analogues were isolated from U. rhynchophylla. However, in the neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation assay for all isolated compounds, geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4 -oxide (2), isocorynoxeine (6), isorhynchophylline (7), (4S)-akuammigine N-oxide (8), and (4S)-rhynchophylline N-oxide (10) showed unexpected inhibitory activities at 10 μM. Unlike previous neuro-protective reports, as a warning or caution, our finding showcased a clue for possible NSCs toxicity and the neural lesions risk of U. rhynchophylla, while the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds were discussed also.

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food.

  13. The effects of comfrey derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids on rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, M L; Clark, S P; Waring, J M; Wilson, R D; Wakefield, S J

    1991-01-01

    Three groups of young adult rats were fed pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from Russian comfrey to study the effects of the herb on the liver. Group I animals received a single dose of 200 mg/kg body wt, Group II 100 mg/kg three times a week for 3 weeks and Group III 50 mg/kg three times a week for 3 weeks. All rats showed light and electron-microscopic evidence of liver damage, the severity of which was dose dependent. There was swelling of hepatocytes and hemorrhagic necrosis of perivenular cells. There was a concomitant loss of sinusoidal lining cells with disruption of sinusoidal wall and the sinusoids were filled with cellular debris, hepatocyte organelles and red blood cells. Extravasation of red blood cells was evident. Terminal hepatic venules were narrowed by intimal proliferation, and in Group II and III, reiculin fibres radiated from these vessels. These appearances have been described in veno-occlusive disease due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids from other plant sources such as Senecio and Crotalaria. The safety of comfrey, a widely used herb, in relation to human consumption requires further investigation.

  14. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  15. Survival and development of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on isogenic tobacco lines with different levels of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D Michael; Johnson, A W; Stephenson, M G

    2002-12-01

    Levels of pyridine alkaloids were measured in 18 tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L., entries from three parental isolines ('NC 95', 'SC 58', and 'Coker 139'), grown at Tifton, GA, Florence, SC, and Oxford, NC, in 1991. Levels of alkaloids in bud leaves (first fully unfolded leaf below the apical leaf bud) were negatively correlated to natural infestation ratings of tobacco budworm larvae, Heliothis virescens (F.), 7 wk after transplanting. For artificially infested bud leaves at Oxford, there was a significant negative correlation between levels of total alkaloids and larval weights after 1 wk of feeding. In 1992, four entries from the 'NC 95' isoline were grown at Oxford, and samples for alkaloid analyses were taken every 2 wk at several leaf positions on each plant. During weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, second instar tobacco budworms were caged on individual, intact leaves inside perforated plastic bags in the field. The survival and development of tobacco budworm larvae after 1 wk were negatively correlated with levels of alkaloids at the various leaf positions. Larvae survived better and grew faster on the bud leaves of each entry where alkaloid levels were lower than they did on leaves further down the stalk where alkaloid levels were higher. More larvae survived on the lower leaves of the low alkaloid lines than on the lower leaves of the high alkaloid lines. Even moderate increases in pyridine alkaloids had negative effects on tobacco budworm survival and development. Nicotine constituted >97% of the pyridine alkaloids in the 'NC95' isoline each year.

  16. Variable Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio are Perceived as Differences in Palatability to Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Sarah K; Dickerson, Kelsie; Saporito, Ralph A

    2017-03-01

    Conspicuously colored dendrobatid frogs sequester alkaloid defenses from dietary arthropods, resulting in considerable alkaloid variation among populations; however, little is known about how variation is perceived as a defense against predators. Previous studies have found variable alkaloids in the dendrobatid Oophaga pumilio to be associated with differences in toxicity to laboratory mice, suggesting variable defenses are important. Arthropods are natural predators that use chemoreception to detect prey, including frogs, and may therefore perceive variation in alkaloid profiles as differences in palatability. The goal of the present study is to determine how arthropods respond to variable alkaloid defenses in O. pumilio. Frog alkaloids were sampled from individual O. pumilio from ten geographic locations throughout the Bocas del Toro region of Panama and the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Alkaloid extracts were used in feeding bioassays with the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster and the ant Ectatomma ruidum. Both species of arthropods fed significantly less on frog alkaloid extracts when compared to controls, and differences in alkaloid palatability were observed among frog populations, as well as between sexes and life stages within a population. Differences in alkaloid quantity, richness, and type were the main predictors of arthropod palatability. Our findings also represent the first direct evidence of a palatability spectrum in a vertebrate that sequesters chemical defenses from dietary sources. Further, the presence of a palatability spectrum suggests that variable alkaloid defenses in O. pumilio are ecologically relevant and play an important role in natural predator-prey interactions, particularly with respect to arthropod predators.

  17. An experimental study of radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction on cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    This paper is to assess the effect of Adaptagen as a radioprotector in which main component is alkaloid fraction of ginseng. Evaluation was made in vitro and in vivo study with NIGP(S) mouse by the measurement of regeneration of jejunal crypt cell and micronucleus assay to analyze radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction in comparison with that of water fraction after whole body irradiation. The results were as follows, 1. The degree of radiation damage of mouse jejunal crypt cell was diminished in both of alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group. 2. Regeneration of mouse jejunal crypt cell was higher both in alkaloid and water fraction groups than control group. 3. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in tendency for the treated groups than control group but statistically insignificant. 4. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in both alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group.

  18. Workers and alate queens of Solenopsis geminata share qualitatively similar but quantitatively different venom alkaloid chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Hui eShi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae encompasses ant species commonly called fire ants because of their painful sting. The many physiological effects of the venom are caused by 2-methyl-6-alkyl and/or alkenylpiperidine alkaloids. The variation in piperidine alkaloid structures has useful taxonomic characters. The most well studied Solenopsis species is S. invicta, which was accidentally imported into the USA in the 1930s from South America. It quickly spread throughout the southern USA and is now a major invasive pest ant in the USA and in other parts of the world. Interestingly, the invasive S. invicta has largely displaced a native USA fire ant, S. geminata, from the southern USA. We explore the possibility that differences in venom chemistry could be correlated with this displacement. The cis and trans alkaloids from body extracts of workers and alate queens of S. geminata were separated by silica gel chromatography, identified, and quantitated by GC-MS analysis. Both workers and alate queens produce primarily cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecyl-piperidines, as well as other minor alkaloid components. Imported fire ant, S. invicta, alate queens produce the same alkaloids as S. geminata alate queens, but in contrast S. invicta workers produce piperidine alkaloids with longer side chains, which are purported to be physiologically more effective. These results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary progression of fire ant venom alkaloids and displacement of S. geminata by S. invicta in the USA.

  19. The Effect of Alkaloidal Fraction from Annona squamosa L. against Pathogenic Bacteria with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmushin M. Shami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annona squamosa is used in different places such as India as a general tonic to enrich blood, relieve vomiting, cancer, as a vermicide, for skin complaints and also applied to wounds and ulcers. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties from of the alkaloidal fraction of A. squamosa. Methods: Well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were used to evaluate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MRSA and Helicobacter pylori. DPPH and SOD assays were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. LC-MS analysis was used to identify alkaloids and scanning electron microscopy studies that revealed mode of action. Results: Alkaloidal fraction of A. squamosa exhibited significant inhibition against the tested bacteria. Extracted alkaloids from the leaves of A. squamosa showed high level of antioxidant activities. LC-MS analyses of alkaloids of the plant were identified as corydine, sanjoinine, norlaureline, norcodeine, oxanalobine and aporphine in the leaves of A. squamosa. SEM analysis of the interaction of these substances with the bacteria showed morphological changes of cell wall and lysis of the targeted bacterial cells. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the alkaloids isolated from A. squamosa showed good antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The results suggest the alkaloids can be a new source of antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria and antioxidant source.

