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Sample records for preparation masked priming

  1. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  2. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  3. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  4. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sachiko eKinoshita; Dennis eNorris

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal...

  5. Does "Darkness" Lead to "Happiness"? Masked Suffix Priming Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Masked affix priming effects have usually been obtained for words sharing the initial affix (e.g., "reaction"-"REFORM"). However, prior evidence on masked suffix priming effects (e.g., "baker"-"WALKER") is inconclusive. In the present series of masked priming lexical decision experiments, a target word was…

  6. Emotion Potentiates Response Activation and Inhibition in Masked Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eBocanegra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotion can have two-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect: PCE. However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect: NCE. These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness.

  7. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a modified variant of an affective priming task. Faces with happy, angry, sad, fearful, and neutral expressions were presented as masked primes for 33 ms (Study 1) or 14 ms (Studies 2 and 3) followed by emotional target faces (Studies 1 and 2) or emotional adjectives (Study 3). Participants' task was to categorise the target emotion. In all three studies, discrimination of targets was significantly affected by the emotional primes beyond a simple positive versus negative distinction. Results indicate that specific aspects of emotions might be automatically disentangled in addition to valence, even under conditions of subjective unawareness.

  8. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

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    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  9. Phonological and orthographic overlap effects in fast and masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single-word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50 ms in the fast priming version and 50 ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap) and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing.

  10. The masked priming toolbox: an open-source MATLAB toolbox for masked priming researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Tresilian, James; Schlaghecken, Friederike

    2011-03-01

    The Masked Priming Toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes the free third-party PsychToolbox-3 (PTB3: Brainard, Spatial Vision, 10, 433-436, 1997; Kleiner, Brainard & Pelli, Perception, 36, 2007; Pelli, Spatial Vision, 10, 437-442, 1997). It is designed to allow a researcher to run masked (and unmasked) priming experiments using a variety of response devices (including keyboards, graphics tablets and force transducers). Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required; experiments are generated by creating a text file with the required parameters, and raw and analyzed data are output to Excel (as well as MATLAB) files for further analysis. The toolbox implements a variety of stimuli for use as primes and targets, as well as a variety of masks. Timing, size, location, and orientation of stimuli are all parameterizable. The code is open-source and made available on the Web under a Creative Commons License.

  11. Inverse Target- and Cue-Priming Effects of Masked Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattler, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The processing of a visual target that follows a briefly presented prime stimulus can be facilitated if prime and target stimuli are similar. In contrast to these positive priming effects, inverse priming effects (or negative compatibility effects) have been found when a mask follows prime stimuli before the target stimulus is presented: Responses…

  12. Sandwich Priming: A Method for Overcoming the Limitations of Masked Priming by Reducing Lexical Competitor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    An orthographically similar masked nonword prime facilitates responding in a lexical decision task (Forster & Davis, 1984). Recently, this masked priming paradigm has been used to evaluate models of orthographic coding--models that attempt to quantify prime-target similarity. One general finding is that priming effects often do not occur when…

  13. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  14. Task-dependent masked priming effects in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access.

  15. Mechanisms of Masked Priming: Testing the Entry Opening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Since it was introduced in Forster and Davis (1984), masked priming has been widely adopted in the psycholinguistic research on visual word recognition, but there has been little consensus on its actual mechanisms, i.e. how it occurs and how it should be interpreted. This dissertation addresses two different interpretations of masked priming, one…

  16. Mechanisms of Masked Priming: Testing the Entry Opening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Since it was introduced in Forster and Davis (1984), masked priming has been widely adopted in the psycholinguistic research on visual word recognition, but there has been little consensus on its actual mechanisms, i.e. how it occurs and how it should be interpreted. This dissertation addresses two different interpretations of masked priming, one…

  17. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge")…

  18. Trends in mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Pang, Liyong; Su, Bo; Choi, Yohan

    2014-10-01

    Whether for VSB mask writing or for multibeam mask writing, the shapes we need to write on masks are increasingly complex, increasingly curvilinear, and smaller in minimum width and space. The overwhelming trend in mask data preparation (MDP) is the shift from deterministic, rule-based, geometric, context-independent, shape-modulated, rectangular processing to statistical, simulation-based, context-dependent, dose- and shape-modulated any-shape processing. The paper briefly surveys the history of MDP, and explains through a simulation-based study that 50nm line and space is the tipping point where rule-based processing gives away to simulation-based processing.

  19. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  20. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  1. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  2. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  3. Tight coupling between positive and reversed priming in the masked prime paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learnt, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are not consciously perceived. However, when the delay between prime and target is increased, reversed priming effects are often found instead (the negat...

  4. Tight Coupling between Positive and Reversed Priming in the Masked Prime Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learned, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are…

  5. The direction of masked auditory category priming correlates with participants' prime discrimination ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Wentura, Dirk; Koppermann, Christopher; Hauser, Micha; Grass, Benjamin; Frings, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Semantic priming refers to the phenomenon that participants typically respond faster to targets following semantically related primes as compared to semantically unrelated primes. In contrast, Wentura and Frings (2005) found a negatively signed priming effect (i.e., faster responses to semantically unrelated as compared to semantically related targets) when they used (a) a special masking technique for the primes and (b) categorically related prime-target-pairs (e.g., fruit-apple). The negatively signed priming effect was most pronounced for participants with random prime discrimination performance, whereas participants with high prime discrimination performance showed a positive effect. In the present study we analyzed the after-effects of masked category primes in audition. A comparable pattern of results as in the visual modality emerged: The poorer the individual prime discrimination, the more negative is the semantic priming effect. This result is interpreted as evidence for a common mechanism causing the semantic priming effect in vision as well as in audition instead of a perceptual mechanism only working in the visual domain.

  6. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition: Combining Masked Priming with Magnetoencephalography

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    Lehtonen, Minna; Monahan, Philip J.; Poeppel, David

    2011-01-01

    Are words stored as morphologically structured representations? If so, when during word recognition are morphological pieces accessed? Recent masked priming studies support models that assume early decomposition of (potentially) morphologically complex words. The electrophysiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We combined masked…

  7. Masked Translation Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition by Trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Xavier; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how trilinguals process their two non-dominant languages and how those languages influence one another, as well as the relative importance of the dominant language on their processing. With this in mind, 24 French (L1)- English (L2)- and Spanish (L3)-unbalanced trilinguals, deemed equivalent in their L2 and L3 were recruited. They were asked to perform two series of lexical decisions in the two non-native languages (L2 and L3), with a masked translation priming paradigm. Target words in both languages were primed by either the same word (repetition), a translation (in one of the other languages) or an unrelated word (in L1, L2 or L3). The results highlighted a strong link between prime and target, with an effect of repetition for both target languages. Moreover, a translation priming effect was demonstrated, only when the primes belongs to the dominant L1, i.e. L2 and L3 target words were identified faster when they were primed by the L1 translation. No translation priming effects were found for L2 and L3 primes. These results are in line with a multilingual lexicon organized by the L1, with a lack of cross-language interactions between the two non-dominant languages.

  8. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-09-09

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  9. Masked form priming is moderated by the size of the letter-order-free orthographic neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jennifer S; Duncum, Sophie

    2016-03-16

    University students made lexical decisions to targets preceded by masked primes. In Experiment 1, transposed-letter primes were used also in the sandwich priming paradigm, in which the target is briefly pre-presented prior to the prime. The priming effects in the masked paradigm, but not in the sandwich paradigm, were moderated by the density of the letter-order-free neighbourhood of the target. In Experiment 2, letter-order-free neighbour prime words produced a priming cost in masked priming. These results are consistent with the idea that sandwich priming attenuates letter-order-free neighbour competition in target identification. Unexpectedly, no priming cost was produced by conventional (letter-position-preserving) word neighbour primes. Order-free neighbours may produce facilitation of target processing less, and more variably, than conventional neighbours.

  10. Priming of Visual Search Facilitates Attention Shifts: Evidence From Object-Substitution Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-03-01

    Priming of visual search strongly affects visual function, releasing items from crowding and during free-choice primed targets are chosen over unprimed ones. Two accounts of priming have been proposed: attentional facilitation of primed features and postperceptual episodic memory retrieval that involves mapping responses to visual events. Here, well-known masking effects were used to assess the two accounts. Object-substitution masking has been considered to reflect attentional processing: It does not occur when a target is precued and is strengthened when distractors are present. Conversely, metacontrast masking has been connected to lower level processing where attention exerts little effect. If priming facilitates attention shifts, it should mitigate object-substitution masking, while lower level masking might not be similarly influenced. Observers searched for an odd-colored target among distractors. Unpredictably (on 20% of trials), object-substitution masks or metacontrast masks appeared around the target. Object-substitution masking was strongly mitigated for primed target colors, while metacontrast masking was mostly unaffected. This argues against episodic retrieval accounts of priming, placing the priming locus firmly within the realm of attentional processing. The results suggest that priming of visual search facilitates attention shifts to the target, which allows better spatiotemporal resolution that overcomes object-substitution masking.

  11. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology

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    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  12. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  13. Inverse cue priming is not limited to masks with relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Daniel; Mattler, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    Apart from positive priming effects, masked prime stimuli can impair responses to a subsequent target stimulus which shares response-critical features in contrast to a target assigned to the opposite response. This counterintuitive phenomenon is called inverse priming (or negative compatibility effect). Here we examine the generality of this phenomenon beyond priming of motor responses. We used a non-motor cue-priming paradigm to study the underlying mechanism of inverse priming for relevant features masks which include task-relevant stimulus features and for irrelevant masks which omit task-relevant features. We found inverse cue-priming effects with both types of masks. With task-irrelevant masks inverse cue-priming was emphasized in those participants being unable to perceive the prime. The existence of inverse non-motor priming under conditions where simple perceptual interactions between the stimuli are ruled out as the source of inverse priming is at odds with the view that inverse priming reflects motor inhibition. Alternatives are discussed.

  14. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  15. Masked Priming Is Abstract in the Left and Right Visual Fields

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    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Emma L.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments assessed masked priming for words presented to the left and right visual fields in a lexical decision task. In both Experiments, the same magnitude and pattern of priming was obtained for visually similar ("kiss"-"KISS") and dissimilar ("read"-"READ") prime-target pairs. These findings…

  16. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  17. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end,...

  18. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: Task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-12-20

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs. semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In the present study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs. verbal priming by previously activated perceptual versus semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format.

  19. Not Everybody Sees the Ness in the Darkness: Individual Differences in Masked Suffix Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Joyse; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the role of individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition. Participants completed a masked priming lexical decision experiment on suffixed words in which targets could be preceded by suffix-related words (words sharing the same suffix) or by affixed primes with a different suffix. Participants also completed a monomorphemic word lexical decision and were divided in two groups (fast and slow readers) according to their performance in this task. When the suffix priming data were analyzed taking into consideration participants' reading speed as a proxy for their greater reliance on orthography or on semantics, a significant interaction between reading speed and the magnitude of the masked suffix priming effects emerged. Only slow participants showed significant priming effects, whereas faster participants showed negligible masked suffix priming effects. These results demonstrate that different reading profiles modulate the access to morphological information in a qualitatively different manner and that individual differences in reading determine the manner in which polymorphemic words are processed.

