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Sample records for preparative isoelectric focusing

  1. Preparative isoelectric focusing in a cellulose-based separation medium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 2498-2505 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MV(CZ) VI20172020069 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isoelectric focusing * preparative * proteins * separation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  2. Isoelectric focusing in continuously tapered fused silica capillary prepared by etching with supercritical water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel; Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2013), s. 4296-4300 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * resolution of ampholytes * supercritical water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.825, year: 2013

  3. Divergent flow isoelectric focusing: fast and efficient method for protein sample preparation for mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazanec, Karel; Bobálová, Janette; Šlais, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 393, 6-7 (2009), s. 1769-1778 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Isoelectric focusing * proteins * MALDI-TOF/TOF MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.480, year: 2009

  4. Preparative isoelectric focusing of microorganisms in cellulose-based separation medium and subsequent analysis by CIEF and MALDI-TOF MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Šalplachta, Jiří; Růžička, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 990, OCT (2017), s. 185-193 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MV(CZ) VI20172020069; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : preparative isoelectric focusing * colored microorganisms * isoelectric points * CIEF and MALDI-TOF MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  5. A simple method for preparation of macroporous polydimethylsiloxane membrane for microfluidic chip-based isoelectric focusing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Junjie [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ren, Carolyn L., E-mail: c3ren@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pawliszyn, Janusz [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-03-10

    A new, simple method was reported to prepare PDMS membranes with micrometer size pores for microfluidic chip applications. The pores were formed by adding polystyrene and toluene into PDMS prepolymer solution prior to spin-coating and curing. The resulting PDMS membrane has a thickness of around 10 {mu}m and macropores with a diameter ranging from 1 to 2 {mu}m measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. This PDMS membrane was validated by integrating it with PDMS microfluidic chips for protein separation using isoelectric focusing mechanism coupled with whole channel imaging detection (IEF-WCID). It has been shown that five standard pI markers and a mixture of two proteins, myoglobin and {beta}-lactoglobulin, can be separated using these chips. The results indicated that this macroporous PDMS membrane can replace the dialysis membrane in PDMS chips for the IEF-WCID technique. The preparation method of macroporous PDMS membrane may be potentially applied in other fields of microfluidic chips.

  6. Preparation of intact mitochondria using free-flow isoelectric focusing with post-pH gradient sample injection for morphological, functional and proteomics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yu-Chen; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Fan, Liu-Yin; Wu, Jane Y.; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jun; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Ying; Wu, Xue-Jing; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria play essential roles in both energy metabolism and cell signaling, which are critical for cell survival. Although significant efforts have been invested in understanding mitochondrial biology, methods for intact mitochondria preparation are technically challenging and remain to be improved. New methods for heterogeneous mitochondria purification will therefore boost our understanding on their physiological and biophysical properties. Herein, we developed a novel recycling free-flow isoelectric focusing (RFFIEF) with post-pH gradient sample injection (post-PGSI) for preparative separation of mitochondria. Crude mitochondria of rabbit liver obtained from differential centrifugation were purified by the developed method according to their pI values as six fractions. Transmission electron microscope images revealed that intact mitochondria existed in two fractions of pH 6.24 and 6.61, degenerative mitochondria were in two fractions of pH 5.46 and 5.72, and inner membrane vesicles (IMVs) appeared in the fractions of pH 4.70 and 5.04. Membrane potential measurement proved a dramatic difference between intact mitochondria and IMVs, which reflected the bioactivity of obtained populations. Particularly, proteomics analyses revealed that more number of proteins were identified in the intact fractions than that of IMVs or crude mitochondria, which demonstrated that RFFIEF could be powerful tool for the preparation of intact organelle as well as their proteomic and in-depth biological analysis. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial subpopulation was successfully separated according to their pIs via the developed RFFIEF method. • The post-PGSI method was introduced for the first time to achieve higher recovery of intact mitochondria. • Quick preparation of mitochondria subpopulation via the developed RFFIEF for both pI determination and downstream research.

  7. Highly efficient proteome analysis with combination of protein pre-fractionation by preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing and identification by μRPLC-MS/MS with serially coupled long microcolumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dingyin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of proteome analysis, a strategy with the combination of protein pre-fractionation by preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing, peptide separation by μRPLC with serially coupled long microcolumn and protein identification by ESI-MS/MS was proposed. By preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing technique, proteins extracted from whole cell lysates of Escherichia coli were fractionated into five chambers divided by isoelectric membranes, respectively with pH range from 3.0 to 4.6, 4.6 to 5.4, 5.4 to 6.2, 6.2 to 7.0 and 7.0 to 10.0. Compared to the traditional on-gel IFF, the protein recovery could be obviously improved to over 95%. Subsequently, the enriched and fractionated proteins in each chamber were digested, and further separated by a 30-cm long serially coupled RP microcolumn. Through the detection by ESI-MS/MS, about 200 proteins were identified in each fraction, and in total 835 proteins were identified even with one-dimensional μRPLC-MS/MS system. All these results demonstrate that by such a combination strategy, highly efficient proteome analysis could be achieved, not only due to the in-solution protein enrichment and pre-fractionation with improved protein recovery but also owing to the increased separation capacity of serially coupled long μRPLC columns. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization of Agrobacterium species by capillary isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Süle, S.; Horká, Marie; Matoušková, H.; Kubesová, Anna; Šalplachta, Jiří; Horký, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-89 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * Agrobacterium spp. * identification Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2012

  9. Simple power supply for power load controlled isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duša, Filip; Šlais, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 8 (2014), s. 1114-1117 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isoelectric focusing * power supply * voltage multiplier Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0231022

  10. Immunoperoxidase staining and radioimmunobinding of human tumor markers separated by direct tissue agarose isoelectric focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravis, C.A.; Cunningham, C.G.; Marasco, P.V.; Cook, R.B.; Zamcheck, N.; FMC Corp., Rockland, ME

    1980-01-01

    The new technique of agarose isoelectric focusing is used to identify, quantitate, and characterize specific tumor markers. After fixation of the isoelectric focusing patterns these are reacted with specific anti-tumor marker antisera, then with second antibody either peroxidase conjugated or radiolabellad (radioiodine). (RB) [de

  11. Capillary isoelectric focusing-useful tool for detection and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, F.; Horká, Marie; Holá, V.; Mlynariková, K.; Dráb, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2016), s. 3251-3257 ISSN 1936-9751 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * enterococcus * isoelectric point * lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2016

  12. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, I.; Craig, A.; Etienne, M.

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight laborator......A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight...... laboratories. With SDS-PAGE, minor changes took place in the profiles of the processed salmonid species making it impossible or Very difficult to identify closely related species. With urea-IEF, there were fewer changes in the profiles due to processing and the system generally had greater species......-discriminating power for the processed salmonids than SDS-PAGE. The profiles of the eel species as obtained on SDS-PAGE or urea-IEF were not affected by smoking. Urea-IEF had greater species- discriminating power than SDS-PAGE for the eel species. Native IEF was useful in providing supplementary identification...

  13. Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains.

  14. Highly sensitive and specific protein detection via combined capillary isoelectric focusing and proximity ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padhan, N.; Yan, J.; Boge, A.; Scrivener, E.; Birgisson, H.; Zieba, A.; Gullberg, M.; Kamali-Moghaddam, M.; Claesson-Welsh, L.; Landegren, U.

    2017-01-01

    Detection and quantification of proteins and their post-translational modifications are crucial to decipher functions of complex protein networks in cell biology and medicine. Capillary isoelectric focusing together with antibody-based detection can resolve and identify proteins and their isoforms

  15. Analysis of recombinant proteins by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Roecklin, D.; Roitsch, C.

    1992-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients (IEF-IPG) was used to analyze three different recombinant proteins. Recombinant leech hirudin (65 amino acids, three disulfide bonds) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a secreted protein and purified by anion-exchange and reversed-phase

  16. Commercial ampholytes used for isoelectric focusing may interfere with bioactivity based purification of antimicrobial peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Riazi, Shadi; Dover, Sara; Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    BioRad's Rotofor® system has been frequently used for the purification of proteins and smaller peptides such as bacteriocins. In this study, we report that some commercially available ampholytes used with the Rotofor® isoelectric focusing system possess antimicrobial activity, which may interfere with the purification of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like substances.

  17. Analysis of glycated hemoglobin A1c by capillary electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-15 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P485; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * capillary isoelectric focusing * glycated hemoglobin HbA1c Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011

  18. Comparison of isoelectric focusing and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of β-lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs have been observed in virtually all the species of family Enterobacteriaceae. Threat posed by antibiotic resistance because of ESBLs is more serious as a number of technical problems are associated with the detection of these enzymes. Although a number of detection methods have been designed for ESBLs, every method has its own benefits and shortcomings as well. In earlier days, isoelectric focusing (IEF was used as the gold standard for ESBL detection. This study was undertaken to compare IEF with polymerase chain reaction, a method which has been extensively used for ESBL detection these days.

  19. From Image Processing to Classification: 1. Modelling Disturbances of Isoelectric Focusing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Søndergaard, I.; Skovgaard, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to optimize the conditions for evaluation of isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns by digital image processing, the sources of error in determination of the pi values were analyzed together with the influence of a varying background. The effects of band distortions, in the spectra...... of the individual lanes, were examined. In order to minimize the effect of these distortions, optimal conditions for handling IEF patterns by digital image processing were elucidated. The systematic part of the global deformation on the gels was investigated and an algorithm was developed by which it was possible...

  20. Multijunction Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Device Combined with Online Membrane-Assisted Buffer Exchanger Enables Isoelectric Point Fractionation of Intact Human Plasma Proteins for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    Prefractionation of proteins is often employed to improve analysis specificity in proteomics. Prefractionation based on the isoelectric point (pI) is particularly attractive because pI is a well-defined parameter and it is orthogonal to hydrophobicity on which reversed-phase chromatography is based. However, direct capillary electrophoresis of blood proteins is challenging due to its high content of salts and charged small molecules. Here, we couple an online desalinator device to our multijunction capillary isoelectric focusing (MJ-CIEF) instrument and perform direct isoelectric separation of human blood plasma. In a proof-of-principle experiment, pooled samples of patients with progressive mild cognitive impairment and corresponding healthy controls were investigated. Injection of 3 μL of plasma containing over 100 μg of proteins into the desalinator was followed by pI fractionation with MJ-CIEF in less than 1 h. Shotgun proteomics of 12 collected fractions from each of the 5 replicates of pooled samples resulted in the identification and accurate quantification (median CV between the replicates is <4%) of nearly 365 protein groups from 4030 unique peptides (with <1% FDR for both peptides and proteins). The obtained results include several proteins previously reported as AD markers. The isoelectric point of each quantified protein was calculated using a set of 7 synthetic peptides spiked into the samples. Several proteins with a significant pI shift between their isoforms in the patient and control samples were identified. The presented method is straightforward, robust, and scalable; therefore, it can be used in both biological and clinical applications.

  1. Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ken; Hori, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Gc protein is the precursor for Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), with three phenotypes: Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2, based on its electrophoretic mobility. The difference in electrophoretic mobility is because of the difference in its posttranslational sugar moiety composition. We compared the difference between Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility using the isoelectric focusing (IEF) method. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was evaluated after coculture with L-929 cell. The tumoricidal mechanism was investigated using TNF bioassay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The difference in Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility was detected. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was detected, but no release of TNF and NO was detected. The difference of isoelectric focusing mobility in Gc protein and GcMAF would be useful to develop a GcMAF detection method. GcMAF increased macrophage tumoricidal activity but TNF and NO release were not involved in the mechanism.

  2. Carrier ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing on a paper-based analytical device for the fractionation of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song-Fang; Gao, Han; Niu, Li-Li; Xie, Zhen-Sheng; Fang, Fang; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Fu-Quan

    2018-01-25

    Isoelectric focusing plays a critical role in the analysis of complex protein samples. Conventionally, isoelectric focusing is implemented with carrier ampholytes in capillary or immobilized pH gradient gel. In this study, we successfully exhibited a carrier ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing on paper-based analytical device. Proof of the concept was visually demonstrated with color model proteins. Experimental results showed that not only a pH gradient was well established along the open paper fluidic channel as confirmed by pH indicator strip, the pH gradient range could also be tuned by the catholyte or anolyte. Furthermore, the isoelectric focusing fractions from the paper channel can be directly cut and recovered into solutions for post analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This paper-based isoelectric focusing method is fast, cheap, simple and easy to operate, and could potentially be used as a cost-effective protein sample clean-up method for target protein analysis with mass spectrometry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The trace analysis of microorganisms in real samples by combination of a filtration microcartridge and capillary isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Horký, J.; Kubesová, Anna; Zapletalová, E.; Šlais, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 400, č. 9 (2011), s. 3133-3140 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * real samples * spores * fungi Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2011

  4. Comparison of polyacrylamide and agarose gel thin-layer isoelectric focusing for the characterization of beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecoli, C; Prevost, F E; Ververis, J J; Medeiros, A A; O'Leary, G P

    1983-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases from strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were separated by isoelectric focusing on a 0.8-mm thin-layer agarose gel with a pH gradient of 3.5 to 9.5. Their banding patterns and isoelectric points were compared with those obtained with a 2.0-mm polyacrylamide gel as the support medium. The agarose method produced banding patterns and isoelectric points which corresponded to the polyacrylamide gel data for most samples. Differences were observed for HMS-1 and PSE-1 beta-lactamases. The HMS-1 sample produced two highly resolvable enzyme bands in agarose gels rather than the single faint enzyme band observed on polyacrylamide gels. The PSE-1 sample showed an isoelectric point shift of 0.2 pH unit between polyacrylamide and agarose gel (pI 5.7 and 5.5, respectively). The short focusing time, lack of toxic hazard, and ease of formulation make agarose a practical medium for the characterization of beta-lactamases.

  5. OFFGEL isoelectric focusing and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of platinum-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ma Luz; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Moraleja, Irene; Cañas, Benito; Gómez-Gómez, Ma Milagros

    2011-03-04

    In this work a 2D electrophoretic separation procedure able to maintain the integrity of platinum-protein bonds has been developed. The method is based on the use of sequential OFFGEL isoelectric focussing (IEF) and PAGE. A systematic study of the reagents used for PAGE, for OFFGEL-IEF separation, and post-separation treatment of gels (such as enzymatic digestion and sample preparation for MS analysis) was tackled regarding their suitability for the identification of platinum binding proteins using standard proteins incubated with cisplatin. The distribution of platinum in high and low molecular weight fractions (separated by cut-off filters) was determined by ICP-MS, which allows evaluating platinum-protein bond stability under the conditions studied. SDS-PAGE in the absence of β-mercaptoethanol or dithiotreitol preserved the platinum-protein bonds. In addition, neither the influence of the electric field during the electrophoretic separation, nor the processes of fixing, staining and destaining of proteins in the gel did result in the loss of platinum from platinum binding proteins. SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions provides separation of platinum-binding proteins in very narrow bands with quantitative recoveries. Different amounts of platinum-bound proteins covering the range 0.3-2.0 μg were separated and mineralised for platinum determination, showing good platinum linearity. Limits of detection for a mixture of five standard proteins incubated with cisplatin were between the range of 2.4 and 13.9 pg of platinum, which were satisfactory for their application to biological samples. Regarding OFFGEL-IEF, a denaturing solution without thiourea and without dithiotreitol is recommended. The suitability of the OFFGEL-IEF for the separation of platinum binding proteins of a kidney cytosol was demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Free flow and capillary isoelectric focusing of bacteria from the tomatoes plant tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Horký, J.; Matoušková, H.; Šlais, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1216, č. 6 (2009), s. 1019-1024 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : free flow and capillary IEF * isoelectric point of microbes * tomatoes plant tissue suspension Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2009

  8. Performing Isoelectric Focusing and Simultaneous Fractionation of Proteins on A Rotary Valve Followed by Sodium Dodecyl – Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Joann J.; Gu, Congying; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Shaorong

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, we design and fabricate a novel rotary valve and demonstrate its feasibility for performing isoelectric focusing and simultaneous fractionation of proteins, followed by sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The valve has two positions. In one position, the valve routes a series of capillary loops together into a single capillary tube where capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is performed. By switching the valve to another position, the CIEF-resolved proteins in all capillary loops are isolated simultaneously, and samples in the loops are removed and collected in vials. After the collected samples are briefly processed, they are separated via sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, the 2nd-D separation) on either a capillary gel electrophoresis instrument or a slab-gel system. The detailed valve configuration is illustrated, and the experimental conditions and operation protocols are discussed. PMID:23819755

  9. Analysis of human bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms: comparison of isoelectric focusing and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Christopher A; Linder, Cecilia; Magnusson, Per

    2007-04-01

    Several isoforms of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can be identified in human tissues and serum after separation by anion-exchange HPLC and isoelectric focusing (IEF). We purified four soluble bone ALP (BALP) isoforms (B/I, B1x, B1 and B2) from human SaOS-2 cells, determined their specific pI values by broad range IEF (pH 3.5-9.5), compared these with commercial preparations of bone, intestinal and liver ALPs and established the effects of neuraminidase and wheat germ lectin (WGA) on enzyme activity. Whilst the isoforms B1x (pI=4.48), B1 (pI=4.32) and B2 (pI=4.12) resolved as well-defined bands, B/I resolved as a complex (pI=4.85-6.84). Neuraminidase altered the migration of all BALP isoforms to pI=6.84 and abolished their binding to the anion-exchange matrix, but increased their enzymatic activities by 11-20%. WGA precipitated the BALP isoforms in IEF gels and the HPLC column and attenuated their enzymatic activities by 54-73%. IEF resolved the commercial BALP into 2 major bands (pI=4.41 and 4.55). Migration of BALP isoforms is similar in IEF and anion-exchange HPLC and dependent on sialic acid content. HPLC is preferable in smaller scale research applications where samples containing mixtures of BALP isoforms are analysed. Circulating liver ALP (pI=3.85) can be resolved from BALP by either method. IEF represents a simpler approach for routine purposes even though some overlapping of the isoforms may occur.

  10. Recycling isoelectric focusing with computer controlled data acquisition system. [for high resolution electrophoretic separation and purification of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egen, N. B.; Twitty, G. E.; Bier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing is a high-resolution technique for separating and purifying large peptides, proteins, and other biomolecules. The apparatus described in the present paper constitutes a new approach to fluid stabilization and increased throughput. Stabilization is achieved by flowing the process fluid uniformly through an array of closely spaced filter elements oriented parallel both to the electrodes and the direction of the flow. This seems to overcome the major difficulties of parabolic flow and electroosmosis at the walls, while limiting the convection to chamber compartments defined by adjacent spacers. Increased throughput is achieved by recirculating the process fluid through external heat exchange reservoirs, where the Joule heat is dissipated.

  11. Isoelectric focusing of small non-covalent metal species from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Jessica; Hayen, Heiko; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Weber, Günther

    2011-03-01

    IEF is known as a powerful electrophoretic separation technique for amphoteric molecules, in particular for proteins. The objective of the present work is to prove the suitability of IEF also for the separation of small, non-covalent metal species. Investigations are performed with copper-glutathione complexes, with the synthetic ligand ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (EDDHA) and respective metal complexes (Fe, Ga, Al, Ni, Zn), and with the phytosiderophore 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and its ferric complex. It is shown that ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid and DMA species are stable during preparative scale IEF, whereas copper-glutathione dissociates considerably. It is also shown that preparative scale IEF can be applied successfully to isolate ferric DMA from real plant samples, and that multidimensional separations are possible by combining preparative scale IEF with subsequent HPLC-MS analysis. Focusing of free ligands and respective metal complexes with di- and trivalent metals results in different pIs, but CIEF is usually needed for a reliable estimation of pI values. Limitations of the proposed methods (preparative IEF and CIEF) and consequences of the results with respect to metal speciation in plants are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  13. ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS OF PROBIOTIC B. COAGULANS AND ITS BACTERIOPHAGE RESISTANT MUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rajesh Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are the most notorious type of infection in the probiotic and dairy fermentations. Two phage resistant mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII (B. coagulans mutants PIII and MIII obtained in previous studies (Dubey and Vakil, 2010, were further characterized for their protein profile in comparison with the parental probiotic strain –B. coagulans. The cell lysates were subjected to ultra-centrifugation and the purified membrane fractions were resolved using 2D gel electrophoresis. The Isoelectric focussing showed 187, 202 and 154 protein spots for the parental strain, mutant B. co PIII and mutant B. co MIII, respectively. Ten and 18 protein spots were missing as compared to parent for mutants B.co PIII and B.co MIII whereas there were 21 and 14 new spots noticed for these two mutants. Eight membrane proteins present only in the phage sensitive parental culture could be tentatively identified by comparison with the complete proteome of B. coagulans by use of UniprotKB and then CELLO database It is quite likely that some of these identified membrane proteins may be also functioning as receptors for phage adsorption followed by entry of nucleic acid into the phage sensitive host cell.

  14. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  15. Microfluidic Isoelectric Focusing of Amyloid Beta Peptides Followed by Micropillar-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Saara; Jacksén, Johan; Roeraade, Johan; Thormann, Wolfgang; Emmer, Åsa

    2016-10-18

    A novel method for preconcentration and purification of the Alzheimer's disease related amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in 75 nL microchannels combined with their analysis by micropillar-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. A semiopen chip-based setup, consisting of open microchannels covered by a lid of a liquid fluorocarbon, was used. IEF was performed in a mixture of four small and chemically well-defined amphoteric carriers, glutamic acid, aspartyl-histidine (Asp-His), cycloserine (cSer), and arginine, which provided a stepwise pH gradient tailored for focusing of the C-terminal Aβ peptides with a pI of 5.3 in the boundary between cSer and Asp-His. Information about the focusing dynamics and location of the foci of Aβ peptides and other compounds was obtained using computer simulation and by performing MALDI-MS analysis directly from the open microchannel. With the established configuration, detection was performed by direct sampling of a nanoliter volume containing the focused Aβ peptides from the microchannel, followed by deposition of this volume onto a chip with micropillar MALDI targets. In addition to purification, IEF preconcentration provides at least a 10-fold increase of the MALDI-MS-signal. After immunoprecipitation and concentration of the eluate in the microchannel, IEF-micropillar-MALDI-MS is demonstrated to be a suitable platform for detection of Aβ peptides in human cerebrospinal fluid as well as in blood plasma.

  16. Isoelectric focusing of dansylated amino acids in immobilized pH gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Bosisio, Adriana; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Egen, Ned B.; Bier, Milan

    1986-01-01

    The 21 free amino acids commonly encountered in proteins have been transformed into 'carrier ampholyte' species by reacting their primary amino groups with dansyl chloride. These derivatives can thus be focused in an immobilized pH gradient covering the pH interval 3.1 to 4.1, except for arginine, which still retains a pI of 8.8. Due to their inherent fluorescence, the dansyl derivatives are revealed in UV light, with a sensitivity of the order of 2-4 ng/sq mm. All nearest neighbors are separated except for the following couples: Asn-Gln, Gly-Thr, Val-Ile and Cys-Cys2, with a resolving power, in a Delta(pI) scale, of the order of 0.0018 pH units. Except for a few cases (notably the aromatic amino acids), the order of pI values is well correlated with the pK values of carboxyl groups, suggesting that the latter are not altered by dansylation. From the set of pK(COOH)-pI values of the different amino acids, the pK of the tertiary amino group in the dansyl label has been calculated to be 5.11 + or - 0.06. Knowing the pK of the amino-dansyl and the pI of the excess, free dansyl label (pI = 3.34), a pK of 1.57 is derived for its sulfonic acid group.

  17. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Separation and Online Characterization of Intact Monoclonal Antibody Charge Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; Lamp, Jared; Xia, Qiangwei; Zhang, Yingru

    2018-02-06

    We report a new online capillary isoelectric focusing-mass spectrometry (CIEF-MS) method for monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variant analysis using an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray ion source and a time-of-flight MS with pressure-assisted chemical mobilization. To develop a successful, reliable CIEF-MS method for mAb, we have selected and optimized many critical, interrelating reagents and parameters that include (1) MS-friendly anolyte and catholyte; (2) a glycerol enhanced sample mixture that reduced non-CIEF electrophoretic mobility and band broadening; (3) ampholyte selected for balancing resolution and MS sensitivity; (4) sheath liquid composition optimized for efficient focusing, mobilization, and electrospray ionization; (5) judiciously selected CIEF running parameters including injection amount, field strength, and applied pressure. The fundamental premise of CIEF was well maintained as verified by the linear correlation (R 2 = 0.99) between pI values and migration time using a mixture of pI markers. In addition, the charge variant profiles of trastuzumab, bevacizumab, infliximab, and cetuximab, obtained using this CIEF-MS method, were corroborated by imaged CIEF-UV (iCIEF-UV) analyses. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of absolute migration time of pI markers were all less than 5% (n = 4). Triplicate analyses of bevacizumab showed RSD less than 1% for relative migration time to an internal standard and RSD of 7% for absolute MS peak area. Moreover, the antibody charge variants were characterized using the online intact MS data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that direct online MS detection and characterization were achieved for mAb charge variants resolved by CIEF as indicated by a well-established linear pH gradient and correlated CIEF-UV charge variant profiles.

  18. High-resolution slab gel isoelectric focusing: methods for quantitative electrophoretic transfer and immunodetection of proteins as applied to the study of the multiple isoelectric forms of ornithine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S G; Cochran, B J; Worth, L L; Knutson, V P; Haddox, M K

    1994-04-01

    A high-resolution isoelectric focusing vertical slab gel method which can resolve proteins which differ by a single charge was developed and this method was applied to the study of the multiple isoelectric forms of ornithine decarboxylase. Separation of proteins at this high level of resolution was achieved by increasing the ampholyte concentration in the gels to 6%. Various lots of ampholytes, from the same or different commercial sources, differed significantly in their protein binding capacity. Ampholytes bound to proteins interfered both with the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from the gel to immunoblotting membranes and with the ability of antibodies to interact with proteins on the immunoblotting membranes. Increasing the amount of protein loaded into a gel lane also decreased the efficiency of the electrophoretic transfer and immunodetection. To overcome these problems, both gel washing and gel electrophoretic transfer protocols for disrupting the ampholyte-protein binding and enabling a quantitative electrophoretic transfer of proteins were developed. Two gel washing procedures, with either thiocyanate or borate buffers, and a two-step electrophoretic transfer method are described. The choice of which method to use to optimally disrupt the ampholyte-protein binding was found to vary with each lot of ampholytes employed.

  19. Study on a hidden protein-DNA binding in salmon sperm DNA sample by dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liang; Dou Peng; Dong Mingming; Ke Xiaokang; Bian Ningsheng; Liu Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Nuclease P1 is an important enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA or single-stranded DNA into nucleotides, and complete digestion is an essential basis for assays based on this enzyme. To digest a doubled-stranded DNA, the enzyme is usually combined with heat denaturing, which breaks doubled-stranded DNA into single strands. This paper presents an un-expected phenomenon that nuclease P1, in combination with heat denaturing, fails to completely digest a DNA sample extracted from salmon sperm. Under the experimental conditions used, at which nuclease P1 can completely digest calf thymus DNA, the digestion yield of salmon sperm DNA was only 89.5%. Spectrometric measurement indicated that a total protein of 4.7% is present in the DNA sample. To explain the reason for this phenomenon, the dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing (DK-CIEF) approach proposed previously, which allows for the discrimination of different types of protein-DNA interactions and the measurement of the individual dissociation rate constants, was modified and applied to examine possible protein-DNA interactions involved. It was found that a non-specific DNA-protein binding occurs in the sample, the dissociation rate constant for which was measured to be 7.05 ± 0.83 x 10 -3 s -1 . The formation of DNA-protein complex was suggested to be the main reason for the incomplete digestion of the DNA sample. The modified DK-CIEF approach can be applied as general DNA samples, with the advantages of fast speed and low sample consumption.