  20. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated.

  1. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  2. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Potential Role in the Etiology of Cancers, Pulmonary Hypertension, Congenital Anomalies, and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, John A; Molyneux, Russell J; Colegate, Steven M

    2015-01-20

    Large outbreaks of acute food-related poisoning, characterized by hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, hemorrhagic necrosis, and rapid liver failure, occur on a regular basis in some countries. They are caused by 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids contaminating locally grown grain. Similar acute poisoning can also result from deliberate or accidental consumption of 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal medicines, teas, and spices. In recent years, it has been confirmed that there is also significant, low-level dietary exposure to 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in many countries due to consumption of common foods such as honey, milk, eggs, salads, and meat. The level of 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in these foods is generally too low and too intermittent to cause acute toxicity. However, these alkaloids are genotoxic and can cause slowly developing chronic diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancers, cirrhosis, and congenital anomalies, conditions unlikely to be easily linked with dietary exposure to 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, especially if clinicians are unaware that such dietary exposure is occurring. This Perspective provides a comprehensive review of the acute and chronic toxicity of 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and their potential to initiate certain chronic diseases, and suggests some associative considerations or indicators to assist in recognizing specific cases of diseases that may have resulted from dietary exposure to these hazardous natural substances. If it can be established that low-level dietary exposure to 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids is a significant cause of some of these costly and debilitating diseases, then this should lead to initiatives to reduce the level of these alkaloids in the food chain.

  3. Alkaloids as chemotaxonomic markers from the Philippine endemic Uncaria perrottetii and Uncaria lanosa f. philippinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Edneil Olivar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on the aerial parts of Uncaria perrottetii led to the isolation of three pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids uncarine A or isoformosanine (1, uncarine E or isopteropodine (2, and rauniticine-allo-oxindole A (3. Five oxindole alkaloids, isomitraphylline (4, mitraphylline (5, uncarine B or formosanine (6, uncarine F (7, corynoxine (8, and uncarine D or speciophylline (9, were isolated from the leaves of Uncaria lanosa f. philippinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques and in comparison with the literature data. These compounds proved to be important chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Uncaria. Keywords: Rubiaceae, Uncaria, Oxindole alkaloids, Chemotaxonomy, Uncarine

  4. The study of chemical composition and pharmacological action of the alkaloid from plants of Lycoris Herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Wei, C.; Xin, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, studies on Lycoris type alkaloids received the attention of scholars home and abroad. Lycoris type contains lots of alkaloids, it can be divided into seven types according to its molecular structure, including Lycorine, Crinine, Galanthamine, Tazettine, Narciclasine, Lycorenine, Homolycorine and Montanine. Researches have shown that Lycoris type possess multiple phamocology activity, such as strong anti-tumor activity of human breast cancer cell (MCF-7), human leukemia cell(HL-60); and strong inhibition effect of flu virus, measles virus, polio virus and SARS virus; Besides, Lycorine type has strong anti-Acetylcholinesterase effect. In a word, Lycorine type, Lycoris type alkaloids carries multiple pharmacology effect and is a promising substance.

  5. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Le Son; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; To, Dao Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A novel pyrrolizidine alkaloids, madhumidine A (1), and two known alkaloids, lindelofidine benzoic acid ester (2) and minalobine B (3) were isolated from the leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard) H. J. LAM. The chemical structures of these alkaloids were established mainly by NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophage RAW264.7 cell. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was tested against a panel of cancer cell lines.

  6. Toxicoproteomic assessment of liver responses to acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Khan, Imran; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Yao; Wong, Wing-Yan; Chan, Wood-Yee; Wendy Hsiao, Wen-Luan; Lin, Ge

    2018-04-03

    A toxicoproteomic study was performed on liver of rats treated with retrorsine (RTS), a representative hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid at a toxic dose (140 mg/kg) known to cause severe acute hepatotoxicity. By comparing current data with our previous findings in mild liver lesions of rats treated with a lower dose of RTS, seven proteins and three toxicity pathways of vascular endothelial cell death, which was further verified by observed sinusoidal endothelial cell losses, were found uniquely associated with retrorsine-induced hepatotoxicity. This toxicoproteomic study of acute pyrrolizidine alkaloid intoxication lays a foundation for future investigation to delineate molecular mechanisms of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. A novel alkaloid isolated from Crotalaria paulina and identified by NMR and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ramon Prata; Demuner, Antonio Jacinto; Alvarenga, Elson Santiago; Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; de Melo Silva, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites found in Crotalaria genus and are known to have several biological activities. A novel macrocycle bislactone alkaloid, coined ethylcrotaline, was isolated and purified from the aerial parts of Crotalaria paulina. The novel macrocycle was identified with the aid of high resolution mass spectrometry and advanced nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The relative stereochemistry of the alkaloid was defined by comparing the calculated quantum mechanical hydrogen and carbon chemical shifts of eight candidate structures with the experimental NMR data. The best fit between the eight candidate structures and the experimental NMR chemical shifts was defined by the DP4 statistical analyses and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) calculations.

  8. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  9. Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klijnstra, Mirjam D; Driehuis, Frank; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) was processed using laboratory scale heating systems with industrial settings. Pasteurised and sterilised (UHT) milk were produced, as well as set-type yoghurt and cheese. Samples were analysed for 29 PAs using LC-MS/MS, of which 11 PAs were detected above LOQ in the samples (0.1 µg l -1 ). Alterations in the PA concentration and composition between the standardised milk and the corresponding end-product(s) were evaluated. The heat treatments applied for pasteurisation and UHT sterilisation to prepare semi-skimmed consumption milk did not affect the PA levels in the end-products. In yoghurt, after fermentation of standardised milk (6 h, pH 4.4), 73% of total PAs were recovered. The PA concentration, specifically dehydrojacoline, was decreased, although not quantifiable, during cheese production. A further decrease of 38% during 6 weeks of ripening was observed. The results show that the PA concentration of natural contaminated cow's milk is not affected by heat treatment applied for pasteurised and sterilised milk, but that microbial fermentation of the milk leads to a lowered PA concentration in yoghurt and cheese. This is probably due to microbiological degradation, since PAs are fairly stable under acidic conditions.

  10. Are effects of common ragwort in the Ames test caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Toine F H; Helsdingen, Richard J R; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; de Nijs, Monique W C M; Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2015-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated by others that acetone extracts of Senecio jacobaea (syn. Jacobaea vulgaris, common or tansy ragwort) test positive in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test (Ames test). Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are thought to be responsible for these mutagenic effects. However, it was also observed that the major PA present in common ragwort, jacobine, produced a negative response (with and without the addition of rat liver S9) in Salmonella test strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537. To investigate which compounds in the plant extracts were responsible for the positive outcome, the present study investigated the contents and mutagenic effects of methanol and acetone extracts prepared from dried ground S. jacobaea and Senecio inaequidens (narrow-leafed ragwort). Subsequently, a fractionation approach was set up in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis of the fractions. It was shown that the positive Ames test outcomes of S. jacobaea extracts are unlikely to be caused by PAs, but rather by the flavonoid quercetin. This study also demonstrates the importance of identifying compounds responsible for positive test results in bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimisation of isolation procedure for pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Rindera umbellata Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Boris M; Vlajić, Marina D; Trifunović, Snežana S; Simić, Milena R; Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; VuČković, Ivan M; Novaković, Miroslav M; Nikolić-Mandić, Snežana D; Tešević, Vele V; Vajs, Vlatka V; Milosavljević, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Procedure for isolation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Rindera umbellata Bunge plant species was optimised. Different extraction media (methanol, ethanol and sulphuric acid), concentration and volume of sulphuric acid, pH of PA solution for alkaline extraction, extraction time and techniques (maceration, ultrasonic and overhead rotary mixer assisted extraction) were investigated. The yields of six PAs (7-angeloyl heliotridane, 7-angeloyl heliotridine, lindelofine, 7-angeloyl rinderine, punctanecine and heliosupine) were monitored by GC-MS/FID. The best results for the isolation all of six PAs were obtained when the extraction was performed with 1 M sulphuric acid (30 mL per 1.00 g of dried sample) by overhead rotary mixer during three days. Optimal pH value for alkaline extraction of PAs with CH₂Cl₂ was 9, and the extraction should be performed with four portions of 30 mL of CH₂Cl₂. This procedure could be also useful for a plant sample preparation for GC and LC analyses of PAs.