  20. Updating a Cautionary Tale of Masked Priming: Reply to Klapp (2005)

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    Lleras, Alejandro; Enns, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The commentary by S. T. Klapp (see record 2005-09704-010) on our recent article (A. Lleras & J. T. Enns, [see record 2004-21166-001]) proposes that the empirical finding of negative compatibility in masked priming be attributed to 2 distinct theoretical constructs: (a) perceptual priming through object updating, as described in our article, and…

  1. Negative Compatibility or Object Updating? A Cautionary Tale of Mask-Dependent Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleras, Alejandro; Enns, James T.

    2004-01-01

    The negative compatibility effect (NCE) is the surprising result that visual targets that follow a brief prime stimulus and a mask can be identified more rapidly when they are opposite rather than identical to the prime. In a recent article in this journal, S. T. Klapp and L. B. Hinkley (2002) proposed that this reflected a competition between…

  2. Automatic evaluation isn't that crude! Moderation of masked affective priming by type of valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentura, D.; Degner, J.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments, the automatic processing of evaluative information was investigated using a masked affective priming paradigm, varying valence (positive vs. negative) and relevance (other-relevant traits vs. possessor-relevant traits; Peeters, 1983) of prime and target stimuli. It was found that

  3. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  4. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  5. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  6. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  7. Unconscious Cognition Isn't that Smart: Modulation of Masked Repetition Priming Effect in the Word Naming Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Forster, Kenneth I.; Mozer, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Masked repetition primes produce greater facilitation in naming in a block containing a high, rather than low proportion of repetition trials. [Bodner, G. E., & Masson, M. E. J. (2004). "Beyond binary judgments: Prime-validity modulates masked repetition priming in the naming task". "Memory & Cognition", 32, 1-11] suggested this phenomenon…

  8. Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal

    2002-07-01

    Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.

  9. Neural correlates of affective priming effects based on masked facial emotion: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Ohrmann, Patricia; Stuhrmann, Anja; Grotegerd, Dominik; Redlich, Ronny; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo

    2013-03-30

    Affective priming refers to the phenomenon that subliminal presentation of facial emotion biases subsequent evaluation of a neutral object in the direction of the prime. The aim of the present study was to specify the neural correlates of evaluative shifts elicited by facial emotion shown below the threshold of conscious perception. We tested the hypotheses whether the amygdala is involved in negative priming, whereas the nucleus accumbens participates in positive priming. In addition, exploratory whole brain correlation analyses were conducted. During 3T fMRI scanning, pictures of sad, happy, and neutral facial expression masked by neutral faces were presented to 110 healthy adults who had to judge valence of masks on a four-point scale. There was evidence for significant negative priming based on sad faces. A correlation was observed between amygdala activation and negative priming. Activation in medial, middle, and superior frontal and middle temporo-occipital areas, and insula was also associated with negative priming. No significant priming based on happy faces was found. However, nucleus accumbens activation to happy faces correlated with the positive priming score. The present findings confirm that the amygdala but also other brain regions, especially the medial frontal cortex, appear involved in automatically elicited negative evaluative shifts.

  10. Either or neither, but not both: locating the effects of masked primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Klapp, Stuart T.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Execution of a response that has been primed by a backward-masked stimulus is inhibited (negative compatibility effect; NCE). Three experiments investigated the locus of this inhibition. Masked primes (left- or right-pointing arrows) were followed either by an arrow or a circle target. Arrow targets always required a left- or right-hand response, but the experiments differed in the response required to circles: press neither, either or both response keys (i.e. nogo, free choice and bimanual, respectively). Arrow targets showed the usual NCEs. Circle targets showed NCEs in the form of a response bias away from the primed response in the nogo and free-choice tasks; primes and targets differed on these trials, ruling out a perceptual explanation of the NCE. The bimanual task showed no such bias, suggesting that the NCE is located at a level of abstract response codes rather than specific muscle commands. PMID:18945665

  11. Eyes wide open: Pupil size as a proxy for inhibition in the masked-priming paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Still, Mary L; Morris, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    A core assumption underlying competitive-network models of word recognition is that in order for a word to be recognized, the representations of competing orthographically similar words must be inhibited. This inhibitory mechanism is revealed in the masked-priming lexical-decision task (LDT) when responses to orthographically similar word prime-target pairs are slower than orthographically different word prime-target pairs (i.e., inhibitory priming). In English, however, behavioral evidence for inhibitory priming has been mixed. In the present study, we utilized a physiological correlate of cognitive effort never before used in the masked-priming LDT, pupil size, to replicate and extend behavioral demonstrations of inhibitory effects (i.e., Nakayama, Sears, & Lupker, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 1236-1260, 2008, Exp. 1). Previous research had suggested that pupil size is a reliable indicator of cognitive load, making it a promising index of lexical inhibition. Our pupillometric data replicated and extended previous behavioral findings, in that inhibition was obtained for orthographically similar word prime-target pairs. However, our response time data provided only a partial replication of Nakayama et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 1236-1260, 2008. These results provide converging lines of evidence that inhibition operates in word recognition and that pupillometry is a useful addition to word recognition researchers' toolbox.

  12. Masked syllable priming effects in word and picture naming in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping You

    Full Text Available Four experiments investigated the role of the syllable in Chinese spoken word production. Chen, Chen and Ferrand (2003 reported a syllable priming effect when primes and targets shared the first syllable using a masked priming paradigm in Chinese. Our Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Chen et al.'s (2003 Experiment 3 employing CV (e.g., ,/ba2.ying2/, strike camp and CVG (e.g., ,/bai2.shou3/, white haired syllable types. Experiment 2 tested the syllable priming effect using different syllable types: e.g., CV (,/qi4.qiu2/, balloon and CVN (,/qing1.ting2/, dragonfly. Experiment 3 investigated this issue further using line drawings of common objects as targets that were preceded either by a CV (e.g., ,/qi3/, attempt, or a CVN (e.g., ,/qing2/, affection prime. Experiment 4 further examined the priming effect by a comparison between CV or CVN priming and an unrelated priming condition using CV-NX (e.g., ,/mi2.ni3/, mini and CVN-CX (e.g., ,/min2.ju1/, dwellings as target words. These four experiments consistently found that CV targets were named faster when preceded by CV primes than when they were preceded by CVG, CVN or unrelated primes, whereas CVG or CVN targets showed the reverse pattern. These results indicate that the priming effect critically depends on the match between the structure of the prime and that of the first syllable of the target. The effect obtained in this study was consistent across different stimuli and different tasks (word and picture naming, and provides more conclusive and consistent data regarding the role of the syllable in Chinese speech production.

  13. Masked translation priming asymmetry in Chinese-English bilinguals: making sense of the Sense Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Violet; Andrews, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Masked translation priming asymmetry is the robust finding that priming from a bilingual's first language (L1) to their second language (L2) is stronger than priming from L2 to L1. This asymmetry has been claimed to be task dependent. The Sense Model proposed by Finkbeiner, Forster, Nicol, and Nakamura (2004) claims that the asymmetry is reduced in semantic categorization relative to lexical decision due to a category filtering mechanism that limits the features considered in categorization decisions to dominant, category-relevant features. This paper reports two pairs of semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks designed to test the Sense Model's predictions. The experiments replicated the finding of Finkbeiner et al. that L2-L1 priming is somewhat stronger in semantic categorization than lexical decision, selectively for exemplars of the category. However, the direct comparison of L2-L1 and L1-L2 translation priming across tasks failed to confirm the Sense Model's central prediction that translation priming asymmetry is significantly reduced in semantic categorization. The data therefore fail to support the category filtering account of translation priming asymmetry. Rather, they suggest that pre-activation of conceptual features of the target category provides feedback to lexical forms that compensates for the weak connections between the lexical and conceptual representations of L2 words.

  14. Automatic Activation of Phonological Code during Visual Word Recognition in Children: A Masked Priming Study in Grades 3 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauval, Karinne; Perre, Laetitia; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the development of automatic phonological processes involved in visual word recognition during reading acquisition in French. A visual masked priming lexical decision experiment was carried out with third, fifth graders and adult skilled readers. Three different types of partial overlap between the prime and…

  15. Automatic Activation of Phonological Code during Visual Word Recognition in Children: A Masked Priming Study in Grades 3 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauval, Karinne; Perre, Laetitia; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the development of automatic phonological processes involved in visual word recognition during reading acquisition in French. A visual masked priming lexical decision experiment was carried out with third, fifth graders and adult skilled readers. Three different types of partial overlap between the prime and…

  16. Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTEARTE). This is consistent with the idea that there is fast access to abstract representations. In contrast, this process does not seem to be fully operative in third graders, as revealed by the pattern of data with DIS words (ARTE-ARTEarte-ARTE=edad-ARTE). These findings have relevant implications for developmental models of visual word recognition and for the use of masked priming experiments with developmental readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Masked repetition priming hinders subsequent recollection but not familiarity: A behavioral and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study used the masked repetition priming paradigm in the study phase and the R/K paradigm in the test phase to investigate whether repetition priming can hinder recognition memory and which recognition process (familiarity or recollection) is hindered. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study and test phase were recorded to explore the temporal course of how repetition priming hinders subsequent recognition memory and which old/new effect (FN400 or LPC) is affected. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that masked repetition priming hindered subsequent recollection but not familiarity. The analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that primed words were associated with less negative N400 and less positive LPC compared to unprimed words. The analysis of the priming effect as a function of subsequent memory revealed that only the LPC priming effect was predictive of priming effect on subsequent memory, which suggested that the "prediction-error" account might be a possible explanation of how repetition priming affects subsequent recognition memory.

  18. Model-based mask data preparation (MB-MDP) for ArF and EUV mask process correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Bork, Ingo; Fujimura, Aki

    2011-05-01

    Using Model-Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) complex masks with complex sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) can be written in practical write times with today's leading-edge production VSB machines by allowing overlapping VSB shots. This simulation-based approach reduces shot count by taking advantage of the added flexibility in being able to overlap shots. The freedom to overlap shots, it turns out, also increases mask fidelity, CDU on the mask, and CDU on the wafer by writing sub-100nm mask features more accurately, and with better dose margin. This paper describes how overlapping shots enhance mask and wafer quality for various sub-100nm features on ArF masks. In addition, this paper describes how EUV mask accuracy can be enhanced uniquely by allowing overlapping shots.

  19. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason R; Henson, Richard N

    2012-11-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation--that the fluency of retrieval of item-context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown--is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago.