  20. Combination of capillary isoelectric focusing in a tapered capillary with MALDI-TOF MS for rapid and reliable identification of Dickeya species from plant samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šalplachta, Jiří; Karásek, Pavel; Kubesová, Anna; Horký, J.; Matoušková, H.; Šlais, Karel; Roth, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 14 (2013), s. 6806-6812 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry * Dickeya spp. bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.825, year: 2013

  1. Novel fluorescent probe for highly sensitive bioassay using sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, Terence G; Uenoyama, Yuta; Nogawa, Yuto; Ikegami, Ken; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji; Funano, Shun-ichi; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2013-06-07

    This paper presents a novel rhodamine diphosphate molecule that allows highly sensitive detection of proteins by employing sequential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and capillary isoelectric focusing (ELISA-cIEF). Seven-fold improvement in the immunoassay sensitivity and a 1-2 order of magnitude lower detection limit has been demonstrated by taking advantage of the combination of the enzyme-based signal amplification of ELISA and the concentration of enzyme reaction products by cIEF.

  2. Preparation and characterization of protein isolate from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP processing allows selective, pH-induced water solubility of proteins with concurrent separation of lipids and removal of materials not intended for human consumption such as bone, scales, skin, etc. Recovered proteins retain functional properties and nutritional value. Four roe protein isolates (RPIs from yellowfin tuna roe were prepared under different solubilization and precipitation condition (pH 11/4.5, pH 11/5.5, pH 12/4.5 and pH 12/5.5. RPIs contained 2.3–5.0 % moisture, 79.1–87.8 % protein, 5.6–7.4 % lipid and 3.0–3.8 % ash. Protein content of RPI-1 and RPI-2 precipitated at pH 4.5 and 5.5 after alkaline solubilization at pH 11, was higher than those of RPI-3 and RPI-4 after alkaline solubilization at pH 12 (P < 0.05. Lipid content (5.6–7.4 % of RPIs was lower than that of freeze-dried concentrate (10.6 %. And leucine and lysine of RPIs were the most abundant amino acids (8.8–9.4 and 8.5–8.9 g/100 g protein, respectively. S, Na, P, K as minerals were the major elements in RPIs. SDS-PAGE of RPIs showed bands at 100, 45, 25 and 15 K. Moisture and protein contents of process water as a 2’nd byproduct were 98.9–99.0 and 1.3–1.8 %, respectively. Therefore, yellowfin tuna roe isolate could be a promising source of valuable nutrients for human food and animal feeds.

  3. Quantification of trace elements in protein bands by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence after isoelectric focusing separation of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuxi; Chen Chunying; Li Bai; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Chai Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    The role and effects of a trace element in a particular organism strongly depend on its particular chemical forms in which the element is present. Therefore, the bulk content or concentration of an element in the organism of interest is often meaningless in judging its biological significance. To understand bioavailability, transportation, cell uptake, metabolism, toxicity, and other biological behaviors of trace elements in the body, information is needed about speciation of trace element, especially about distribution of metal-containing proteins. Development of appropriate methods for speciation analysis is therefore required. Synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) is a sensitive method for multielemental analysis with detection limit of 10 ng/g. It has been successfully used for imaging and quantifying trace elements in various pathological and healthy tissues, even in a single cell, to help understand the mechanism of diseases and the biochemistry of elements. In our previous work, the technique was combined with electrophoresis to study distribution of metalloproteins in biological samples, but the quantitative analysis of trace elements in protein bands after electrophoresis was still unrealized. In this study, a procedure has been proposed for quantification of Fe, Cu, and Zn in protein bands with SRXRF analysis after isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation. Calibration standards were prepared by adding certain amounts of metal ions and free-metal proteins to electrophoresis gel. Human hemoglobin was separated with IEF, and Fe, Cu, and Zn in protein bands were analyzed by SRXRF. The calibration curves can be obtained in a range of 0-8 mg/kg metals and a linear relationship between dosage of metals and fluorescent intensity can be observed (r 2 > 0.99). The method provides the detection limits of 2.43, 1.12, and 0.96 mg/kg for Fe, Cu and Zn, and the recoveries of 90.4 and 115.7 % for Fe and Zn, respectively. The hyphenated technique of SRXRF and IEF

  4. Focalização isoelétrica na identificação das hemoglobinas The isoelectric focusing for hemoglobin identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cristina Bertholo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando a significativa freqüência das hemoglobinopatias na população brasileira e a necessidade do estabelecimento de metodologia confiável, rápida, reprodutível e possível de ser aplicada a um grande número de amostras, foi objetivo desse trabalho analisar as diferenças observadas pelas metodologias eletroforéticas em acetato de celulose e em ágar amido em comparação com a focalização isoelétrica (IEF e o estabelecimento de um padrão amostral apresentando as principais posições das hemoglobinas anormais, com enfoque nas observadas na população brasileira. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: O material de estudo foi constituído por amostras de sangue de pacientes laboratoriais e doadores pertencentes à região central do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, e nelas aplicamos os testes de rotina laboratorial. Para efeito de comparação e validade das provas laboratoriais, correlacionamos os resultados dos testes com a técnica de focalização isoelétrica. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados observados em cada procedimento, somados aos dados de literatura, permitiram estabelecer padrões de migração para cada sistema eletroforético das hemoglobinas observadas na população brasileira. Dessa forma foram estruturados quadros com a possibilidade do uso dos mesmos evidenciando a facilidade e a viabilidade dessa técnica por diferentes laboratórios.BACKGROUND: Considering the significant frequency of hemoglobinopathies in the Brazilian population and the necessity of establishing a reliable methodology, quick, reproductive and possible to be applied in a large number of samples, it was the objective of this work to analyze the differences on electrophoretic procedures with cellulose acetate and acid agar compared with isoelectric focusing (IEF, and to establish a standard of migration, presenting main positions of abnormal hemoglobin, based on Brazilian population hemoglobin. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The studied material

  5. Diagnostic utility of isoelectric focusing and high performance liquid chromatography in neonatal cord blood screening for thalassemia and non-sickling hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uaprasert, Noppacharn; Settapiboon, Rung; Amornsiriwat, Supaporn; Sarnthammakul, Patsita; Thanapat, Tassanee; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Sutcharitchan, Pranee

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia syndromes are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. In Thailand, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the most common technique routinely performed in diagnosis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, while isoelectric focusing (IEF) is rarely employed. We compared the diagnostic utility of IEF and HPLC in neonatal screening for thalassemia and non-sickling hemoglobinopathies. Two-hundred and forty-one cord blood samples were analyzed using IEF and HPLC, β-thalassemia short program. The results were correlated with red cell indices and molecular analyses. Hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's was quantified only on IEF. Of 241 newborns, IEF and HPLC yielded 85.4% and 76.4% sensitivity to identify α-thalassemia syndrome, respectively. HbBart's≥2% yielded 100% sensitivity to identify 2 α-globin gene deletions and/or mutations, while MCV≤95fl and MCH≤30pg yielded 100% sensitivity to identify 2 α-globin gene deletions. DNA analysis revealed HbE mutation in all 61 subjects with HbA2>1% on both IEF and HPLC. IEF is an effective method in neonatal screening for thalassemia and non-sickling hemoglobinopathies. The HbBart's level, MCV and MCH are helpful for identifying α-thalassemia. The presence of HbA2 higher than 1% in cord blood indicates HbE carriers in Southeast Asian newborns. © 2013.

  6. In situ photo-immobilised pH gradient isoelectric focusing and zone electrophoresis integrated two-dimensional microfluidic chip electrophoresis for protein separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Fengmin; Yu, Shiyong; Gu, Le; Zhu, Xuetao; Wang, Jianshe; Zhu, Han; Lu, Yi; Wang, Yihua; Deng, Yulin; Geng, Lina

    2015-01-01

    A method is introduced for open-column photo-induced site-selective immobilization of pH gradients in a layer of PEG-methacrylate in a multi-dimensional microfluidic chip for use in electrophoresis. It has several attractive features: (a) mixtures of fluorescently labelled proteins carbonic anhydrase, catalase and myoglobin in their native state can be separated by pH-gradient isoelectric focusing (IEF) and zone electrophoresis (CZE) using integrated 2D chip electrophoresis; (b) compared to strip packing or monolithic photo-immobilization, it overcomes the shortcomings of free carrier ampholyte-based 2D chip electrophoresis in an easy way; (c) larger amount of sample can be loaded into the open column-mode electrophoresis (d) immobilized pH gradients can be re-used and the chip can be recycled; (e) a multilayer 3D pH gradient is established by a layer-by-layer assembly technique to further increase the separation capacity. In our perception, this strategy has a large potential in microfluidic chip-based separation schemes because of its simplicity, separation power, re-usability, and separation capacity. (author)

  7. Assessment of Intrathecal Free Light Chain Synthesis: Comparison of Different Quantitative Methods with the Detection of Oligoclonal Free Light Chains by Isoelectric Focusing and Affinity-Mediated Immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, David; Kušnierová, Pavlína; Švagera, Zdeněk; Všianský, František; Byrtusová, Monika; Hradílek, Pavel; Kurková, Barbora; Zapletalová, Olga; Bartoš, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare various methods for free light chain (fLC) quantitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum and to determine whether quantitative CSF measurements could reliably predict intrathecal fLC synthesis. In addition, we wished to determine the relationship between free kappa and free lambda light chain concentrations in CSF and serum in various disease groups. We analysed 166 paired CSF and serum samples by at least one of the following methods: turbidimetry (Freelite™, SPAPLUS), nephelometry (N Latex FLC™, BN ProSpec), and two different (commercially available and in-house developed) sandwich ELISAs. The results were compared with oligoclonal fLC detected by affinity-mediated immunoblotting after isoelectric focusing. Although the correlations between quantitative methods were good, both proportional and systematic differences were discerned. However, no major differences were observed in the prediction of positive oligoclonal fLC test. Surprisingly, CSF free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were lower than those in serum in about 75% of samples with negative oligoclonal fLC test. In about a half of patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, profoundly increased free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios were found in the CSF. Our results show that using appropriate method-specific cut-offs, different methods of CSF fLC quantitation can be used for the prediction of intrathecal fLC synthesis. The reason for unexpectedly low free kappa/free lambda light chain ratios in normal CSFs remains to be elucidated. Whereas CSF free kappa light chain concentration is increased in most patients with multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome, CSF free lambda light chain values show large interindividual variability in these patients and should be investigated further for possible immunopathological and prognostic significance.

  8. Diagnostic applications of newborn screening for α-thalassaemias, haemoglobins E and H disorders using isoelectric focusing on dry blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindatanmanusan, Punyanuch; Riolueang, Suchada; Glomglao, Waraporn; Sukontharangsri, Yaowapa; Chamnanvanakij, Sangkae; Torcharus, Kitti; Viprakasit, Vip

    2014-03-01

    Neonatal screening for haemoglobin (Hb) disorders is a standard of care in several developed countries with the main objective to detect Hb S. Such practice has not been established in Thailand where α-thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (Hb E) are highly prevalent. Early identification of thalassaemias could be helpful and strengthen the programme for prevention and control for severe thalassaemias. Data from isoelectric focusing (IEF) and Isoscan® for detecting types and amount (%) of each haemoglobin in 350 newborn's dried blood spots were analysed and compared with the comprehensive genotype analysis by DNA studies as a gold standard. Based on genetic profiles, there were 10 different categories: (1) normal (n = 227), (2) α(+)-thalassaemia trait (n = 14), (3) α(0)-thalassaemia trait (n = 13), (4) β(0)-thalassaemia trait (n = 7), (5) Hb E trait (n = 72), (6) Hb E trait with α(0)-thalassaemia or homozygous α(+)-thalassaemia (n = 5), (7) Hb E trait with α(+)-thalassaemia trait (n = 5), (8) homozygous Hb E (n = 3), (9) homozygous Hb E with α(0)-thalassaemia trait (n = 1) and (10) Hb H disease (n = 3). The presence of Hb Bart's and Hb E were used to identify cases with α-thalassaemia and Hb E, respectively. We set 0.25% of Hb Bart's and 1.5% of Hb E as a cut-off level to detect α(+)-thalassaemia trait (sensitivity 92.86% and specificity 74.0%) and Hb E trait with 100% of both sensitivity and specificity for IEF diagnosis. Although molecular diagnosis seems to be better for definitive diagnosis of thalassaemia syndromes at birth, however, using our reference range described herein, IEF can be applied in a resource-limiting setting with acceptable reliability.

  9. Quantitation of estrogen receptor in seventy-five specimens of breast cancer: comparison between an immunoassay (Abbott ER-EIA monoclonal) and a [3H]estradiol binding assay based on isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pousette, A.; Gustafsson, S.A.; Thoernblad, A.M.N.; Nordgren, A.; Saellstroem, J.Li.; Lindgren, A.; Sundelin, P.; Gustafsson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitation of estrogen receptor has been performed in cytosol prepared from 75 specimens of breast cancer tissue from patients who had not received hormonal therapy. The study was performed in order to compare an immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) with our currently used method for estrogen receptor analysis based on isoelectric focusing of [ 3 H]estradiol-receptor complex in polyacrylamide gels. Using linear regression analysis, a regression coefficient (slope) of 1.30 and a correlation coefficient of 0.75 were calculated. The differences in results between the two methods are probably partly explained by the fact that the ligand-based method only measures unoccupied receptor, whereas the immunoassay detects the total amount of receptor, resulting in generally slightly higher concentrations with the latter method. However, in five of 75 specimens the ligand-based method gave a considerably higher concentration of estrogen receptor. This was most probably explained by partial proteolysis resulting in the formation of receptor fragment(s), which was undetectable with the immunoassay but detectable with the ligand-based method. These observations underline the importance of careful handling of specimens during the whole immunoassay procedure

  10. A Chip-Capillary Hybrid Device for Automated Transfer of Sample Pre-Separated by Capillary Isoelectric Focusing to Parallel Capillary Gel Electrophoresis for Two-Dimensional Protein Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Joann J.; Wang, Shili; Li, Guanbin; Wang, Wei; Pu, Qiaosheng; Liu, Shaorong

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we introduce a chip-capillary hybrid device to integrate capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) with parallel capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) toward automating two-dimensional (2D) protein separations. The hybrid device consists of three chips that are butted together. The middle chip can be moved between two positions to re-route the fluidic paths, which enables the performance of CIEF and injection of proteins partially resolved by CIEF to CGE capillaries for parallel CGE separations in a continuous and automated fashion. Capillaries are attached to the other two chips to facilitate CIEF and CGE separations and to extend the effective lengths of CGE columns. Specifically, we illustrate the working principle of the hybrid device, develop protocols for producing and preparing the hybrid device, and demonstrate the feasibility of using this hybrid device for automated injection of CIEF-separated sample to parallel CGE for 2D protein separations. Potentials and problems associated with the hybrid device are also discussed. PMID:22830584

  11. Capillary isoelectric focusing of probiotic bacteria from cow's milk in tapered fused silica capillary with off-line matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Karásek, Pavel; Šalplachta, Jiří; Růžička, F.; Vykydalová, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Dráb, V.; Roth, Michal; Šlais, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 788, JUL (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary isoelectric focusing * matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry * lactic acid bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  12. Using Gel Electrophoresis To Illustrate Protein Diversity and Isoelectric Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Mark; Vanable, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the differences in protein structures by focusing on isoelectric point with an experiment that is observable under certain pH levels in gel electrophoresis. Explains the electrophoresis procedure and reports results of the experiments. (YDS)

  13. The differences in the isoelectric points of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Kubesova, Anna; Pavlik, Tomas; Votava, Miroslav

    2010-03-01

    The isoelectric points of 39 Candida parapsilosis strains were determined by means of capillary isoelectric focusing. The value of the isoelectric point corresponded well with cell surface hydrophobicity, as well as with the ability to form biofilm in these yeasts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Precipitation and ultimate pH effect on chemical and gelation properties of protein prepared by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process from pale, soft, exudative (PSE)-like chicken breast meat1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Xing, T; Chen, X; Han, M-Y; Li, X; Xu, X-L; Zhou, G-H

    2017-05-01

    Pale, soft, exudative (PSE)-like chicken breast is considered deteriorated raw material in the poultry meat industry that has inferior processing ability. The chemical and gelation properties of PSE-like chicken breast meat paste were studied. These pastes were prepared by the pH adjustment method and protein isolation using the isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process from PSE-like chicken meat. The ISP-isolated samples were solubilized at pH 11.0 and recovered at pH 5.5 and 6.2. The ultimate pH of the ISP-isolated protein and meat paste was adjusted to 6.2 and 7.0. The ultimate pH in this article referred to the final pH of the extracted protein and meat paste. Higher reactive sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity were found in the precipitation at pH 6.2 than at pH 5.5. However, various ultimate pH values showed no significant influence on the surface hydrophobicity. The hardness of gel, as measured by textural profile analysis, was improved using 6.2 as the precipitation pH compared with pH 5.5. The viscoelastic modulus (G΄) of gel pastes prior to the thermal gelation was higher with ISP treatment. However, lower G΄ was seen after thermal gelation compared with the control. Dynamic rheological measurement demonstrated a different gel-forming mechanism for protein precipitated at pH values of 5.5 and 6.2 compared with the meat paste. The cooking loss showed that the recovered protein failed to form a gel with good water-retention capacity unless the ultimate pH was adjusted to 7.0. Gels made from protein extracted by the ISP method had higher yellowness and lower redness values, probably due to protein denaturation. Precipitation at pH 6.2 formed a harder gel with lower water-retention ability than that at pH 5.5, and this result was possibly due to higher surface hydrophobicity and S-S bridge formation. Overall, network characteristics of ISP-treated protein gels were strongly dependent on precipitation pH and ultimate pH. © 2016

  16. Lipoprotein lipase isoelectric point isoforms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badia-Villanueva, M.; Carulla, P.; Carrascal, M.

    2014-01-01

    -heparin plasma (PHP), LPL consists of a pattern of more than 8 forms of the same apparent molecular weight, but different isoelectric point (pI). In the present study we describe, for the first time, the existence of at least nine LPL pI isoforms in human PHP, with apparent pI between 6.8 and 8.6. Separation...

  17. Focused-microwave-assisted sample preparation (M8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, J.A.; Santos, D.M.; Trevizan, L.C.; Costa, L.M.; Nogueira, A.R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Focused-microwave-assisted sample preparation is a suitable strategy when dealing with high masses of organic samples. However, the final acid concentration of the digestate can difficult routine analytical measurements using spectroscopic techniques. Acids could be evaporated, but this step could be slow even when using microwave-assisted heating and requires a scrubber system for acid vapor collection and neutralization. We are investigating two procedures to decrease the acid concentration of digestates. The first one is based on acid vapor phase digestion of samples contained in PTFE devices' inserted into the microwave flask. The acid solution is heated by absorption of microwave radiation, then the acid vapor partially condenses in the upper part of the reaction flask and it is partially collected in each sample container. Calcium, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn were quantitatively recovered in samples of animal and vegetable tissues. Better recoveries were attained when adding a small volume of sodium hypochlorite to the sample. This effect is probably related to the generation of chlorine in the sample container after collecting condensed acid. The second procedure developed is based on the gradual addition of liquid samples to a previously heated acid digestion mixture. This procedure was successfully applied for digestion of milk, fruit juices, and red wine. The main advantage is the possibility of digesting up to four-fold more sample using up to ten-fold lower amounts of concentrated acids. Results obtained using both digestion procedures and measurements by ICP-OES with axial view will be presented. (author)

  18. Strengthening a Principal Preparation Internship by Focusing on Diversity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Brown, Regina; Ringler, Marjorie Campo; James, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses East Carolina University's (ECU) preparation program and its emphasis on the study and application of diversity throughout the internship. ECU's comprehensive internship provided candidates time to apply theory and knowledge about school leadership and diversity topics addressed on a monthly basis at internship seminars. A…

  19. Serial isoelectric focusing as an effective and economic way to obtain maximal resolution and high-throughput in 2D-based comparative proteomics of scarce samples: proof-of-principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoud, Murtada H; Wessels, Hans J C T; Wevers, Ron A; van Engelen, Baziel G; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Smeitink, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    In 2D-based comparative proteomics of scarce samples, such as limited patient material, established methods for prefractionation and subsequent use of different narrow range IPG strips to increase overall resolution are difficult to apply. Also, a high number of samples, a prerequisite for drawing meaningful conclusions when pathological and control samples are considered, will increase the associated amount of work almost exponentially. Here, we introduce a novel, effective, and economic method designed to obtain maximum 2D resolution while maintaining the high throughput necessary to perform large-scale comparative proteomics studies. The method is based on connecting different IPG strips serially head-to-tail so that a complete line of different IPG strips with sequential pH regions can be focused in the same experiment. We show that when 3 IPG strips (covering together the pH range of 3-11) are connected head-to-tail an optimal resolution is achieved along the whole pH range. Sample consumption, time required, and associated costs are reduced by almost 70%, and the workload is reduced significantly.

  20. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-angstrom resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits

  1. The effects of attentional focus in the preparation and execution of a standing long jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kevin A; Fairbrother, Jeffrey T; Couvillion, Kaylee F

    2018-04-03

    Attentional focus research suggests an external focus leads to improved motor performance compared to an internal focus (Wulf in Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol 6:77-104, 2013), but skilled athletes often report using an internal focus (Fairbrother et al., Front Psychol 7:1028, 2016) and sometimes shifting between different foci in the preparation and execution phases of performance (Bernier et al. in J Appl Sport Psychol 23:326-341, 2011; Bernier et al. in Sport Psychol 30:256-266, 2016). To date, focus shifts have been unexplored in experimental research, thus the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of shifting focus between the preparation and execution phases of a standing long jump. Participants (N = 29) completed two jumps in a control condition (CON), followed by two jumps in four experimental conditions presented in a counterbalanced order. Conditions included using an external focus (EF) and internal focus (IF) in both preparation and execution of the skill, as well as shifting from an internal focus in preparation to an external focus in execution (ITE), and an external focus in preparation to an internal focus in execution (ETI). Jump distance was analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect of condition was significant, p ITE also generated farther jumps than IF and CON (p's ITE conditions suggests that the focus employed in execution has the strongest impact on performance. Additionally, if an internal focus must be used in preparation, the performance decrement can be ameliorated by shifting to an external focus during execution.

  2. Preparing Teachers to Deliver Gender-Focused Sexuality/HIV Education: A Case Study from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan Y.; Rogow, Deborah; Stines, Frederica

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that a focus on gender and power in sexuality/HIV education increases the likelihood of achieving positive sexual health outcomes, and international agencies have called for a shift to a gender-focused approach. However, questions remain about the implementation of such programmes, including how best to prepare teachers to deliver…

  3. Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention during Novices' Instructional Preparation on Subsequent Rehearsal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Mark; Silvey, Brian A.; Adams, Amy L.; Witt, Kay L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal versus external focus of attention during novice teachers' instructional preparation on their subsequent rehearsal behaviors. Thirty-two undergraduate instrumental music education students led bands in a series of three, 6-minute rehearsals on their assigned excerpt. Prior to…

  4. Preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, R.M.; Petford-Long, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of transmission electron microscopy cross-section specimens using focused ion beam milling is outlined. The 'liftout' and 'trench' techniques are both described in detail, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Artifacts such as ion damage to the top surface and sidewalls of the cross-section specimens, and methods of reducing them, are addressed

  5. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting microbridges by focused ion beam direct milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuena; Li, Yanli; Xu, Zhuang; Kong, Xiangdong; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    MgB2 superconducting microbridges were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) direct milling on MgB2 films. The surface topography of the microbridges were observed using SEM and AFM and the superconductivity was measured in this paper. Lots of cracks and holes were found near the milled area. And the superconducting transition temperature was decreased a lot and the bridges prepared were not superconducting due to ion damage after milled with large dose. Through these works, we explored the effect regular of FIB milling and experimental parameters on the performance of microbridges.

  6. Novel EBSD preparation method for Cu/Sn microbumps using a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tao-Chi; Chen, Chih; Chiu, Kuo-Jung; Lin, Han-Wen; Kuo, Jui-Chao

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a novel technique developed from focused ion beam (FIB) polishing for sample preparation of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement. A low-angle incident gallium ion beam with a high acceleration voltage of 30 kV was used to eliminate the surface roughness of cross-sectioned microbumps resulting from mechanical polishing. This work demonstrates the application of the FIB polishing technique to solders for a high-quality sample preparation for EBSD measurement after mechanical polishing. - Highlights: ► The novel FIB technique of sample preparation is fast, effective and low-cost. ► It can enhance the process precision to the specific area of the sample. ► It is convenient for analyzing the metallurgy of the microbump in 3DIC packaging. ► The EBSD image quality can be enhanced by just using a common FIB instrument.

  7. Morphology and the isoelectric point of nanosized aqueous ceria sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulicovski, Jelena J.; Bračko, Ines; Milonjić, Slobodan K.

    2014-01-01

    Ceria sols were synthesized by a forced hydrolysis method using cerium sulphate or cerium nitrate as precursors. High-resolution TEM was used to determine the microstructure and particle size of CeO 2 . A polycrystalline structure of ceria sols with crystallite sizes of 4.4 and 8.6 nm was obtained. The particles had a well-defined polyhedral shape. Direct bandgaps for ceria nanoparticles were 2.80 and 3.31 eV, respectively. The isoelectric point, pH iep , of ceria sols in KNO 3 solutions was investigated. The isoelectric point of ceria was found to be pH iep  = 7.6 ± 0.2. The obtained results indicate that the isoelectric point in the presence of SO 4 2− ions shifts to lower pH value. The particle size of ceria increases with pH, reaching the maximum value at pH iep as the result of agglomeration . - Highlights: • Ceria sols with cubic phase nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized. • The isoelectric point of ceria oxide in KNO 3 solutions was p Hiep  = 7.6 ± 0.2. • The specific adsorption of SO 4 2− ions causes a shift in IEP to lower pH (pH iep  = 6.7). • The correlation between IEP and the maximum diameter of particles was observed

  8. New azo dyes as colored isoelectric point markers for isoelectric focusing in acidic pH region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Trávníček, Martin; Šlais, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2005), s. 53-59 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4031201; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1447; GA AV ČR IAA4031302 Keywords : ampholytic dyes * pI markers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  9. Morphology and the isoelectric point of nanosized aqueous ceria sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulicovski, Jelena J. [The Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bračko, Ines [Advanced Materials Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milonjić, Slobodan K., E-mail: smiloni@vinca.rs [The Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, POB 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Ceria sols were synthesized by a forced hydrolysis method using cerium sulphate or cerium nitrate as precursors. High-resolution TEM was used to determine the microstructure and particle size of CeO{sub 2}. A polycrystalline structure of ceria sols with crystallite sizes of 4.4 and 8.6 nm was obtained. The particles had a well-defined polyhedral shape. Direct bandgaps for ceria nanoparticles were 2.80 and 3.31 eV, respectively. The isoelectric point, pH{sub iep}, of ceria sols in KNO{sub 3} solutions was investigated. The isoelectric point of ceria was found to be pH{sub iep} = 7.6 ± 0.2. The obtained results indicate that the isoelectric point in the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions shifts to lower pH value. The particle size of ceria increases with pH, reaching the maximum value at pH{sub iep} as the result of agglomeration{sub .} - Highlights: • Ceria sols with cubic phase nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized. • The isoelectric point of ceria oxide in KNO{sub 3} solutions was p{sub Hiep} = 7.6 ± 0.2. • The specific adsorption of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions causes a shift in IEP to lower pH (pH{sub iep} = 6.7). • The correlation between IEP and the maximum diameter of particles was observed.