  12. Syntheses of the Stemona Alkaloids (±)-Stenine, (±)-Neostenine, and (±)-13-Epineostenine Using a Stereodivergent Diels-Alder/Azido-Schmidt Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Kevin J.; Golden, Jennifer E.; Zeng, Yibin; Lei, Yao; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    A tandem Diels-Alder/azido Schmidt reaction sequence provides rapid access to the core skeleton shared by several Stemona alkaloids including stenine, neostenine, tuberstemonine, and neotubererostemonine. The discovery and evolution of inter- and intramolecular variations of this process and their applications to total syntheses of (±)–stenine and (±)–neostenine is described. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction depends on both substrate type and reaction condition, enabling the preparation of both (±)–stenine and (±)–neostenine from the same diene/dienophile combination. PMID:18396881

  13. Rheology of ABS and binary of organo clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, Danieli; Mazzucco, Mateus; Carneiro, Fabio; Bartoli, Julio R.; Morales, Ana Rita; D'Avila, Marcos A.

    2011-01-01

    nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clays by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder were prepared and characterized. It was studied the effects of screw torque and a binary mixture of organically modified montmorillonites on the intercalation/exfoliation of organoclays in the polymer matrix, characterized by X-ray diffraction morphological analyses and by capillary and parallel plates rheological analyses. (author)

  14. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  15. Influence of grass pellet production on pyrrolizidine alkaloids occurring in Senecio aquaticus-infested grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Christoph; Ostertag, Johannes; Meyer, Karsten; Gehring, Klaus; Thyssen, Stefan; Gareis, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    1,2-Dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and their N-oxides (PANO) exhibit acute and chronic toxic effects on the liver and other organs and therefore are a hazard for animal and human health. In certain regions of Germany, an increasing spread of Senecio spp. (ragwort) on grassland and farmland areas has been observed during the last years leading to a PA/PANO-contamination of feed and food of animal and plant origin. This project was carried out to elucidate whether the process of grass pellet production applying hot air drying influences the content of PA and PANO. Samples of hay (n = 22) and grass pellets (n = 28) originated from naturally infested grassland (around 10% and 30% dominance of Senecio aquaticus) and from a trial plot with around 50% dominance. Grass pellets were prepared from grass originating from exactly the same plots as the hay samples. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for PA/PANO typically produced by this weed. The results of the study revealed that PA/PANO levels (predominantly sum of senecionine, seneciphylline, erucifoline and their N-oxides) in hay ranged between 2.1 and 12.6 mg kg -1 dry matter in samples with 10% and 30% dominance of S. aquaticus, respectively. Samples from the trial plot (50% dominance) had levels of up to 52.9 mg kg -1 . Notably, the hot air drying process during the production of grass pellets did not lead to a reduction of PA/PANO levels. Instead, the levels in grass pellets with 10% and 30% S. aquaticus ranged from 3.1 to 55.1 mg kg -1 . Grass pellets from the trial plot contained up to 96.8 mg kg -1 . In conclusion, hot air drying and grass pellet production did not affect PA/PANO contents in plant material and therefore, heat-dried products cannot be regarded as safe in view of the toxic potential of 1,2-dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

  16. Furochinoline alkaloids in plants from Rutaceae family – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamska-Szewczyk Aldona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted on material extracted from members of the Rutaceae family. In such work, new furochinoline-structured alkaloids were isolated from Ruta sp. and Dictamnus sp. Beyond the aforementioned, other substances with promising activity were isolated from the less-known species of Zanthoxylum, Evodia, Lonchocarpus, Myrthopsis and Teclea. Currently used forms of extraction, as well as methods of isolation and detection, allow the obtaining of pure, biologically active compounds. Many of these have antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial properties. Others are still being researched as potential drugs, which, in future, may be used in treating those afflicted with HIV and cancer. This article is designed to give the readers a thorough review of the active natural products from the Rutaceae family.

  17. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two new alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin-Long; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Pin-Yi; Li, Dan-Qi; Sun, Qian; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Two new alkaloids named (3R)-3,5-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone (1) and 1,5-dimethyl-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H)-one (2), together with two known compounds (7'R)-N-feruloyl normetanephrine (3) and N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (4) were isolated from the air-dried aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea L. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-MS techniques. In addition, compounds 1-4 were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung (K562 and A549) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435) cancer cell lines.

  19. Analytical aspects of diterpene alkaloid poisoning with monkshood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Maria Laura; Bugatti, Carlo; Davanzo, Franca; Persico, Andrea; Ballabio, Cinzia; Restani, Patrizia

    2009-11-01

    A sensitive and specific method for aconitine extraction from biological samples was developed. Aconitine, the main toxic alkaloid from plants belonging to Aconitum species (family Ranunculaceae), was determined in plant material by an external standard method, and by a standard addition calibration method in biological fluids. Described here is one fatal case and five intoxications of accidental aconitine poisoning following the ingestion of aconite mistaken for an edible grass, Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fernald, "mountain asparagus", and Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallroth. The aconitine content in urine was in the range 2.94 microg/mL (dead patient)-0.20 microg/mL (surviving patients), which was almost two to four times higher than that in plasma.

  20. The biology and chemistry of the zoanthamine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behenna, Douglas C; Stockdill, Jennifer L; Stoltz, Brian M

    2008-01-01

    Marine natural products have long played an important role in natural products chemistry and drug discovery. Mirroring the rich variety and complicated interactions of the marine environment, the substances isolated from sea creatures tend to be incredibly diverse in both molecular structure and biological activity. The natural products isolated from the polyps of marine zoanthids are no exception. The zoanthamine alkaloids, the first of which were isolated over 20 years ago, are of particular interest to the synthetic community because they feature a novel structural framework and exhibit a broad range of biological activities. In this Review, we summarize the major contributions to understanding the zoanthamine natural products with regard to their isolation and structure determination, as well as studies on their biological activity and total synthesis.

  1. Alkaloids from piper: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Piper has been used for long timelike condiment and food, but also in traditional medicine around of the world. This work resumes the available and up to date work done on members of the Piperaceae family and their uses for therapeutic purposes. Information on Piper genus was gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-abstracts, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. The largeleafed perennial plant Piper is used for its spicy aromatic scent and flavor. It has an important presence in the cuisine of different cultures. Another quality of these plants is their known medicinal properties. It has been used as emollient, antirheumatic, diuretic, stimulant, abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antidermatophytic. A survey of the literature shows that the genus Piper is mainly known for its alkaloids with cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antimetastatic and antitumor properties in several types of cancer. Studies of its alkaloids highlight the existence of various potential leads to develop new anti-cancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological activities, especially asantioxidant, anti-depressive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, neuropharmacological, to treat cognitive disorders, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedant, cardioactive, immuno-enhancing, and anti-inflamatory. All this evidence supporting its traditional uses. This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper together with its toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for further research on Piper in the future.