  20. Reading aloud in Persian: ERP evidence for an early locus of the masked onset priming effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Kalinka; Vahid-Gharavi, Narges; Schiller, Niels O

    2012-07-01

    The current study investigates reading aloud words in Persian, a language that does not mark all its vowels in the script. Behaviorally, a masked onset priming effect (MOPE) was revealed for transparent words, with faster speech onset latencies in the phoneme-matching condition (i.e. phonological prime and target onset overlap; e.g. [symbol: see text] /sɒːl/; 'year' [symbol: see text] /sot/; 'voice') than the phoneme-mismatching condition (e.g. [symbol: see text] /tɒːb/ 'swing' - [symbol: see text] /sot/; 'voice'). For opaque target words (e.g. [symbol: see text] /solh/; 'peace'), no such effect was found. However, event-related potentials (ERPs) did reveal an amplitude difference between the two prime conditions in the 80-160 ms time window for transparent as well as opaque words. Only for the former, this effect continued into the 300-480 ms time window. This finding constrains the time course of the MOPE and suggests the simultaneous activation of both the non-lexical grapheme-to-phoneme and the lexical route in the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are There Lower Repetition Priming Effects in Children with Developmental Dyslexia? Priming Effects in Spanish with the Masked Lexical Decision Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas-Cazorla, Francisco; Soriano-Ferrer, Manuel; Sánchez-López, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the reaction times and errors of Spanish children with developmental dyslexia to the reaction times and errors of readers without dyslexia on a masked lexical decision task with identity or repetition priming. A priming paradigm was used to study the role of the lexical deficit in dyslexic children, manipulating the frequency and length of the words, with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA = 150 ms) and degraded stimuli. The sample consisted of 80 participants from 9 to 14 years old, divided equally into a group with a developmental dyslexia diagnosis and a control group without dyslexia. Results show that identity priming is higher in control children (133 ms) than in dyslexic children (55 ms). Thus, the "frequency" and "word length" variables are not the source or origin of this reduction in identity priming reaction times in children with developmental dyslexia compared to control children.

  2. Optimized distributed computing environment for mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byoung-Sup; Bang, Ju-Mi; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sun; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yo-Han; Ki, Won-Tai; Choi, Seong-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2005-11-01

    As the critical dimension (CD) becomes smaller, various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are widely adopted. In developing sub-100nm devices, the complexity of optical proximity correction (OPC) is severely increased and applied OPC layers are expanded to non-critical layers. The transformation of designed pattern data by OPC operation causes complexity, which cause runtime overheads to following steps such as mask data preparation (MDP), and collapse of existing design hierarchy. Therefore, many mask shops exploit the distributed computing method in order to reduce the runtime of mask data preparation rather than exploit the design hierarchy. Distributed computing uses a cluster of computers that are connected to local network system. However, there are two things to limit the benefit of the distributing computing method in MDP. First, every sequential MDP job, which uses maximum number of available CPUs, is not efficient compared to parallel MDP job execution due to the input data characteristics. Second, the runtime enhancement over input cost is not sufficient enough since the scalability of fracturing tools is limited. In this paper, we will discuss optimum load balancing environment that is useful in increasing the uptime of distributed computing system by assigning appropriate number of CPUs for each input design data. We will also describe the distributed processing (DP) parameter optimization to obtain maximum throughput in MDP job processing.

  3. Mask process matching using a model based data preparation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Brian; Saib, Mohamed; Figueiro, Thiago; Petroni, Paolo; Progler, Chris; Schiavone, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Process matching is the ability to precisely reproduce the signature of a given fabrication process while using a different one. A process signature is typically described as systematic CD variation driven by feature geometry as a function of feature size, local density or distance to neighboring structures. The interest of performing process matching is usually to address differences in the mask fabrication process without altering the signature of the mask, which is already validated by OPC models and already used in production. The need for such process matching typically arises from the expansion of the production capacity within the same or different mask fabrication facilities, from the introduction of new, perhaps more advanced, equipment to deliver same process of record masks and/or from the re-alignment of processes which have altered over time. For state-of-the-art logic and memory mask processes, such matching requirements can be well below 2nm and are expected to reduce below 1nm in near future. In this paper, a data preparation solution for process matching is presented and discussed. Instead of adapting the physical process itself, a calibrated model is used to modify the data to be exposed by the source process in order to induce the results to match the one obtained while running the target process. This strategy consists in using the differences among measurements from the source and target processes, in the calibration of a single differential model. In this approach, no information other than the metrology results is required from either process. Experimental results were obtained by matching two different processes at Photronics. The standard deviation between both processes was of 2.4nm. After applying the process matching technique, the average absolute difference between the processes was reduced to 1.0nm with a standard deviation of 1.3nm. The methods used to achieve the result will be described along with implementation considerations, to

  4. Masked priming and ERPs dissociate maturation of orthographic and semantic components of visual word recognition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Marianna D; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J; Mitra, Priya; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the time-course of reading single words in children and adults using masked repetition priming and the recording of event-related potentials. The N250 and N400 repetition priming effects were used to characterize form- and meaning-level processing, respectively. Children had larger amplitude N250 effects than adults for both shorter and longer duration primes. Children did not differ from adults on the N400 effect. The difference on the N250 suggests that automaticity for form processing is still maturing in children relative to adults, while the lack of differentiation on the N400 effect suggests that meaning processing is relatively mature by late childhood. The overall similarity in the children's repetition priming effects to adults' effects is in line with theories of reading acquisition, according to which children rapidly transition to an orthographic strategy for fast access to semantic information from print. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Investigating the relationship between implicit and explicit memory: Evidence that masked repetition priming speeds the onset of recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Donaldson, David I

    2016-06-09

    Memory theories assume that unconscious processes influence conscious remembering, but the exact nature of the relationship between implicit and explicit memory remains an open question. Within the context of episodic recognition tests research typical shows that priming impacts behavioral and neural indices of familiarity. By this account, implicit memory leads to enhanced fluency of processing, which is then attributed to 'oldness' in the context of recognition judgments. Recently, however, behavioral and neuroimaging evidence has emerged to suggest that priming can also influence recollection, suggesting that the rate of recollection increases following priming. Here, we examine the relationship between priming and recollection, using Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to assess changes in the timecourse of processing. Participants studied a series of words, and episodic memory was assessed using a standard item recognition test, but masked repetition priming preceded half of the test cues. Results confirmed that implicit memory was engaged: priming produced robust facilitation of recognition Reaction Times (RTs), with larger effects for studied than unstudied words. Mapping onto the RT data, ERPs recorded during recognition testing over centro-parietal electrodes revealed N400-like priming effects (250-500ms) that were larger in magnitude for studied than unstudied words. More importantly, priming also had a clear impact on explicit memory, as measured by recollection-related left-parietal old/new effects. While old/new effects for unprimed trials were present during the typical 500-800ms latency interval, the old/new effects seen for primed trials were equivalent in magnitude and topography, but onset ~300ms earlier. ERPs reveal that repetition priming speeds the onset of recollection, providing a novel demonstration that unconscious memory processes can have a measureable, functional, influence on conscious remembering.

  6. Spontaneous gender categorization in masking and priming studies: key for distinguishing Jane from John Doe but not Madonna from Sinatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ruth; Khurana, Beena

    2012-01-01

    Facial recognition is key to social interaction, however with unfamiliar faces only generic information, in the form of facial stereotypes such as gender and age is available. Therefore is generic information more prominent in unfamiliar versus familiar face processing? In order to address the question we tapped into two relatively disparate stages of face processing. At the early stages of encoding, we employed perceptual masking to reveal that only perception of unfamiliar face targets is affected by the gender of the facial masks. At the semantic end; using a priming paradigm, we found that while to-be-ignored unfamiliar faces prime lexical decisions to gender congruent stereotypic words, familiar faces do not. Our findings indicate that gender is a more salient dimension in unfamiliar relative to familiar face processing, both in early perceptual stages as well as later semantic stages of person construal.

  7. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level.

  8. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  9. The Masked Semantic Priming Effect Is Task Dependent: Reconsidering the Automatic Spreading Activation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Semantic priming effects are popularly explained in terms of an automatic spreading activation process, according to which the activation of a node in a semantic network spreads automatically to interconnected nodes, preactivating a semantically related word. It is expected from this account that semantic priming effects should be routinely…

  10. Automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition in bilingual children: A cross-language masked priming study in grades 3 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauval, Karinne; Perre, Laetitia; Duncan, Lynne G; Marinus, Eva; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-02-01

    Previous masked priming research has shown automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition in monolingual skilled adult readers. Activation also occurs across languages in bilingual adult readers, suggesting that the activation of phonological representations is not language specific. Less is known about developing readers. First, it is unclear whether there is automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition among children in general. Second, no empirical data exist on whether the activation of phonological representations is language specific or not in bilingual children. The current study investigated these issues in bilingual third and fifth graders using cross-language phonological masked priming in a lexical decision task. Targets were French words, and primes were English pseudowords of three types: (a) phonological primes, which share phonological information with the target beginning (e.g., dee-DIMANCHE [Sunday], pronounced /di:/-/dimãʃ/); (b) orthographic control primes, which control for letters shared by the phonological prime and target (e.g., d) and their position (e.g., doo-DIMANCHE, pronounced /du:/-/dimãʃ/); and (c) unrelated primes, which share no phonological or orthographic information with the target beginning (e.g., pow-DIMANCHE, pronounced /paʊ/-/dimãʃ/). Significant phonological priming was observed, suggesting that (a) phonological representations are rapidly and automatically activated by print during visual word recognition from Grade 3 onward and that (b) the activation of phonological representations is not language specific in bilingual children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Masked immediate-repetition-priming effect on the early lexical process in the bilateral anterior temporal areas assessed by neuromagnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Matani, Ayumu; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2010-10-01

    A masked priming paradigm has been used to measure unconscious and automatic context effects on the processing of words. However, its spatiotemporal neural basis has not yet been clarified. To test the hypothesis that masked repetition priming causes enhancement of neural activation, we conducted a magnetoencephalography experiment in which a prime was visually presented for a short duration (50 ms), preceded by a mask pattern, and followed by a target word that was represented by a Japanese katakana syllabogram. The prime, which was identical to the target, was represented by another hiragana syllabogram in the "Repeated" condition, whereas it was a string of unreadable pseudocharacters in the "Unrepeated" condition. Subjects executed a categorical decision task on the target. Activation was significantly larger for the Repeated condition than for the Unrepeated condition at a time window of 150-250 ms in the right occipital area, 200-250 ms in the bilateral ventral occipitotemporal areas, and 200-250 ms and 200-300 ms in the left and right anterior temporal areas, respectively. These areas have been reported to be related to processing of visual-form/orthography and lexico-semantics, and the enhanced activation supports the hypothesis. However, the absence of the priming effect in the areas related to phonological processing implies that automatic phonological priming effect depends on task requirements. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrath, Uwe; Beckers, Gerold J.M.; Flors, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Infection of plants by necrotizing pathogens or colonization of plant roots with certain beneficial microbes causes the induction of a unique physiological state called "priming." The primed state can also be induced by treatment of plants with various natural and synthetic compounds. Primed plants...... display either faster, stronger, or both activation of the various cellular defense responses that are induced following attack by either pathogens or insects or in response to abiotic stress. Although the phenomenon has been known for decades, most progress in our understanding of priming has been made...... over the past few years. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of priming in various induced-resistance phenomena in plants...