  10. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  11. Study of the solubility of a modified Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase around the isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornilius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of a modified recombinant Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (mBLA) has been studied by batch crystallization. A semi-pure preparation was chosen containing five isoforms with pI values from 6 to 7.3 (weighted average of 6.6). Small amounts (... sodium sulfate at all pH values and increased with 0.5 mol.L-1 sodium thiocyanate at pH 7 and pH 8. The effect of anions on alpha-amylase solubility followed the Hofmeister series, and only weak evidence of reversal was seen below the isoelectric point. Cations had little effect on solubility. The sign...... and magnitude of the alpha-amylase zeta potential was determined in the presence and absence of 0.1 mol.L-1 salt. Qualitatively, zeta potential correctly predicted the different salts influence on mBLA solubility....

  12. Using isoelectric focussing and neutron activation analysis to study protein-bound tracer elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    A method to determine protein-bound tracer elements was determined by combining a protein separation method with neutron activation analysis. Gel filtration, disk electrophoresis, and isoelectric focussing were studied with regard to their suitability as separation methods. Using isoelectric focussing, human serum protein could be separated with good resolution on a preparative scale. The Se, Cr, Ag, Sc, Fe, Zn, Co, Br, Na, Rb, and Cs contents of the various protein fractions were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by gamma-spectroscopic identification of their long-lived nuclides. Particular attention was paid to the main source of error with this method, i.e. contamination of the proteins in the course of the separation process. Information on the binding of the elements to protein was obtained by comparing the contents in the serum and in the protein separated by gel chromatography. For example, 75% of the Se and 30% of the Cs are bound to protein. Contamination of the protein fractions was studied by means of tracer elements with the element Se, errors due to contamination could be ruled out. The method was modified for the special imvestigation of Se-protein complexes in the serum. The Se content was determined by activation analysis via the short-lived radionuclide sup(77m)Se, this considerably reducing the duration of analysis. With regard to focussing, discrimination was improved in the pH region in which specific Se complexes were found. The activity distribution in fractionated serum protein labelled in vitro with 75 Se in the presence of erythrocytes showed that specific labelling is possible in this way. It is thus possible to study the distribution of Se carrier proteins with the aid of a radiotracer technique. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Expanding Capacity and Promoting Inclusion in Introductory Computer Science: A Focus on Near-Peer Mentor Preparation and Code Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; St. John, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    A dilemma within computer science departments is developing sustainable ways to expand capacity within introductory computer science courses while remaining committed to inclusive practices. Training near-peer mentors for peer code review is one solution. This paper describes the preparation of near-peer mentors for their role, with a focus on…

  14. Extending the detection limit of dopants for focused ion beam prepared semiconductor specimens examined by off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the active...

  15. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on the mycophenolic acid preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Sara; Kim, Miae; Gabardi, Steven

    2014-03-01

    To review risks associated with mycophenolic acid (MPA) preparations and evaluate their required risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) elements. Articles were identified through a non-date-limited MEDLINE and EMBASE search using the terms fetal toxicity, teratogenicity, risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, MPA, mycophenolate mofetil, entericcoated MPA, and organ transplant. Information from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the manufacturers of the MPA preparations was also evaluated. The MPA preparations are associated with several potential risks, including gastrointestinal disturbances and myelosuppression; however, their impact on the fetus in pregnant patients taking 1 of these agents poses the greatest risk. The FDA approved REMS programs for all MPA products, both innovator and generic preparations, in September 2012. With evidence of increased risk of miscarriage and birth defects associated with MPA use, the FDA instituted a REMS program that contains both a medication guide and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). The medication guides for the MPA products, which were previously FDA approved, should continue to be distributed to patients who get either an initial prescription filled or a refill. The ETASU requires prescribers to complete training and obtain patient signatures on the Patient-Prescriber Acknowledgment Form. A single, national, voluntary pregnancy registry specific to this medication has been established, and pregnant patients should be encouraged to participate. Although the impact of the MPA REMS on clinical practice is not clear, it is a step toward increasing the understanding of fetal risks with MPA.

  16. HPLC separation of human serum albumin isoforms based on their isoelectric points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Lucía; Torres, María José; Schopfer, Francisco; Freeman, Bruce A.; Armas, Larissa; Ricciardi, Alejandro; Alvarez, Beatriz; Radi, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma. Cys34, the only free Cys residue, is the predominant plasma thiol and a relevant sacrificial antioxidant. Both in vivo circulating HSA and pharmaceutical preparations are heterogeneous with respect to the oxidation state of Cys34. In this work, we developed an external pH gradient chromatofocusing procedure that allows the analysis of the oxidation status of HSA in human plasma and biopharmaceutical products based on the different apparent isoelectric points and chemical properties of the redox isoforms. Specifically, reduced-mercury blocked HSA (HSA–SHg+), HSA with Cys34 oxidized to sulfenic acid (HSA–SOH) and HSA oxidized to sulfinate anion (HSA–SO2−) can be separated with resolutions of 1.4 and 3.1 (first and last pair) and hence quantified and purified. In addition, an N-terminally degraded isoform (HSA3–585) in different redox states can be resolved as well. Confirmation of the identity of the chromatofocusing isolated isoforms was achieved by high resolution whole protein MS. It is proposed that the chromatofocusing procedure can be used to produce more exact and complete descriptions of the redox status of HSA in vivo and in vitro. Finally, the scalability capabilities of the chromatofocusing procedure allow for the preparation of highly pure standards of several redox isoforms of HSA PMID:24316526

  17. Preparing for Success: One Institution's Aspirational and Student Focused Response to the National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Oxley, Anne; Helm, Paul; Bradley, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes quality enhancement (QE) focused response to the 2006 National Student Survey (NSS) by a post-1992 Higher Education Institution. Recognising the increasing importance of the NSS to a wide range of stakeholders, the University established a task team to explore, from a QE perspective, why the institution received particular…

  18. Open focused microwave-assisted sample preparation for rapid total and mercury species determination in environmental solid samples

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, C. M.; Garraud, H.; Amouroux, D.; Donard, O. F. X.; de Diego, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple microwave-assisted leaching/ digestion procedures for total and mercury species determination in sediment samples and biomaterials. An open focused microwave system allowed the sample preparation time to be dramatically reduced to only 24 min when a power of 40-80 W was applied. Quantitative leaching of methylmercury from sediments by HNO3 solution and complete dissolution of biomaterials by an alkaline solution, such as 25% TMAH solution, were obtained. Met...

  19. The isoelectric region of proteins: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Widmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Binding of proteins in ion exchange chromatography is dominated by electrostatic interactions and can be tuned by adjusting pH and ionic strength of the solvent. Therefore, the isoelectric region (IER, the pH region of almost zero charge near the pI, has been used to predict the binding properties of proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Usually the IER is small and binding and elution is carried out at pH values near to the pI. However, some proteins with an extended IER have been shown to bind and elute far away from its pI. To analyze factors that mediate the size of the IER and to identify proteins with an extended IER, two protein families consisting of more than 7000 proteins were systematically investigated. Most proteins were found to have a small IER and thus are expected to bind or elute near to their pI, while only a small fraction of less than 2% had a large IER. CONCLUSIONS: Only four factors, the number of histidines, the pI, the number of titratable amino acids and the ratio of acidic to basic residues, are sufficient to reliably classify proteins by their IER based on their sequence only, and thus to predict their binding and elution behaviour in ion exchange chromatography.

  20. Preparing graduate student teaching assistants in the sciences: An intensive workshop focused on active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Julie A; Jakob, Susanne; Roehrig, Casey; Brenner, Tamara J

    2018-03-12

    In the past ten years, increasing evidence has demonstrated that scientific teaching and active learning improve student retention and learning gains in the sciences. Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), who play an important role in undergraduate education at many universities, require training in these methods to encourage implementation, long-term adoption, and advocacy. Here, we describe the design and evaluation of a two-day training workshop for first-year GTAs in the life sciences. This workshop combines instruction in current research and theory supporting teaching science through active learning as well as opportunities for participants to practice teaching and receive feedback from peers and mentors. Postworkshop assessments indicated that GTA participants' knowledge of key topics increased during the workshop. In follow-up evaluations, participants reported that the workshop helped them prepare for teaching. This workshop design can easily be adapted to a wide range of science disciplines. Overall, the workshop prepares graduate students to engage, include, and support undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds when teaching in the sciences. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Free flow zone electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing using a microfabricated glass device with ion permeable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlheyer, D.; Besselink, G.A.J.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a microfabricated free-flow electrophoresis device with integrated ion permeable membranes. In order to obtain continuous lanes of separated components an electrical field is applied perpendicular to the sample flow direction. This sample stream is sandwiched between two sheath

  2. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J; Grune, Tilman

    2015-08-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Gradient-free determination of isoelectric points of proteins on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapińska, Urszula; Saar, Kadi L; Yates, Emma V; Herling, Therese W; Müller, Thomas; Challa, Pavan K; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-08-30

    The isoelectric point (pI) of a protein is a key characteristic that influences its overall electrostatic behaviour. The majority of conventional methods for the determination of the isoelectric point of a molecule rely on the use of spatial gradients in pH, although significant practical challenges are associated with such techniques, notably the difficulty in generating a stable and well controlled pH gradient. Here, we introduce a gradient-free approach, exploiting a microfluidic platform which allows us to perform rapid pH change on chip and probe the electrophoretic mobility of species in a controlled field. In particular, in this approach, the pH of the electrolyte solution is modulated in time rather than in space, as in the case for conventional determinations of the isoelectric point. To demonstrate the general approachability of this platform, we have measured the isoelectric points of representative set of seven proteins, bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, ribonuclease A, ovalbumin, human transferrin, ubiquitin and myoglobin in microlitre sample volumes. The ability to conduct measurements in free solution thus provides the basis for the rapid determination of isoelectric points of proteins under a wide variety of solution conditions and in small volumes.

  4. Optimized cryo-focused ion beam sample preparation aimed at in situ structural studies of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Miroslava; Mahamid, Julia; Engel, Benjamin D; Laugks, Tim; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2017-02-01

    While cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) can reveal biological structures in their native state within the cellular environment, it requires the production of high-quality frozen-hydrated sections that are thinner than 300nm. Sample requirements are even more stringent for the visualization of membrane-bound protein complexes within dense cellular regions. Focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a well-established technique in material science, but there are only few examples of biological samples exhibiting sufficient quality for high-resolution in situ investigation by cryo-ET. In this work, we present a comprehensive description of a cryo-sample preparation workflow incorporating additional conductive-coating procedures. These coating steps eliminate the adverse effects of sample charging on imaging with the Volta phase plate, allowing data acquisition with improved contrast. We discuss optimized FIB milling strategies adapted from material science and each critical step required to produce homogeneously thin, non-charging FIB lamellas that make large areas of unperturbed HeLa and Chlamydomonas cells accessible for cryo-ET at molecular resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the oligosaccharide heterogeneity of the isoelectric forms of the lower molecular weight acid phosphatase of frog liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicz, A; Szalewicz, A; Chrambach, A

    1991-01-01

    1. The lower molecular weight, heterogeneous acid phosphatase (AcPase) from the frog liver (Rana esculenta) containing AcPase I, II, III and IV was separated into enzymatically active components by isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. 2. The blotted enzyme bands were characterized by their different binding patterns obtained with the lectins concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Lens culinaris hemagglutinin (LcH) and peanut agglutinin (PNA). 3. In situ neuraminidase treatment reduced the staining intensity of some WGA-bands and increased that of PNA-bands. 4. The finding that AcPases I, II, III and IV differ in their carbohydrate chain composition, together with previous results showing different bioactivities of AcPases III and IV, indicates a correlation between the glycosylation state of enzyme forms and their physiological action.

  6. The evaluation of a clinical development unit leadership preparation program by focus group interviews - part 2: negative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jennifer; Parsons, Myra

    2002-10-01

    In Western Sydney, Australia, in 1996, the Area Health Service and the University of Western Sydney entered a strategic alliance to develop a nursing research culture in the health services. One of the strategies implemented to achieve this was the establishment of a network of research-receptive environments known as Clinical Development Units (CDUs). In terms of research receptivity, evidence at the time suggested that it could only be developed in units where the leadership style is democratic and participatory. In terms of CDUs, evidence suggested that their successful development depended critically on the effective management of CDU leadership stressors. In light of this, it was agreed to conduct a CDU leadership preparation program in Western Sydney. The program aimed to furnish CDU leaders with the participatory leadership skills required to develop and manage their units. It was expected that the acquisition of such leadership skills would serve to minimize the leadership stessors they could expect to experience. This is the second of two papers which report course evaluation data. The first focused on the more positive evaluation data; this paper focuses on the negative evaluation data and outlines how the current program has been modified in light of these data. In addition, it discusses two themes which emerged during data analysis. These were nurses' apparent mutual lack of trust and their pressing needs to be recognized as valuable and merit-worthy.

  7. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  8. Cortical neurons and networks are dormant but fully responsive during isoelectric brain state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg-Boussac, Tristan; Schramm, Adrien E; Ballestero, Jimena; Grosselin, Fanny; Chavez, Mario; Lecas, Sarah; Baulac, Michel; Naccache, Lionel; Demeret, Sophie; Navarro, Vincent; Mahon, Séverine; Charpier, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus. Although altered sensory responses can be occasionally observed on an isoelectric electroencephalogram, the electrical membrane properties and synaptic responses of individual neurons during this cerebral state remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intracellular correlates of a barbiturate-induced isoelectric electroencephalogram and to analyse the sensory-evoked synaptic responses that can emerge from a brain deprived of spontaneous electrical activity. We first examined the sensory responsiveness from patients suffering from intractable status epilepticus and treated by administration of thiopental. Multimodal sensory responses could be evoked on the flat electroencephalogram, including visually-evoked potentials that were significantly amplified and delayed, with a high trial-to-trial reproducibility compared to awake healthy subjects. Using an analogous pharmacological procedure to induce prolonged electro-cerebral inactivity in the rat, we could describe its cortical and subcortical intracellular counterparts. Neocortical, hippocampal and thalamo-cortical neurons were all silent during the isoelectric state and displayed a flat membrane potential significantly hyperpolarized compared with spontaneously active control states. Nonetheless, all recorded neurons could fire action potentials in response to intracellularly injected depolarizing current pulses and their specific intrinsic

  9. Quasi-isoelectric buffers for protein analysis in a fast alternative to conventional capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Paolo; Mendieta, Martha E; Sebastiano, Roberto; Citterio, Attilio; Peltre, Gabriel; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Descroix, Stephanie; Candiano, Giovanni; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2006-03-20

    Two different approaches are here reported for obtaining ultra-narrow pI cuts from 2-pH unit wide carrier ampholyte ranges, as commercially available, for use as quasi-isoelectric buffers in capillary electrophoresis separations of proteins. One of them uses multicompartment electrolyzers endowed with isoelectric membranes (Immobiline technology); the other employs the Rotofor equipment. Although the first approach results in more precise pI cuts, the latter technique is much faster, easier to handle and permits the immediate collection of 20 fractions in a single run. This results in ultra-narrow, ca. 0.1-pH unit intervals, uniformly spaced apart along the original wider gradient utilized for the fractionation. It is here shown that such quasi-isoelectric buffers, especially those in the pH 8-9 interval, have the unique property of coating the silica wall, thus preventing interaction of the proteins with the silica surface, that would otherwise totally disrupt the separation. On the contrary, such a shielding is not obtained in control, non isoelectric buffers (such as phosphate), that give very poor separations in uncoated capillaries. It is hypothesized that such a unique shielding effect is due to the oligo-amino backbone of the carrier ampholytes, typically composed (in the Vesterberg's synthetic approach) of 4-6 nitrogens spaced apart by ethylene moieties. Although such oligoprotic buffers should bear, in the isoelectric state, just one positive and one negative charge, they might be transiently ionized upon contact with the silanols, thus inducing a cooperative binding to the silica wall.

  10. Comparison of ultramicrotomy and focused-ion-beam for the preparation of TEM and STEM cross section of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, Michael, E-mail: michael.corazza@gmail.com [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Simonsen, Søren B. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gnaegi, Helmut [Diatome Ltd., Biel-Bienne (Switzerland); Thydén, Karl T.S.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Gevorgyan, Suren A. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of flexible solar cell sections prepared by ultramicrotomy and by FIB. • Energy filtered TEM analysis of phase separation in the P3HT:PCBM active layer. • Imaging of aging effects on solar cell cross section prepared by ultramicrotomy. • Ultramicrotomy provides great details while FIB better preserves the structure. - Abstract: The challenge of preparing cross sections of organic photovoltaics (OPV) suitable for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) is addressed. The samples were polymer solar cells fabricated using roll-to-roll (R2R) processing methods on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Focused ion beam (FIB) and ultramicrotomy were used to prepare the cross sections. The differences between the samples prepared by ultramicrotomy and FIB are addressed, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. The sample prepared by ultramicrotomy yielded good resolution, enabling further studies of phase separation of P3HT:PCBM by means of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). The sample prepared by FIB shows good structure preservation, but reduced resolution due to non-optimal thicknesses achieved after treatment. Degradation studies of samples prepared by ultramicrotomy are further discussed, which reveal particular effects of the ISOS-L-3 aging test (85 °C, 50% R.H., 0.7 Sun) onto the sample, especially pronounced in the silver layer.

  11. The mechanism of uranium adsorption on Resin 508 and isoelectric point of the resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qingping; Lu Weichang; Su Huijuan; Hu Jinbo; Zhang Liqin; Chen Banglin

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption process of uranium by Resin 508 at the solid-liquid interface was investigated and the mechanism of uranium adsorption including adsorption dynamics, adsorption thermodynamics and isoelectric point of resin was studied. The results are as follows: The maximum of uranium adsorption is attained at pH5-7; Uranium adsorption isotherm by Resin 508 in experimental conditions agrees with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm, the maximum of uranium adsorbed (Vm) is 716 mg U/g-dried resin; The adsorption of uranium by Resin 508 is an endothermic reaction and ΔH = 16.87 kJ/mol; The exchange-adsorption rate is mainly controlled by liquid film diffusion; The isoelectric points of Resin 508 before and after uranium adsorption are found to be pH7.5 and pH5.7 respectively. It is a specific adsorption for uranium

  12. Preparing nursing students for the future: Development and implementation of an Australian Bachelor of Nursing programme with a community health focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Browning, Mark; Robinson, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on changes in the educational preparation of undergraduate nurses in line with contemporary primary and preventative healthcare models. We evaluated a new Australian nursing and community care degree programme using focus groups with 38 students in their first years of study, and quantitative performance data (regarding entry, performance and course attrition). Four main themes were identified related to students' course experience: 'I think community health should be an elective'; 'Focus on relevance to practice'; 'Teaching by non-nursing academics' and 'Access to support during transition to university.' Overall pass rates were 94% (first year) and 97% (second year) with a low 11% attrition rate. We conclude that based on prior experiences and stereotypical views, students may be ambivalent about the inclusion of primary and preventative care models which nevertheless are essential to enhance practice and to prepare the future nursing workforce.

  13. High School Physics Teacher Preparation: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tyler, John

    2015-01-01

    This report examines teachers' self-assessed preparedness to teach physics, their membership in professional organizations, and where they turn for help when they have questions. Almost every teacher reports feeling at least adequately prepared to teach basic physics knowledge and the application of physics to everyday experience. The smallest…

  14. Isoelectric point-based fractionation by HiRIEF coupled to LC-MS allows for in-depth quantitative analysis of the phosphoproteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Elena; Branca, Rui M M; Oliviusson, Peter; Orre, Lukas M; Lehtiö, Janne

    2017-07-03

    Protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of most eukaryotic cells functions and mass spectrometry-based analysis has made major contributions to our understanding of this regulation. However, low abundance of phosphorylated species presents a major challenge in achieving comprehensive phosphoproteome coverage and robust quantification. In this study, we developed a workflow employing titanium dioxide phospho-enrichment coupled with isobaric labeling by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and high-resolution isoelectric focusing (HiRIEF) fractionation to perform in-depth quantitative phosphoproteomics starting with a low sample quantity. To benchmark the workflow, we analyzed HeLa cells upon pervanadate treatment or cell cycle arrest in mitosis. Analyzing 300 µg of peptides per sample, we identified 22,712 phosphorylation sites, of which 19,075 were localized with high confidence and 1,203 are phosphorylated tyrosine residues, representing 6.3% of all detected phospho-sites. HiRIEF fractions with the most acidic isoelectric points are enriched in multiply phosphorylated peptides, which represent 18% of all the phospho-peptides detected in the pH range 2.5-3.7. Cross-referencing with the PhosphoSitePlus database reveals 1,264 phosphorylation sites that have not been previously reported and kinase association analysis suggests that a subset of these may be functional during the mitotic phase.

  15. Preparing for Fellowship in Internal Medicine. Steps for Success with a Focus on Pulmonary and/or Critical Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosslet, Gabriel T; Burkart, Kristin M; Miles, Matthew C; Lenz, Peter H; Huebert, Candace A; McCallister, Jennifer W

    2015-04-01

    This paper outlines specific tips for those applying to pulmonary and/or critical care medicine fellowship training in the United States using the PAIR-Match steps: preparation, application, interview, ranking, and match. Preparation for fellowship begins long before the application process with an assessment of one's long-term goals (to the extent that these are known). The cornerstone of the application is the curriculum vitae, which should highlight applicants' pulmonary and critical care-related experiences and scholarly work. Applicants should obtain letters of recommendation from faculty members who know them well and can write a letter that speaks to their strengths in clinical, scholarly, or leadership areas. The personal statement is an opportunity to share experiences not otherwise shared in the application and is an opportunity to explain any breaks in training or performance lapses. When selecting programs to which they will apply, applicants should pay close attention to the areas of education and curriculum, clinical experience, scholarly opportunity, and personal factors. Preparing for interviews should include a review of the program at which one is interviewing and development of relevant questions regarding details of the program. The interview day is the applicant's opportunity to see the "personality" of the program by meeting with the program director, faculty, and current fellows and to assess whether the program is a good fit for their goals. Applicants should only rank those programs they are willing to attend, in order of preference; they should be aware that the match process is binding.

  16. Human Brain Activity Patterns beyond the Isoelectric Line of Extreme Deep Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Daniel; Florea, Bogdan; Amzica, Florin

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric) EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human) or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals) leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes). Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region) we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma. PMID:24058669

  17. Species identification of cooked fish by urea isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehbein, H.; Kundiger, R.; Yman, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The suitability and reliability of urea IEF and SDS-PAGE for the identification of cooked fish flesh was tested by a collaborative study among nine laboratories. Urea IEF was performed with CleanGels as well as with ImmobilineGels, and ExcelGels were used for SDS-PAGE, enabling all three types...... of gels to be run in the same flat bed electrophoresis chamber. By strictly following optimised standard operation procedures (SOPs), five unknown cooked samples had to be identified with each technique using a set of 10 raw reference samples. With urea IEF, only one out of 35 identifications...

  18. Absorption of protamine-insulin in diabetic patients. Part 1. Preparation and characterization of protamine-/sup 125/I-insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B; Linde, S; Koelendorf, K; Jensen, F [Steno Memorial Hospital and Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, Gentofte (Denmark). Research Lab.

    1979-02-01

    Protamine-/sup 125/I-insulin with low specific radioactivity was prepared using /sup 125/,/sup 127/I-insulin, 0.2 I/mole. The preparations were characterized by disc electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and analytical gel chromatography in order to evaluate the suitability of /sup 125/I-insulin as marker for insulin in protamine-insulin. The stability of the preparations was followed up to 90 days at 4/sup 0/C. The biological and immunological activity was determined in mice, isolated rat fat cells and by radioimmunoassay. It was concluded that both from a chemical and a biological point of view, the protamine-/sup 125/I-insulin is a satisfactory preparation that might be used in absorption studies.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of flexible polyanions complexing with whey proteins at their isoelectric point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R

    2004-02-15

    Electrostatic complexation of flexible polyanions with the whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin is studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The proteins are considered at their respective isoelectric points. Discrete charges on the model polyelectrolytes and proteins interact through Debye-Huckel potentials. Protein excluded volume is taken into account through a coarse-grained model of the protein shape. Consistent with experimental results, it is found that alpha-lactalbumin complexes much more strongly than beta-lactoglobulin. For alpha-lactalbumin, strong complexation is due to localized binding to a single large positive "charge patch," whereas for beta-lactoglobulin, weak complexation is due to diffuse binding to multiple smaller charge patches. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  20. Effect of particle size on colloidal zirconia rheology at the isoelectric point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Y.K.; Scales, P.J.; Healy, T.W.; Boger, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of particle concentration and size on the yield stress of ZrO 2 suspensions at a well-defined surface chemistry condition of the isoelectric point (IEP). At the IEP, the relationship between yield stress τ y max and particulate volume fraction φ s , and mean particle size d was evaluated to be τ y max = K φ s 4.0 /d 2.0 . The difference in size distribution of the various ZrO 2 suspensions examined causes some degree of scatter in the data used to establish the τ y max , φ s , and d relation. The use of particle concentration n t based on the fine size fraction instead of volume fraction φ s provided a better correlation, because the fine particles govern the properties of the flocculated network structure

  1. Analysis of degradation in nickel-based alloys using focused ion beam imaging and specimen preparation combined with analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.W.; Botton, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopes have become well-established in the semiconductor industry during the past decade, and are rapidly gaining attention in the field of materials science, both as a tool for producing site specific, parallel sided transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens and as stand alone specimen preparation and imaging systems. FIB secondary electron imaging (SEI) of nickel-based alloys, such as commercially produced Alloy 600 (approximately Ni 15Cr 10Fe 0.5C), has been demonstrated to show a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of deformation in the alloy, and FIB secondary ion imaging (SII) is particularly useful for identifying the presence of grain boundary corrosion, as secondary ion yields from metallic specimens can increase by three orders of magnitude in the presence of oxygen. This 'oxygen enhanced yield', makes FIB SII ideal for detection of corrosion at grain boundaries down to thicknesses of only a few tens of nanometers. Historically, while TEM has been considered the tool of choice for high resolution chemical and crystallographic analysis of specimens, the technique has suffered from difficulties in producing suitable samples from site-specific areas with a high probability of success. The advent of FIB specimen preparation for TEM has largely changed that. FIB imaging can be combined with FIB 'nano-machining' techniques to produce site-specific, parallel sided TEM specimens well-suited to analytical electron microscopy (AEM) analyses in the TEM, including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and electron diffraction. When combined with new FIB-based methodologies for surveying large areas to exactly select the regions of interest, such as crack tips or the maximum extent of penetration of intergranular attack (IGA), subsequent FIB TEM specimen preparation and TEM analysis unite to produce a powerful tool to study these phenomena. Examples of these applications of FIB

  2. Optically directed molecular transport and 3D isoelectric positioning of amphoteric biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeman, Dean G.; Harkins, James B.; Witkowski, Charles E. II; Lewis, Nathan S.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the formation of charged molecular packets and their transport within optically created electrical force-field traps in a pH-buffered electrolyte. We call this process photoelectrophoretic localization and transport (PELT). The electrolyte is in contact with a photoconductive semiconductor electrode and a counterelectrode that are connected through an external circuit. A light beam directed to coordinates on the photoconductive electrode surface produces a photocurrent within the circuit and electrolyte. Within the electrolyte, the photocurrent creates localized force-field traps centered at the illuminated coordinates. Charged molecules, including polypeptides and proteins, electrophoretically accumulate into the traps and subsequently can be transported in the electrolyte by moving the traps over the photoconductive electrode in response to movement of the light beam. The molecules in a single trap can be divided into aliquots, and the aliquots can be directed along multiple routes simultaneously by using multiple light beams. This photoelectrophoretic transport of charged molecules by PELT resembles the electrostatic transport of electrons within force-field wells of solid-state charge-coupled devices. The molecules, however, travel in a liquid electrolyte rather than a solid. Furthermore, we have used PELT to position amphoteric biomolecules in three dimensions. A 3D pH gradient was created in an electrolyte medium by controlling the illumination position on a photoconductive anode where protons were generated electrolytically. Photoelectrophoretic transport of amphoteric molecules through the pH gradient resulted in accumulation of the molecules at their apparent 3D isoelectric coordinates in the medium.