  2. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzhu Wang

    Full Text Available Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  3. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Stanley H; Gardner, Dale R; Hayes, Cinnamon J; Jani, Andrea; Wittlinger, Sally K; Jones, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    The native North American perennial grass Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth [= Stipa robusta (Vasey) Scribn.] or sleepygrass is toxic and narcotic to livestock. The causative agents are alkaloidal mycotoxins produced from infections by a systemic and asexual Neotyphodium endophyte. Recent studies suggest that toxicity is limited across the range of sleepygrass in the Southwest USA. We sampled 17 populations of sleepygrass with varying distance from one focal population known for its high toxicity levels near Cloudcroft, NM, USA. For some, we sampled individual plants twice within the same growing season and over successive years (2001-2004). We also determined infection levels in each population. In general, all populations were highly infected, but infection levels were more variable near the focal population. Only infected plants within populations near the Cloudcroft area produced alkaloids. The ergot alkaloid, ergonovine, comprised the bulk of the alkaloids, with lesser amounts of lysergic and isolysergic acid amides and ergonovinine alkaloids. Levels of all alkaloids were positively correlated among individual plants within and between growing seasons. Infected plants that produced no alkaloids in 1 yr did not produce any alkaloids within the same growing season or in other years. Levels of alkaloids in sleepygrass populations declined with distance from the Cloudcroft population, although infection levels increased. Infected plants in populations in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado produced no alkaloids at all despite 100% infectivity. Our results suggest that only specific Neotyphodium haplotypes or specific Neotyphodium-grass combinations produce ergot alkaloids in sleepygrass. The Neotyphodium haplotype or host-endophyte combination that produces toxic levels of alkaloids appears restricted to one locality across the range of sleepygrass. Because of the wide variation in alkaloid levels among populations, interactions between the endophyte

  4. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  5. A survey of plants in Gujarat, India, for alkaloids, saponins, and tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalingappa L. Hungund; Chandravadan H. Pathak; Chandravadan H. Pathak

    1971-01-01

    A floristic and phytochemical survey of forests in Gujarat State, India, is being undertaken to identify sources of alkaloids, saponins, and tannins. This note is a report on the results of screening 105 plant species collected from that region.

  6. Alkaloids from sponge, scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie; Kremb, Stephan; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-viral compounds with low cytotoxicity are identified from screening of products found in Red Sea sponges, including the sponge Stylissa carteri. The identified compounds can be brominated pyrrole-2- aminoimidazole alkaloids and derivatives

  7. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  8. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora by GC/MS and their cholinesterase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cahlíková

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. The chemical composition of alkaloids from Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl. was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven known compounds, belonging to five structural types of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, were identified. The alkaloid extract from the bulbs showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activities against human blood acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE; IC50 39.2±3.0 µg/mL and human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE; IC50 356±9.3 µg/mL.

  9. Investigation of the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in cell culture by fourier transformation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Grote, Anna-Karina; Kleigrewe, Karin; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-07-27

    Ergot alkaloids are known toxic secondary metabolites of the fungus Claviceps purpurea occurring in various grains, especially rye products. The liver is responsible for converting the ergot alkaloids into metabolites; however, the toxic impact of these end products of metabolism is still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in colon and liver cell lines (HT-29, HepG2), as well as in human primary renal cells (RPTEC). It was shown that cells in vitro are able to metabolize ergot alkaloids, forming a variety of metabolic compounds. Significant differences between the used cell types could be identified, and a suitable model system was established using HT-29 cells, performing an intensive metabolism to hydroxylated metabolites. The formed substances were analyzed by coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FLD-FTMS) as a powerful tool to identify known and unknown metabolites.

  10. In silico Assessment of Drug-like Properties of Alkaloids from Areca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    service were used to predict the drug-like properties of the alkaloids, including ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ..... estimate solubility and permeability in drug discovery.

  11. Crystal structure of indoline alkaloids kopsinilam, kopsinine, and the salts of the latter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adizov, Sh. M.; Tashkhodzhaev, B.; Kunafiev, R. Zh.

    2016-01-01

    N1 in the bases and the salts. Tetrahedral hybridization of the atom N1 in indoline alkaloids favors the formation of their double salts, what is unlikely for indole and indolinine alkaloids. In the halogen double salts there is an intramolecular Н bond between one of the protons of the NH2 group......Indoline alkaloids kopsinilam and kopsinine extracted from the plant Vinca erecta have been studied by X-ray crystallography; mono and double salts of the latter alkaloid also have been examined. Experimentally determined positions of Н atoms suggest sp3 hybridization of the indoline nitrogen atom...... and the oxygen of the methoxycarbonyl group, that is absent in the mono salts and pure bases....

  12. Alternative extraction of alkaloid anticarcinogens from Brazilian "vinca rosea" using Ion exchange chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Freire de Carvalhaes

    Full Text Available Extracts in ethanol and ethanol-ammonia of dried leaves from Catharanthus roseus, gathered at Rio de Janeiro state, were adsorbed in a strongly acidic cation exchange resin with sulfonic acid group, using the finite bath method, resulting in an alkaloid retained fraction and an acidic and neutral unretained fraction. High Performance Liquid Chromatography showed the isolation of the alkaloid fraction to be highly selective and with good performance, with an absence of alkaloids in the unretained fraction, while the retained fraction presented 1,54-6,35 mg/g of vindoline and 0,12-0,91 mg/g of vinblastine, common for an alkaloid-rich concentrate, usually obtained by classic extraction with several steps using solvents.

  13. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  14. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis, Rhizogenesis, and Morphinan Alkaloids Production in Two Species of Opium Poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdelmajid Kassem

    2001-01-01

    Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  16. Biosistematik species Annona muricata Annona squamosa dan Annona reticulata dengan pendekatan alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidah Hamidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore kinship Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata on the basis alkaloid content. Study phenotype Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata based alkaloid content. Data alkaloid obtained are thenprocessed by a computer program SPSS version 14. The results of this study indicate that the presence of variations in the characterof the three types of Annona of species alkaloid. From the data analysis it can be seen that there are differences in the variations that occur in Annona muricata, Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata by different habitats and is a variation of phenotypic variation.Dendrogram grouping results suggest that Annona squamosa and Annona reticulata fenetic ties closer, so clumped into one large group while Annona muricata split away from the other groups.

  17. Double reductive cyclization: A facile synthesis of the indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptotackieine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    A new synthesis of the indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptotackieine, isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, is described which involves a Perkin reaction, a tandem double reduction-double cyclization reaction followed by regioselective methylation...

  18. Distinct sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from in Salvadoran and Peruvian Celastraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Oliver; Núñez, Marvin J; Perestelo, Nayra R; Reyes, Carolina P; Torres-Romero, David; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2017-10-01

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of undescribed natural products from Salvadoran and Peruvian flora, the phytochemical investigations of four Celastraceae species, Celastrus vulcanicola, Maytenus segoviarum, Maytenus jeslkii, and Maytenus cuzcoina, were performed. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of five previously undescribed macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, named vulcanicoline-A, cuzcoinine, vulcanicoline-B, jelskiine, and vulcanicoline-C, along with sixteen known alkaloids. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectrometric and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments. The absolute configurations of alkaloids were proposed based on optical rotation sign, and biogenetic considerations. This study represents the first phytochemical analysis of Maytenus segoviarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  20. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  1. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  2. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  3. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  4. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  5. An NPF transporter exports a central monoterpene indole alkaloid intermediate from the vacuole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Richard; Xu, Deyang; Foureau, Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Plants sequester intermediates of metabolic pathways into different cellular compartments, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are transported remain poorly understood. Monoterpene indole alkaloids, a class of specialized metabolites that includes the anticancer agent vincristine, antimal......Plants sequester intermediates of metabolic pathways into different cellular compartments, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are transported remain poorly understood. Monoterpene indole alkaloids, a class of specialized metabolites that includes the anticancer agent vincristine...