  13. Masked Associative/Semantic Priming Effects across Languages with Highly Proficient Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    One key issue for models of bilingual memory is to what degree the semantic representation from one of the languages is shared with the other language. In the present paper, we examine whether there is an early, automatic semantic priming effect across languages for noncognates with highly proficient (Basque/Spanish) bilinguals. Experiment 1 was a…

  14. Taking a radical position: Evidence for position specific radical representations in Chinese character recognition using masked priming ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan eSu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g. Ding, Peng, & Taft, 2004; Tsang & Chen, 2009. Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the ERP results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  15. Taking a Radical Position: Evidence for Position-Specific Radical Representations in Chinese Character Recognition Using Masked Priming ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, I-Fan; Mak, Sin-Ching Cassie; Cheung, Lai-Ying Milly; Law, Sam-Po

    2012-01-01

    In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components) are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g., Ding et al., 2004; Tsang and Chen, 2009). Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96 ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the event-related potential (ERP) results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  16. Event-related potential indices of semantic priming using masked and unmasked words: evidence that the N400 does not reflect a post-lexical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, D; Hewitt, S; Yang, C; Nagata, M

    2000-03-01

    Several authors have contended that the N400 is a reflection of a post-lexical event such as that proposed by Neely and Keefe [J.H. Neely, D.E. Keefe, Semantic context effects on visual word processing: a hybrid prospective/retrospective processing theory, in: G.H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol. 23, Academic Press, New York, 1989, pp. 207-248.], whereby the subject compares the word on the current trial to the "context" provided by the word on the preceding trial [M. Besson, M. Kutas, The many facets of repetition: A cued-recall and event-related potential analysis of repeating words in same versus different sentence contexts, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19 (5) (1993), 1115-1133; C. Brown, P. Hagoort, The processing nature of the N400: Evidence from masked priming. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(1) (1993), 34-44; P.J. Holcomb, Semantic priming and stimulus degradation: Implications for the role of the N400 in language processing, Psychophysiology 30 (1993), 47-61; M.D. Rugg, M.C. Doyle, Event-related potentials and stimulus repetition in indirect and direct tests of memory, in: H. Heinze, T. Munte, G.R. Mangun (Eds), Cognitive Electrophysiology, Birkhauser Boston, Cambridge, MA, 1994]. A study which used masked primes to directly test this possibility has been reported by Brown and Hagoort [C. Brown, P. Hagoort, The processing nature of the N400: evidence from masked priming. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(1) (1993), 34-44]. When the primes were masked, no priming effect was observed on the N400. When behavioral data were collected in the same paradigm, from another group of subjects, the usual priming effect on RT was obtained. Considered together, the data from the two groups of subjects indicated that activation of semantic representations had occurred without conscious awareness. As no N400 priming effect was observed, it was suggested that N400

  17. Masked emotional priming: A double dissociation between direct and indirect effects reveals non-conscious processing of emotional information beyond valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentura, Dirk; Rohr, Michaela; Degner, Juliane

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate non-conscious processing beyond valence by employing the masked emotional priming paradigm (Rohr, Degner, & Wentura, 2012) with a stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) variation. Emotional faces were briefly presented and directly masked, followed by the target face, using a SOA of either 43ms or 143ms. Targets were categorized as happy, angry, fearful, or sad. With short SOA, we replicated the differentiated priming effect within the negative domain (i.e., angry differentiate from fearful/sad). A direct test of prime awareness indicated that primes could not be discriminated consciously in this condition. With long SOA, however, we did not observe the priming effect whereas the direct test indicated some degree of conscious processing. Thus, indirect effects dissociated from direct effects in our study, an indication for non-conscious processing. Thereby, the present study provides evidence for non-conscious processing of emotional information beyond a simple positive-negative differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient mask data preparation for variable shaped e-beam writing system focusing on memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae H.; Lee, Jong-Bae; Shin, Jae-Pil; Yoo, Kwang-Jai; Jung, Dai-Hyun; Park, Yong-Hee; Yoo, Moon-Hyun; Kong, Jeong-Taek

    2003-12-01

    To cope with sub-100nm technology in the mask making industry, a variable shaped e-beam(VSB) writing system is one of the solutions through its high-electron voltage. The VSB writing system, however, requires a different mask data preparation comparing to the traditional raster scan writing system. Due to the differences, mask making industries are confronted with difficult problems, such as explosively increasing data volume and unpredictably growing mask making time especially for memory devices. VSB system's writing time is determined by the conversion from CAD data to VSB data. The conversion time, especially for the critical layers of memory devices, mostly depends on to what extent optimize CAD data to enhance writing system throughput. For this reason, to shorten the unpredictably growing mask making time, a data conversion tool must consider the throughput of data conversion and mask writing at the same time. To reduce the data conversion time while retaining the optimal writing time, we propose the mixed-mode data processing method, in which the hierarchical data operation is applied on memory cells and the flat data operation is applied on peripheral circuits. For each area, different fracturing strategies are applied, too. The polygon-aware fracturing method is applied to improve the CD control within memory cells, and the selective one-directional fracturing method is applied to reduce the writing time within peripheral circuits.

  19. Preparing to fight back: Generation and storage of priming compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria ePastor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Immune-stimulated plants are able to respond more rapidly and adequately to various biotic stresses allowing them to efficiently combat an infection. During the priming phase, plant are stimulated in absence of a challenge, and can accumulate and store conjugates or precursors of molecules as well as other compounds that play a role in defense. These molecules can be released during the defensive phase following stress. These metabolites can also participate in the first stages of the stress perception. Here, we report the metabolic changes occuring in primed plants during the priming phase. β-aminobutyric acid (BABA causes a boost of the primary metabolism through the tricarboxylic acids (TCA such as citrate, fumarate, (S-malate and 2-oxoglutarate, and the potentiation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the octodecanoic pathway. On the contrary, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PstAvrRpt2 represses the same pathways. Both systems used to prime plants share some common signals like the changes in the synthesis of amino acids and the production of SA and its glycosides, as well as IAA. Interestingly, a product of the purine catabolism, xanthosine, was found to accumulate following both BABA- and PstAvrRpt2-treatement. The compounds that are strongly affected in this stage are called priming compounds, since their effect on the metabolism of the plant is to induce the production of primed compounds that will help to combat the stress. At the same time, additional identified metabolites suggest the possible defense pathways that plants are using to get ready for the battle.

  20. Model-based mask data preparation (MB-MDP) and its impact on resist heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Aki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Bork, Ingo

    2011-04-01

    Complex mask shapes will be required on critical layer masks for 20nm logic node, threatening to explode the mask write times. Model-Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) has been introduced to reduce the shot count required to write complex masks while simultaneously improving resolution and dose margin of sub-100nm features. For production use of MB-MDP, a number of questions have been raised and answered. This paper summarizes these potential issues and their resolutions. In particular, the paper takes an in-depth look at one of the questions: impact of overlapping shots on heating effect. The paper concludes that while heating effect is an important issue for all e-beam writing even with conventional non-overlapping shots, overall dose density per unit time over microns of space is the principal driver behind heating effects. Highly local shot density and shot sequencing does not affect heating significantly, particularly for smaller shots. MB-MDP does not introduce any additional concerns.

  1. Many Roads Lead to Recognition: Electrophysiological Correlates of Familiarity Derived from Short-Term Masked Repetition Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Heather D.; Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that underlie familiarity memory have been extensively investigated, but a consensus understanding remains elusive. Behavioral evidence suggests that familiarity sometimes shares sources with instances of implicit memory known as priming, in that the same increases in processing fluency that give rise to priming can engender…

  2. Which code does underlie multiplication? Evidences from a magnitude decision task with masked priming - ¿Qué código subyace a las Multiplicaciones? Evidencias de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Damas López

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the prior masked presentation of a multiplication facilitates the naming of its solution. The different models of arithmetical processing that coexist today offer various explanations for this phenomenon, and it is not clear what is the locus (semantic or verbal of this facilitation effect. In the present study we try to determinethe nature of the effect by keeping the same exposition sequence, but changing the naming verbal task to a magnitude decision task ("is the number displayed more or less than 18?". We presented a series of target numbers preceded by a masked multiplication matching or non-matching the target number on which the magnitude judgementshould be done. The time to judge the magnitude of the matching targets was similar to that taken to judge the non-matching ones. Thus, the presentation of a masked multiplication does not appear to activate its solution at the semantic level, suggesting that the locus of the priming effects found in naming tasks has its origin in the verbal representations of the multiplication.

  3. Mask Blank Defect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A; Sommargren, G E

    2000-02-04

    Mask blanks are the substrates that hold the master patterns for integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are semiconductor devices, such as microprocessors (mPs), dynamic random access memory (DRAMs), and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that are central to the computer, communication, and electronics industries. These devices are fabricated using a set of master patterns that are sequentially imaged onto light-sensitive coated silicon wafers and processed to form thin layers of insulating and conductive materials on top of the wafer. These materials form electrical paths and transistors that control the flow of electricity through the device. For the past forty years the semiconductor industry has made phenomenal improvements in device functionality, compactness, speed, power, and cost. This progress is principally due to the exponential decrease in the minimum feature size of integrated circuits, which has been reduced by a factor of {radical}2 every three years. Since 1992 the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has coordinated the efforts of producing a technology roadmap for semiconductors. In the latest document, ''The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: 1999'', future technology nodes (minimum feature sizes) and targeted dates were specified and are summarized in Table 1. Lithography is the imaging technology for producing a de-magnified image of the mask on the wafer. A typical de-magnification factor is 4. Mask blank defects as small as one-eighth the equivalent minimum feature size are printable and may cause device failure. Defects might be the result of the surface preparation, such as polishing, or contamination due to handling or the environment. Table 2 shows the maximum tolerable defect sizes on the mask blank for each technology node. This downward trend puts a tremendous burden on mask fabrication, particularly in the area of defect detection and reduction. A new infrastructure for mask

  4. Biomedical graphite and CaF2 preparation and measurement at PRIME Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George S.; Einstein, Jane A.; Kubley, Tom; Martin, Berdine; Weaver, Connie M.; Caffee, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The biomedical program at PRIME Lab has prepared radiocarbon and 41Ca as tracers for a variety of applications. Over the last decade several hundred 14C samples and several thousand 41Ca samples have been measured per year. Biomedical samples pose challenges that are relatively rare in the AMS community. We will discuss how to prepare and compensate for samples that have isotope ratios above the dynamic range of AMS, high interference rates, and small samples sizes. In the case of 41Ca, the trade off in the chromatography between yield and sample cleanliness will be analyzed. Secondary standards that have isotope ratios commonly encountered in our applications are routinely prepared. We use material from the Joint Research Centre's Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement: IRMM-3701/4, 3701/5, and 3701/6 and a standard produced by PRIME Lab for 41Ca. We use International Atomic Energy Agency's IAEA C-3, IAEA C-7, IAEA C-8, and a ∼12.5× modern oxalic acid secondary standard supplied by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for 14C. We will discuss our precision, reproducibility, and the relative agreement between our measured and the reported values for these materials.