  3. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force-distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7-9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6-9.7.

  4. Detection of ST-T Episode Based on the Global Curvature of Isoelectric Level in ECG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. W.; Jun, D. G.; Lee, K. J.; Yoon, H. R. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes an automated detection algorithm of ST-T episodes using global curvature which can connect the isoelectric level in ECG and can eliminate not only the slope of ST segment, but also difference of the baseline and global curve. This above method of baseline correction is very faster than classical baseline correction methods. The optimal values of parameters for baseline correction were found as the value having the highest detection rate of ST episode. The features as input of backpropagation Neural Network were extracted from the whole ST segment. The European ST-T database was used as training and test data. Finally, ST elevation, ST depression and normal ST were classified. The average ST episode sensitivity and predictivity were 85.42%, 80.29%, respectively. This result shows the high speed and reliability in ST episode detection. In conclusion, the proposed method showed the possibility in various applications for the Holter system. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Use of quasi-isoelectric buffers to limit protein adsorption in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Martine; Hammad, Karim; Ayed, Ichraf; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Peltre, Gabriel; Descroix, Stephanie

    2008-08-01

    The use of quasi-isoelectric buffers consisting of narrow pH cuts of carrier ampholytes (NC) has been investigated to limit protein adsorption on capillary walls during capillary zone electrophoresis experiments. To quantify protein adsorption on the silica surface, a method derived from that of Towns and Regnier has been developed. alpha-Lactalbumin (14 kDa, pI 4.8) and alpha-chymotrypsinogen A (25 kDa, pI 9.2) have been used as model proteins. Acidic narrow pH cuts of carrier ampholytes (NC, pH 3.0) obtained from fractionation of Serva 4-9 carrier ampholytes were used as BGE in bare-silica capillaries, and allowed to decrease significantly protein adsorption, as compared to experiments performed with classical formate buffer. The use of NC as BGE appeared to be as efficient as the use of polydimethylacrylamide coating to prevent protein adsorption. This increase of protein recovery when using NC was attributed to the interaction of carrier ampholytes with the silica surface, leading to a shielding of the capillary wall.

  6. Nanoscale roughness and morphology affect the IsoElectric Point of titania surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Borghi

    Full Text Available We report on the systematic investigation of the role of surface nanoscale roughness and morphology on the charging behaviour of nanostructured titania (TiO2 surfaces in aqueous solutions. IsoElectric Points (IEPs of surfaces have been characterized by direct measurement of the electrostatic double layer interactions between titania surfaces and the micrometer-sized spherical silica probe of an atomic force microscope in NaCl aqueous electrolyte. The use of a colloidal probe provides well-defined interaction geometry and allows effectively probing the overall effect of nanoscale morphology. By using supersonic cluster beam deposition to fabricate nanostructured titania films, we achieved a quantitative control over the surface morphological parameters. We performed a systematical exploration of the electrical double layer properties in different interaction regimes characterized by different ratios of characteristic nanometric lengths of the system: the surface rms roughness Rq, the correlation length ξ and the Debye length λD. We observed a remarkable reduction by several pH units of IEP on rough nanostructured surfaces, with respect to flat crystalline rutile TiO2. In order to explain the observed behavior of IEP, we consider the roughness-induced self-overlap of the electrical double layers as a potential source of deviation from the trend expected for flat surfaces.

  7. Imaging the interphase of carbon fiber composites using transmission electron microscopy: Preparations by focused ion beam, ion beam etching, and ultramicrotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sample preparation techniques, focused ion beam (FIB, ion beam (IB etching, and ultramicrotomy (UM were used in comparison to analyze the interphase of carbon fiber/epoxy composites using transmission electron microscopy. An intact interphase with a relatively uniform thickness was obtained by FIB, and detailed chemical analysis of the interphase was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It shows that the interphase region is 200 nm wide with an increasing oxygen-to-carbon ratio from 10% to 19% and an almost constant nitrogen-to-carbon ratio of about 3%. However, gallium implantation of FIB tends to hinder fine structure analysis of the interphase. For IB etching, the interphase region is observed with transition morphology from amorphous resin to nano-crystalline carbon fiber, but the uneven sample thickness brings difficulty for quantitative chemical analysis. Moreover, UM tends to cause damage and/or deformation on the interphase. These results are meaningful for in-depth understanding on the interphase characteristic of carbon fiber composites.

  8. Comparison of ultramicrotomy and focused-ion-beam for the preparation of TEM and STEM cross section of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Gnaegi, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of preparing cross sections of organic photovoltaics (OPV) suitable for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) is addressed. The samples were polymer solar cells fabricated using roll-to-roll (R2R) processing methods on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate...... resolution, enabling further studies of phase separation of P3HT:PCBM by means of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). The sample prepared by FIB shows good structure preservation, but reduced resolution due to non-optimal thicknesses achieved after treatment. Degradation studies of samples prepared...

  9. Binding affinity and adhesion force of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme with soil particles related to the isoelectric point of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Yeasmin, Shabina; Islam, Md Saiful; Islam, Md Shariful

    2017-07-01

    The binding affinity of organophosphate hydrolase enzyme (OphB) with soil particles in relation to the isoelectric point (pI) was studied. Immobilization of OphB with soil particles was observed by confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The calculated pI of OphB enzyme was increased from 8.69 to 8.89, 9.04 and 9.16 by the single, double and triple mutant of OphB enzyme, respectively through the replacement of negatively charged aspartate with positively charged histidine. Practically, the binding affinity was increased to 5.30%, 11.50%, and 16.80% for single, double and triple mutants, respectively. In contrast, enzyme activity of OphB did not change by the mutation of the enzyme. On the other hand, adhesion forces were gradually increased for wild type OphB enzyme (90 pN) to 96, 100 and 104 pN for single, double and triple mutants of OphB enzyme, respectively. There was an increasing trend of binding affinity and adhesion force by the increase of isoelectric point (pI) of OphB enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  11. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  12. Motor control and cardiovascular responses during isoelectric contractions of the upper trapezius muscle: evidence for individual adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, S E; Aminoff, T

    1997-01-01

    Ten females (25-50 years of age) performed isometric shoulder flexions, holding the right arm straight and in a horizontal position. The subjects were able to see the rectified surface electromyogram (EMG) from either one of two electrode pairs above the upper trapezius muscle and were instructed to keep its amplitude constant for 15 min while gradually unloading the arm against a support. The EMG electrodes were placed at positions representing a "cranial" and a "caudal" region of the muscle suggested previously to possess different functional properties. During the two contractions, recordings were made of: (1) EMG root mean square-amplitude and zero crossing (ZC) frequency from both electrode pairs on the trapezius as well as from the anterior part of the deltoideus, (2) supportive force, (3) heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and (4) perceived fatigue. The median responses during the cranial isoelectric contraction were small as compared to those reported previously in the literature: changes in exerted glenohumeral torque and ZC rate of the isoelectric EMG signal of -2.81% x min(-1) (P = 0.003) and 0.03% x min(-1) (P = 0.54), respectively, and increases in HR and MAP of 0.14 beats x min(-2) (P = 0.10) and 0.06 mmHg x min(-1) (P = 0.33), respectively. During the contraction with constant caudal EMG amplitude, the corresponding median responses were -2.51% x min(-1) (torque), 0.01% x min(-1) (ZC rate), 0.31 beats x min(-2) (HR), and 0.93 mmHg x min(-1) (MAP); P = 0.001, 0.69, 0.005, and 0.003, respectively. Considerable deviations from the "isoelectric" target amplitude were common for both contractions. Individuals differed markedly in response, and three distinct subgroups of subjects were identified using cluster analysis. These groups are suggested to represent different motor control scenarios, including differential engagement of subdivisions of the upper trapezius, alternating motor unit recruitment and, in one group, a gradual

  13. Purification, enzymatic characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a high-isoelectric-point alpha-glucosidase from barley malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, T P; Lok, F; Mirgorodskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    in the transition state complex. Mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments assigned the 92-kD protein to a barley cDNA (GenBank accession no. U22450) that appears to encode an alpha-glucosidase. A corresponding sequence (HvAgl97; GenBank accession no. AF118226) was isolated from a genomic phage library using a c......High-isoelectric-point (pI) alpha-glucosidase was purified 7, 300-fold from an extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange, and butyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme had high activity toward maltose (k(cat) = 25 s(-1)), with an optimum at pH 4...

  14. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  15. A lower isoelectric point increases signal sequence-mediated secretion of recombinant proteins through a bacterial ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjong; Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Sun Chang; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown. Here, we recombined LARD3 with several proteins and examined their secretion through TliDEF. We found that the proteins secreted via LARD3 are highly negatively charged with highly-acidic isoelectric points (pI) lower than 5.5. Attaching oligo-aspartate to lower the pI of negatively-charged recombinant proteins improved their secretion, and attaching oligo-arginine to negatively-charged proteins blocked their secretion by LARD3. In addition, negatively supercharged green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed improved secretion, whereas positively supercharged GFP did not secrete. These results disclosed that proteins' acidic pI and net negative charge are major factors that determine their secretion through TliDEF. Homology modeling for TliDEF revealed that TliD dimer forms evolutionarily-conserved positively-charged clusters in its pore and substrate entrance site, which also partially explains the pI dependence of the TliDEF-dependent secretions. In conclusion, lowering the isoelectric point improved LARD3-mediated protein secretion, both widening the range of protein targets for efficient production via secretion and signifying an important aspect of ABC transporter-mediated secretions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Determination of the osmotic second virial coefficient and the demerization of beta-lactoglobulin in aqueous solutions with added salt at the isoelectric point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Smit, J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of β-lactoglobulin (at the isoelectric point pH=5.18) have been studied by membrane osmometry. The osmotic second virial coefficient as well as the monomer–dimer equilibrium of β-lactoglobulin have been found to depend significantly on the salt concentration. At low salt

  17. Identification of proteins in a human pleural exudate using two-dimensional preparative liquid-phase electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C L; Puchades, M; Westman, A; Blennow, K; Davidsson, P

    1999-01-01

    Pleural effusion may occur in patients suffering from physical trauma or systemic disorders such as infection, inflammation, or cancer. In order to investigate proteins in a pleural exudate from a patient with severe pneumonia, we used a strategy that combined preparative two-dimensional liquid-phase electrophoresis (2-D LPE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and Western blotting. Preparative 2-D LPE is based on the same principles as analytical 2-D gel electrophoresis, except that the proteins remain in liquid phase during the entire procedure. In the first dimension, liquid-phase isoelectric focusing allows for the enrichment of proteins in liquid fractions. In the Rotofor cell, large volumes (up to 55 mL) and protein amounts (up to 1-2 g) can be loaded. Several low abundance proteins, cystatin C, haptoglobin, transthyretin, beta2-microglobulin, and transferrin, were detected after liquid-phase isoelectric focusing, through Western blotting analysis, in a pleural exudate (by definition, >25 g/L total protein). Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of proteins in a Rotofor fraction is demonstrated as well. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of a tryptic digest of a continuous elution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fraction confirmed the presence of cystatin C. By applying 2-D LPE, MALDI-TOF-MS, and Western blotting to the analysis of this pleural exudate, we were able to confirm the identity of proteins of potential diagnostic value. Our findings serve to illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in the analysis of pathological fluids.

  18. Mercury distribution and lipid oxidation in fish muscle: Effects of washing and isoelectric protein precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Ren, L.; Egelandsdal, B.; Richards, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all the mercury (Hg) in whole muscle from whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and walleye (Sander vitreus) was present as methyl mercury (MeHg). The Hg content in whole muscle from whitefish and walleye was 0.04-0.09 and 0.14-0.81 ppm, respectively. The myofibril fraction contained approximately three-fourths of the Hg in whitefish and walleye whole muscle. The sarcoplasmic protein fraction (e.g., press juice) was the next most abundant source of Hg. Isolated myosin, triacylglycerols, and cellular membranes contained the least Hg. Protein isolates prepared by pH shifting in the presence of citric acid did not decrease Hg levels. Addition of cysteine during washing decreased the Hg content in washed muscle probably through the interaction of the sulfhydryl group in cysteine with MeHg. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were lower during 2 ??C storage in isolates prepared by pH shifting compared to those of washed or unwashed mince from whole muscle. This was attributed to removing some of the cellular membranes by pH shifting. Washing the mince accelerated lipid peroxide formation but decreased secondary lipid oxidation products compared to that of the unwashed mince. This suggested that there was a lipid hydroperoxide generating system that was active upon dilution of aqueous antioxidants and pro-oxidants. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Preparing for human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in Kenya: implications from focus-group and interview discussions with caregivers and opinion leaders in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Oruko, Kelvin O; Habel, Melissa A; Ford, Jessie; Kinsey, Jennine; Odhiambo, Frank; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Wang, Susan A; Collins, Tabu; Laserson, Kayla F; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-08-16

    Cervical cancer claims the lives of 275,000 women each year; most of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries. In Kenya, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women of reproductive age. Kenya's Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation has developed a comprehensive strategy to prevent cervical cancer, which includes plans for vaccinating preteen girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) by 2015. To identify HPV vaccine communication and mobilization needs, this research sought to understand HPV vaccine-related perceptions and concerns of male and female caregivers and community leaders in four rural communities of western Kenya. We conducted five focus groups with caregivers (n = 56) and 12 key-informant interviews with opinion leaders to explore cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, as well as acceptability of HPV vaccination for 9-12 year-old girls. Four researchers independently reviewed the data and developed codes based on questions in interview guides and topics that emerged organically, before comparing and reconciling results through a group consensus process. Cervical cancer was not commonly recognized, though it was understood generally in terms of its symptoms. By association with cancer and genital/reproductive organs, cervical cancer was feared and stigmatized. Overall acceptability of a vaccine that prevents cervical cancer was high, so long as it was endorsed by trusted agencies and communities were sensitized first. Some concerns emerged related to vaccine safety (e.g., impact on fertility), program intent, and health equity. For successful vaccine introduction in Kenya, there is a need for communication and mobilization efforts to raise cervical cancer awareness; prompt demand for vaccination; address health equity concerns and stigma; and minimize potential resistance. Visible endorsement by government leaders and community influencers can provide reassurance of the vaccine's safety

  20. Multiple isoelectric forms of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: Evidence for phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransone, L.J.; Dasgupta, A.

    1989-01-01

    Poliovirus-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol) was purified to apparent homogeneity. A single polypeptide of an apparent molecular weight of 63,000 catalyzes the synthesis of dimeric and monomeric RNA products in response to the poliovirion RNA template. Analysis of purified 3Dpol by two-dimensional electrophoresis showed multiple forms of 3Dpol, suggesting posttranslational modification of the protein in virus-infected cells. The two major forms of 3Dpol appear to have approximate pI values of 7.1 and 7.4. Incubation of purified 3Dpol with calf intestinal phosphatase resulted in almost complete disappearance of the pI 7.1 form and a concomitant increase in the intensity of the pI 7.4 form of 3Dpol. Addition of 32P-labeled Pi during infection of HeLa cells with poliovirus resulted in specific labeling of 3Dpol and 3CD, a viral protein which contains the entire 3Dpol sequence. Both 3Dpol and 3CD appear to be phosphorylated at serine residues. Ribosomal salt washes prepared from both mock- and poliovirus-infected cells contain phosphatases capable of dephosphorylating quantitatively the phosphorylated form (pI 7.1) of 3Dpol

  1. Micro-emulsification/encapsulation of krill oil by complex coacervation with krill protein isolated using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liu; Beamer, Sarah K; Yang, Hong; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2018-04-01

    This study determined feasibility of krill protein isolated with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) as wall material to microencapsulate krill oil by freeze-drying. Effects of krill oil/krill protein ratio on properties of microcapsules were investigated. With increased ratio, crude protein of microcapsules decreased, while total lipid increased. Although microcapsule oil loading capacity increased, loading and encapsulation efficiencies decreased. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) confirmed abundance of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic; and thus, resulted in stable emulsion (emulsion stability index). Microcapsules contained ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at 43-60, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at 28-41 and 9-11 g/100g of total FAs, respectively. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis revealed proteolysis of ISP krill protein, probably causing reduced loading and encapsulation efficiencies. SEM showed that krill oil/krill protein ratio affected surface microstructure. ISP krill protein showed potential as a wall material to microencapsulate krill oil; and thus, expand application of krill oil/protein for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of Isoelectric Point of Manganese and Cobalt Lamellar Oxides: Application to Controlled Synthesis of Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Céline; Giaume, Domitille; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Lefèvre, Grégory; Barboux, Philippe

    2018-05-30

    To design novel layered materials, bottom-up strategy is very promising. It consists of (1) synthesizing various layered oxides, (2) exfoliating them, then (3) restacking them in a controlled way. The last step is based on electrostatic interactions between different layered oxides and is difficult to control. The aim of this study is to facilitate this step by predicting the isoelectric point (IEP) of exfoliated materials. The Multisite Complexation model (MUSIC) was used for this objective and was shown to be able to predict IEP from the mean oxidation state of the metal in the (hydr)oxides, as the main parameter. Moreover, the effect of exfoliation on IEP has also been calculated. Starting from platelets with a high basal surface area over total surface area, we show that the exfoliation process has no impact on calculated IEP value, as verified with experiments. Moreover, the restacked materials containing different monometallic (hydr)oxide layers also have an IEP consistent with values calculated with the model. This study proves that MUSIC model is a useful tool to predict IEP of various complex metal oxides and hydroxides.

  3. High pH reversed-phase chromatography as a superior fractionation scheme compared to off-gel isoelectric focusing for complex proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Derek R; Hu, Xiaojie; McCorrister, Stuart J; Westmacott, Garrett R; Plummer, Francis A; Ball, Terry B; Carpenter, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    MS/MS is the technology of choice for analyzing complex protein mixtures. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and dynamic range present in higher eukaryotic proteomes, prefractionation is an important step to maximize the number of proteins identified. Off-gel IEF (OG-IEF) and high pH RP (Hp-RP) column chromatography have both been successfully utilized as a first-dimension peptide separation technique in shotgun proteomic experiments. Here, a direct comparison of the two methodologies was performed on ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysate. In 12-fraction replicate analysis, Hp-RP resulted in more peptides and proteins identified than OG-IEF fractionation. Distributions of peptide pIs and hydropathy did not reveal any appreciable bias in either technique. Resolution, defined here as the ability to limit a specific peptide to one particular fraction, was significantly better for Hp-RP. This leads to a more uniform distribution of total and unique peptides for Hp-RP across all fractions collected. These results suggest that fractionation by Hp-RP over OG-IEF is the better choice for typical complex proteome analysis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Combination of micropreparative solution isoelectric focusing and high-performance liquid chromatography for differentiation of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis group from vascular catheter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vykydalová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Duša, Filip; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav; Šlais, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 812, Feb (2014), s. 243-249 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis group * biofilm * sonicate from vascular cathether * sIEF * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.513, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0230766

  5. Proteoform analysis of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-synthase from human cerebrospinal fluid by isoelectric focusing and superficially porous liquid chromatography with Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Corbett, John R; Plymire, Daniel A; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Patrie, Steven M

    2014-05-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D-synthase (L-PGDS) in cerebrospinal fluid contributes to the maturation and maintenance of the CNS. L-PGDS PTMs may contribute to pathobiology of different CNS diseases, but methods to monitor its proteoforms are limited. Herein, we combined off-gel IEF and superficially porous LC (SPLC) with Fourier transform MS to characterize common cerebrospinal fluid L-PGDS proteoforms. Across 3D physiochemical space (pI, hydrophobicity, and mass), 217 putative proteoforms were observed from 21 to 24 kDa and pI 5-10. Glycoprotein accurate mass information, combined with MS/MS analysis of peptides generated from 2D-fractionated proteoforms, enabled the putative assignment of 208 proteoforms with varied PTM positional occupants. Fifteen structurally related N-glycans at N29 and N56 were observed, with different N-glycan compositional variants being preferred on each amino acid. We also observed that sialic acid content was a major factor for pI shifts between L-PGDS proteoforms. Other putative PTMs characterized include a core-1 HexHexNAc-O-glycan at S7, acetylation at K16 and K138, sulfonation at S41 and T142, and dioxidation at C43 and C145. The IEF-SPLC-MS platform presented provides 30-40× improved peak capacity versus conventional 2DE and shows potential for repeatable proteoform analysis of surrogate PTM-based biomarkers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Design of a Software for Calculating Isoelectric Point of a Polypeptide According to Their Net Charge Using the Graphical Programming Language LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Glomen

    2018-01-01

    A software to calculate the net charge and to predict the isoelectric point (pI) of a polypeptide is developed in this work using the graphical programming language LabVIEW. Through this instrument the net charges of the ionizable residues of the chains of the proteins are calculated at different pH values, tabulated, pI is predicted and an Excel…

  7. Radioprotective effect against gamma-irradiation of methylene blue in the rat with reference to serum enzymes and pancreatic protein fractions examined by isoelectric focussing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S O; Nam, S Y [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Biology

    1975-12-01

    The Sprague-Dawley male rats were given 360 rads of single whole-body gamma-irradiation following an intraperitoneal injection of methylene blue (40 mg/kg). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum amylase, serum lipase, and serum lecithinase A activities, and isoelectric focussing pattern of pancreatic juice proteins were determined at various time intervals after exposure. Methylene blue reduced generally the rise of SGOT, sGPT, amylase, and lipase activities. Methylene blue delayed also the serum lecithinase A fall after exposure. Mean number of protein bands as revealed by isoelectric focussing of pancreatic juice were significantly altered in both the control and the methylene blue-treated group after exposure. Especially methylene blue-treated group showed a marked delay in the decrease in number of protein bands after exposure. The possibility of using the SGOT, the SGPT, the serum amylase, the serum lipase, and the serum lecithinase A levels, and the number of protein bands in isoelectric focussing pattern of pancreatic juice as an early index of radiation injury is suggested.

  8. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  9. Identification of bacterial uropathogens by preparative isoelectricfocusing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionizationtime-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Šlais, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1532, JAN (2018), s. 232-237 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VI20172020069; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isoelectric focusing * mass spectrometry * urine * bacteria Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  10. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  11. Shift in the isoelectric-point of milk proteins as a consequence of adaptive divergence between the milks of mammalian species.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khaldi, Nora

    2011-07-29

    Abstract Background Milk proteins are required to proceed through a variety of conditions of radically varying pH, which are not identical across mammalian digestive systems. We wished to investigate if the shifts in these requirements have resulted in marked changes in the isoelectric point and charge of milk proteins during evolution. Results We investigated nine major milk proteins in 13 mammals. In comparison with a group of orthologous non-milk proteins, we found that 3 proteins κ-casein, lactadherin, and muc1 have undergone the highest change in isoelectric point during evolution. The pattern of non-synonymous substitutions indicate that selection has played a role in the isoelectric point shift, since residues that show significant evidence of positive selection are much more likely to be charged (p = 0.03 for κ-casein; p < 10-8 for muc1). However, this selection does not appear to be solely due to adaptation to the diversity of mammalian digestive systems, since striking changes are seen among species that resemble each other in terms of their digestion. Conclusion The changes in charge are most likely due to changes of other protein functions, rather than an adaptation to the different mammalian digestive systems. These functions may include differences in bioactive peptide releases in the gut between different mammals, which are known to be a major contributing factor in the functional and nutritional value of mammalian milk. This raises the question of whether bovine milk is optimal in terms of particular protein functions, for human nutrition and possibly disease resistance. This article was reviewed by Fyodor Kondrashov, David Liberles (nominated by David Ardell), and Christophe Lefevre (nominated by Mark Ragan).

  12. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  13. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  14. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  15. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  16. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  17. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  18. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  19. Possibilities of new materials surface sensibility express determination based on ZnSe-CdS system by pH isoelectric state measurements of the surface state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Mironova, E. V.; Ushakov, O. V.; Nor, P. E.; Yureva, A. V.; Matyash, Yu I.

    2018-01-01

    A method for determining the hydrogen index of the surfaces isoelectric state (pHiso) at various gases pressures -possible components of the surrounding and technological media has been developed. With its use, changes in pH of binary and more complex semiconductors-components of the new system-ZnSe-CdS under the influence of nitrogen dioxide-have been found. The limiting sensitivity of surfaces - minimum PNO2, causing a change in pH has been estimated. The most active components of ZnSe-CdS system, recommended as materials for measuring cells of NO2, have been revealed. The relationship between the changing patterns with the composition of surface (acid-base) and bulk (in particular, theoretical calculated crystal density) properties has been established, allowing to find the most effective materials for sensor technology and for semiconductor analysis.