  6. Scientific investigation of crude alkaloids from medicinal plants for the management of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ali, Niaz; Shah, Ismail; Ullah, Shafi; Ghias, Mehreen; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Gul, Farah; Akhtar, Sohail; Ullah, Abd; Akbar, Wajid; Ullah, Asad

    2016-06-13

    Tissue damage is associated with pain, which is an alarming sign. Aspirin and morphine have been widely used in recent decades for management of pain. Medicinal herbs have been in use for treatment of different diseases for centuries. Many of these herbs possess analgesic activity with relatively less incidences of adverse effects. The strong positive correlation of alkaloids in medicinal plants for analgesic activity persuades an intention to determine possible analgesic activity of total alkaloids extracted from the selected medicinal plants using animal models to answer its possible mechanisms. Crude alkaloids from selected medicinal plants (Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala and Broussonetia papyrifera) were extracted as per reported literature. The test crude alkaloids were screened foracute toxicity study. Writhings induced by acetic acid, tail immersion method and formalin-induced nociception assay procedures were used for possible analgesic effects of the crude alkaloids. Crude alkaloids were safe up to dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight in mice. The alkaloids significantly reduced the abdominal constrictions, and increased the time for paw licking response in both phases with a significant raise in latency time in nociception models (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the antinociceptive response was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with naloxone suggesting involvement of the opioid receptors for possible antinociceptive action. Crude alkaloids of Woodfordia fruticosa and Peganum harmala showed prominent analgesic potentials through inhibition of peripheral as well as central nervous system mechanisms. Further work is required for isolation of the pharmacologically active constituents.

  7. Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of purine alkaloids in water solutions using aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For extraction of caffeine, theobromin and theophylline from water solutions are applied aliphatic alcohols С3 – С9. Water concentrates analyzed method UF- spectrophotometry. Factors of distribution and extraction degree are calculated. Influence of length of a hydrocarbonic radical in a solvent and nature olecule salting-out agent on interphase distribution of alkaloids is studied. Dependence of quantitative characteristics extraction from number active groups in structure alkaloids is established.

  8. Phosphorylated Derivatives of Alkaloids and Nitrogen-containing Heterocycles — Cholinesterase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Abid S.; Dalimov, D. N.; Godovikov, Nikolai N.

    1983-10-01

    The review deals with the synthesis and anticholinesterase activities of phosphorylated derivatives of certain alkaloids and nitrogen-containing heterocycles. It is shown that the conformational properties of the alkaloid and nitrogen-containing heterocycle residues in the composition of the organophosphorus inhibitor (OPI) molecule play an important role in the inhibition of the catalytic activity of cholinesterases. The type of inhibition of cholinesterases also varies as a function of chemical structure. The bibliography includes 45 references.

  9. POISONING OF CHICKENS AND DUCKS BY PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS OF HELIOTROPIUM EUROPAEUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, D A; Hogg, G G; Russell, R G; Edgar, J A; Tence, I M; Rikard-Bell, L

    1979-05-01

    The disease produced by feeding chickens and ducks a commercial poultry feed containing heliotrine and lasiocarpine, pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Heliotropium europaeum, is described. Illthrift, ascites and degenerative lesions in the liver were the major findings. Similar lesions occurred in chickens fed a diet containing H. europaeum. The source of the alkaloids in commercial poultry feed was probably the seeds of H. europaeum harvested with wheat.

  10. Detection of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid DNA Adducts in Livers of Cattle Poisoned with Heliotropium europaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; He, Xiaobo; Barel, Shimon; Edery, Nir; Beland, Frederick A; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-20

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Exposure of humans and livestock to toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids through the intake of contaminated food and feed may result in poisoning, leading to devastating epidemics. During February 2014, 73 mixed breed female beef cows from the Galilee region of Israel were accidently fed pyrrolizidine alkaloid contaminated hay for 42 days, resulting in the sudden death of 24 cows over a period of 63 days. The remaining cows were slaughtered 2.5 months after the last ingestion of the contaminated hay. In this study, we report the histopathological analysis of the livers from five of the slaughtered cows and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts from their livers and three livers of control cows fed with feed free of weeds producing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Histopathological examination revealed that the five cows suffered from varying degrees of bile duct proliferation, fibrosis, and megalocytosis. Selected reaction monitoring HPLC-ES-MS/MS analysis indicated that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts were formed in all five livers. The livers from the three control cows did not have any liver damage nor any indication of DHP-DNA adduct formed. These results confirm that the toxicity observed in these cattle was caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning and that pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts could still be detected and quantified in the livers of the chronically poisoned cows 2.5 months after their last exposure to the contaminated feed, suggesting that DHP-derived DNA adducts can serve as biomarkers for pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure and poisoning.

  11. Cyclopeptide alkaloids. Synthesis of the ring system and its ion affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarias, J.C.; Houghten, R.A.; Rapoport, H.

    1978-01-01

    Several examples of the 14-membered, para-bridged ring system of the cyclopeptide alkaloids have been synthesized via an active ester cyclization. The yield of monomeric cyclopeptide varied from 1 to 33% and was affected by the amino acid substitution pattern and amide conformation of the linear peptide precursors. Both the synthetic models and a naturally occurring cyclopeptide alkaloid, ceanothine B, bind monovalent (Li + ) and divalent (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) cations. 4 figures, 1 table

  12. Novel {beta}-Carboline Alkaloid from Peganum Harmala As Antibacterial Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Aziz, H G; Abdel Kader, S M; El-Sayed, M M; EL-Malt, E A; Shaker, E S [Chem. Dept., Fac. Agric., Minia Univ., Minia (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    A novel {beta}-carboline alkaloid isolated from the aerial parts of Peganum harmala L. (Gen: Phyeophylaceae) have been characterized as l-thioformyl-8-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside-bis-2,3-dihydro-isopyridinopyrrol. It is one of {beta}-carboline alkaloids derivatives. The chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of elementary analysis and spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, {sup 1}H-NMR and MS). The isolated compound showed significant antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenus.

  13. Novel β-Carboline Alkaloid from Peganum Harmala As Antibacterial Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aziz, H.G.; Abdel Kader, S.M.; El-Sayed, M.M.; EL-Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel β-carboline alkaloid isolated from the aerial parts of Peganum harmala L. (Gen: Phyeophylaceae) have been characterized as l-thioformyl-8-β-D-glucopyranoside-bis-2,3-dihydro-isopyridinopyrrol. It is one of β-carboline alkaloids derivatives. The chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of elementary analysis and spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, 1 H-NMR and MS). The isolated compound showed significant antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenus.

  14. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wesołwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  15. Dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from the seeds of Euonymus hamiltonianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir A. Tantry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Celastraceae family produce various dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids. Two dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquitepene pyridine alkaloids (1,2 apart from four known compounds euojaponin C (3, wilforine (4, austronine (5 and O9-benzoyl-O9-deacetylevonine (6, were isolated from the ripe seeds of Euonymus hamiltonianus. Their chemical structures were elucidated mainly by analysis of NMR and MS spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for insecticidal activity.