  5. Biomedical graphite and CaF{sub 2} preparation and measurement at PRIME Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, George S.; Einstein, Jane A.; Kubley, Tom [PRIME Lab, Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Martin, Berdine; Weaver, Connie M. [Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Caffee, Marc [PRIME Lab, Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The biomedical program at PRIME Lab has prepared radiocarbon and {sup 41}Ca as tracers for a variety of applications. Over the last decade several hundred {sup 14}C samples and several thousand {sup 41}Ca samples have been measured per year. Biomedical samples pose challenges that are relatively rare in the AMS community. We will discuss how to prepare and compensate for samples that have isotope ratios above the dynamic range of AMS, high interference rates, and small samples sizes. In the case of {sup 41}Ca, the trade off in the chromatography between yield and sample cleanliness will be analyzed. Secondary standards that have isotope ratios commonly encountered in our applications are routinely prepared. We use material from the Joint Research Centre’s Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement: IRMM-3701/4, 3701/5, and 3701/6 and a standard produced by PRIME Lab for {sup 41}Ca. We use International Atomic Energy Agency’s IAEA C-3, IAEA C-7, IAEA C-8, and a ∼12.5× modern oxalic acid secondary standard supplied by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for {sup 14}C. We will discuss our precision, reproducibility, and the relative agreement between our measured and the reported values for these materials.

  6. Enforcement of Mask Rule Compliance in Model-Based OPC'ed Layouts during Data Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dirk H.; Vuletic, Radovan; Seidl, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    Currently available commercial model-based OPC tools do not always generate layouts which are mask rule compliant. Additional processing is required to remove mask rule violations, which are often too numerous for manual patching. Although physical verification tools can be used to remove simple mask rule violations, the results are often unsatisfactory for more complicated geometrical configurations. The subject of this paper is the development and application of a geometrical processing engine that automatically enforces mask rule compliance of the OPC'ed layout. It is designed as an add-on to a physical verification tool. The engine constructs patches, which remove mask rule violations such as notches or width violations. By employing a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) optimization method, the edges of each patch are placed in a way that avoids secondary violations while modifying the OPC'ed layout as little as possible. A sequence of enforcement steps is applied to the layout to remove all types of mask rule violations. This approach of locally confined minimal layout modifications retains OPC corrections to a maximum amount. This method has been used successfully in production on a variety of DRAM designs for the non-array regions.

  7. Visuomotor priming of action preparation and motor programming is similar in visually guided and memory-guided actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegelke, Christian; Güldenpenning, Iris; Dettling, Julian; Schack, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined whether the planning and execution of a reach-to-grasp movement is susceptible to visuomotor priming, and whether the strength of the priming effect depends on the availability of visual feedback. Participants grasped a target object as quickly as possible with either a whole-hand grip or a precision grip upon hearing an auditory stimulus. Prior to the auditory cue, a prime stimulus was presented. The prime stimulus depicted an object that was either congruent, incongruent, or ambiguous with respect to the required grasp, or it showed no object at all. In addition, participants performed the grasping task in one of three vision conditions: participants' vision was either occluded during both the motor programming and online-control phase (no-vision), participants had vision only during the motor programming phase (partial-vision), or they had vision available throughout task performance (full-vision). Results revealed the presence of two discrete priming effects. First, we found a facilitative effect of congruent compared to incongruent prime-grip combinations that influenced reaction times and kinematic parameters. Second, we found that movements were initiated slower during the no prime compared to all other conditions. However, this effect did not affect movement kinematics. Importantly, the size of both effects was similar regardless of vision. Together, these results suggest that visuomotor priming effects exhibit a similar influence on memory-guided and visually guided actions, indicating the same underlying object representations for those actions, and thus further challenging the real-time view of motor programming. Furthermore, the two different priming effects suggest the presence of functionally distinct, yet related modules or processes related to action preparation and motor programming, and hint towards possible ventrodorsal interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The U.S. Rosetta Project: Preparations for Prime Mission, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.; Chmielewski, A.; Aguinaldo, A. M.; Ko, A.; Accomazzo, A.; Taylor, M. G. G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the International Rosetta mission will place a spacecraft in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and deliver a lander to the comet's surface. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) contribution to the International Rosetta mission, designated the U.S. Rosetta Project, includes several instruments, tracking support, and science support for some non-US payloads. In July 2011 the spacecraft was placed in a long-duration hibernation mode planned to last approximately 37 months to conserve electrical power. Rosetta will rendezvous with 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. On the eve of the mission's arrival at its target, this paper highlights three issues related to Rosetta's looming prime mission: (A) measures taken in 2009 to prepare the US Rosetta Project for the long-duration hibernation mode; (B) risk reviews conducted in 2013 to prepare the US Rosetta Project for exit from hibernation; (C) ESA and NASA preparations for use of NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) assets related to keyword files.

  9. Microbiological safety of commercial prime rib preparation methods: thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in mechanically tenderized beef roasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of food service operations in a medium-size Midwestern city was conducted to evaluate the microbiological safety of prime rib preparation methods relative to survival of Salmonella spp. in both intact and tenderized (non-intact) product. All six restaurants visited seared rib eye roasts (ai...

  10. Preparation and evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of arbidol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to cover the bitter taste of arbidol hydrochloride (ARB and develop dry suspension with combination of solid dispersion and flavors. Taste masking was successfully done by solid dispersion using octadecanol as the carrier by fusion method. Suspending agents, carriers and other excipients were selected. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, DSC analysis indicated that ARB was amorphous in the solid dispersion, FTIR spectroscopy showed no interaction between drug and carrier. Taste masking was evaluated on six volunteers with a score of 4.9. The results demonstrated successful taste masking. Water was used to study the in vitro dissolution performance of the three formulations of commercial tablet, capsule and self-made suspension. The self-made suspension showed a lower and slower release, the insoluble carrier octadecanol blocked the drug dissolving from the solid dispersion. It was indicated from the primary stability study, the self-made suspensions were sensitive to high temperature, high humidity and strong light conditions, they should be stored in sealed containers away from heat, light and humidity.

  11. A user-programmable link between data preparation and mask manufacturing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Davis, Grant; Sahouria, Emile; Schulze, Steffen; Saad, Mohammed; Seyfarth, Arne; Poortinga, Eric

    2007-10-01

    In order to fully exploit the design knowledge during the operation of mask manufacturing equipment, as well as to enable the efficient feedback of manufacturing information upstream into the design chain, close communication links between the data processing domain and the machine are necessary. With shrinking design rules and modeling technology required to drive simulations and corrections, the amount and variety of measurements, for example, is steadily growing. This requires a flexible and automated setup of parameters and location information and their communication with the machine. The paper will describe a programming interface based on the Tcl/Tk language that contains a set of frequently reoccurring functions for data extraction and search, site characterization, site filtering, and coordinate transfer. It enables the free programming of the links, adapting to the flow and the machine needs. The interface lowers the effort to connect to new tools with specific measurement capabilities, and it reduces the setup and measurement time. The interface is capable of handling all common mask writer formats and their jobdecks, as well as OASIS and GDSII data. The application of this interface is demonstrated for the Carl Zeiss AIMS TM system.

  12. Study on the preparation of resist mask based on two-consecutive electron beam exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yanbing; Wang, Li; Sun, Yanjun; Dong, Lianhe

    2016-10-01

    To overcome the alignment error caused by the overlay when the conventional electron beam lithography produces the four-step relief structure, the paper did a detailed research on the influence of different accelerating voltage on the exposure depth during the process of exposure. Therefore, it drew out the limit value of exposure depth under different accelerating voltage and the relationship between the electron beam energy and critical exposed dose. Through the analysis of the experimental results, it worked out the optimum process parameter combination of exposure. The accelerating voltage of the first exposure was 5keV and the exposed dose was 100μC/cm2, while the second accelerating voltage was 15keV and the exposed dose was 150μC/cm2. Finally, the four-step relief structure was made on the resist layer and this structure met the needs of the graphic transfer process on the etch mask.

  13. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  14. Selecting Japan's New Prime Minister. Prepared as Background for the Liberal Democratic Party Presidential Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ellis S.

    Divided into four major parts, this document explains the significance of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) in Japan. Part 1 indicates that the LDP has governed Japan since 1955 and controls 445 seats in the 764 seat parliament. The selection of the prime minister, chosen from within the ruling party, is seen as vital to U.S. interests. For…

  15. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual masking of primes is a method used to tap into automatic processing while reducing or eliminating conscious processing of the primes. Masking is achieved by presenting primes very rapidly and preceding and/or following them with additional visual stimuli that interfere with conscious processing of the primes (Greenwald, Klinger & Liu, 1989; Forster, Mohan & Hector, 2003). A recent series of studies using masked priming with aphasia (Silkes, Dierkes & Kendall, 2012;...

  16. The role of visual awareness for conflict adaptation in the masked priming task: Comparing block-wise adaptation with trial-by-trial adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro eHasegawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of participants’ visual awareness in the block-wise and the trial-by-trial adaptations. We employed a subliminal response compatibility task in which a prime arrow was briefly presented before the target arrow, and the participants were requested to indicate the direction of the target arrow. The direction of the prime and direction of the target were either the same (compatible trial or different (incompatible trial. To examine block-wise adaptation, two blocks were conducted, i.e., the Neutral block (50% compatible and 50% incompatible trials and the Incompatible block (10% compatible and 90% incompatible trials. The results showed the existence of the block-wise adaptation without participants’ visual awareness. The compatibility effect on both response time and error rate was smaller in the Incompatible block than in the Neutral block. Moreover, a separate data analysis based on the preceding trial type revealed that the trial-by-trial adaptation of cognitive control was observed only in the error rate. These results suggest the different role of visual awareness in the block-wise and trial-by-trial adaptations.

  17. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  18. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming conditi...

  19. The VIRMOS mask manufacturing tools; 2, Mask manufacturing and handling

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, G; Mattaini, E; MacCagni, D; Lefèvre, O; Saisse, M; Vettolani, G

    1999-01-01

    We describe the VIRMOS Mask Manufacturing Unit (MMU) configuration, composed of two units:the Mask Manufacturing Machine (with its Control Unit) and the Mask Handling Unit (inclusive of Control Unit, Storage Cabinets and robot for loading of the Instrument Cabinets). For both VIMOS and NIRMOS instruments, on the basis of orders received by the Mask Preparation Software (see paper (a) in same proceedings), the function of the MMU is to perform an off-line mask cutting and identification, followed by mask storing and subsequent filling of the Instrument Cabinets (IC). We describe the characteristics of the LPKF laser cutting machine and the work done to support the choice of this equipment. We also describe the remaining of the hardware configuration and the Mask Handling Software.