  20. A three-prong strategy to develop functional food using protein isolates recovered from chicken processing by-products with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Sivanandan, Litha; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Skin-on bone-in chicken drumsticks were processed with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation to recover muscle proteins. The drumsticks were used as a model for dark chicken meat processing by-products. The main objective of this study was conversion of dark chicken meat processing by-products to restructured functional food product. An attempt was made to develop functional food product that would resemble respective product made from boneless skinless chicken breast meat. A three-prong strategy to address diet-driven cardiovascular disease (CVD)with a functional food was used in this study. The strategy included addition of three ingredients with well-documented cardiovascular benefits: (i) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oil (flaxseed-algae, 9:1); (ii) soluble fiber; and (iii) salt substitute. Titanium dioxide, potato starch, polyphosphate, and transglutaminase were also added. The batters were formulated and cooked resulting in heat-set gels. Color (L*a*b*), texture (torsion test, Kramer shear test, and texture profile analysis), thermal denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry), and gelation (dynamic rheology) of chicken drumstick gels and chicken breast gels were determined and compared. Chicken drumstick gels generally had comparable color and texture properties to the gels made from chicken breast meat. The endothermic transition (thermal denaturation) of myosin was more pronounced and gelation properties were better for the drumstick gels. This study demonstrated a feasibility to develop functional food made of muscle proteins recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation from low-value dark chicken meat processing by-products. The functional food developed in this study was enriched with CVD-beneficial nutrients and had comparable instrumental quality attributes to respective products made of chicken breast meat. Although the results of this study point towards the potential for a novel, marketable functional food product, sensory

  1. Use of a Spreadsheet to Calculate the Net Charge of Peptides and Proteins as a Function of pH: An Alternative to Using "Canned" Programs to Estimate the Isoelectric Point of These Important Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    An approach is presented that utilizes a spreadsheet to allow students to explore different means of calculating and visualizing how the charge on peptides and proteins varies as a function of pH. In particular, the concept of isoelectric point is developed to allow students to compare the results of their spreadsheet calculations with those of…

  2. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  3. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xiaojuan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF, a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several differentially expressed protein spots selected were cut from 2-DE gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results An extraction buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% (w/v 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT, 0.2% Bio-Lyte 3/10, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 20 U/ml Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I, and 0.25 mg/ml Ribonuclease A (RNase A, combined with sonication and vortex, yielded the best 2-DE data. Relative to non-frozen immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips, frozen IPG strips did not result in significant changes in the 2-DE patterns after isoelectric focusing (IEF. When the optimized protocol was used to analyze the spleen and thymus, as well as avibirnavirus-infected bursa, high quality 2-DE protein expression profiles were obtained. 2-DE maps of BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus were visibly different and many differentially expressed proteins were found. Conclusion These results showed that method C, in concert extraction buffer IV, was the most favorable for preparing samples for IEF and subsequent protein separation and yielded the best quality 2-DE patterns. The optimized protocol is a useful sample preparation method for comparative proteomics analysis of chicken BF tissues.

  4. Crossed radio-immunoisoelectric focusing as a method of identifying isoallergens: identification of isoallergens in rat urine extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longbottom, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of 2-dimensional radio-immunoelectrophoresis to detect directly the presence of 'isoallergens' in complex allergenic (skin test) extracts is described. This procedure, in which the components are separated by isoelectric focusing in agarose gel in the first dimension is therefore basically similar to that of crossed radio-immunoelectrophoresis, and hence has been termed crossed radio-immunoisoelectric focusing. The method has been applied to the allergens present in rat urine and has verified the presence of the cross-reacting α 2 -euglobulin and prealbumin components in (at least) 3 and 2 isoallergenic forms respectively. (Auth.)

  5. Improved Bacterial and Viral Recoveries from 'Complex' Samples using Electrophoretically Assisted Acoustic Focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, K; Rose, K; Jung, B; Fisher, K; Mariella, Jr., R P

    2008-03-27

    Automated front-end sample preparation technologies can significantly enhance the sensitivity and reliability of biodetection assays [1]. We are developing advanced sample preparation technologies for biowarfare detection and medical point-of-care diagnostics using microfluidic systems with continuous sample processing capabilities. Here we report an electrophoretically assisted acoustic focusing technique to rapidly extract and enrich viral and bacterial loads from 'complex samples', applied in this case to human nasopharyngeal samples as well as simplified surrogates. The acoustic forces capture and remove large particles (> 2 {micro}m) such as host cells, debris, dust, and pollen from the sample. We simultaneously apply an electric field transverse to the flow direction to transport small ({le} 2 {micro}m), negatively-charged analytes into a separate purified recovery fluid using a modified H-filter configuration [Micronics US Patent 5,716,852]. Hunter and O'Brien combined transverse electrophoresis and acoustic focusing to measure the surface charge on large particles, [2] but to our knowledge, our work is the first demonstration combining these two techniques in a continuous flow device. Marina et al. demonstrated superimposed dielectrophoresis (DEP) and acoustic focusing for enhanced separations [3], but these devices have limited throughput due to the rapid decay of DEP forces. Both acoustic standing waves and electric fields exert significant forces over the entire fluid volume in microchannels, thus allowing channels with larger dimensions (> 100 {micro}m) and high throughputs (10-100 {micro}L/min) necessary to process real-world volumes (1 mL). Previous work demonstrated acoustic focusing of microbeads [4] and biological species [5] in various geometries. We experimentally characterized our device by determining the biological size-cutoff where acoustic radiation pressure forces no longer transport biological particles. Figure 1 shows

  6. Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation as a means to recover protein isolate from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its physicochemical properties in a nutraceutical seafood product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-06-13

    Excessive dietary intake of Na (i.e., NaCl) contributes to hypertension, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Normally, NaOH and HCl are used to dissolve and precipitate, respectively, fish muscle proteins in isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP), therefore contributing to increased Na content in the recovered fish protein isolates (FPI). Substitution of NaOH with KOH may decrease the Na content in FPI and, thus, allow development of reduced-Na seafood products. In this study, FPI was recovered with ISP using NaOH or KOH. In order to develop a nutraceutical seafood product, the FPI was extracted with NaCl or KCl-based salt substitute and subjected to cold- or heat-gelation. In addition, standard nutraceutical additives (ω-3 fatty acids-rich oil and dietary fiber) along with titanium dioxide (TiO2) were added to FPI. Color, texture, dynamic rheology, Na and K content, and lipid oxidation of the FPI gels were compared to commercial Alaska pollock surimi gels. FPI gels had greater (p color properties (L*a*b*), and generally better textural properties when compared to surimi gels. Although the ISP-recovered FPI and surimi developed similar final gel elasticity, the proteins in FPI and surimi had different gelation pattern. A reduction (p fish for subsequent development of nutraceutical seafood products tailored for reduction of diet-driven cardiovascular disease.

  7. Design of a software for calculating isoelectric point of a polypeptide according to their net charge using the graphical programming language LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Glomen

    2018-01-01

    A software to calculate the net charge and to predict the isoelectric point (pI) of a polypeptide is developed in this work using the graphical programming language LabVIEW. Through this instrument the net charges of the ionizable residues of the polypeptide chains of the proteins are calculated at different pH values, tabulated, pI is predicted and an Excel (-xls) type file is generated. In this work, the experimental values of the pIs (pI) of different proteins are compared with the values of the pIs (pI) calculated graphically, achieving a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.934746 which represents a good reliability for a p program can constitute an instrument applicable in the laboratory, facilitating the calculation to graduate students and junior researchers. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(1):39-46, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Rapid and Efficient Purification Method for Small, Hydrophobic, Cationic Bacteriocins: Purification of Lactococcin B and Pediocin PA-1

    OpenAIRE

    Venema, K.; Chikindas, M. L.; Seegers, J.; Haandrikman, A. J.; Leenhouts, K. J.; Venema, G.; Kok, J.

    1997-01-01

    The bacteriocins lactococcin B and pediocin PA-1 were purified by ethanol precipitation, preparative isoelectric focusing, and ultrafiltration. The procedure reproducibly leads to high final yields in comparison to the generally low yields obtained by column chromatography. Specifically, during isoelectric focusing no loss of activity occurs. The method, in general, should be applicable to small, hydrophobic, cationic bacteriocins.

  9. Alternative splicing studies of the reactive oxygen species gene network in Populus reveal two isoforms of high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar; Chibani, Kamel; Nilsson, Robert; Rouhier, Nicolas; Melzer, Michael; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2009-04-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alternative splicing (AS) is widely involved in the regulation of gene expression, substantially extending the diversity of numerous proteins. In this study, a subset of expressed sequence tags representing members of the reactive oxygen species gene network was selected from the PopulusDB database to investigate AS mechanisms in Populus. Examples of all known types of AS were detected, but intron retention was the most common. Interestingly, the closest Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of half of the AS genes identified in Populus are not reportedly alternatively spliced. Two genes encoding the protein of most interest in our study (high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase [hipI-SOD]) have been found in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), designated PthipI-SODC1 and PthipI-SODC2. Analysis of the expressed sequence tag libraries has indicated the presence of two transcripts of PthipI-SODC1 (hipI-SODC1b and hipI-SODC1s). Alignment of these sequences with the PthipI-SODC1 gene showed that hipI-SODC1b was 69 bp longer than hipI-SODC1s due to an AS event involving the use of an alternative donor splice site in the sixth intron. Transcript analysis showed that the splice variant hipI-SODC1b was differentially expressed, being clearly expressed in cambial and xylem, but not phloem, regions. In addition, immunolocalization and mass spectrometric data confirmed the presence of hipI-SOD proteins in vascular tissue. The functionalities of the spliced gene products were assessed by expressing recombinant hipI-SOD proteins and in vitro SOD activity assays.

  10. Alternative Splicing Studies of the Reactive Oxygen Species Gene Network in Populus Reveal Two Isoforms of High-Isoelectric-Point Superoxide Dismutase1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vaibhav; Srivastava, Manoj Kumar; Chibani, Kamel; Nilsson, Robert; Rouhier, Nicolas; Melzer, Michael; Wingsle, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that alternative splicing (AS) is widely involved in the regulation of gene expression, substantially extending the diversity of numerous proteins. In this study, a subset of expressed sequence tags representing members of the reactive oxygen species gene network was selected from the PopulusDB database to investigate AS mechanisms in Populus. Examples of all known types of AS were detected, but intron retention was the most common. Interestingly, the closest Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homologs of half of the AS genes identified in Populus are not reportedly alternatively spliced. Two genes encoding the protein of most interest in our study (high-isoelectric-point superoxide dismutase [hipI-SOD]) have been found in black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), designated PthipI-SODC1 and PthipI-SODC2. Analysis of the expressed sequence tag libraries has indicated the presence of two transcripts of PthipI-SODC1 (hipI-SODC1b and hipI-SODC1s). Alignment of these sequences with the PthipI-SODC1 gene showed that hipI-SODC1b was 69 bp longer than hipI-SODC1s due to an AS event involving the use of an alternative donor splice site in the sixth intron. Transcript analysis showed that the splice variant hipI-SODC1b was differentially expressed, being clearly expressed in cambial and xylem, but not phloem, regions. In addition, immunolocalization and mass spectrometric data confirmed the presence of hipI-SOD proteins in vascular tissue. The functionalities of the spliced gene products were assessed by expressing recombinant hipI-SOD proteins and in vitro SOD activity assays. PMID:19176719

  11. Effect of cations in the background electrolyte on the adsorption kinetics of copper and cadmium and the isoelectric point of imogolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás; Silva-Yumi, Jorge; Escudey, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of various cations on the IEP of imogolite was studied. • Studied adsorption kinetics of Cd and Cu on imogolite in the presence of cations. • K"+ acted as an indifferent electrolyte and did not affect the IEP of imogolite. • Adsorption in the presence of K"+ is described well by three of the four models. • These include pseudo-second order, Elovich equation, and Weber–Morris model. - Abstract: Modification of surface charge and changes in the isoelectric point (IEP) of synthetic imogolite were studied for various cations in the background electrolyte (K"+, NH_4"+, Mg"2"+, and Ca"2"+). From the electrophoretic mobility data, it was established that the K"+ (KCl) concentration does not affect the IEP of imogolite; therefore, KCl is a suitable background electrolyte. In terms of the magnitude of changes in the IEP and surface charge, the cations may be ranked in the following order: Mg"2"+ ≈ Ca"2"+ >> NH_4"+ >> K"+. Four different kinetic models were used to evaluate the influence of Mg"2"+, Ca"2"+, NH_4"+, and K"+ on the adsorption of Cd and Cu on synthetic imogolite. When adsorption occurs in the presence of cations with the exception of K"+, the kinetics of the process is well described by the pseudo-first order model. On the other hand, when adsorption is conducted in the presence of K"+, the adsorption kinetics is well described by the pseudo-second order, Elovich, and Weber–Morris models. From the surface charge measurements, the affinity between imogolite and the cations and their effect on the adsorption of trace elements, namely Cu and Cd, were established.

  12. Effect of cations in the background electrolyte on the adsorption kinetics of copper and cadmium and the isoelectric point of imogolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolás, E-mail: nicolas.arancibia@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. B. O' Higgins, 3363, Santiago (Chile); Silva-Yumi, Jorge [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Escudey, Mauricio [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, 9170124, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. B. O' Higgins, 3363, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Effect of various cations on the IEP of imogolite was studied. • Studied adsorption kinetics of Cd and Cu on imogolite in the presence of cations. • K{sup +} acted as an indifferent electrolyte and did not affect the IEP of imogolite. • Adsorption in the presence of K{sup +} is described well by three of the four models. • These include pseudo-second order, Elovich equation, and Weber–Morris model. - Abstract: Modification of surface charge and changes in the isoelectric point (IEP) of synthetic imogolite were studied for various cations in the background electrolyte (K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}). From the electrophoretic mobility data, it was established that the K{sup +} (KCl) concentration does not affect the IEP of imogolite; therefore, KCl is a suitable background electrolyte. In terms of the magnitude of changes in the IEP and surface charge, the cations may be ranked in the following order: Mg{sup 2+} ≈ Ca{sup 2+} >> NH{sub 4}{sup +} >> K{sup +}. Four different kinetic models were used to evaluate the influence of Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} on the adsorption of Cd and Cu on synthetic imogolite. When adsorption occurs in the presence of cations with the exception of K{sup +}, the kinetics of the process is well described by the pseudo-first order model. On the other hand, when adsorption is conducted in the presence of K{sup +}, the adsorption kinetics is well described by the pseudo-second order, Elovich, and Weber–Morris models. From the surface charge measurements, the affinity between imogolite and the cations and their effect on the adsorption of trace elements, namely Cu and Cd, were established.

  13. In-capillary enrichment, proteolysis and separation using capillary electrophoresis with discontinuous buffers: application on proteins with moderately acidic and basic isoelectric points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Chandra A; Yeung, Ken K-C

    2009-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry and capillary-format separation continue to improve the sensitivity of protein analysis. Of equal importance is the miniaturization of sample pretreatment such as enrichment and proteolysis. In a previous report (Nesbitt et al., Electrophoresis, 2008, 29, 466-474), nanoliter-volume protein enrichment, tryptic digestion, and partial separation was demonstrated in capillary electrophoresis followed by MALDI mass spectral analysis. A discontinuous buffer system, consisting of ammonium (pH 10) and acetate (pH 4), was used to create a pH junction inside the capillary, trapping a protein with a neutral isoelectric point, myoglobin (pI 7.2). Moreover, co-enrichment of myoglobin with trypsin led to an in-capillary digestion. In this paper, the ability of this discontinuous buffer system to perform similar in-capillary sample pretreatment on proteins with moderately acidic and basic pI was studied and reported. Lentil lectin (pI 8.6) and a multi-phosphorylated protein, beta-casein (pI 5.1), were selected as model proteins. In addition to the previously shown tryptic digestion, proteolysis with endoproteinase Asp-N was also performed. Digestion of these acidic and basic pI proteins produced a few peptides with extreme pI values lying outside the trapping range of the discontinuous buffer. An alteration in the peptide trapping procedure was made to accommodate these analytes. Offline MALDI mass spectral analysis confirmed the presence of the expected peptides. The presented miniaturized sample pretreatment methodology was proven to be applicable on proteins with a moderately wide range of pI. Flexibility in the choice of protease was also evident.

  14. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  15. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  16. A focus on the features of polyaniline nanofibres prepared via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... volume [10], solubility [11], electrical conductivity [12] and ... (surfactants [32], micelles [22,33,34], liquid crystals [35], ... processability and doping properties of PANI could be further ... reaction is completed as indicated by no further formation of ...... [49] Yang Z, Wu J, Yang Y, Zhou X and Xie X 2008 Chem.

  17. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  18. Lignin-modifying enzymes of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycete isolated from a coastal marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; DeSouza, T.M.; Thorn, R.G.; Reddy, C.A.

    seen, but LIP production either was not seen or was minimal. LME rpoduction was also seen in media prepared with artificial seawater. Fast rpotein liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing resolved LMEs into four isozymes each of MNP and LIP, while...

  19. Rapid and efficient purification method for small, hydrophobic, cationic bacteriocins : Purification of lactococcin B and pediocin PA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Koen; Chikindas, Michael L.; Seegers, Jos F.M.L.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    The bacteriocins lactococcin B and pediocin PA 1 were purified by ethanol precipitation, preparative isoelectric focusing, and ultrafiltration. The procedure reproducibly leads to high final yields in comparison to the generally low yields obtained by column chromatography. Specifically, during

  20. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  1. Preparation and characterization of nano gold supported over montmorillonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraja, P.V.; Binitha, N.N.; Yaakob, Z.; Silija, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nano scale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. Here there is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au 3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method. (author)

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Nano Gold Supported over Montmorillonite Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraja, P V; Binitha, N N; Yaakob, Z; Silija, P P, E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl4{center_dot}3H2O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nanoscale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. There is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method.

  3. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  4. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  5. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  6. Preparing for evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroff, Ian I; Alpaslan, Murat C

    2003-04-01

    How can you plan for every crisis that might occur, even for ones you can't imagine? The task seems so daunting and so limitless that many firms don't even start. In fact, as the authors' 20 years of research shows, three out of four Fortune 500 companies are prepared to handle only the types of calamities they've already suffered, and not even all of those. That's unfortunate because the research also shows that crisis-prepared companies fare better financially, have stronger reputations, and ultimately stay in business longer than their crisis prone counterparts. Crisis-prepared companies use a systematic approach to focus their efforts. In addition to planning for natural disasters, they divide man-made calamities into two sorts--accidental or "normal" ones, like the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and deliberate or "abnormal" ones, like product tampering. Then they take steps to broaden their thinking about such potential crises. They consider threats that would be common in other industries, for instance. And they seek input from outsiders such as investigative journalists and even reformed criminals. But if these companies think broadly about possible threats, they think narrowly about implementation. Each year, smart companies focus their resources and attention on a few facilities picked at random, just as airlines conduct detailed security checks on just a few passengers for each flight. That reduces the probability of an attack on the entire organization even as it allows the business to migrate steadily to a higher level of crisis readiness. Crisis-prepared companies know that disasters cannot be managed through cost-benefit analyses. It is precisely because the effects of a disaster cannot be predicted or controlled that smart companies focus their efforts on preventing crises rather than containing them after the fact.

  7. High School Economics. Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; McCorkle, Sarapage; Meszaros, Bonnie; Smith, Robert F.; Highsmith, Robert J.

    This book opens with an exploration of the fundamental trilogy of economics - scarcity, choice, and cost. Students then examine the broad social goals of an economy in preparation for lessons treating many topics new to the precollege level such as the stock market, public choice, and aggregate supply and demand. The set of 20 lessons include: (1)…

  8. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  9. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  10. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  11. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  12. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  13. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  14. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  15. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  16. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  17. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  18. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  19. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  20. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  1. Neutral hydrophilic coatings for capillary electrophoresis prepared by controlled radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Fabián H.; Gómez, Jorge E.; Espinal, José H.; Sandoval, Junior E., E-mail: junior.sandoval@correounivalle.edu.co

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, porous silica particles as well as impervious fused-silica wafers and capillary tubes were modified with hydrophilic polymers (hydroxylated polyacrylamides and polyacrylates), using a surface-confined grafting procedure based on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) which was also surface-initiated from α-bromoisobutyryl groups. Initiator immobilization was achieved by hydrosilylation of allyl alcohol on hydride silica followed by esterification of the resulting propanol-bonded surface with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopies on silica micro-particles, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and profilometry on fused-silica wafers, as well as CE on fused-silica tubes were used to characterize the chemically modified silica substrate at different stages. We studied the effect of monomer concentration as well as cross-linker on the ability of the polymer film to reduce electroosmosis and to prevent protein adsorption (i. e., its non-fouling capabilities) and found that the former was rather insensitive to both parameters. Surface deactivation towards adsorption was somewhat more susceptible to monomer concentration and appeared also to be favored by a low concentration of the cross-linker. The results show that hydrophilic polyacrylamide and polyacrylate coatings of controlled thickness can be prepared by ATRP under very mild polymerization conditions (aqueous solvent, room temperature and short reaction times) and that the coated capillary tubes exhibit high efficiencies for protein separations (0.3–0.6 million theoretical plates per meter) as well as long-term hydrolytic stability under the inherently harsh conditions of capillary isoelectric focusing. Additionally, there was no adsorption of lysozyme on the coated surface as indicated by a complete recovery of the basic enzyme. Furthermore, since polymerization is confined to the inner capillary surface, simple precautions (e.g., solution

  2. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  3. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  4. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  5. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  6. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  7. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  8. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  9. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  10. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  11. Inhibition of raw starch digestion by one glucoamylase preparation from black Aspergillus at high enzyme concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, B C; Veda, S

    1981-09-01

    Raw starch digestion by glucoamylase I (Ab. G-I) preparation from black Aspergillus was inhibited significantly at relatively high concentration of the enzyme. The properties of this enzyme were studied together with those of another glucoamylase I (Nor. G-I), also from black Aspergillus. The two glucoamylases do not differ so much in their physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, pH and thermal stability, pH and temperature optimum, substrate specificity, debranching activity, isoelectric point etc. The adsorption rate of both enzymes on raw starch increased by the increase of enzyme concentration. The raw starch digestion rate by adsorbed Ab. G-I, however, was decreased with the increase of concentration of enzyme whereas the same was increased in case of Nor. G-I. The inhibitory effect was weaker at 60 deg. Celcius or above. (Refs. 11).

  12. Novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides with enhanced lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Niu, Fangzhou; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous metal oxides show high reversible capacities but relatively poor cycle stability due to the structural collapse during cycles. Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides may increase the electronic conductivity of the composite as well as stabilize the mesostructure of metal oxides, thereby enhancing the electrochemical performance of mesoporous metal oxides. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides (SnO_2, Mn_3O_4), which exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure mesoporous metal oxides. Moreover, some mesoporous metal oxides may be further reduced to low-valence metal oxides when calcined in presence of graphene. Mesoporous metal oxides with high isoelectric points are not essential for this synthesis method since metal oxides are connected with graphene through mesoporous silica template, thus expanding the types of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides.

  13. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  14. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  15. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  16. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  17. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  18. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  19. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  20. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  1. Preparing for retirement - new seminars

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2015-01-01

    We would like to take the opportunity to inform you about a new programme related to retirement, organised by the Human Resources Department. Retirement marks the end of a career and the start of a new chapter in life.  In all cases, being well-informed and prepared is necessary to cope successfully with this transition. The programme has been developed for staff members and consists of two seminars: Leaving CERN (half day seminar): short presentations by internal speakers, focusing on what options CERN offers at the end of your career: organised once per year, next session scheduled on 24 November 2015, in the afternoon, enrolment and more information on Indico.   Preparation for retirement (2-day seminar): interactive workshop (in small groups) delivered by external experts, focusing on how to prepare psychologically as well as practically to cope with all the changes retirement brings: organised regularly in 2016, in English or ...

  2. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  3. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  4. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  5. CY15 Livermore Computing Focus Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Tom M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cupps, Kim C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); D' Hooge, Trent E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahey, Tim J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fox, Dave M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Futral, Scott W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gary, Mark R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstone, Robin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, Pam G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heer, Todd M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mark, Rich J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morrone, Chris J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoopman, Jerry D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slavec, Joe A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springmeyer, Becky R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stearman, Marc D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Watson, Py C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The LC team undertook a survey of primary Center drivers for CY15. Identified key drivers included enhancing user experience and productivity, pre-exascale platform preparation, process improvement, data-centric computing paradigms and business expansion. The team organized critical supporting efforts into three cross-cutting focus areas; Improving Service Quality; Monitoring, Automation, Delegation and Center Efficiency; and Next Generation Compute and Data Environments In each area the team detailed high level challenges and identified discrete actions to address these issues during the calendar year. Identifying the Center’s primary drivers, issues, and plans is intended to serve as a lens focusing LC personnel, resources, and priorities throughout the year.

  6. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  7. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  8. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  9. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  10. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  11. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  12. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  13. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  14. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  15. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  16. College Preparation for Students with Learning Disabilities: A Curriculum Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Keith W.

    1992-01-01

    A college preparation curriculum relevant to the needs of students with learning disabilities is presented, focusing on early planning, instructional modifications, strategy instruction, and support services. (JDD)

  17. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  18. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  19. [Sample preparation and bioanalysis in mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Wagner, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of compounds of clinical interest of low molecular weight (sample preparation. Sample preparation is a crucial part of chemical/biological analysis and in a sense is considered the bottleneck of the whole analytical process. The main objectives of sample preparation are the removal of potential interferences, analyte preconcentration, and converting (if needed) the analyte into a more suitable form for detection or separation. Without chromatographic separation, endogenous compounds, co-eluted products may affect a quantitative method in mass spectrometry performance. This work focuses on three distinct parts. First, quantitative bioanalysis will be defined, different matrices and sample preparation techniques currently used in bioanalysis by mass spectrometry of/for small molecules of clinical interest in biological fluids. In a second step the goals of sample preparation will be described. Finally, in a third step, sample preparation strategies will be made either directly ("dilute and shoot") or after precipitation.

  20. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  1. HINS Linac front end focusing system R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R&D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process.

  2. HINS Linac front end focusing system R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; Fermilab; Argonne

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R and D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process

  3. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  4. IELTS Preparation Courses in China : the Reading Comprehension Task

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ying

    2011-01-01

    More and more private language schools provide IELTS preparation courses for candidates who want to sit the test for admission to undergraduate and postgraduate courses in English-speaking countries. This essay investigates whether the IELTS preparation course in a language school in China offers an adequate preparation for candidates. The study focuses on one preparation course for the IELTS reading test (other modules are beyond the scope of the present study). A questionnaire and interview...

  5. Nanodiamond applications in skin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Roshanak; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2018-04-13

    The biocompatibility and nontoxicity of nanodiamonds (NDs) in combination with their excellent physical performance have rendered them attractive candidates for biomedical applications. NDs have great potential in drug nanoformulations because of their small size compared with other carbon nanomaterials. They are nontoxic with excellent adsorption properties and can be formulated into skin care products. Even though NDs have shown encouraging potential in skin preparations, only a few studies have reviewed their application in topical drug delivery systems. Therefore, here we focus on the application of NDs in skin care preparations, skin cancer medication, and wound healing. We also highlight the development of topical drug delivery by NDs and their cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advances in preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles for therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Hembram, Krushna; Prabha, Shashi; Chandra, Ramesh; Ahmed, Bahar; Nimesh, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Polymers have been largely explored for the preparation of nanoparticles due to ease of preparation and modification, large gene/drug loading capacity, and biocompatibility. Various methods have been adapted for the preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. Focus on the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. Detailed literature survey has been done for the studies reporting various methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles. Published database suggests of several methods which have been developed for the preparation and characterization of chitosan nanoparticles as per the application.