  16. Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new alkaloid with antiacetylcholinesterase activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Su, Jia; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new oxindole alkaloid, along with 14 known alkaloids, was isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were identified by comprehensive spectral methods, including 2D NMR experiments, and confirmed by comparing with the literature data. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that the new compound exhibited anti-AChE activity with IC₅₀ value of 23.4 μM.

  17. Hyphenation of optimized microfluidic sample preparation with nano liquid chromatography for faster and greener alkaloid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Y.; Beek, van T.A.; Zuilhof, H.; Chen, B.

    2013-01-01

    A glass liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) microchip with three parallel 3.5 cm long and 100 µm wide interconnecting channels was optimized in terms of more environmentally friendly (greener) solvents and extraction efficiency. In addition, the optimized chip was successfully hyphenated with nano-liquid

  18. Aptamer-Based Molecular Recognition of Lysergamine, Metergoline and Small Ergot Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Robbens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to determine the presence of ergot alkaloids in food and feed samples. However, the number of samples which can be analyzed is limited, due to the cost of the equipment and the need for skilled personnel. In order to compensate for the lack of rapid tests for the detection of ergot alkaloids, the aim of this study was to develop a specific recognition element for ergot alkaloids, which could be further applied to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of these toxins. As recognition elements, single-stranded DNA ligands were selected by using an iterative selection procedure named SELEX, i.e., Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. After several selection cycles, the resulting aptamers were cloned and sequenced. A surface plasmon resonance analysis enabled determination of the dissociation constants of the complexes of aptamers and lysergamine. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar range were obtained with three selected aptamers. One of the selected aptamers, having a dissociation constant of 44 nM, was linked to gold nanoparticles and it was possible to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of lysergamine. This system could also be applied to small ergot alkaloids in an ergot contaminated flour sample.

  19. Alkaloids as important scaffolds in therapeutic drugs for the treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittakoop, Prasat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloid molecules can act, depending on a type of amine functionality present in alkalods, as either hydrogenacceptor or hydrogen-donor for hydrogen bonding that is critically important for the interaction (binding) between targets (enzymes, proteins and receptors) and drugs (ligands). Because of this unique property, alkaloid scaffolds are therefore present in several drugs and lead compounds. This review highlights alkaloid scaffolds in drugs, particularly those recently approved in 2012; it also covers the scaffolds in leads and drug candidates which are in clinical trials and preclinical pipeline. The review focuses on three therapeutic areas including treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and tobacco cessation. Alkaloid scaffolds in drugs and leads are inspired by those of naturally occurring alkaloids, and these scaffolds include pyridine, piperidine, quinoline, quinolinone, quinazoline, isoquinoline, indole, indolinone, isoindole, isoxazole, imidazole, indazole, thiazole, pyrazole, oxazolidinone, oxadiazole, and benzazepine. In addition to medicinal chemistry aspects, natural products possessing an individual alkaloid scaffold, as well as the mechanism of action of drugs and leads, are also discussed in this review.

  20. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S.; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI 50 values lower than 20.0 μmol L - 1 (10.5and 16.2μmolL -1 , respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  1. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Schardl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae. Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes, and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens, which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS, indole-diterpenes (IDT, and lolines (LOL in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  2. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Farman, Mark L.; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed. PMID:23744053

  3. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Divisao de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2013-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values lower than 20.0 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -}1 (10.5and 16.2 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu molL{sup -1}, respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  4. Currencies of mutualisms: sources of alkaloid genes in vertically transmitted epichloae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Young, Carolyn A; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E; Panaccione, Daniel G; Farman, Mark L; Webb, Jennifer S; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-06-06

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  5. Potential of plant alkaloids as dengue ns3 protease inhibitors: Molecular docking and simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection has become a worldwide health problem and infection rate is increasing each year. Alkaloids are important phytochemicals of medicinal plant and can be used as vaccine candidates for viruses. Therefore, present study was designed to find potential alkaloids inhibitors against the Dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease which can inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Through molecular docking it was investigated that most of the alkaloids bound deeply in the binding pocket of Dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease and had potential interactions with catalytic triad. Five alkaloids (6’-desmethylthalifaboramin; 3,5-dihydroxythalifaboramine; Betanin; Reserpic acid and Tubulosine successfully blocked the catalytic triad of NS2B/NS3 protease and these alkaloids can serve as a potential drug candidate to stop viral replication. It can be concluded from this study that these alkaloids could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the replication of DENV and need further in-vitro investigations to confirm their efficacy and drug ability.

  6. [Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and seneciosis in farm animals. Part 1: occurrence, chemistry and toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids belong to a class of phytotoxins which are present in more than 6000 plant species. The disease seneciosis in farm animals represents the severe poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plants of the genus Senecio. This form of poisoning has been known since the end of the 19th century in Germany, the USA, Canada and New Zealand, and is mainly caused by Senecio jacobaea and related Senecio spp. in farm animals, including poultry. Animal poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is of worldwide importance. In Germany poisoning of horses and cattle by Senecio jacobaea, which was earlier named Schweinsberg disease, is of renewed relevance for veterinary medicine. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. The ultimate cause is the formation of toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the liver, and their covalent binding to nucleic acids and proteins leading to liver cirrhosis. Because many pyrrolizidine alkaloids possess mutagenic, and a few also carcinogenic properties, European and international authorities are concerned about possible residue levels in food of animal origin. The review addresses in its first part several aspects, being the occurrence, the chemistry, and the toxicology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as animal intoxications by poisonous plants. In the second part (46) clinical characteristics of animal seneciosis, the therapeutic interventions, the significant species differences and a critical assessment of so-called nontoxic amounts of Senecio plants in animal fodder with reference to cumulative lethal toxin doses are presented.

  7. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  8. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  9. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  10. Patterns of indole alkaloids synthesis in response to heat shock, 5-azacytidine and Na-butyrate treatment of cultured catharanthus roseus mesophyll protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Cutler, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Alkaloids of C. roseus are in high demand for therapeutic and other reasons. Cultured Catharanthus cells can produce limited quantities of these alkaloids. The authors have found that cultured mesophyll protoplasts in the presence of 14 C-Tryptamine are capable of synthesizing alkaloids. The pattern of alkaloids synthesis changes when protoplasts are subjected to a heat shock at 37 0 C. The heat shocked protoplasts incorporated 33% more 14 C-Tryptamine and produced 3 new types of alkaloids. Treatment of protoplasts with 5-azacytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent and Na-butyrate which induces hyperacetylation of histones produced qualitative and quantitative changes in the alkaloid pattern. Four new alkaloids following the above treatments were detected by TLC and HPLC of the extracts. It is suggested that the alkaloid pattern of the cultured protoplasts can be altered by treatment with compounds known as regulators of gene expression. Work is in progress to isolate and identify these new alkaloids

  11. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...

  12. Preparation of tritium labelled synthanecine A and its bis-N-ethylcarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattocks, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure is described for incorporating tritium into the 3-CH 2 side chain of synthanecine A, and preparing the carbamate, 2,3-bis-N-ethylcarbamoyloxymethyl-1-methyl-3-pyrroline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid analogue. The pyrrolizidine amino alcohol, retronecine, can be tritium labelled in a similar way. (author)

  13. Preparation of tritium labelled synthanecine A and its bis-N-ethylcarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattocks, A.R. (Medical Research Council, Carshalton (UK))

    1982-04-01

    A procedure is described for incorporating tritium into the 3-CH/sub 2/ side chain of synthanecine A, and preparing the carbamate, 2,3-bis-N-ethylcarbamoyloxymethyl-1-methyl-3-pyrroline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid analogue. The pyrrolizidine amino alcohol, retronecine, can be tritium labelled in a similar way.