  20. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  1. Preparation of Soluble Facial Mask of Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f.%白芨可溶性面膜的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昌玲; 孙达锋

    2015-01-01

    以白芨为主要原料,开发出了一种新型的可溶性成型面膜,并对其制备工艺进行了研究。结果表明,最佳工艺指标:白芨胶液浓度为6%;甘油添加量为1.5%;面膜厚度为0.20 mm;干燥温度为70℃。该可溶性面膜轻薄、韧性好;天然无刺激、无毒副作用,本身还具有较高美容功能和特别美容疗效;制备工艺简单、成本低、性价比高。%Using Bletilla as the main raw material, a new type of soluble molding mask was developed, and the preparation process was studied. The results showed that the optimum technological indexes:Bletilla glue solution concentration is 6% ; glycerol adding amount is 1. 5% ; facial film thickness of 0. 20 mm; the drying temperature is 70 ℃. Natural, non - stimulative and no side effect, the soluble mask is light, thin and with good toughness. Furthermore, its preparation technique is simple and it has superior beauty function with high cost performance.

  2. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohr, M.; Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific em

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Orally Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets Containing Taste-Masked Particles Using One-Step Dry-Coated Tablets Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Ozeki, Yuichi; Ando, Masaki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    ...) containing functional (taste masking or controlled release) coated particles, such as the low compactability of coated particles and the rupture of coated membrane during compression, a novel ODT containing taste-masked coated particles (TMP...

  4. One version of direct response priming requires automatization of the relevant associations but not awareness of the prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2015-07-01

    Priming is the influence of one event on performance during a second event. One type of priming is known as semantic priming because it biases interpretation of the subsequent stimulus. Another type, direct response priming, biases responding directly without semantic mediation. Research reviewed in this article indicates that two versions of the second type, direct response priming, can be distinguished. One version, explicit priming, requires awareness of the prime. The other version, associative response priming, occurs even if the prime is masked and not phenomenally visible. This version, which is attributed to associations relating specific sensory events to movements of particular muscles, is enabled only if the association has previously been automatized by brief practice in which the to-be-primed response is made to the stimulus that subsequently appears as the prime. Associative response priming can be explained by a simple stimulus-response interpretation; other varieties of priming are more theoretically challenging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Different Mask of Lee’s Command, April 1861-June 1862: The Preparation of a Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    There has not been sunshine enough since my arrival to dry my clothes. But the worst of the rain is, that the ground has become so saturated with water...All do agree, however, that Lee was deeply religious and served a personal and Calvanistic God. For him, "life was only a preparation for eternity

  6. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  7. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  8. Spatial frequency filtered images reveal differences between masked and unmasked processing of emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Wentura, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    High and low spatial frequency information has been shown to contribute differently to the processing of emotional information. In three priming studies using spatial frequency filtered emotional face primes, emotional face targets, and an emotion categorization task, we investigated this issue further. Differences in the pattern of results between short and masked, and short and long unmasked presentation conditions emerged. Given long and unmasked prime presentation, high and low frequency primes triggered emotion-specific priming effects. Given brief and masked prime presentation in Experiment 2, we found a dissociation: High frequency primes caused a valence priming effect, whereas low frequency primes yielded a differentiation between low and high arousing information within the negative domain. Brief and unmasked prime presentation in Experiment 3 revealed that subliminal processing of primes was responsible for the pattern observed in Experiment 2. The implications of these findings for theories of early emotional information processing are discussed.

  9. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  10. Preparation of Hyaluronic Acid-Bacterial Cellulose Biological Mask by in Situ Modification%原位添加静态发酵制备透明质酸-细菌纤维素生物面膜∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 吴旭君; 陈仕艳; 王华平

    2015-01-01

    细菌纤维素(Bacterial cellulose,BC)是一种兼具生物相容性与生物可降解性的天然高分子材料,具备优异的理化性质:高持水性、高纤维素纯度以及良好的湿态柔韧性等。静态发酵阶段原位添加透明质酸(Hyaluronic acid,HA)制得 HA-BC 生物面膜,该面膜呈现“上致密、下疏松”的双层结构,较 BC 和无纺布面膜更贴合人体皮肤结构;其拉伸强度为(1.00±0.17)MPa,弹性模量为(4.90±0.86)MPa,在一定拉扯力下不易变形,能保有其孔洞结构,抗拉力较无纺布面膜好,保证了使用者体验度;实验所制面膜90°剥离强度为(0.76±0.14)N/m,远高于无纺布面膜,面膜手感更柔软,贴肤度更强;HA-BC 生物面膜水蒸气透过率为(5640±78)g·m-2·(24 h)-1,较未改性 BC面膜减少约2842 g·m-2·(24 h)-1,较无纺布面膜减少约6468 g·m-2·(24 h)-1,锁水力更强。HA-BC 生物面膜较 BC、无纺布面膜性能更为优异。%Bacterial cellulose (BC),synthesized from Gluconacetobacter xylinum ,is considered as a natural pol-ymer material which has biocompatibility as well as biodegradability.It has some unique physical and chemical proper-ties:high water holding capacity,high purity and fine wet state flexibility.Hyaluronic acid-bacterial cellulose biologi-cal masks were prepared by in situ modification.HA-BC mask has dual-stage morphology with dense upper layer and porous lower layer,which is more fit to human skin surface than BC and non-woven masks.The tensile strength and elastic modulus of HA-BC mask are (1.00±0.1 7)MPa and (4.90±0.86)MPa,respectively.HA-BC mask can re-tain its porous structure under certain pulling force,which ensures users′feeling.90°Peel strength of HA-BC mask is (0.76±0.14)N/m,which is much higher than non-woven mask.HA-BC mask shows perfect hand-feeling and skin-fitness.The water vapor transmission rate of HA-BC mask is (5640±78)g·m-2 ·(24 h)-1 ,about 2842 g·m-2 · (24 h)-1 lower than unmodified BC

  11. EUV mask pilot line at Intel Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Alan R.; Yan, Pei-Yang; Zhang, Guojing; Liang, Ted; Shu, Emily Y.; Tejnil, Edita; Lieberman, Barry; Nagpal, Rajesh; Hsia, Kangmin; Penn, Michael; Lo, Fu-Chang

    2004-12-01

    The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into high volume manufacturing requires the development of a new mask technology. In support of this, Intel Corporation has established a pilot line devoted to encountering and eliminating barriers to manufacturability of EUV masks. It concentrates on EUV-specific process modules and makes use of the captive standard photomask fabrication capability of Intel Corporation. The goal of the pilot line is to accelerate EUV mask development to intersect the 32nm technology node. This requires EUV mask technology to be comparable to standard photomask technology by the beginning of the silicon wafer process development phase for that technology node. The pilot line embodies Intel's strategy to lead EUV mask development in the areas of the mask patterning process, mask fabrication tools, the starting material (blanks) and the understanding of process interdependencies. The patterning process includes all steps from blank defect inspection through final pattern inspection and repair. We have specified and ordered the EUV-specific tools and most will be installed in 2004. We have worked with International Sematech and others to provide for the next generation of EUV-specific mask tools. Our process of record is run repeatedly to ensure its robustness. This primes the supply chain and collects information needed for blank improvement.

  12. Alternating phase-shifted mask for logic gate levels, design, and mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Graur, Ioana C.; Leipold, William C.; Oberschmidt, James M.; O'Grady, David S.; Regaill, Denis

    1999-07-01

    While the benefits of alternating phase shifted masks in improving lithographic process windows at increased resolution are well known throughout the lithography community, broad implementation of this potentially powerful technique has been slow due to the inherent complexity of the layout design and mask manufacturing process. This paper will review a project undertaken at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center and Mask Manufacturing and Development facility to understand the technical and logistical issues associated with the application of alternating phase shifted mask technology to the gate level of a full microprocessor chip. The work presented here depicts an important milestone toward integration of alternating phase shifted masks into the manufacturing process by demonstrating an automated design solution and yielding a functional alternating phase shifted mask. The design conversion of the microprocessor gate level to a conjugate twin shifter alternating phase shift layout was accomplished with IBM's internal design system that automatically scaled the design, added required phase regions, and resolved phase conflicts. The subsequent fabrication of a nearly defect free phase shifted mask, as verified by SEM based die to die inspection, highlights the maturity of the alternating phase shifted mask manufacturing process in IBM's internal mask facility. Well defined and recognized challenges in mask inspection and repair remain and the layout of alternating phase shifted masks present a design and data preparation overhead, but the data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of designing and building manufacturing quality alternating phase shifted masks for the gate level of a microprocessor.

  13. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the difficulty of creating playful representation of domain-specific abstract concepts, this study discusses the design of Prime Slaughter, a computer game aimed at facilitating individual sense-making of abstract mathematical concepts. Specifically the game proposes a transposition...... of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple...

  14. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the difficulty of creating playful representation of domain-specific abstract concepts, this study discusses the design of Prime Slaughter, a computer game aimed at facilitating individual sense-making of abstract mathematical concepts. Specifically the game proposes a transposition...... of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple...

  15. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  16. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words.

  17. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eNakano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii a semantically-related form, and (iv a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i, (ii and (iii, but not for (iv. This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i, but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii and (iii. In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts – orthographically related, but which - in their commonly written form - share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system affect the processing of (morphologically complex words.

  18. Tissue Counter Analysis of Histologic Sections of Melanoma: Influence of Mask Size and Shape, Feature Selection, Statistical Methods and Tissue Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Smolle

    2002-01-01

    reported for manual measurements. The test sets obtained from different laboratories yielded comparable results. Conclusions: Large, square measuring masks, colour features and CART analysis provide a useful setting for the automated measurement of melanoma tissue in tissue counter analysis, which can also be used for slides derived from different laboratories.

  19. Space-Valence Priming with Subliminal and Supraliminal Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eAnsorge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To date it is unclear whether (1 awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2 awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1, we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1: Classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘happy’ than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘sad’. In contrast to (2, no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2. Control conditions showed that standard masked response-priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1 that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments.