  7. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  8. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  9. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  10. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  11. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  12. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  13. Focusing liquid microjets with nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, A J; Ferrera, C; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2012-01-01

    The stability of flow focusing taking place in a converging–diverging nozzle, as well as the size of the resulting microjets, is examined experimentally in this paper. The results obtained in most aspects of the problem are similar to those of the classical plate-orifice configuration. There is, however, a notable difference between flow focusing in nozzles and in the plate-orifice configuration. In the former case, the liquid meniscus oscillates laterally (global whipping) for a significant area of the control parameter plane, a phenomenon never observed when focusing with the plate-orifice configuration. Global whipping may constitute an important drawback of flow focusing with nozzles because it reduces the robustness of the technique. (paper)

  14. A study of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Majima, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma acceleration between electrodes, the phenomena due to the pinch effect at the top of the electrodes and the neutron emission mechanism were experimentally studied. The plasma focus device was a Mather type coaxial discharge device, and the instruments used for the present purpose were a Rogoski coil, an image converter camera, a scintillation detector and a silver foil activation counter. The results of the present experiment were as follows. Plasma focus was not definitely made under the same condition. When the focus was seen, a dip was observed in the discharge wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were detected. The angular anisotropy of neutron emission was observed, and corresponds to a beam target model. The phenomena showing the occurrence of focus were seen, when the current sheet was produced at a delayed time after discharge, and arrived at the muzzle with large velocity. The relation between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of the current sheet was obtained, whereas no systematic relation exists between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of pinch. When the focus was not observed, no dip was seen in current wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were not detected. The reason of no focus was considered. (Kato, T.)

  15. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  16. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  17. Zeta potentials of the rare earth element fluorcarbonate minerals focusing on bastnäsite and parisite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, C L; Nash, G R; Hadler, K; Fitzpatrick, R S; Anderson, C G; Wall, F

    2018-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to a wide range of technologies ranging from mobile phones to wind turbines. Processing and extraction of REE minerals from ore bodies is, however, both challenging and relatively poorly understood, as the majority of deposits contain only limited enrichment of REEs. An improved understanding of the surface properties of the minerals is important in informing and optimising their processing, in particular for separation by froth flotation. The measurement of zeta potential can be used to extract information regarding the electrical double layer, and hence surface properties of these minerals. There are over 34 REE fluorcarbonate minerals currently identified, however bastnäsite, synchysite and parisite are of most economic importance. Bastnäsite-(Ce), the most common REE fluorcarbonate, supplies over 50% of the world's REE. Previous studies of bastnäsite have showed a wide range of surface behaviour, with the iso-electric point (IEP), being measured between pH values of 4.6 and 9.3. In contrast, no values of IEP have been reported for parisite or synchysite. In this work, we review previous studies of the zeta potentials of bastnäsite to investigate the effects of different methodologies and sample preparation. In addition, measurements of zeta potentials of parisite under water, collector and supernatant conditions were conducted, the first to be reported. These results showed an iso-electric point for parisite of 5.6 under water, with a shift to a more negative zeta potential with both collector (hydroxamic and fatty acids) and supernatant conditions. The IEP with collectors and supernatant was <3.5. As zeta potential measurements in the presence of reagents and supernatants are the most rigorous way of determining the efficiency of a flotation reagent, the agreement between parisite zeta potentials obtained here and previous work on bastnäsite suggests that parisite may be processed using similar reagent schemes to

  18. Introduction to focused ion beams instrumentation, theory, techniques and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Giannuzzi, Lucille A

    2005-01-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) instrument has experienced an intensive period of maturation since its inception. Numerous new techniques and applications have been brought to fruition, and over the past few years, the FIB has gained acceptance as more than just an expensive sample preparation tool. It has taken its place among the suite of other instruments commonly available in analytical and forensic laboratories, universities, geological, medical and biological research institutions, and manufacturing plants. Although the utility of the FIB is not limited to the preparation of specimens for subsequent analysis by other analytical techniques, it has revolutionized the area of TEM specimen preparation. The FIB has also been used to prepare samples for numerous other analytical techniques, and offers a wide range of other capabilities. While the mainstream of FIB usage remains within the semiconductor industry, FIB usage has expanded to applications in metallurgy, ceramics, composites, polymers, geology, art, bio...

  19. Stability of expanded plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the stabilization of the expanded plasma focus formed by 4.5 kJ plasma focus device of Mather type by magnetic field is presented. The experimental results of the induced axial magnetic field and electric probe measurements of the expanded plasma focus show that, the plasma consists of three plasmoids, electron temperature measurements off the plasmoids at a point close to the muzzle are 26 eV, 30 eV and 27 eV respectively and the electron densities are 6.6 x 10 14 , 6.1 x 10 14 / cm 3 respectively. The presence of external axial magnetic field (B 2 = 1.6 kg) at the mid distance between the breech and the muzzle has a less effect on the stability of expanded focus and it causes a restriction for the plasma motion. the electron temperature of the three plasmoids are found to increase in that case by 23%, 18.5% respectively. When this axial magnetic field is applied at the muzzle end, it leads to a more stable expanded plasma focus which consists mainly of one plasmoid with electron temperature of 39 eV and density of 3.4 x 10 14 / cm 3 . 5 figs

  20. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  1. Documents preparation and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Ignalina Safety Analysis Group takes active role in assisting regulatory body VATESI to prepare various regulatory documents and reviewing safety reports and other documentation presented by Ignalina NPP in the process of licensing of unit 1. The list of main documents prepared and reviewed is presented

  2. Multicultural Education: Teachers' Perceptions and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on theory and practice in multicultural education as it pertains to the preparation of preservice teachers. The literature reviews the history and definition of multiculturalism and investigates multiple theoretical frameworks around the ongoing debate and issues of multicultural education. Teachers' perceptions of multicultural…

  3. Preparing Teachers to Teach Digital Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Searson, Michael; Voogt, Joke; Whittier, David; Plants, Robert; Gibson, David; Sutton, Bonnie; Ochoa, Marilyn; Sutton, Vic; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A team of SITE leaders was awarded a highly competitive “Digital Citizenship Award” from Facebook to explore the role of digital citizenship in teacher education. The focus of the SITE “Preparing Teachers to Teach Digital Citizenship” project is the development of a college based course, available

  4. How Not to Prepare School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instead of focusing on how principals should be trained, an contrarian view is offered, grounded upon theoretical perspectives of experiential learning, and in particular, upon the theory of andragogy. A brief parable of the DoNoHarm School of Medicine is used as a descriptive analog for many principal preparation programs in America. The…

  5. The influence of school leadership preparation programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) is responsible for the accreditation of public and private institutions and their learning programmes in South Africa. This body has identified a number of criteria in order to determine the effectiveness of school leadership preparation programmes. One of them focuses on the ...

  6. Food Preparation and Service: Cluster Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This teacher's guide is one of a series of publications focusing on the occupational preparation of persons with special education needs. The material was developed and tested by cooperating teachers over a period of three years. Task analysis information is presented using occupational descriptions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles,…

  7. Evaluating a nurse mentor preparation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Olivia; Brown, Donna

    Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.

  8. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  9. Studies on processes of damage and the stability of two preparations of human growth hormone labelled with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, M.L.C.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Two HGH preparations were studied to obtain stable 125 I labelled products, with high specific activity, good biding capacity and long shelf life. Alterations affecting unlabelled protein hormone were also considered. Modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex were studied. The preparations studied were: HGH (NIH) and HGH always freshly prepared at IEA. The detection, study on nature and elimination of the interference of 'damaged' radioactive components was done by checking their presence and behaviour during labelling, purification or storage and comparing with some 'false labelling' (without HGH). Both hormones were labelled with a high specific activity, with immunoactivity up to three months. Loss in binding happened during storage for radioactive products as well as for unlabelled proteins. The absence of Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) used as protein carrier and protector, produced a peak of aggregate; when presented, BSA carried a large amount of radioactivity forming most of the 'peak of the damage product' eluting from Sephadex. These two peaks interfere negatively in RIA and can effect calculations on specific activity, yield and absolute amount in term of mass of the labelled product. The best conditions for storage are at-20 0 C in dry lyophilized powder or frozen solution; at 4 0 C in solution the product is inactivated. Both labelled products showed an increased mobility in comparison with the unlabelled done. This can be attributed to a decreased isoelectric point due to the iodination of tyrosine or to alterations in the structure caused by reagents used in the labelling [pt

  10. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  11. Plant status control - with an operational focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the Nuclear industry, we have done a very good job of designing, developing, constructing, and improving our nuclear facilities. We have, however, often been inconsistent in documenting the details of our facilities, clearly addressing the rules around facility operation, and controlling and tracking the temporary, or permanent changes to our facilities. The reality is, that once we build a facility, we then must operate the facility, for it to be viable. Further we must operate it safely and efficiently for the facility to produce its product, and be acceptable to the public. Unfortunately, when we design and build these large, complicated facilities, we cannot project all the nuances of facility operation, although we can recognize this potential gap, and prepare for it. In order to allow for the complexities of the real world, we must provide the individuals who are tasked with operating our nuclear facilities, with the tools and processes to deal with 'all the nuances' of facility operation. This discussion will focus on the concepts behind a key process for ensuring that we meet our design and operating needs for our facilities, as well as recognizing and dealing with the potential gaps. The key process is 'Plant Status Control', and the discussion will have a primary focus on the needs of the end users, that being the individuals that have the immediate and current accountability for control and safety of the facility, the equipment, the staff, and ultimately the public, that being our Operations staff, and the Shift Manager. (author)

  12. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  13. Recent advances in FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Malis, T.; Dionne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is of paramount importance in TEM studies. The development of the focused ion beam (FIB) microscope has greatly enhanced TEM specimen preparation capabilities. In recent years, various FIB-TEM foil preparation techniques have been developed. However, the currently available techniques fail to produce TEM specimens from fragile and ultra-fine specimens such as fine fibers. In this paper, the conventional FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques are reviewed, and their advantages and shortcomings are compared. In addition, a new technique suitable to prepare TEM samples from ultra-fine specimens is demonstrated

  14. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  15. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  16. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  17. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  18. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  19. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  20. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  1. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program…

  2. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  3. In situ hydride formation in titanium during focused ion milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rengen; Jones, Ian P

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that titanium and its alloys are sensitive to electrolytes and thus hydrides are commonly observed in electropolished foils. In this study, focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to prepare thin foils of titanium and its alloys for transmission electron microscopy. The results show the following: (i) titanium hydrides were observed in pure titanium, (ii) the preparation of a bulk sample in water or acid solution resulted in the formation of more hydrides and (iii) FIB milling aids the precipitation of hydrides, but there were never any hydrides in Ti64 and Ti5553.

  4. Preparation of bromine fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, Pr; Duflo, J.

    1958-05-01

    This note addresses the preparation of bromine fluoride. It indicates the implemented process for the reaction, used products (fluorine and bromine), and column characteristics. It describes the operating mode. Apparatus drawing is provided

  5. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  6. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  7. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  8. FERMILAB: Preparing to collide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Against the background of stringent Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) regulations mandated by the US Department of Energy for all national Labs, Fermilab prepared to mount the next major Tevatron proton-antiproton collider run

  9. Plasma focusing in coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A capacitor bank has been discharged between two coaxial electrodes of 6.6 cm outer diameter, 3.2 cm inner diameter and length of 31.5 cm. filled with hydrogen gas at pressure of 310 μHg. Results show that, the axial and radial plasma current reach a maximum value at a position adjacent to the gun muzzle, at which the plasma focus occurs. The measurement of the electron temperature and density and azimuthal electric field along the axis of the expansion chamber, gives a maximum value at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, while the axial plasma current and velocity has a minimum value at that position. These results indicate that a second point of a plasma focus has been formed at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, along the axis of the expansion chamber

  10. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  11. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  12. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  13. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using RF breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  14. Combating Terrorism: How Prepared Are State and Local Response Organizations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lois M; Mariano, Louis T; Pace, Jennifer E; Cotton, Sarah K; Steinberg, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, state and local governments and response organizations have focused attention on preparing for and responding to acts of domestic terrorism...

  15. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  16. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  17. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  18. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  19. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  20. Parenting classes: focus on discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.

  1. Preparing for the Profession: The Accounting Job Search and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Ellen L.; Stanko, Brian B.; Jinkerson, Darcia

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of a unique program focused on preparing students for entry into the accounting profession. The program, Preparing for the Profession, consisted of four distinct workshops provided to accounting majors during fall semester 2010. Planning for the program began a year earlier during a meeting of Accounting…

  2. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Preparation of High School Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge--PCK). The program has been in place…

  3. Preparing Ethical Chemists through a Second-Year Seminar Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singiser, Richard H.; Clower, Caroline E.; Burnett, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Ethics is an important part of science and is often omitted from a packed undergraduate curriculum. This article describes a second-year seminar course developed for chemistry majors that focuses on career preparation and the improvement of essential student skills, such as communication skills and preparation for independent research. The central…

  4. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  5. Digital Natives as Preservice Teachers: What Technology Preparation Is Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on "digital natives" as preservice teachers to examine their beliefs, attitudes, and technology experiences and expertise, identify the strengths and weaknesses in their technology knowledge and skills, and explore what technology preparation was needed to prepare them to integrate technology in their future classrooms. Results…

  6. The hospital preparation of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; preparation ((general - sterilization), production areas (laboratories), working methods for injections, working methods for oral preparations and iodination procedures); analytical testing (general, standards common to injections and oral preparations, standards for injections, standards for oral preparations); reliable methods of preparing sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals and 51 Cr-red cells; commercial radiopharmaceutical kits. (U.K.)

  7. Electrophoresis forum '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radola, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    In this volume the contributions of the electrophoresis meeting are presented in a short term form. The main topics are gel-electrophoresis, ultra thin film isoelectric focusing, one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis, electrophoretical separation techniques, electric focusing (for phorensic studies), substrate free and substrate electrophoresis. In the poster session of this meeting subjects such as (ultra) thin film isoelectric focusing, identification of radioactive proteins, labelling of cell surfaces, autoradiography and 3 H-labelled proteins. Separate abstracts were prepared for 4 papers in this report. (HK) [de

  8. Progress in Preparation of Monodisperse Polymer Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The monodisperse crosslinked polymer microspheres have attracted much attention because of their superior thermal and solvent resistance, mechanical strength, surface activity and adsorption properties. They are of wide prospects for using in many fields such as biomedicine, electronic science, information technology, analytical chemistry, standard measurement and environment protection etc. Functional polymer microspheres prepared by different methods have the outstanding surface property, quantum size effect and good potential future in applications with its designable structure, controlled size and large ratio of surface to volume. Scholars of all over the world have focused on this hot topic. The preparation method and research progress in functional polymer microspheres are addressed in the paper.

  9. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  10. A focused bibliography on robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  11. Focus on topological quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Simon, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation started as a niche area of research aimed at employing particles with exotic statistics, called anyons, for performing quantum computation. Soon it evolved to include a wide variety of disciplines. Advances in the understanding of anyon properties inspired new quantum algorithms and helped in the characterization of topological phases of matter and their experimental realization. The conceptual appeal of topological systems as well as their promise for building fault-tolerant quantum technologies fuelled the fascination in this field. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together several of the latest developments in the field and facilitates the synergy between different approaches. (editorial)

  12. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...... the public and makes a point of interest in a small exhibit area. A countdown clock can be simple, but it is possible to expand the concept to an eye-catching part of a museum....

  13. Catastrophe in plasma focus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1984-07-01

    A theory of generating strong electric field in a dense plasma column in plasma focus is established by applying the formula for the electron thermal conductivity in destroyed magnetic surfaces like those in tokamaks. The origin of the electric field may be from abrupt rise of plasma resistivity when the irregularity of magnetic field is weak. However, the electric field can be from the inductive origin in case the irregularity attains a certain level. Both origin should be mixed up depending on the magnitude of the irregularity. (author)

  14. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of oxide (Cu2O and ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films preparation by the dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, G.; Tenailleau, C.; Dufour, P.; Guillemet-Fritsch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oxide thin solid films were prepared by dip-coating into colloidal dispersions of oxide nanoparticles stabilized at room temperature without the use of chelating or complex organic dispersing agents. Crystalline oxide nanoparticles were obtained by inorganic polycondensation and characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticle method was optimized to prepare two different structural and compositional materials, namely Cu 2 O and ZnO. The influence of hydrodynamic parameters over the particle shape and size is discussed. Spherical and rod shape nanoparticles were formed for Cu 2 O and ZnO, respectively. Isoelectric point values of 7.5 and 8.2 were determined for cuprous and zinc oxides, respectively, after zeta potential measurements. A shear thinning and thixotropic behavior was observed in both colloidal sols after peptization at pH ~ 6 with dilute nitric acid. Every colloidal dispersion stabilized in a low cost and environmentally friendly azeotrope solution composed of 96 vol.% of ethanol with water was used for the thin film preparation by the dip-coating technique. Optical properties of the light absorber cuprous oxide and transparent zinc oxide thin solid films were characterized by means of transmittance and reflectance measurements (300–1100 nm). - Highlights: • Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of crystalline oxides • Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticles • Low cost method for thin solid film preparation

  16. Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of oxide (Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films preparation by the dip-coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salek, G.; Tenailleau, C., E-mail: tenailleau@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Dufour, P.; Guillemet-Fritsch, S.

    2015-08-31

    Oxide thin solid films were prepared by dip-coating into colloidal dispersions of oxide nanoparticles stabilized at room temperature without the use of chelating or complex organic dispersing agents. Crystalline oxide nanoparticles were obtained by inorganic polycondensation and characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticle method was optimized to prepare two different structural and compositional materials, namely Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO. The influence of hydrodynamic parameters over the particle shape and size is discussed. Spherical and rod shape nanoparticles were formed for Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO, respectively. Isoelectric point values of 7.5 and 8.2 were determined for cuprous and zinc oxides, respectively, after zeta potential measurements. A shear thinning and thixotropic behavior was observed in both colloidal sols after peptization at pH ~ 6 with dilute nitric acid. Every colloidal dispersion stabilized in a low cost and environmentally friendly azeotrope solution composed of 96 vol.% of ethanol with water was used for the thin film preparation by the dip-coating technique. Optical properties of the light absorber cuprous oxide and transparent zinc oxide thin solid films were characterized by means of transmittance and reflectance measurements (300–1100 nm). - Highlights: • Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of crystalline oxides • Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticles • Low cost method for thin solid film preparation.

  17. Focus on the Rashba effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  18. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. For cyclic accelerators a technique is required for carrying the plasma channel and the beam around a bend. Multiple laser-generated channels with dipole magnetic fields to switch the beam from one channel to the next have been tested at Sandia. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using rf breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. With a suitable driving frequency, a waveguide mode can be driven which has its peak field intensity on the axis with negligible fields at the chamber walls. The plasma production and hence the beam propagation is thereby isolated from the walls. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  19. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Diagnostic Cytopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Albert J.; Adeyiga, Oladunni B.; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-01-01

    The cellular components of body fluids are routinely analyzed to identify disease and treatment approaches. While significant focus has been placed on developing cell analysis technologies, tools to automate the preparation of cellular specimens have been more limited, especially for body fluids beyond blood. Preparation steps include separating, concentrating, and exposing cells to reagents. Sample preparation continues to be routinely performed off-chip by technicians, preventing cell-based point-of-care diagnostics, increasing the cost of tests, and reducing the consistency of the final analysis following multiple manually-performed steps. Here, we review the assortment of biofluids for which suspended cells are analyzed, along with their characteristics and diagnostic value. We present an overview of the conventional sample preparation processes for cytological diagnosis. We finally discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing microfluidic devices for the purpose of automating or miniaturizing these processes, with particular emphases on preparing large or small volume samples, working with samples of high cellularity, automating multi-step processes, and obtaining high purity subpopulations of cells. We hope to convey the importance of and help identify new research directions addressing the vast biological and clinical applications in preparing and analyzing the array of available biological fluids. Successfully addressing the challenges described in this review can lead to inexpensive systems to improve diagnostic accuracy while simultaneously reducing overall systemic healthcare costs. PMID:23380972

  20. Preparation of alumina microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.R. dos; Abrao, A.

    1980-01-01

    Inorganic exchangers are widely used for adsorption and column partition chromatography. The main difficulty of using commercial alumina (in powder) for column chromatography is related to its packing, and the operations through the column become diffcult and time-consuming; also it turns to be virtually impossible to use large dimension columns. In order to eliminate these problems, a process for the preparation of alumina micro-spheres was developed as an adaptation of a similar process used to prepare nuclear fuel microspheres (UO 2 , ThO 2 ). The flowsheet of this process is presented together with the analytical results of sphericity after calcination, granulometry, density and characterization by X-ray diffractometry. Solubility tests showed that the so-prepared microspheres are well resistant to strong acids and bases; retention tests showed their efficiency, mainly to copper. (C.L.B.) [pt

  1. Surface preparation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneisel, P.

    1980-01-01

    Any discussion of surface preparation for superconducting rf-surfaces is certainly connected with the question what is the best recipe for achieving high Q-values and high break-down fields. Since the break-down in a cavity is not understood so far and because several mechanisms play a role, it also is not possible to give one recipe which always works. Nevertheless in the past certain preparation techniques for niobium surfaces have been developed and certain rules for preparation can be applied. In the following the to-days state of the art will be described and it is attempted to give a short description of the surface in conjunction with the methods of surface treatments, which generally can be applied to niobium cavities. (orig./WTR)

  2. Preparation of shaped bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, P.W.; Isaacs, J.W.; Lyon, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a shaped body includes pressing a powder to give a 'green' shaped body, the powder having been made by comminuting a material prepared by means of a gelation process, the material prior to comminuting being of a selected physical configuration (e.g. spherical). Thus, a material prepared by means of a gelation process can be transported and handled in an environmentally desirable, substantially dust-free form (e.g. spherical particles) and then comminuted to produce a powder for pressing into e.g. a shaped nuclear fuel body (e.g. pellets of (70%U/30%Pu)O 2 ), which can be sintered. (author)

  3. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. A flexible cell concentrator using inertial focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chunglong; Zhou, Jian; Liang, Yitao; Huang, Bobo; Fang, Yifeng; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Xuesong

    2017-09-11

    Cell concentration adjustment is intensively implemented routinely both in research and clinical laboratories. Centrifuge is the most prevalent technique for tuning biosample concentration. But it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as requirement of experienced operator, high cost, low resolution, variable reproducibility and induced damage to sample. Herein we report on a cost-efficient alternative using inertial microfluidics. While the majority of existing literatures concentrate on inertial focusing itself, we identify the substantial role of the outlet system played in the device performance that has long been underestimated. The resistances of the outlets virtually involve in defining the cutoff size of a given inertial filtration channel. Following the comprehensive exploration of the influence of outlet system, we designed an inertial device with selectable outlets. Using both commercial microparticles and cultured Hep G2 cells, we have successfully demonstrated the automated concentration modification and observed several key advantages of our device as compared with conventional centrifuge, such as significantly reduced cell loss (only 4.2% vs. ~40% of centrifuge), better preservation of cell viability and less processing time as well as the increased reproducibility due to absence of manual operation. Furthermore, our device shows high effectiveness for concentrated sample (e.g., 1.8 × 10 6 cells/ml) as well. We envision its promising applications in the circumstance where repetitive sample preparation is intensely employed.

  5. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  6. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  7. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  8. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  9. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  10. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  11. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  12. Preparation of uranium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.A.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride

  13. Preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Hernandez, A.; Gonzalez, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alkybromides are ones of the main organic precursors for fatty acids and alcohols labelling with Carbon 1-14. In this work the preparation of 1-bromoheptacosane by bromodescarboxylation of 1-octacosanoic acid is described. The synthesis yielded 80.5% of final product and more than 97% of chemical purity. Clean-up procedure modifications and spectral data bromoheptacosane are also reported

  14. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  15. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing beryllium hydride by the direct reaction of beryllium borohydride and aluminum hydride trimethylamine adduct. Volatile by-products and unreacted reactants are readily removed from the product mass by sublimation and/or evaporation. (U.S.)

  16. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  17. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  18. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  19. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  20. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  1. Workshop on crystals and focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreman, D. W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop on crystals and focusing was to exchange and pool the experience and information that the participants could contribute on the design and construction of monochromators for EXAFS with optimum speed, resolution and versatility. The panel was chaired by D.W. Berreman of BTL and included G. G. Cohen of NBS, S. Heald of Brookhaven National Labs and Lu Kun-quan of U. of Washington. Written contributions for the workshop were made by R. J. Emrich and J. R. Katzer of U. of Delaware, R. C. Gamble of Cal. Tech., J. Crane of Cal. Tech., and T. Matsushita of S. S. R. L. G. Bunker of U. of Washington was recording secretary, G. G. Cohen and S. Heald gave invited papers on the main program that were relevant to the workshop. Other contributors were R. Hänsel of U. of Kiel, W. Germany, G. Christoff of Ohio State and D. Hempstead of Rigaku/USA Inc., J. Holben of Marconi Avionics, Hertfordshire, England and J. Hastings of Brookhaven N. L.

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  3. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  4. Examination of fracture surfaces using focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairney, J.M.; Munroe, P.R.; Schneibel, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Composite materials consisting of an iron aluminide matrix with composition approximately Fe-40at%Al, reinforced with a volume fraction of 40--70% ceramic particles (TiC, WC, TiB 2 or ZrB 2 ), are currently being developed. Focused ion beam milling is a relatively new tool to materials science. It uses a high resolution (<5nm), energetic beam of gallium ions to selectively sputter regions of a material, whilst also functioning as a scanning ion microscope. The milling accuracy is of the order of the beam size allowing very precise sectioning to be carried out. The focused ion beam can be used to prepare highly localized cross sections which reveal the internal sub-structure of materials, avoiding detrimental processes such as deformation, or closing of existing cracks by mechanical abrasion. An area is milled from the sample such that, upon tilting, the internal structure can be imaged. The focused ion beam therefore offers a unique opportunity to examine cross-sections of the fracture surfaces in FeAl-based composites. In the present study, the focused ion beam was used to obtain cross-sections of fracture surfaces in two composite materials, in order to examine the extent of interfacial debonding and matrix deformation, thus providing more information about the mode of fracture. These cross-sections were prepared at regions where significant debonding was observed

  5. Rapid preparative separation of monoclonal antibody charge variants using laterally-fed membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavarte, Rahul; Madadkar, Pedram; Filipe, Carlos Dm; Ghosh, Raja

    2018-01-15

    Monoclonal antibodies undergo various forms of chemical transformation which have been shown to cause loss in efficacy and alteration in pharmacokinetic properties of these molecules. Such modified antibody molecules are known as variants. They also display physical properties such as charge that are different from intact antibody molecules. However, the difference in charge is very subtle and separation based on it is quite challenging. Charge variants are usually separated using ion-exchange column chromatography or isoelectric focusing. In this paper, we report a rapid and scalable method for fractionating monoclonal antibody charge variants, based on the use of cation exchange laterally-fed membrane chromatography (LFMC). Starting with a sample of monoclonal antibody hIgG1-CD4, three well-resolved fractions were obtained using either pH or salt gradient. These fractions were identified as acidic, neutral and basic variants. Each of these fractions contained intact heavy and light chains and so antibody fragmentation had no role in variant generation. The separation was comparable to that using column chromatography but was an order of magnitude faster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of monodisperse microbubbles using an integrated embedded capillary T-junction with electrohydrodynamic focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Maryam; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-07-21

    This work investigates the generation of monodisperse microbubbles using a microfluidic setup combined with electrohydrodynamic processing. A basic T-junction microfluidic device was modified by applying an electrical potential difference across the outlet channel. A model glycerol air system was selected for the experiments. In order to investigate the influence of the electric field strength on bubble formation, the applied voltage was increased systematically up to 21 kV. The effect of solution viscosity and electrical conductivity was also investigated. It was found that with increasing electrical potential difference, the size of the microbubbles reduced to ~25% of the capillary diameter whilst their size distribution remained narrow (polydispersity index ~1%). A critical value of 12 kV was found above which no further significant reduction in the size of the microbubbles was observed. The findings suggest that the size of the bubbles formed in the T-junction (i.e. in the absence of the electric field) is strongly influenced by the viscosity of the solution. The eventual size of bubbles produced by the composite device, however, was only weakly dependent upon viscosity. Further experiments, in which the solution electrical conductivity was varied by the addition of a salt indicated that this had a much stronger influence upon bubble size.