  14. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  15. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may be general to most carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including the retronecine-, heliotridine-, and otonecinetype pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is hypothesized that these DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumorigenicity. The mechanisms that involve the formation of DNA cross-linking and endogenous DNA adducts are also discussed.

  16. Isolation and preparation of 3H-tetrandrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunyang Huang; Yin Wang; Zangde Lu

    1994-01-01

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzytehahydroisoquinoline alkaloid. Its structure is very complex and the preparation of labeled derivatives is difficult. We have prepared 3 H-tetrandrine using the tritium gas exposure method. This method produces many fragments which make isolation and purification of small quantities difficult. We investigated these fragments of unlabeled d-tetrandrine and found almost all contain one to several hydroxide groups. Using this information, we designed a two-step paper chromatography method for isolation and purification citric acid buffer to the paper to block the migration of hydroxide group fragments of tetrandrine. 3 H-tetrandrine was successfully prepared with a radiochemical purity of 90%. (author)

  17. Isolation and preparation of [sup 3]H-tetrandrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xunyang Huang; Yin Wang; Zangde Lu (Institute of the Pharmaceutic Industry, Shanghai, SH (China). Div. of Chemistry)

    1994-10-01

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzytehahydroisoquinoline alkaloid. Its structure is very complex and the preparation of labeled derivatives is difficult. We have prepared [sup 3]H-tetrandrine using the tritium gas exposure method. This method produces many fragments which make isolation and purification of small quantities difficult. We investigated these fragments of unlabeled d-tetrandrine and found almost all contain one to several hydroxide groups. Using this information, we designed a two-step paper chromatography method for isolation and purification citric acid buffer to the paper to block the migration of hydroxide group fragments of tetrandrine. [sup 3]H-tetrandrine was successfully prepared with a radiochemical purity of 90%. (author).

  18. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  19. Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.

  20. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  1. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ming W. Chou; Ge Lin; Qingsu Xia; Peter P. Fu

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may ...

  2. Comparative study of fourteen alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla hooks and leaves using HPLC-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jialin; Gong, Tianxing; Ma, Bin; Zhang, Lin; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare alkaloid profile of Uncaria rhynchophylla hooks and leaves. Ten oxindole alkaloids and four glycosidic indole alkaloids were identified using HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) or LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS method, and a HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of major alkaloids was validated. The hooks are characterized by high levels of four oxindole alkaloids rhynchophylline (R), isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxeine (C) and isocorynoxeine (IC), while the leaves contained high level of two glycosidic indole alkaloids vincoside lactam (VL) and strictosidine (S). The presented methods have proven its usefulness in chemical characterization of U. rhynchophylla hooks and leaves.

  3. A feasible, economical, and accurate analytical method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloid markers in Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata from different manufacturing sources and processing ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bei; DA, Juan; Zhang, Jing-Xian; Li, Shang-Rong; Chen, Xin; Long, Hua-Li; Wang, Qiu-Rong; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yao, Shuai; Hou, Jin-Jun; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2017-04-01

    Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for its potency in restoring yang and rescuing from collapse. Aconiti alkaloids, mainly including monoester-diterpenoidaconitines (MDAs) and diester-diterpenoidaconitines (DDAs), are considered to act as both bioactive and toxic constituents. In the present study, a feasible, economical, and accurate HPLC method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloid markers using the Single Standard for Determination of Multi-Components (SSDMC) method was developed and fully validated. Benzoylmesaconine was used as the unique reference standard. This method was proven as accurate (recovery varying between 97.5%-101.8%, RSD 0.999 9) over the concentration ranges, and subsequently applied to quantitative evaluation of 62 batches of samples, among which 45 batches were from good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and 17 batches from the drug market. The contents were then analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and homogeneity test. The present study provided valuable information for improving the quality standard of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. The developed method also has the potential in analysis of other Aconitum species, such as Aconitum carmichaelii (prepared parent root) and Aconitum kusnezoffii (prepared root). Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  5. Detection of Total Ergot Alkaloids in Cereal Flour and in Bread by a Generic Enzyme Immunoassay Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Madeleine; Curtui, Valeriu; Usleber, Ewald

    2018-05-01

    Four sets of polyclonal antibodies against ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergotamine, α-ergocryptine, and ergocornine were produced and characterized in a competitive direct or indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Standard curve LODs were 0.03 ng/mL (ergometrine EIA) to 2.0 ng/mL (ergocornine EIA). Three EIAs were highly specific, whereas the ergometrine EIA had a broad specificity pattern and reacted, albeit weakly, with all seven major ergot alkaloids and their epimeric forms. Using the ergometrine EIA, a generic test system was established in which total ergot alkaloids are quantified by a standard curve for a toxin mixture composed of three alkaloids that matched the ergot alkaloid composition in naturally contaminated rye and wheat products. Sample extraction with acetonitrile-phosphate-buffered saline at pH 6.0 without further cleanup was sufficient for EIA analysis. The LODs for total ergot alkaloids were 20 ng/g in rye and wheat flour and 14 ng/g in bread. Recoveries were 85-110% (RSDs of 0.1-11.7%) at a concentration range of 50-1000 ng/g. The total ergot alkaloid EIA was validated by comparison with HPLC-fluorescence detection. Although some under- and overestimation by the total ergot alkaloid EIA was observed, it was suitable for the reliable identification of positive samples at 10-20 ng/g and for the determination of total ergot alkaloids in a concentration range between 100 and 1000 ng/g.

  6. Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Structural Identification of Sesquiterpene Alkaloids from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Using LC-QToF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Abe, Naohito; Wei, Feng; Wang, Mei; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Ali, Zulfiqar; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-05-01

    Dendrobium nobile is one of the fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Sesquiterpene alkaloids are the main active components in this plant. Due to weak ultraviolet absorption and low content in D. nobile, these sesquiterpene alkaloids have not been extensively studied using chromatographic methods. Herein, tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography separation provides a tool for the identification and characterization of the alkaloids from D. nobile. A total of nine sesquiterpene alkaloids were characterized by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These alkaloids can be classified into two subgroups that are represented by dendrobine and nobilonine. Tandem mass spectrometric studies revealed the fragmentation pathways of these two subgroup alkaloids that were used for the identification and characterization of other alkaloids in D. nobile. Characterization of these alkaloids using accurate mass and diagnostic fragments provided a reliable methodology for the analysis of D. nobile by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was defined as the signal-to-noise ratio equal to 3 : 1. Limits of detection of dendrobine and nobilonine were less than 30 ng/mL. The developed method was applied for the analysis of various Dendrobium species and related dietary supplements. Alkaloids were identified from D. nobile, but not detected from commercial samples including 13 other Dendrobium species and the 7 dietary supplements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. [Effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jie; Wang, De-Zhen; Zou, Zong-Yao; Wang, Yan-Zhi; Gao, Qian; Li, Xue-Gang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of different parts, harvesting time and processing technologies on alkaloids content of Coptis chinensis adventitious root. The content of alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC. The content of total alkaloids in adventitious root harvested in different time was ranged from 2.5% to 2.9%, in which that of berberine and coptisine were the highest, reaching to 1%, and that of palmatine was only 0.1%. It suggested there was no significant difference of total alkaloids at different harvesting time. Nevertheless, the difference of the alkaloids content from different parts was much significant. The content of total alkaloid of adventitious root near to rhizome was about 4%, 2 times higher than that away from rhizome (only 2%). In addition, different processing technologies would affect alkaloids content obviously. There was hardly loss of alkaloids when the fresh adventitious root was washed with water, but it would decrease alkaloids content when the dried adventitious root was washed. Medicine value of Coptis chinensis adventitious root near to rhizome is higher than that away from rhizome. And fresh Coptis chinensis adventitious root can be washed with water.