  20. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  1. Preparation of mullite fiber sol-gel method. Sol-gel ho ni yoru mullite sen prime i no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, T. (Unichika Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Fujiki, Y. (National Institute for Research and Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    This report discribes a method to prepare mullite fiber by a new process using aqueous solution of aluminum nitrate, aluminum isopropoxide, and tetraethoxisilane(TEOS). Presursors of mullite were obtained by a method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS simultaneously to the solution of aluminum nitrate, or by another method to add TEOS after adding aluminum isopropoxide. Then, structural analyses on the spinning solution, precursor fibers, and calcination process were carried out by {sup 27}Al- and {sup 29}Si-NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and DTA. The spinnable range of the method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS at the same time was wider when it was shown with H{sub 2}O mol/(Al+Si)mol and Al(OPr{sup i}){sub 3} mol/Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} mol. Manifastation of spinnability deeply related to the bonding condition of Al and Si formed in the solution. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 阈下知觉的加工水平及其发生条件——基于视觉掩蔽启动范式的视角%Processing Levels and Its Prerequisite During Subliminal Perception:Evidences Based on Visual Masking Priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛; 霍鹏飞; 王灵慧

    2012-01-01

    Dehaene等(1998)和Greenwald等(1996)的研究通过在方法上的完善,为阈下知觉的存在提供了确凿的证据.但是阈下知觉可以达到什么样的深度这一问题仍然存在争议.有研究者认为阈下知觉可以达到语义加工的水平,而有的研究者认为阈下知觉只是对刺激视觉特征的一种浅层加工,并形成了一些非语义加工的假说.在以往研究的基础上,本研究通过完善实验范式,分别采用图片、字词作为实验材料对阈下知觉的深度和影响因素进行探讨.实验1和实验2立据于阈下非语义加工的各种理论,为阈下语义加工的存在提供了证据.同时实验2表明,阈下知觉达到的水平取决于靶子集的大小,更确切的说取决于被试对靶刺激进行了何种水平的加工.%Dehaene, et al. (1998) and Greenwald, et al. (1996) have brought substantial evidence on the existence of subliminal perception. But there are still controversies about which level can subliminal perception reach. While some researcher argued the subliminal stimuli can be processed semantically, other researcher argued it was a shallow processing based on the visual characteristic of stimuli. Both sides have empirical evidences to support their views. Several theories object the subliminal semantic process, such as direct motor specification hypothesis, target stimuli activation theory and action trigger theory. Van Opstal and his colleagues (2005) believed that even not all of the experiments can be explained by action trigger theory, at least under some masking conditions, real semantic prime occurred. In order to explore whether and why semantic process exists in the subliminal process, two experiments were designed in this study. Based on previous researches, the present paper explored the depth and potential moderators of priming effects with picture and Chinese words as stimuli. 26 college students (age ranged from 20 to 26 years old (14 female, average ages was

  3. Inhibitory stroke neighbour priming in character recognition and reading in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxin; Tian, Jing; Han, Weijin; Liversedge, Simon P; Paterson, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, prior exposure to a target word's orthographic neighbour influences word recognition in masked priming experiments and the process of word identification that occurs during normal reading. We investigated whether similar neighbour priming effects are observed in Chinese in 4 masked priming experiments (employing a forward mask and 33-ms, 50-ms, and 67-ms prime durations) and in an experiment that measured eye movements while reading. In these experiments, the stroke neighbour of a Chinese character was defined as any character that differed by the addition, deletion, or substitution of one or two strokes. Prime characters were either stroke neighbours or stroke non-neighbours of the target character, and each prime character had either a higher or a lower frequency of occurrence in the language than its corresponding target character. Frequency effects were observed in all experiments, demonstrating that the manipulation of character frequency was successful. In addition, a robust inhibitory priming effect was observed in response times for target characters in the masked priming experiments and in eye fixation durations for target characters in the reading experiment. This stroke neighbour priming was not modulated by the relative frequency of the prime and target characters. The present findings therefore provide a novel demonstration that inhibitory neighbour priming shown previously for alphabetic languages is also observed for nonalphabetic languages, and that neighbour priming (based on stroke overlap) occurs at the level of the character in Chinese.

  4. 超薄氧化铝模板的制备及应用%Review of the preparation and application of ultra-thin alumina mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖昕; 戴金辉; 时磊艳; 徐楠

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale arrays of nanostructures on substrates have many potential applications in areas such as electronics, optoelectronics, sensing, catalyst, high-density storage, solar cells, field emission devices and ultra-thin display devices. Here, we review a new surface nano-patterning approach in fabricating ordered nanostructures, in which ultra-thin anodic alumina membranes are used as fabrication masks. According to the fabrication method, two different types of ultra-thin alumina masks exist: attached UTAM and connected UTAM.In this paper, applications of ultra-thin alumina masks have been reviewed in recent years.%基板上大面积的有序纳米阵列,在电子学、光电子学、传感器、催化剂、太阳能电池、高密度储存、场发射设备和超薄显示设备等领域具有广阔的应用前景.综述了一种构造表面有序纳米结构的新方法--超薄氧化铝模板法.根据超薄氧化铝模板的制备方法又分为附着型和结合型.还总结了近年来该方法的应用.

  5. Entropy Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Stone, Leland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper details two projects that use the World Wide Web (WWW) for dissemination of curricula that focus on remote sensing. 1) Presenting grade-school students with the concepts used in remote sensing involves educating the teacher and then providing the teacher with lesson plans. In a NASA-sponsored project designed to introduce students in grades 4 through 12 to some of the ideas and terminology used in remote sensing, teachers from local grade schools and middle schools were recruited to write lessons about remote sensing concepts they could use in their classrooms. Twenty-two lessons were produced and placed in seven modules that include: the electromagnetic spectrum, two- and three-dimensional perception, maps and topography, scale, remote sensing, biotic and abiotic concepts, and landscape chi rise. Each lesson includes a section that evaluates what students have learned by doing the exercise. The lessons, instead of being published in a workbook and distributed to a limited number of teachers, have been placed on a WWW server, enabling much broader access to the package. This arrangement also allows for the lessons to be modified after feedback from teachers accessing the package. 2) Two-year colleges serve to teach trade skills, prepare students for enrollment in senior institutions of learning, and more and more, retrain students who have college degrees in new technologies and skills. A NASA-sponsored curriculum development project is producing a curriculum using remote sensing analysis an Earth science applications. The project has three major goals. First, it will implement the use of remote sensing data in a broad range of community college courses. Second, it will create curriculum modules and classes that are transportable to other community colleges. Third, the project will be an ongoing source of data and curricular materials to other community colleges. The curriculum will have these course pathways to a certificate; a) a Science emphasis, b

  6. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  7. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  8. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  9. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions.

  10. Analyzing EUV mask costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercel, Michael; Kasprowicz, Bryan

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) as a replacement for multiple patterning is based on improvements of cycle time, yield, and cost. Earlier cost studies have assumed a simple assumption that EUV masks (being more complex with the multilayer coated blank) are not more than three times as expensive as advanced ArFi (ArF immersion) masks. EUV masks are expected to be more expensive during the ramp of the technology because of the added cost of the complex mask blank, the use of EUV specific mask tools, and a ramp of yield learning relative to the more mature technologies. This study concludes that, within a range of scenarios, the hypothesis that EUV mask costs are not more than three times that of advanced ArFi masks is valid and conservative.

  11. Sequential decays of the. Upsilon. prime prime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, U.; Kaarsberg, T.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Narain, M.; Schamberger, R.D.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (USA)); Franzini, P.; Tuts, P.M.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q. (Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (USA))

    1991-03-25

    We have studied the decay chain {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}}({chi}{sub {ital b}}){gamma} {r arrow}{Upsilon}{prime}({Upsilon}){gamma}{gamma}{r arrow}{mu}{mu}({ital ee}){gamma}{gamma} with the CUSB II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. For a sample of 1.33{times}10{sup 6} {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}'s we find {approx}400 events. We measure branching ratios for {chi}{sub {ital b}{ital J}}{sup {prime}}{r arrow}{Upsilon}{prime}({Upsilon}){gamma} and, using calculated {ital E}1 rates, we derive total and hadronic widths of the {chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}} states. From these widths we obtain values of {alpha}{sub {ital s}} in the range between 0.13 and 0.21, in agreement with other determinations. We observe the suppressed decay {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{chi}{sub {ital b}}{gamma}. The measured branching ratio suggests that relativistic effects are important. We also determine the branching ratios for {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{Upsilon}{prime}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} to be (1.3{plus minus}0.4{plus minus}0.2)% and {Upsilon}{prime}{prime}{r arrow}{Upsilon}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} to be (1.8{plus minus}0.3{plus minus}0.2)%.

  12. Influence of Temporal Expectations on Response Priming by Subliminal Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Raphael; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Unconscious processes are often assumed immune from attention influence. Recent behavioral studies suggest however that the processing of subliminal information can be influenced by temporal attention. To examine the neural mechanisms underlying these effects, we used a stringent masking paradigm together with fMRI to investigate how temporal attention modulates the processing of unseen (masked) faces. Participants performed a gender decision task on a visible neutral target face, preceded by a masked prime face that could vary in gender (same or different than target) and emotion expression (neutral or fearful). We manipulated temporal attention by instructing participants to expect targets to appear either early or late during the stimulus sequence. Orienting temporal attention to subliminal primes influenced response priming by masked faces, even when gender was incongruent. In addition, gender-congruent primes facilitated responses regardless of attention while gender-incongruent primes reduced accuracy when attended. Emotion produced no differential effects. At the neural level, incongruent and temporally unexpected primes increased brain response in regions of the fronto-parietal attention network, reflecting greater recruitment of executive control and reorienting processes. Congruent and expected primes produced higher activations in fusiform cortex, presumably reflecting facilitation of perceptual processing. These results indicate that temporal attention can influence subliminal processing of face features, and thus facilitate information integration according to task-relevance regardless of conscious awareness. They also suggest that task-congruent information between prime and target may facilitate response priming even when temporal attention is not selectively oriented to the prime onset time. PMID:27764124

  13. 离子掩蔽剂在制备铜银双金属粉中的应用%Ionic Masking Agent in the Preparation of Copper-Silver Bimetallic Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭优; 聂登攀; 薛涛

    2011-01-01

    采用化学置换法制备了系列铜银双金属粉,在制备过程中添加离子掩蔽剂,有效消除了铜氨络合离子在铜粉表面的吸附,实现银在铜粉表面的连续包覆.分析了掩蔽原理及其主要影响因素,并用透射电子显微镜,热重分析仪,X射线衍射仪对铜银双金属粉进行了表征.结果表明:在添加了离子掩蔽剂后制备铜银双金属粉末为连续包覆型结构,分散性好,有效改善了铜粉的抗氧化性能.%A series of copper-silver bimetallic powder was prepared by a chemical replacement method.In this process, ionic masking agent was added to eliminate copper ammonia complex ions adsorption on copper powder surface, which realizes silver continuous coating on the copper powder surfaces.The masking mechanism and the main influencing factors were analyzed.Besides that, TEM, TGA and XRD were used to characterize the Cu-Ag bimetallic powder.Results show that the copper-silver bimetallic powder with the ionic masking agent is of a continuous coating type structure, which has good dispersity, effectively improving antioxidation properties of the copper powdet.

  14. Prime Mover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael Frederik

    2002-01-01

    The important issue of technological determinism is analysed in relation to various theoretical positions, and it is highlighted with a chain of empirical cases drawn form history. The fundamental questions to be considered is the nature of determinism in Karl Marx' philosophical work and the shi...... of modernism versus primitivism in historiography. This question is narrowed down to the discussion of the vertical water wheel as the prime mover in history. The problem is related to the abuse of technical development as an independent variable in general history....

  15. Prime Mover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael Frederik

    2002-01-01

    The important issue of technological determinism is analysed in relation to various theoretical positions, and it is highlighted with a chain of empirical cases drawn form history. The fundamental questions to be considered is the nature of determinism in Karl Marx' philosophical work and the shi...... of modernism versus primitivism in historiography. This question is narrowed down to the discussion of the vertical water wheel as the prime mover in history. The problem is related to the abuse of technical development as an independent variable in general history....

  16. Event-related potential correlates of emotional orthographic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faïta-Aïnseba, Frédérique; Gobin, Pamela; Bouaffre, Sarah; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of masked orthographic priming and to determine whether the emotional valence of a word neighbor prime affects target processing in a lexical decision task. The results showed that the N200 and N400 amplitudes were modified by orthographic priming, which also varied with the emotional valence of the neighbors. These findings provide new evidence that the N400 component is sensitive to orthographic priming and further suggest that the affective content of the neighbor influences target word processing.