  7. "Deliberate Preparation" as an Evidence-Based Focus for Primary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Susan; Collins, David; MacNamara, Aine; Kiely, John

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial scientific research suggesting the physical and psychological health benefits of a physically active lifestyle. Consequently, governments worldwide prioritize policies, finances, and resources in healthcare, education, and sports sectors to increase mass participation in physical activity. However, practices in physical…

  8. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  9. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  10. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  12. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  14. Preparation to exceptional operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sort, M.

    1984-01-01

    Preparation to special maintenance operations requires a specific approach according to the considered intervention type. Replacement of vapor generators is representative of a kind of intervention where technics is generally only an adaptation to the power plant context of processes already in application in construction, and where methodology, planning and organization have an important role because of the variety and the quantity of taskworks to be done, the involved manpower, the dosimetry and time lag requirements [fr

  15. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  16. Overview of Site Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of Cadarache as the host of ITER is organised at a double level: Europe, since the beginning of the candidature in 2001, is coordinating the so-called European ITER Site Studies; France, as the host country, has put in place a dedicated structure at a decisional level (close to the government), and operational level in the PACA region with two entities: The Agency Iter France (AIF), inside the CEA, interlocutor of international and European entities, in charge of site preparation and fund recollection; An accompanying prefectoral mission, in charge mainly of road adaptation and the international school. The paper will cover all the aspects related to the preparation of the implementation of ITER: Technical aspects: the progress of site preparation itself, its servicing (water supply, electrical supply, Internet...), the road adaptation between the large harbour of Fos-sur-mer and Cadarache, etc. will be detailed. Regulatory procedures: in the framework of the delegation that the ITER partners gave to the CEA/AIF on 14 th September 2005, two main large files are in progress: The public debate, organised by an independent authority, informs the population of the challenges and impacts of ITER in Provence; The safety documents: the writing of the preliminary safety report, which will be submitted to the Nuclear Safety Authority and the files submitted to the public during the public enquiries are ongoing. Socioeconomic aspects: the welcome of ITER staff and their families is operational, via a dedicated Welcome Office; the location of an international school in Manosque leads now to its pre-figuration. The overall organisation will be described, as well as all planning forecast for the coming years, leading to the start of construction. (author)

  17. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  18. PREPARING A MARKETING STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Grönholm, Eija

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to prepare a marketing strategy for Living City Centre of Kotka Association. The work was implemented with the members of the association and the executive director Reijo Saksa. Living City Centre of Kotka Association was founded in spring 2006 for promoting living, enjoyable and safe centers in the City of Kotka. The association has two permanent employees. The main duties are managing the Kotka market places and promoting the stakeholder connections betw...

  19. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.R.; Baker, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Beryllium hydride of high bulk density, suitable for use as a component of high-energy fuels, is prepared by the pyrolysis, in solution in an inert solvent, of a ditertiary-alkyl beryllium. An agitator introduces mechanical energy into the reaction system, during the pyrolysis, at the rate of 0.002 to 0.30 horsepower per gallon of reaction mixture. (U.S.)

  20. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  1. Keep the focus on emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; Benson, S. M.; Peterson, P.; Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Most think that the major battle over climate is between those that want to solve the climate problem and the climate deniers. But there is another conflict, perhaps equally significant between people who all agree climate is a problem but who disagree radically about what they think the solution is. The imperative for stopping further climate change is to stop GHG emissions and the first energy sector of importance is electricity. Every major plan to eliminate emmissions from energy requires a carbon-free electricity system. The most popular idea about how to do this is to use all renewable energy, i.e. solar and wind power. But no one has ever built a large scale 100% renewable energy system and the few examples we have about regions that have tried are not encouraging. As the percentage of renewable energy goes up, ensuring a reliable supply often requires a fossil-based back-up system, so emissions can actually increase. Also, 100% renewable systems rely on massive deployment rates, far beyond any historical precident and often assume that adequate energy storage will "happen" through a combination of currently unavailable technologies. This approach is about adding renewable capacity, not about reducing emissions. Sweden provides a counter example that relies entirely on nuclear power and hydro and has an emission-free, reliable energy system. Likewise, biofuel is often cited as a climate-friendly substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Life-cycle analsyis indicates biofuels are often worse than petroleum-based fuels. We focus efficiency measures on buildings, but efficiency in transportation is even more important because we don't really have the fuel that is carbon neutral. Vehicle efficiency and reductions in vehicle miles traveled does better to address emissions. As mitigation is so important, climate advocates used to think discussion of adaptation was a distraction that should be avoided. But losing track of the need to eliminate emissions is the real

  2. CATE 2016 Indonesia: Optics and Focus Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, M. A.; Jenson, L.; Kovac, S. A.; Bosh, R.; Mitchell, A. M.; Hare, H. S.; Watson, Z.; Penn, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The 2017 solar eclipse will be a natural phenomenon that will sweep across the United State would provide an excellent opportunity to observe and study the solar corona. The Citizens Continental Astronomical Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment directed my Matt Penn, intends to take advantage of this scientific opportunity by organizing 60 sites along the path of totality from Oregon to South Carolina to observe the eclipse and make a 90 min continuous video of the solar corona. The preliminary observation was done with the 2016 eclipse in Indonesia, with 5 sites along the path of totality. The sites were provided with an 80mm diameter Telescope with a 480mm focal length with an extension tube, Celestron equatorial mount, a CMOS camera, a Dell dual processor running Windows, GPS and an Arduino box, more details will be provided. I observed at the furthest east site in Ternate, Indonesia, with Dr. Donald Walter. The day of the eclipse we had clouds but still had a successful observation. The observation was successful with 4 out of the 5 sites collected eclipse data, due to weather the other site was not able to observe. The data was then collected and processed over the summer. To prepare for the observation in 2017, the 60 sites will be provided with the equipment, software and training. The groups will then practice by doing solar and lunar observations, where they will follow an almost identical procedure for the eclipse to do their observations. These test will increase our chances to have a successful observation among all sites. The focus will play a crucial role in this observation to provide a high quality image. Currently, a new focusing method using an image derivative method to provide quantitative feedback to the user is being developed. Finally, a Graphical User Interface is also being developed using the codes produces from the summer 2016 data analysis, to process the images from each site with minimal effort and produce quality scientific images

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  4. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  5. Ion Motion in the Adiabatic Focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we numerically study the effect of ion motion in an adiabatic focuser, motivated by a recent suggestion that ion motion in an adiabatic focuser might be significant and even preclude operation of the focuser as previously envisioned. It is shown that despite ion motion the adiabatic focuser should work as well as originally envisioned

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  7. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  8. Low-molecular-weight color pI markers to monitor on-line the peptide focusing process in OFFGEL fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelland, Sylvie; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Cunin, Valérie; Tollance, Axel; Bertolino, Pascal; Slais, Karel; Seve, Michel

    2017-08-01

    High-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis requires peptide fractionation to simplify complex biological samples and increase proteome coverage. OFFGEL fractionation technology became a common method to separate peptides or proteins using isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. However, the OFFGEL focusing process may be further optimized and controlled in terms of separation time and pI resolution. Here we evaluated OFFGEL technology to separate peptides from different samples in the presence of low-molecular-weight (LMW) color pI markers to visualize the focusing process. LMW color pI markers covering a large pH range were added to the peptide mixture before OFFGEL fractionation using a 24-wells device encompassing the pH range 3-10. We also explored the impact of LMW color pI markers on peptide fractionation labeled previously for iTRAQ. Then, fractionated peptides were separated by RP_HPLC prior to MS analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry in MS and MS/MS modes. Here we report the performance of the peptide focusing process in the presence of LMW color pI markers as on-line trackers during the OFFGEL process and the possibility to use them as pI controls for peptide focusing. This method improves the workflow for peptide fractionation in a bottom-up proteomic approach with or without iTRAQ labeling. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Prepared for a job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The presentation focus on an ongoing project at Aarhus University. The aim of the project is to explore the difficulties among students with special needs regarding the transition from university to the labor market. The project will be based on interviews with students from the Study center for ...

  10. Preparation of beryllium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrance, B.R.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the preparation of beryllium hydride which comprises pyrolyzing, while in solution in a solvent inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products and at a temperature in the range of about 100 0 to about 200 0 C, sufficient to result in the formation of beryllium hydride, a di-t-alkyl beryllium etherate wherein each tertiary alkyl radical contains from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The pyrolysis is carried out under an atmosphere inert under the reaction conditions, with respect to reactants and products. (U.S.)

  11. Potassium fluorotitanate preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, Patricia; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the best conditions for potassium fluotitanate preparation as intermediate step in the electrolytic production of metalic titanium, the effects of a number of experimental variables have been studied. This method is a process of sintering titanium dioxide with potassium fluosilicate and potassium chloride, followed by leaching with boiling water and further crystallization by cooling the solution. An overall yield of 90% has been attained under the following conditions: working temperature: 750 deg C; heating time for sintering: 3 hours; molar ratio: titanium dioxide: potassium fluosilicate: potassium chloride: 1 : 2 : 0.4; number of leachings: 6. (Author) [es

  12. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...

  13. Data Breach Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  14. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  16. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  17. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  18. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences with internat......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... the positive influence on number of our partnership agreements with other European universities. Globalisation makes it necessary to cooperate on an international platform. At the IHK we have more than 50 active Erasmus agreements. We also have bilateral agreements with many non-European countries, for example......: USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international...

  19. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  20. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  1. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  2. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  3. Student award for outstanding research winner in the Ph.D. category for the 2017 society for biomaterials annual meeting and exposition, april 5-8, 2017, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Characterization of protein interactions with molecularly imprinted hydrogels that possess engineered affinity for high isoelectric point biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, John R; Zhong, Justin X; Irani, Afshan S; Gu, Joann; Spencer, David S; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with selective affinity for protein biomarkers could find extensive utility as environmentally robust, cost-efficient biomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In order to develop recognitive, synthetic biomaterials for prohibitively expensive protein biomarkers, we have developed a molecular imprinting technique that utilizes structurally similar, analogue proteins. Hydrogel microparticles synthesized by molecular imprinting with trypsin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c possessed an increased affinity for alternate high isoelectric point biomarkers both in isolation and plasma-mimicking adsorption conditions. Imprinted and non-imprinted P(MAA-co-AAm-co-DEAEMA) microgels containing PMAO-PEGMA functionalized polycaprolactone nanoparticles were net-anionic, polydisperse, and irregularly shaped. MIPs and control non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) exhibited regions of Freundlich and BET isotherm adsorption behavior in a range of non-competitive protein solutions, where MIPs exhibited enhanced adsorption capacity in the Freundlich isotherm regions. In a competitive condition, imprinting with analogue templates (trypsin, lysozyme) increased the adsorption capacity of microgels for cytochrome c by 162% and 219%, respectively, as compared to a 122% increase provided by traditional bulk imprinting with cytochrome c. Our results suggest that molecular imprinting with analogue protein templates is a viable synthetic strategy for enhancing hydrogel-biomarker affinity and promoting specific protein adsorption behavior in biological fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1565-1574, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pedagogical content knowledge and preparation of high school physics teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Etkina

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK). The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is t...

  5. [Natural focus of tularemia on the Kerchen peninsula (Crimea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkovskiĭ, G M; Mitsevich, G F; Khaĭtovich, A B; Alekseev, E V; Korchevskiĭ, P G

    1981-10-01

    The study confirming the existence of the steppe-type natural focus of tularemia on the Kerch peninsula has been carried out. For the first time the cultures of Francisella tularensis have been isolated. Voles and house mice play the main role in the circulation of the infection. The parasitic system comprises ticks (Ixodidae and Nyalomma), as well as some species of fleas. In carrying out erizootological studies for detecting tularemia in the Crimea the use of low temperature (0 degrees C) for the preservation of specimens and preparations in recommended.

  6. Novel macroporous amphoteric gels: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kudaibergenov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous amphoteric gels based on allylamine, methacrylic acid and acrylamide crosslinked by N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were synthesized by radical copolymerization of monomers in cryoconditions. The composition of cryogels was determined by combination of potentiometric and conductimetric titrations. The morphology of cryogels was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Cryogels exhibited sponge-like porous structure with pore size ranging from 50 to 200 μm. The values of the isoelectric points (IEPs determined from the swelling experiments arranged between 3.5 and 4.3. The high adsorption-desorption capacity of amphoteric cryogels with respect to mM and trace concentrations of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions was demonstrated. It was shown that the macroporous amphoteric cryogels are able to adsorb up to 99.9% of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions from 10–3 mol•L–1 aqueous solution.

  7. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, H. L

    2000-01-01

    ...: interpupillary distance, tilt, eye relief, height, eyepiece and objective lens focus. Currently, aircrew use a Hoffman 20/20 test unit to pre-focus their NVG objective lenses at optical infinity before boarding their aircraft...

  8. Preparing for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  9. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  10. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.C.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  11. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  12. Preparing paraffin wax, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-12-27

    A process is described for preparing paraffin wax by separation from substances containing bitumen, consisting of treating the raw material at an elevated temperature under such moderate conditions and by means of such organic solvents that the bitumen present in the raw material or formed in the process dissolves as well as the asphaltic and phenolic substances and the humic acids which may be said to be neither extracts nor decomposed materials, and then submitting the products and extracts to a treatment with hydrogen gas, which is effected below 300/sup 0/C, and passing the material over fixed hydrogenation catalysts above 300/sup 0/C by means of hydrogenation catalysts finely dispersed in carbonaceous materials all avoiding decomposition with the formation of volatile products.

  13. Decommissioning. Success with preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Joerg; Schulz, Rolf; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant poses a significant challenge for the operating company. The business model is turned upside down and a working culture developed for power operation has to be adapted while necessary know- how for the upcoming tasks has to be built up. The trauma for the employees induced by the final plant shut-down has to be considered and respected. The change of working culture in the enterprise has to be managed and the organization has to be prepared for the future. Here the methods of Change-Management offer a systematic and effective approach. Confidence in the employee's competencies is one of the key success factors for the change into the future.

  14. Self-focusing in laser produced spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Foeldes, I.B.

    1983-05-01

    The self-focusing effect appearing in different phases of development of laser produced breakdown plasma in air is investigated. Self-focusing during the ionization process is demonstrated. Thermal self-focusing was observed in the later stage of the plasma development at moderate light intensities. Plasma development was investigated by forward and side scattering of the laser light in the plasma. A crossed beam experiment gave evidence of the thermal mechanism of self-focusing. (author)

  15. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  16. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  17. Health care reform: preparing the psychology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensky, Ronald H

    2012-03-01

    This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.

  18. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  19. Data preparation for asteroseismology with TESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Mikkel N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission. Following its scheduled launch in 2017, TESS will focus on detecting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, for which detailed follow-up observations are possible. TESS will, as the NASA Kepler mission, include a asteroseismic program that will be organized within the TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium (TASC, building on the success of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC. Within TASC data for asteroseismic analysis will be prepared by the TASC Working Group 0 (WG-0, who will facilitate data to the community via the TESS Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (TASOC, again building on the success of the corresponding KASOC platform for Kepler. Here, we give an overview of the steps being taken within WG-0 to prepare for the upcoming TESS mission.

  20. Data preparation for asteroseismology with TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Handberg, Rasmus; Kjeldsen, Hans; Chaplin, William J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2017-10-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission. Following its scheduled launch in 2017, TESS will focus on detecting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, for which detailed follow-up observations are possible. TESS will, as the NASA Kepler mission, include a asteroseismic program that will be organized within the TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium (TASC), building on the success of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). Within TASC data for asteroseismic analysis will be prepared by the TASC Working Group 0 (WG-0), who will facilitate data to the community via the TESS Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (TASOC), again building on the success of the corresponding KASOC platform for Kepler. Here, we give an overview of the steps being taken within WG-0 to prepare for the upcoming TESS mission.

  1. Tunable Focus Liquid Lens with Radial-Patterned Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A dielectric liquid lens is prepared based on our previous work. By optimizing the device structure, the liquid lens presents a converging focus with good resolution and changes its focal length over a broad range with a low driving voltage. For a liquid lens with ~2.3 mm diameter in the relaxed state, it can resolve ~40 lp/mm. The resolution does not degrade during focus change. Its focal length can be varied from ~12 to ~5 mm when the applied voltage is changed from 0 to 28 Vrms. The response time of one cycle is ~2.5 s. Our liquid lens, with a low driving voltage for a large dynamic range, has potential applications in imaging, biometrics, optoelectronic, and lab-on-chip devices.

  2. Recent advances in column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita

    2012-04-01

    Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials.

  3. Professional preparation in physical education: changing labor market and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Tani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.

  4. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...

  5. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter; Kunyansky, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  6. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  7. Provider automation. Focusing on the big picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S

    1995-06-01

    St. Vincent's Hospital in Birmingham, Ala., is preparing for a new world of health care by creating an enterprisewide information systems strategy rather than developing automation solutions for departmental "islands."

  8. Isolation and purification of wheat germ agglutinin and analysis of its properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the wheat germ agglutinin was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography of chicken ovomucoid as ligand. The physicochemical properties were analyzed. The chicken ovomucoid was isolated from egg white and conjugated to affinity chromatography column agarose gel to prepare affinity adsorbent. The crude extract of wheat germ was freezedried by affinity chromatography. The physicochemical properties were analyzed by SDSpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. And the relative molecular mass and isoelectric point of wheat germ agglutinin were obtained, and the high efficiency of purification of wheat germ agglutinin was proved by affinity chromatography.

  9. FOCUS PARTICLES (JUST, EVEN, AND, ETC. IN THE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Valančė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article has been prepared by carrying out the analysis of focus particles: just, even, and, etc. It is important to note that particles play a very important role in linguistic pragmatics: they convey additional meanings called the conventional implicatures, and in that way they strengthen their effect on the consumers. First, the article discusses slogans which were advertised in January – March 2014; then, it discusses how focus particles are used in these slogans, besides the attention which is drawn to the visual advertising and invitation design. The research of advertisements and slogans has approved the prior statement just partially, and for this reason two corpora of advertisement articles (from the fields of education and medicine were formed. They were analysed separately and later on compared in order to find out whether the focus particles are used similarly in different discourse advertisements. The comparison of the data has disclosed that the focus particles are more commonly used in the original texts related to Lithuania’s education than in the medical advertisements, which are mostly translations used to inform about new medical tools or medical treatment innovations. The research has been carried out by applying the method of corpus linguistics.

  10. [Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at "focusing check"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, T; Ikemi, A; Murayama, S

    1983-06-01

    Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can be confused with other phenomena such as "autogenic discharge". Also the Focuser may not stay with the felt sense and drift into "free association" or frequently, certain processes in "meditation" can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there is a need for a "check" by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a "check" serves not only to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will report here a "Focusing Check" which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin's "Focusing Check" and making several modifications in it so that it will be more understandable to the Japanese. Along with the "Focusing Check" we developed, the authors discuss the need for such a check.

  11. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  12. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  13. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  14. Preparing for Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.T.; Manson, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Risk management is one of the most complex project management processes, requiring rigorous management and discipline. Unfortunately, for many organizations, the risk management process has become contaminated by poor management practices, an absence of meaningful risk assessments, meaningless risk event descriptions, incomplete and vague risk impact analyses, poor follow through on risk mitigation activities and a general lack of attention to accuracy, completeness and quality. At this point, the risk register, instead of being a key tool used by the organization to systematically identify and eliminate risk, while exploiting opportunities, has become a list of pre-prepared excuses based on the repeat of failures encountered on past projects. However, organizations are not condemned to repeat past failures. By returning to the basics of risk management, and through the application of some basic management guidelines, the risk register-instead of being an 'Excuse Register' - can become the cornerstone of a comprehensive risk management program to promote a systematic, pro-active approach within an organization that will result in accomplishing mitigation activities, reducing risk and gaining advantage through opportunities. (authors)

  15. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A; Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-12-15

    To develop a reproducible tissue lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different methods to obtain protein extracts from bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue, and focused ultrasonication also had the fastest processing time. We used focused-ultrasonicator for subsequent activity-based proteomic analysis of deubiquitinases to test the compatibility of this method in sample preparation for activity-based chemical proteomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bowel preparation for CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emanuele; Lefere, Philippe; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan; Bemi, Pietro; Mantarro, Annalisa; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Bowel preparation represents an essential part of CT colonography, as the accuracy of the exam is strongly related to the adequacy of colonic cleansing, and a poor bowel preparation may compromise the diagnostic quality even despite optimization of all other acquisition parameters. Residual stool and fluid in the large bowel may affect the interpretation of the exam and may increase the number of false positives and false negatives. In this regard, the majority of patients having undergone CT colonography state that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part. Unfortunately, to date no definite consensus has been reached about the ideal bowel preparation technique, and there is great variability in preparation strategies across diagnostic centers. The purpose of this review article is to describe the development and evolution of bowel preparation techniques in order to choose the best approach for optimizing the diagnostic quality of CT colonography in each patient

  17. Bowel preparation for CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.neri@med.unipi.it [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy); Lefere, Philippe; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan [Department of Radiology, Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Roeselare (Belgium); Bemi, Pietro; Mantarro, Annalisa; Bartolozzi, Carlo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Bowel preparation represents an essential part of CT colonography, as the accuracy of the exam is strongly related to the adequacy of colonic cleansing, and a poor bowel preparation may compromise the diagnostic quality even despite optimization of all other acquisition parameters. Residual stool and fluid in the large bowel may affect the interpretation of the exam and may increase the number of false positives and false negatives. In this regard, the majority of patients having undergone CT colonography state that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part. Unfortunately, to date no definite consensus has been reached about the ideal bowel preparation technique, and there is great variability in preparation strategies across diagnostic centers. The purpose of this review article is to describe the development and evolution of bowel preparation techniques in order to choose the best approach for optimizing the diagnostic quality of CT colonography in each patient.

  18. Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence has been investigated in two-dimensional line-focus geometry using the Eulerian hydrodynamics simulation code SAGE. The laser beam interacts with a long-scale-length preformed plasma with an expontial density profiele. Questions to be addressed include: (1) What happens when a self-focusing channel reaches the turning point of the incident rays, and (2) Does the unabsorbed light return in the specular direction or back along the channel. A comparison is also made between thermal self-focusing at normal incidence in cylindrical and line-focus geometries: in cylindrical geometry the self-focusing mechanism is enhanced by the relative ease with which plasma may be expelled from a small cylindrical channel

  19. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  20. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  1. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  2. LHC preparations change gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    After the formal approval by CERN Council in December (January, page 1) of the LHC protonproton collider for CERN's 27- kilometre LEP tunnel, preparations for the new machine change gear. Lyndon Evans becomes LHC Project Leader, and CERN's internal structure will soon be reorganized to take account of the project becoming a definite commitment. On the experimental side, the full Technical Proposals for the big general purpose ATLAS and CMS detectors were aired at a major meeting of the LHC Committee at CERN in January. These Technical Proposals are impressive documents each of some several hundred pages. (Summaries of the detector designs will appear in forthcoming issues of the CERN Courier.) The ALICE heavy ion experiment is not far behind, and plans for other LHC experiments are being developed. Playing an important role in this groundwork has been the Detector Research and Development Committee (DRDC), founded in 1990 to foster detector development for the LHC experimental programme and structured along the lines of a traditional CERN Experiments Committee. Established under the Director Generalship of Carlo Rubbia and initially steered by Research Director Walter Hoogland, the DRDC has done sterling work in blazing a trail for LHC experiments. Acknowledging that the challenge of LHC experimentation needs technological breakthroughs as well as specific detector subsystems, DRDC proposals have covered a wide front, covering readout electronics and computing as well as detector technology. Its first Chairman was Enzo larocci, succeeded in 1993 by Michal Turala. DRDC's role was to evaluate proposals, and make recommendations to CERN's Research Board for approval and resource allocation, not an easy task when the LHC project itself had yet to be formally approved. Over the years, a comprehensive portfolio of detector development has been built up, much of which has either led to specific LHC detector subsystems for traditional detector tasks

  3. Effect of preparation duration diminution in shot put through neurovegetative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dittmar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, time allocated to athletes concentration has been reduced to 1 minute. Increased activation and focused attention are thought to be important operations which influence performance during preparation. The aim of the study was to test whether reducing preparation time has an effect on subjects’ mental activity and consequently on performance. Ten subjects took part in the experiment. Each subject had to perform 14 throws: a 7 with preparation b 7 with no preparation. Autonomic nervous system activity was continuously recorded through six variables (2 electrodermal, 2 thermovascular and 2 cardiorespiratory variables. Performance was comparable in preparation and non-preparation modalities. Subjects increase their activation before throwing, however more rapidly without preparation time. Thus, performance was obtained through the same activation level whatever the time allocated to prepare. Shot-put performance seems to be dependent upon execution quality but also on reaching an optimal activation level. Phasic autonomic responses (related to focused attention and movement programming were recorded during preparation and execution. Only a weak relationship was evidenced between vegetative responses in preparation and execution phases. Thus, vegetative responses during the preparation phase did not attest mental operations such as focusing attention on a technical aspect.