  8. Development of a microrectification apparatus for analytical and preparative applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziogas, A.; Cominos, V.; Kolb, G.A.; Kost, H.J.; Werner, B.; Hessel, V.

    2012-01-01

    The realization of efficient microrectification equipment that can be operated intermittently or continuously is reported. The equipment can be used for both analytical and preparative separations of mixtures of liquid substances. Different binary systems were separated. A theoretical separation

  9. Heterologous expression of a Rauvolfia cDNA encoding strictosidine glucosidase, a biosynthetic key to over 2000 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Irina; Sheludko, Yuri; Ma, Xueyan; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-04-01

    Strictosidine glucosidase (SG) is an enzyme that catalyses the second step in the biosynthesis of various classes of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Based on the comparison of cDNA sequences of SG from Catharanthus roseus and raucaffricine glucosidase (RG) from Rauvolfia serpentina, primers for RT-PCR were designed and the cDNA encoding SG was cloned from R. serpentina cell suspension cultures. The active enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Analysis of its deduced amino-acid sequence assigned the SG from R. serpentina to family 1 of glycosyl hydrolases. In contrast to the SG from C. roseus, the enzyme from R. serpentina is predicted to lack an uncleavable N-terminal signal sequence, which is believed to direct proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. The temperature and pH optimum, enzyme kinetic parameters and substrate specificity of the heterologously expressed SG were studied and compared to those of the C. roseus enzyme, revealing some differences between the two glucosidases. In vitro deglucosylation of strictosidine by R. serpentina SG proceeds by the same mechanism as has been shown for the C. roseus enzyme preparation. The reaction gives rise to the end product cathenamine and involves 4,21-dehydrocorynantheine aldehyde as an intermediate. The enzymatic hydrolysis of dolichantoside (Nbeta-methylstrictosidine) leads to several products. One of them was identified as a new compound, 3-isocorreantine A. From the data it can be concluded that the divergence of the biosynthetic pathways leading to different classes of indole alkaloids formed in R. serpentina and C. roseus cell suspension cultures occurs at a later stage than strictosidine deglucosylation.

  10. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  11. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  12. Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Schlerf, Martin; Moghaddam, Fatemeh Eghbali; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-06-01

    Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and Csbnd H, Osbnd H, and Nsbnd H bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities.

  13. Full structure assignments of pyrrolizidine alkaloid DNA adducts and mechanism of tumor initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Yu, Hongtao; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2012-09-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the first chemical carcinogens identified in plants. Previously, we determined that metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in vivo and in vitro generated a common set of DNA adducts that are responsible for tumor induction. Using LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis, we previously determined that four DNA adducts (DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4) were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Because of the lack of an adequate amount of authentic standards, the structures of DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 were not elucidated, and the structural assignment for DHP-dG-4 warranted further validation. In this study, we developed an improved synthetic methodology for these DNA adducts, enabling their full structural elucidation by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We determined that DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 are a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl) dehydrosupinidine, while DHP-dG-4 is 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine, an epimer of DHP-dG-3. With the structures of these DNA adducts unequivocally elucidated, we conclude that cellular DNA preferentially binds dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid, for example, dehydroriddelliine, at the C9 position of the necine base, rather than at the C7 position. We also determined that DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4, as well as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4, are interconvertible. This study represents the first report with detailed structural assignments of the DNA adducts that are responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumor induction on the molecular level. A mechanism of tumor initiation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is consequently fully determined.

  14. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  15. Anti-Allergic Properties of Curine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid

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    Jaime Ribeiro-Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum (Menispermaceae. Recent findings have shed light on the actions of curine in different models of allergy and inflammation. Here we review the properties and mechanisms of action of curine focusing on its anti-allergic effects. Curine pre-treatment significantly inhibited the scratching behavior, paw edema and systemic anaphylaxis induced by either ovalbumin (OVA in sensitized animals or compound 48/80, through mechanisms of mast cell stabilization and inhibition of mast cell activation to generate lipid mediators. In addition, oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophil recruitment and activation, as well as, OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the production of IL-13 and eotaxin, and of Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, curine exhibit anti-allergic effects in models of lung, skin and systemic allergy in the absence of significant toxicity, and as such has the potential for anti-allergic drug development.

  16. Growth inhibitory alkaloids from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Eri; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-03-01

    Plant growth inhibitory alkaloids were isolated from the extract of mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.] leaves. Their chemical structures were established by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra analysis. The I50 value (concentration required for 50% inhibition of control) for root growth of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seedlings was 400 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 500 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 100 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. On the other hand, the minimum concentration exhibiting inhibitory effect on shoot growth of cress seedlings was 10 microM for 3''''-oxo-juliprosopine, 100 microM for secojuliprosopinal, and 1 microM for a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine, respectively. Among these compounds, a (1:1) mixture of 3-oxo-juliprosine and 3'-oxo-juliprosine exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of cress seedlings.

  17. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Metabolic Activation Pathways Leading to Liver Tumor Initiation.

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    Fu, Peter P

    2017-01-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides are a class of phytochemical carcinogens contained in over 6000 plant species spread around the world. It has been estimated that approximately half of the 660 PAs and PA N-oxides that have been characterized are cytotoxic, genotoxic, and tumorigenic. It was recently determined that a genotoxic mechanism of liver tumor initiation mediated by PA-derived DNA adducts is a common metabolic activation pathway of a number of PAs. We proposed this set of PA-derived DNA adducts could be a common biological biomarker of PA exposure and a potential biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. We have also found that several reactive secondary pyrrolic metabolites can dissociate and interconvert to other secondary pyrrolic metabolites, resulting in the formation of the same exogenous DNA adducts. This present perspective reports the current progress on these new findings and proposes future research needed for obtaining a greater understanding of the role of this activation pathway and validating the use of this set of PA-derived DNA adducts as a biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  18. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism

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    Xinmiao Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1 targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  19. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-03-07

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  20. Uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, P J; Johnson, A G; Poupart, J; de Luca, V

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cell cultures with autoclaved mycelial homogenates of Botrytis sp. resulted in the accumulation of sanguinarine. Elicitor treatment also caused a rapid and transient induction in the activity of tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (TYDC, EC 4.1.1.25), which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine and L-dopa to tyramine and dopamine, respectively, the first steps in sanguinarine biosynthesis. TYDC genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor treatment. TYDC1-like mRNA levels were induced rapidly but declined to near baseline levels within 5 h. In contrast, TYDC2-like transcript levels increased more slowly but were sustained for an extended period. Induction of TYDC mRNAs preceded that of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) mRNAs. An elicitor preparation from Pythium aphanidermatum was less effective in the induction of TYDC mRNA levels and alkaloid accumulation; however, both elicitors equally induced accumulation of PAL transcripts. In contrast, treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in an induction of TYDC but not PAL mRNAs. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine partially blocked the fungal elicitor-induced accumulation of sanguinarine. However, only staurosporine and okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, blocked the induction of TYDC1-like transcript levels, but they did not block the induction of TYDC2-like or PAL transcript levels. These data suggest that activation mechanisms for PAL, TYDC, and some later sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes are uncoupled. PMID:8754678