  4. Thermal self-focusing with multiple beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Self-focusing in underdense plasmas in the presence of overlapping beams is of interest for multibeam laser-irradiation systems. The hydrodynamics/ray-tracing simulation code SAGE is used to model thermal self-focusing in two-dimensional line-focus geometry with beams incident obliquely at different angles. The conjecture that multiple overlapping beams may suppress self-focusing is investigated for parameters appropriate to reactor-sized targets; in particular, the dependence upon intensity, scale length and pulse width is examined. While the full problem is three-dimensional, insight may be gained from two-dimensional simulations

  5. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  6. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  7. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-05

    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  8. Preparing teachers for ambitious and culturally responsive science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-03-01

    Communities, schools and classrooms across North America are becoming more ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse, particularly in urban areas. Against this backdrop, underrepresentation of certain groups in science continues. Much attention has been devoted to multicultural education and the preparation of teachers for student diversity. In science education, much research has focused on classrooms as cultural spaces and the need for teachers to value and build upon students' everyday science knowledge and ways of sense-making. However it remains unclear how best to prepare science teachers for this kind of culturally responsive teaching. In attempting to envision how to prepare science teachers with cross-cultural competency, we can draw from a parallel line of research on preparing teachers for ambitious science instruction. In ambitious science instruction, students solve authentic problems and generate evidence and models to develop explanations of scientific phenomenon, an approach that necessitates great attention to students' thinking and sense-making, thus making it applicable to cultural relevance aims. In addition, this line of research on teacher preparation has developed specific tools and engages teachers in cycles of reflection and rehearsal as they develop instructional skills. While not addressing cross-cultural teaching specifically, this research provides insights into specific ways through which to prepare teachers for culturally responsive practices. In my presentation, I will report on efforts to join these two areas of research, that is, to combine ideas about multicultural science teacher preparation with what has been learned about how to develop ambitious science instruction. This research suggests a new model for urban science teacher preparation--one that focuses on developing specific teaching practices that elicit and build on student thinking, and doing so through cycles of individual and collective planning, rehearsal

  9. Medication errors in home care: a qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Astrid; Bentsen, Signe Berit

    2017-11-01

    To explore registered nurses' experiences of medication errors and patient safety in home care. The focus of care for older patients has shifted from institutional care towards a model of home care. Medication errors are common in this situation and can result in patient morbidity and mortality. An exploratory qualitative design with focus group interviews was used. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 20 registered nurses in home care. The data were analysed using content analysis. Five categories were identified as follows: lack of information, lack of competence, reporting medication errors, trade name products vs. generic name products, and improving routines. Medication errors occur frequently in home care and can threaten the safety of patients. Insufficient exchange of information and poor communication between the specialist and home-care health services, and between general practitioners and healthcare workers can lead to medication errors. A lack of competence in healthcare workers can also lead to medication errors. To prevent these, it is important that there should be up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers during the transfer of patients from specialist to home care. Ensuring competence among healthcare workers with regard to medication is also important. In addition, there should be openness and accurate reporting of medication errors, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medicines. To prevent medication errors in home care, up-to-date information and communication between healthcare workers is important when patients are transferred from specialist to home care. It is also important to ensure adequate competence with regard to medication, and that there should be openness when medication errors occur, as well as in setting routines for the preparation, alteration and administration of medications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  11. Design of preparative-supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Arvind

    2012-08-10

    Preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (prep-SFC) is an important separation process in the chromatographers toolbox. Owing to the unique properties of the mobile phase, which is predominantly CO(2), the behavior of SFC is markedly different from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This review article focuses on the scale-up of preparative chromatography. The basics of SFC, with particular focus on highlighting the key differences between SFC and HPLC, are introduced. Then, a framework for rational design of prep-SFC is proposed. This framework is based on obtaining basic system parameters from analytical scale equipment, i.e., with very small amount of material, and performing design and optimization in silico to evaluate process performance and to identify operating conditions for scale-up. The tools required to obtain the input parameters such as adsorption isotherms are discussed and the development of the design and optimization framework is elaborated. Examples from the literature which use this approach for successful scale-up are provided. Finally the design of multi-column SFC systems is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TFTR DT preparation project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, E.D.; Dudek, L.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) research program is preparing to commence the first high power Deuterium-Tritium (DT) experiments of the US Fusion Program. Hardware upgrades to TFTR required for DT operations have been completed. This paper discusses these hardware preparations.

  13. Merging Expertise: Preparing Collaborative Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Elizabeth M.; Colley, Kenna M.; Daniel, Leslie S.; Dickenson, Kathie W.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, teacher education faculty of a medium-size university, historically grounded in teacher preparation within a rural context, describe their ongoing work to transform their practice in order to prepare special and general educators who co-plan, co-teach, and co-assess with their counterparts in the field. Follow-up research with…

  14. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...

  15. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  16. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  17. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  18. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  19. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  20. Relationship management in preparation for the new engineering projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magomedova Julia Yurievna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The author reveals the constituent elements of the customer relationship and the Executive in the preparation of a new engineering projects. Relationships are built with a focus on effective risk management in the execution of the project on energy efficiency a major consumer.

  1. 13...Going on 18: Preparing for the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Leah G.

    This project is designed to help secondary school students prepare for participation in the electoral process as informed citizens. The project has students focus on current events pertaining to the U.S. election process. They study basic government concepts found in the Constitution, such as Separation of Powers, as well as practices that have…

  2. Integrating Tax Preparation with FAFSA Completion: Three Case Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan; Mabry, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research compares three different models implemented in four cities. The models integrated free tax-preparation services to assist low-income families with their completion of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). There has been an increased focus on simplifying the FAFSA process. However, simplification is not the only…

  3. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  4. Stakeholder Experiences in District-University Administrator Preparation Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzo, Karen L.; Wilson, Jacob McKinley, III

    2016-01-01

    Our qualitative study explores the lived experiences of district stakeholders in university-district leadership preparation programs. Collaborative partnerships between school districts and universities focused on developing quality school leader are a part of recent efforts to provide the field of public education with exemplary leadership. The…

  5. Preparing for the Market. Teacher Edition. Fashion Buying Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cindy

    This teacher's guide presents material for a unit on preparing for the retail fashion market. Content focuses on merchandise plans, computing open-to-buy, computing turnover, the components of a model stock plan, and criteria used when selecting a supplier. The guide contains 5 objectives, 6 group learning activities keyed to the objectives, 21…

  6. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  7. Preparing to Lead: A Leadership Philosophy Exercise for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Kristi Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a leadership philosophy exercise where students reflect on their values and prepare a statement of what they intend to do as a leader in their careers. This exercise has the potential to add value to leadership classes or seminars where personal leadership is the focus. By using the leadership philosophy exercise, I argue…

  8. Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in ... teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. ... beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. ... focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

  9. Leadership Preparation: Engine of Transformation or Social Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    William Taylor's 1969 chapter provides a springboard to reflect on how what he termed administrator training has developed since the 1960s. Responding also to Baron's insistence in the same volume that education be viewed as political, the article adopts a critical perspective, focusing on leader preparation programmes and exploring how they…

  10. Women's Leadership Preparation within the Senior Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kay; Cliffe, Joanne; Moorosi, Pontso

    2015-01-01

    In England, despite making up 60% of the secondary school teaching workforce, women continue to be underrepresented in secondary school headship. In this paper, we focus on the experiences of women working in the Senior Leadership Team (SLT) as a site for headship preparation. This paper draws on survey findings from a study of women's and men's…

  11. Rehabilitation Counselor Preparation for Working with Youth with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Hunt, Brandon; Lorenz, Dawn C.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty in CORE-accredited rehabilitation counseling programs (N = 46) were surveyed to assess preparation for work with youth with psychiatric disabilities and to identify barriers to developing and maintaining a specialization focused on this population within the curriculum. Although faculty reported that students enrolled in their programs…

  12. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  13. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  14. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  15. Reactor operation plan preparing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki; Maruyama, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Banto, Masaru; Fukazawa, Yukihisa.

    1993-01-01

    The device comprises a means for retrieving a control rod pattern capable of satisfying a thermal limit upon aimed power/minimum flow rate and providing minimum xenon and a control rod pattern maximum xenon. It further comprises a means for selecting a control rod pattern corresponding to a xenon equilibrium condition, and selecting a control rod which provides a greater thermal margin to provide a control rod operation sequence for each of the patterns. Further, the device comprises an outline plan preparing means and a correction means therefor, a simplified sequence table reference means operated along with sequence change, an operation limit region input means, a control rod operation preferential region changing means, a thermal margin evaluation region and an input means. This can automatically prepare the operation plan, decrease the times for preparation of detailed plans by using the outline plan preparing function, thereby enabling to remarkably shorten the time for preparing of an operation plan. (N.H.)

  16. Preparing for New Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William

    2005-01-01

    I think the biggest single issue in addressing any of the problems that I have mentioned is we do not have a way to marshal the adequate academic and intellectual resources in this country to solve these problems. So I would suggest that the country take a look at some of the national educational institutes that we have in the military. There are eight or nine of them The National War College, Industrial College of the Armed Services, and so forth. We need to have a National Space Institute that has some kind of Federal Charter. Its purpose would be to make available the intellectual resources necessary for the human exploration of space. It would have this as a single purpose. It would be a place where the appropriate knowledge, the experience, and the intellectual energy could be focused on this single goal. It would have the status of other national colleges. It would also be a virtual college or a university, and it would be collaborative with colleges and universities and other learning institutions all across the country and perhaps the world. Experts on space from almost any corridor could participate and contribute to what this institute would do. It also would have very strong business participation. We would have folks from industry come to this environment, learn, go back and work, and then come back and teach. It would be a means for individuals to become more proficient in the technical engineering operations, as well as the business and political aspects of space exploration. Such a national space institute also would need to establish and maintain close contact with ongoing development and operations in human space programs.

  17. Preparing for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. full text

  18. Focused ion beam systems: basics and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yao, Nan

    2007-01-01

    ..., their interaction with materials, etching, and deposition are all covered, as well as in-situ materials characterization, sample preparation, three-dimension reconstruction, and applications in biomaterials and nanotechnology. With nanostructured materials becoming increasingly important in micromechanical, electronic, and magnetic devices, this self...

  19. Educational Focuses in Organisational Life Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harry G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents four stages frequently associated with the stages of an organization's life cycle: experimentation, growth, maturity, and decline or stability. The author also demonstrates that the impact of employment and thus training related to organizational life cycles suggests a need for understanding the technical preparation required for…

  20. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  1. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  2. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  3. Technology of a small plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews plasma focus technology, including the underlying dynamic and energy balance theory, scaling of the neutron yield, cost effectiveness of the design, as well as the main subsystems, e.g., capacitor bank, spark-gap switch and triggering electronics, the plasma focus tube, some simple diagnostics, and a high-voltage charger. It discusses the range of densities and temperatures available with a small plasma focus, and the type of experiments and applications that can be carried out with it. 61 refs, 21 figs

  4. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  5. Preparation of bromine fluoride; Preparation du fluorure de brome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domange, Pr; Duflo, J.

    1958-05-15

    This note addresses the preparation of bromine fluoride. It indicates the implemented process for the reaction, used products (fluorine and bromine), and column characteristics. It describes the operating mode. Apparatus drawing is provided.

  6. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  7. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status. (orig.) [de

  8. The Pitfalls of Focusing on Instructional Strategies in Professional Development for Teachers of English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade, the professional development literature has shown that most teachers are not adequately prepared to teach English learners (ELs)--that holds true for both specialist and mainstream teachers (see, for example, August & Hakuta, 1997; Beykont, 2002). Research that focuses on professional development for teachers of ELs,…

  9. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  10. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  11. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  12. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola

    2001-01-01

    , but the approach always yields point spread functions better or equal to a traditional dynamically focused image. Finally, the process was applied to in-vivo clinical images of the liver and right kidney from a 28 years old male. The data was obtained with a single element transducer focused at 100 mm....... A new method for making spatial matched filter focusing of RF ultrasound data is proposed based on the spatial impulse response description of the imaging. The response from a scatterer at any given point in space relative to the transducer can be calculated, and this gives the spatial matched filter...... for synthetic aperture imaging for single element transducers. It is evaluated using the Field II program. Data from a single 3 MHz transducer focused at a distance of 80 mm is processed. Far from the transducer focal region, the processing greatly improves the image resolution: the lateral slice...

  13. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  14. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  15. Symmetric lens with extended depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2008-01-01

    The lens surface profile is derived based on the instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data. The lens design based on instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data has many useful applications in software assisted image focusing technology.

  16. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  17. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  18. Niger institute focuses on financial accountability | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Niger institute focuses on financial accountability ... on renewing outdated financial management systems that impeded effective management and reporting on its activities. ... Canada-Africa grants spur novel ideas, networks.

  19. Plasma focus as a pulsed power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.; McFarland, G.; Barlett, R.; Gullickson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The plasma focus is a remarkable natural phenomena that achieves significant space-time compression of both particle and field energy. Depending on the mode of operation, about 20 percent of the bank energy can be concentrated into the kinetic energy of a thin, dense, cylindrically convergent gas shell, or into a small-diameter, high-ν/γ relativistic electron burst and oppositely directed ion burst. The kinetic energy of the fast ions and electrons can exceed the applied voltage by a factor of greater than 100. The different modes of energy concentration by the plasma focus are presented and discussed both in terms of their role in the direct yield of the focus and for the case of a plasma focus supplemented by various fusionable targets

  20. Focused labeled proof systems for modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    Miller , Dale; Volpe , Marco

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Focused proofs are sequent calculus proofs that group inference rules into alternating positive and negative phases. These phases can then be used to define macro-level inference rules from Gentzen's original and tiny introduction and structural rules. We show here that the inference rules of labeled proof systems for modal logics can similarly be described as pairs of such phases within the LKF focused proof system for first-order classical logic. We consider the syst...

  1. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  2. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  3. The final focus test beam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.

    1991-05-01

    An overview is given of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) that is being constructed as a prototype final focus system for a future electron-positron linear collider. This beam line will use as input the 50 GeV electron beam from the SLC linac, and is designed to reduce the transverse dimensions of the beam spot at the focal point to 1 μm. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Draft of textbook focused on indirect taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about draft of textbook which is focused on indirect taxes for business school. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on teaching tax issues at business school. Readers are introduced with basic studying documents, for example framework educational program and school educational program. In the following part I have conducted didactic analysis of curriculum and textbook of economics for business schools. The draft of t...

  5. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  6. Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.

  7. Some optical diagnostics for the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of studying plasma focus dynamics are reported. Particular efforts were made to develop an infrared (IR) diagnostics. The plasma focus is formed in a discharge chamber, when shock waves and plasma sheath cumulate on the axis as a result of the break-down of filling gas by the application of high voltage. The current J was measured with a Rogovsky coil, and the voltage U was measured with a capacitor divider. The current derivative was measured with magnetic probes, and X-ray and neutron emission intensities were measured with a plastic scintillator. The total neutron yield were measured by the activation method. The time-integrated soft X-ray pictures of plasma focus were taken with a pin-hole camera. The formation and disruption of plasma focus were studied by multi-picture speed photography. Laser interferometry was used to study the time-space distribution of plasma density. For the study of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus, a new type IR detector was employed. The results of measurements suggest that there exists some superthermal radiation during the second compression of plasma focus, but it is not so strong. (Kato, T.)

  8. Focus is key: Panic-focused interpretations are associated with symptomatic improvement in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Solomonov, Nili; Derubeis, Robert J; Phillips, Alexander C; Busch, Fredric N; Barber, Jacques P; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L

    2018-04-18

    This study examines whether, in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), interpretations of conflicts that underlie anxiety (panic-focused or PF-interpretations) are specifically associated with subsequent panic disorder (PD) symptom improvement, over and above the provision of non-symptom-focused interpretations. Technique use in Sessions 2 and 10 of a 24-session PFPP protocol was assessed for the 65 patients with complete outcome data randomized to PFPP in a two-site trial of psychotherapies for PD. Sessions were rated in 15-min segments for therapists' use of PF-interpretations, non-PF-interpretations, and PF-clarifications. Robust regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between these interventions and symptom change subsequent to the sampled session. Interpersonal problems were examined as a moderator of the relationship of PF-interpretations to symptom change. At Session 10, but not at Session 2, patients who received a higher degree of PF-interpretations experienced greater subsequent improvement in panic symptoms. Non-PF-interpretations were not predictive. Patients with more interpersonal distress benefitted particularly from the use of PF-interpretations at Session 10. By the middle phase of PFPP, panic-focused interpretations may drive subsequent improvements in panic symptoms, especially among patients with higher interpersonal distress. Interpretations of conflict absent a panic focus may not be especially helpful.

  9. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  10. Changing the Focus of Knowledge Management for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge Management (KM) has long been a recognized tool for improving the safety, efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear facilities. However, the objectives, tools and mechanisms utilized are often focused on steady-state maintenance of established knowledge and on incremental improvements to current practice. When nuclear facilities transition from routine operations to project-based decommissioning activities there is a need to reconsider the knowledge objectives, methodologies and tools to ensure that KM practices are relevant to the new activities being carried out and provide solutions to the new challenges posed in decommissioning. It is important that the changes required in preparation for and during the decommissioning phase are factored in to knowledge planning to ensure that KM activities are efficient and effective. This transition requires a change in the KM mind-set and a different way of setting new KM objectives. (author

  11. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  12. Should We Extend Teacher Preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the implications of five-year teacher preparation programs. Argues that different strategies and curricula should be tested and evaluated before mandating major system-wide changes in teacher certification requirements. (FMW)

  13. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with...

  14. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  15. Louisville region demonstration of travel management coordination center : system pre-deployment preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Greater Louisville Region Demonstration of Travel Management Coordination Center (TMCC): System Pre-Deploy-ment Preparation grant was to further phased implementation of the regions TMCC design by focusing on two major component...

  16. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  17. On Preparing for Squadron Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Gortler, Majur Gordon D. "Management Development---Could the Air Force Be Doing More?" Resear,;h Study, Air Command and Staff College. 1 07:3. 20...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse If necessary and identify by block number) -This study addresses the broad issue of preparing Air Force officers for...are obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED - - PREFACE This study addresses the broad Issue of preparing Air Force officers to

  18. [Pediatric preparations of blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulat, C

    2017-09-01

    The transfusion in pediatrics may require specific preparations to adapt to the various characteristics from preterm neonates to big child: weight, immaturity, immune system, blood volume, long and short-term prognosis, and to meet the needs of pathologies related to the perinatal period. The knowledge of the process for preparation, conservation and administration of these particular products shall permit a transfusion in safe conditions by supporting the prescribers in a personalized blood management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic PCR: validation and sample preparation are two sides of the same coin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wolffs, Petra; Radstrøm, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Increased use of powerful PCR technology for the routine detection of pathogens has focused attention on the need for international validation and preparation of official non-commercial guidelines. Bacteria of epidemiological importance should be the prime focus, although a "validation...... of quantitative reference DNA material and reagents, production of stringent protocols and tools for thermal cycler performance testing, uncomplicated sample preparation techniques, and extensive ring trials for assessment of the efficacy of selected matrix/pathogen detection protocols....

  20. Unconsciously Indigenous Leadership: The Role of Cognitive Disequilibrium in Preparing Democratic Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of cognitive disequilibrium in preparing democratic educational leaders. Followers emerge into leaders with what are many times unconsciously socialized norms and values indigenous to their local culture. One of the roles of a democratic leadership preparation program is to challenge these unconsciously accepted…

  1. Food Preparation. I: Food Facts for Home. II: Facts about Foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package is intended for use in home economics classes focusing on nutrition and food preparation and service. The teaching guide is divided into two parts. The first centers on selected first-time facts on nutrition, meal planning, and basic food preparation skills. It includes modules on nutrition, meal management, initial steps in food…

  2. Knowledge and Beliefs of Early Childhood Education Students at Different Levels of Professional Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.; Atanasov, Amy M.; Williamson, Amy C.; Choi, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of early childhood education programming has heightened the focus on teachers' educational preparation and its role in providing high-quality services for young children. The interest in teachers' education is especially relevant in early childhood since differentiated levels of preparation are commonly used in quality rating and…

  3. Preparing Special Educators for the K-12 Online Learning Environment: A Survey of Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sean J.; Basham, James; Rice, Mary F.; Carter, Richard A., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Pioneering research studies in teacher preparation in online settings have taken place, yet little to no work has been done specifically focused on teacher preparation for special education and learners with disabilities. In the present study, researchers from the Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities conducted a web-based…

  4. Phase analysis and focusing of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chubar, O; Snigirev, A

    1999-01-01

    High accuracy calculations of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by a relativistic electron show that the phase of the frequency domain electric field of SR differs from the phase of radiation of a virtual point source. These differences may result in the reduction of focusing efficiency of diffraction-limited SR, if the focusing is performed by conventional optical components optimised for point sources. We show that by applying a phase correction locally, one may transform the phase of SR electric field at a desired polarisation to that of a point source. Such corrections are computed for undulator radiation (planar and helical) and bending magnet radiation (central part and edges). The focusing of the corrected SR wavefront can result in the increase of peak intensity in the focused spot up to several times compared to the focusing without correction. For non-diffraction-limited radiation, the effect of the phase corrections is reduced. Due to this reason, the use of the proposed phase corrections in exist...

  5. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+focus being elicited (i.e., informational/non-corrective vs. contrastive/corrective. Nonetheless, it also showed that speakers exploit different prosodic features (i.e., pitch range, alignment, and duration to mark focus constituents, although their use differs as a result of that constituents’ function. These findings provide further support for the consideration of languages and specific dialects in a continuum based on the degree to which they use prosody to mark focus and to explore more in detail the phonetic implementation of focal accents.

  6. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

  7. [Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Mora, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m p some 3.6 x 10 5 times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100 angstrom), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 μm. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5√(m/m p ) times the nozzle diameter d n . But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs

  8. Application of Response Surface Methodology in the Preparation of Pectin-Caseinate Nanocomplexes for Potential Use as Nutraceutical Formulation: A Statistical Experimental Design Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Bahrani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The formation of electrostatic complexes between two types of biopolymers, sodium Caseinate (a derivative from most abundant milk protein and Pectin (a natural hetro polysaccharide, was studied as a function of biopolymers concentrations and pH of solutions (3.9- 4.3. Method: The size and morphology of the resulted complexes were investigated by using of laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Response surface methodology (A three-factor, three levels Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization procedure with pH, pectin and sodium Caseinate concentrations as independent variables. Particle size and polydispersity index of nanocomplexes were considered as dependent variables. Results: Negatively charged nanocomplexes were produced below the isoelectric point of protein (5.4, at pH 4.1 with a suitable colloidal stability and average particle size of about 100 nm. It was found that the particle size of nanocomplexes could be controlled by changing in variables. Conclusion: In conclusion response surface methodology are simple, rapid and beneficial approach for preparation, optimization and investigation of the effect of independent variables on the properties of products.

  9. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  10. Focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, Zhang; Ruishan, Chen; Anting, Wang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, following Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction theory, the focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams (CVVB) are investigated, and a diffractive optical element (DOE) is designed to spatially modulate the amplitude of the CVVB. Simulated results show that the CVVB focused by an objective also carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), and the optical fields near the focal region can be modulated by changing the topological charge of the CVVB. We numerically simulate the focus properties of radially and azimuthally polarized beams with topological charge equal to 0, 1, 2 and 10 respectively. As a result, a dark channel with a length about 20 λ can be obtained. These new properties have the potential applications such as particle acceleration, optical trapping and material processing.

  11. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  12. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Nova frequency conversion and focusing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.; Seppala, L.G.; Williams, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    New developments in crystal array technology provided significant improvements in the mechanical design and optical performance of the Nova 2 omega/3 omega array hardware. The final Nova array configuration was tested on the Novette laser and on the first arm of Nova. Ten Nova 2 omega/3 omega crystal arrays were assembled and tested for crystal alignment and wave front distortion before installation on the Nova target chamber. Ten Nova focus lens positioners were assembled and tested last year. The positioning accuracy and repeatability of each assembly were evaluated before installation on the target chamber. A cylindrical focusing system was also developed for installation in the Nova lens positioner assembly. Finally, 10 completed frequency conversion and focusing systems were activated

  14. Radiation damping in focusing-dominated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A quasi-classical method is developed to calculate the radiation damping of a relativistic particle in a straight, continuous focusing system. In one limiting case where the pitch angle of the particle θ p is much larger than the radiation opening angle 1/γ, the radiation power spectrum is similar to synchrotron radiation and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is proportional to the relative energy loss rate. In the other limiting case where θ p much-lt 1/γ, the radiation is dipole in nature and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is energy-independent and is much faster than the relative energy rate. Quantum excitation to the transverse action is absent in this focusing channel. These results can be extended to bent systems provided that the focusing field dominates over the bending field

  15. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  16. Bringing customer focus to power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.V. [USGen Power Services (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of the power generation industry and the impact it will have on a company`s success was discussed. Some companies are following one of three distinct strategies for survival, the GENCO, MARKETCO and TRADECO. The GENCO focuses on aggregating low cost, kick butt generation assets that could be either regionally concentrated or geographically distributed. The TRADECO invests in few, or even no, assets. Its only objective is to maximize net income. The MARKETCO structure focuses on understanding and meeting customers` needs. The MARKETCO puts as much value in aggregating `load` as it does on assets. It was suggested that the MARKETCO was the quickest path to success in the restructured electric industry, since it is plainly evident that in the New Millenium the customer will be king, and companies will not survive unless they focus the majority of their efforts on the customer.

  17. Final Focus Systems in Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor

    1998-01-01

    In colliding beam facilities, the ''final focus system'' must demagnify the beams to attain the very small spot sizes required at the interaction points. The first final focus system with local chromatic correction was developed for the Stanford Linear Collider where very large demagnifications were desired. This same conceptual design has been adopted by all the future linear collider designs as well as the SuperConducting Supercollider, the Stanford and KEK B-Factories, and the proposed Muon Collider. In this paper, the over-all layout, physics constraints, and optimization techniques relevant to the design of final focus systems for high-energy electron-positron linear colliders are reviewed. Finally, advanced concepts to avoid some of the limitations of these systems are discussed

  18. Preparation of polystyrene microsphere with emulsion microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo Zhang Lin; Zhang Zhganwen; You Dan; Wei Yun; Wang Chaoyang; Lin Bo; Shi Tao; Chu Qiaomei

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of hollow polystyrene microspheres that are used as inner shell of multi-shell plastic microspheres in the ICF experiments is focused on. The effects of surfactants, water-soluble polymer and electrolyte on the properties of resultant microspheres are studied. Based on these experiments, a fabricating procedure was established with which hollow microspheres were prepared with diameter about 150-3000 μm, wall thickness 0.8-15 μm and toughness Ra less than 4 nm. (authors)

  19. The plasma focus - numerical experiments leading technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S.H.; Lee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments on the plasma focus are now used routinely to assist design and provide reference points for diagnostics. More importantly guidance has been given regarding the implementation of technology for new generations of plasma focus devices. For example intensive series of experiments have shown that it is of no use to reduce static bank inductance L0 below certain values because of the consistent loading effects of the plasma focus dynamics on the capacitor bank. Thus whilst it was thought that the PF1000 could receive major benefits by reducing its bank inductance L 0 , numerical experiments have shown to the contrary that its present L 0 of 30 nH is already optimum and that reducing L 0 would be a very expensive fruitless exercise. This knowledge gained from numerical experiments now acts as a general valuable guideline to all high performance (ie low inductance) plasma focus devices not to unnecessarily attempt to further lower the static inductance L 0 . The numerical experiments also show that the deterioration of the yield scaling law (e.g. the fusion neutron yield scaling with storage energy) is inevitable again due to the consistent loading effect of the plasma focus, which becomes more and more dominant as capacitor bank impedance reduces with increasing capacitance C 0 as storage energy is increased. This line of thinking has led to the suggestion of using higher voltages (as an alternative to increasing C 0 ) and to seeding of Deuterium with noble gases in order to enhance compression through thermodynamic mechanisms and through radiation cooling effects of strong line radiation. Circuit manipulation e.g. to enhance focus pinch compression by current-stepping is also being numerically experimented upon. Ultimately however systems have to be built, guided by numerical experiments, so that the predicted technology may be proven and realized. (author)

  20. Focus measurement of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhijun; Xin Jian; Jia Qinglong

    2007-01-01

    Many personal factors would influence the result of the focus measurement of linear accelerator using the conventional sandwich method. This paper presents a modified method which applies a film scanning meter to scan the X-ray image film got by sandwich method for obtaining a greyscale distribution, then the full width at half maximum value of greyscale distribution represents the focus size. The method can eliminates disadvantage influence from accelerator radiant field asymmetry by quadratic polynomial fitting and measures peak width at half height instead of stripe statistic. (authors)