  17. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility....

  18. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  19. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  20. Semantic priming effects from single words in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Carmen; Ortells, Juan J; Abad, María J F; Carmona, Encarnación; Daza, M Teresa

    2007-06-01

    The present research examines the semantic priming effects of a centrally presented single prime word to which participants were instructed to either "attend and remember" or "ignore". The prime word was followed by a central probe target on which the participants made a lexical decision task. The main variables manipulated across experiments were prime duration (50 or 100 ms), the presence or absence of a mask following the prime, and the presence (or absence) and type of distractor stimulus (random set of consonants or pseudowords) on the probe display. There was a consistent interaction between the instructions and the semantic priming effects. Relative to the "attend and remember" instruction, an "ignore" instruction produced reduced positive priming from single primes presented for 100 ms, irrespective of the presence or absence of a prime mask, and regardless of whether the probe target was presented with or without distractors. Additionally, reliable negative priming was found from ignored primes presented for briefer durations (50 ms) and immediately followed by a mask. Methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings for the extant negative priming literature are discussed.

  1. Microbial stress priming: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Linares, Diana R; Lehmann, Anika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2016-04-01

    Microbes have to cope with complex and dynamic environments, making it likely that anticipatory responses provide fitness benefits. Mild, previous stressors can prepare microbes (stress priming) to further and potentially damaging stressors (triggering). We here quantitatively summarize the findings from over 250 trials of 34 studies including bacteria and fungi, demonstrating that priming to stress has a beneficial impact on microbial survival. In fact, survival of primed microbes was about 10-fold higher compared with that in non-primed microbes. Categorical moderators related to microbial taxonomy and the kind of stress applied as priming or as triggering revealed significant differences of priming effect size among 14 different microbial species, 6 stress categories and stressor combination. We found that priming by osmotic, physiological and temperature stress had the highest positive effect sizes on microbial response. Cross-protection was evident for physiological, temperature and pH stresses. Microbes are better prepared against triggering by oxidative, temperature and osmotic stress. Our finding of an overall positive mean effect of priming regardless of the microbial system and particular stressor provides unprecedentedly strong evidence of the broad ecological significance of microbial stress priming. These results further suggest that stress priming may be an important factor in shaping microbial communities.

  2. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  3. On the effect of subliminal priming on subjective perception of images: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Wong, Ken; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this article investigates the influence of subliminal prime words on peoples' judgment about images, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). In this cross domain priming paradigm, the participants are asked to rate how much they like the stimulus images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words, with EEG recorded simultaneously. Statistical analysis tools are used to analyze the effect of priming on behavior, and machine learning techniques to infer the primes from EEGs. The experiment reveals strong effects of subliminal priming on the participants' explicit rating of images. The subjective judgment affected by the priming makes visible change in event-related potentials (ERPs); results show larger ERP amplitude for the negative primes compared with positive and neutral primes. In addition, Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifiers are proposed to infer the prime types from the average ERPs, which yields a classification rate of 70%.

  4. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  5. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  6. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  7. ON ALMOST PRIME SUBMODULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hani A. Khashan

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we define almost prime submodules as a new generalization of prime and weakly prime submodules of unitary modules over a commutative ring with identity.We study some basic properties of almost prime submodules and give some characterizations of them,especially for (finitely generated faithful) multiplication modules.

  8. Quality enhancement of parallel MDP flows with mask suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Erwin; Lee, Rachel; Lee, Chun Der

    2013-06-01

    For many maskshops, designed parallel mask data preparation (MDP) flows accompanying with a final data comparison are viewed as a reliable method that could reduce quality risks caused by mis-operation. However, in recent years, more and more mask data mistakes have shown that present parallel MDP flows could not capture all mask data errors yet. In this paper, we will show major failure models of parallel MDP flows from analyzing MDP quality accidents and share our approaches to achieve further improvement with mask suppliers together.

  9. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  10. New mask technology challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2001-09-01

    Mask technology development has accelerated dramatically in recent years from the glacial pace of the last three decades to the rapid and sometimes simultaneous introductions of new wavelengths and mask-based resolution enhancement techniques. The nature of the semiconductor business has also become one driven by time-to-market as an overwhelming factor in capturing market share and profit. These are among the factors that have created enormous stress on the mask industry to produce masks with enhanced capabilities, such as phase-shifting attenuators, sub-resolution assist bars, and optical proximity correction (OPC) features, while maintaining or reducing cost and cycle time. The mask can no longer be considered a commodity item that is purchased form the lowest-cost supplier. Instead, it must now be promoted as an integral part of the technical and business case for a total lithographic solution. Improving partnership between designer, mask-maker, and wafer lithographer will be the harbinger of success in finding a profitable balance of capability, cost, and cycle time. Likewise for equipment infrastructure development, stronger partnership on the international level is necessary to control development cost and mitigate schedule and technical risks.

  11. Time Course of Free-Choice Priming Effects Explained by a Simple Accumulator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattler, Uwe; Palmer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and modulate their behavior. This has been shown for masked prime stimuli that influence motor responses to subsequent target stimuli. Beyond this, masked stimuli can also affect participants' behavior when they are free to choose one of two response alternatives. This finding…

  12. The Amygdala Is Involved in Affective Priming Effect for Fearful Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Cao, Z.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate whether the amygdala is involved in affective priming effect after stimuli are encoded unconsciously and consciously. During the encoding phase, each masked face (fearful or neutral) was presented to participants six times for 17 ms each, using a backward masking paradigm. During the retrieval phase,…

  13. Time Course of Free-Choice Priming Effects Explained by a Simple Accumulator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattler, Uwe; Palmer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Unconscious visual stimuli can be processed by human observers and modulate their behavior. This has been shown for masked prime stimuli that influence motor responses to subsequent target stimuli. Beyond this, masked stimuli can also affect participants' behavior when they are free to choose one of two response alternatives. This finding…

  14. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  15. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  16. Emotion potentiates response activation and inhibition in masked priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. Bocanegra (Bruno); R. Zeelenberg (René)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emoti

  17. Practical mask inspection system with printability and pattern priority verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Hideo; Ozaki, Fumio; Takahara, Kenichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kikuiri, Nobutaka

    2011-05-01

    Through the four years of study in Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) on reducing mask manufacturing Turn Around Time (TAT) and cost, we have been able to establish a technology to improve the efficiency of the review process by applying a printability verification function that utilizes computational lithography simulations to analyze defects detected by a high-resolution mask inspection system. With the advent of Source-Mask Optimization (SMO) and other technologies that extend the life of existing optical lithography, it is becoming extremely difficult to judge a defect only by the shape of a mask pattern, while avoiding pseudo-defects. Thus, printability verification is indispensable for filtering out nuisance defects from high-resolution mask inspection results. When using computational lithography simulations to verify printability with high precision, the image captured by the inspection system must be prepared with extensive care. However, for practical applications, this preparation process needs to be simplified. In addition, utilizing Mask Data Rank (MDR) to vary the defect detection sensitivity according to the patterns is also useful for simultaneously inspecting minute patterns and avoiding pseudo-defects. Combining these two technologies, we believe practical mask inspection for next generation lithography is achievable. We have been improving the estimation accuracy of the printability verification function through discussion with several customers and evaluation of their masks. In this report, we will describe the progress of these practical mask verification functions developed through customers' evaluations.

  18. Shifting evaluation windows: predictable forward primes with long SOAs eliminate the impact of backward primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fockenberg, Daniel A; Koole, Sander L; Lakens, Daniël; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that people evaluate target stimuli within short and flexible time periods called evaluation windows. Stimuli that briefly precede a target (forward primes) or briefly succeed a target (backward primes) are often included in the target's evaluation. In this article, the authors propose that predictable forward primes act as "go" signals that prepare target processing, such that earlier forward primes pull the evaluation windows forward in time. Earlier forward primes may thus reduce the impact of backward primes. This shifting evaluation windows hypothesis was tested in two experiments using an evaluative decision task with predictable (vs. unpredictable) forward and backward primes. As expected, a longer time interval between a predictable forward prime and a target eliminated backward priming. In contrast, the time interval between an unpredictable forward primes and a target had no effects on backward priming. These findings suggest that predictable features of dynamic stimuli can shape target extraction by determining which information is included (or excluded) in rapid evaluation processes.

  19. Mask design rules (45 nm): time for standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mark; Progler, Christopher J.; Martin, Patrick; Ham, Young-Mog; Dillon, Brian; Pack, Robert; Heins, Mitch; Gookassian, John; Garcia, John; Boksha, Victor

    2005-11-01

    Time-to-mask (ttm) has been growing exponentially in the subwavelength era with the increased application of advanced RET's (Resolution Enhancement Technology). Not only are a greater number of design/mask layers impacted but more-and-more layers also have more severe restrictions on critical dimension uniformity (CDU) despite operating at a very low k1 factors necessitating rigorous but practical tolerancing. Furthermore, designs are also more complex, may be built up from blocks spanning different design styles, and occupy increasingly-large Rayleigh field areas. Given these factors and scales, it's no wonder that the cycle time for verification of a design following RET, is growing however it is doing so exponentially and that this is a critical factor impeding ttm. Until an unambiguously interprable and standard Mask Design Rule (MaskDR) set is created, neither the designer nor the mask supplier can reliably verify manufacturability of the mask for the simple reason that ambiguity and inter-rule conflict are at the source of the problem and that the problem increasingly requires cooperation spanning a large ecosystem of tool, IP, and mask suppliers all needing to essentially speak the same language. Since the 130 nm node, Texas Instruments has enforced a strict set of mask rule checks (MRCs) in their mask data preparation (MDP) flow based on MaskDRs negotiated with their mask suppliers. The purpose of this effort has been to provide an a-priori guarantee that the data shipped to the mask shop can be used to manufacture a mask reliably and with high yield both from a mask standpoint and from the silicon standpoint. As has been reported earlier, mask manufacturing rules are usually determined from assumed or experimentally acquired/validated mask-manufacturing limits. These rules are then applied during RET/MDP data treatment to guide and/or limit pattern correction strategies. With increasing RET and low-k1 lithography challenges, the importance of MRCs

  20. Gaming to see: Action Video Gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten ePohl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants’ responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  1. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  2. Efficient Prime Counting and the Chebyshev Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function where is the logarithm integral and the number of primes up to is well known to be positive up to the (very large Skewes' number. Likewise, according to Robin's work, the functions and , where and are Chebyshev summatory functions, are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH holds. One introduces the jump function at primes and one investigates , , and . In particular, , and for . Besides, for any odd , an infinite set of the so-called Chebyshev primes. In the context of RH, we introduce the so-called Riemann primes as champions of the function (or of the function . Finally, we find a good prime counting function , that is found to be much better than the standard Riemann prime counting function.

  3. Model-based virtual VSB mask writer verification for efficient mask error checking and optimization prior to MDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Robert C.; Standiford, Keith; Lukanc, Todd; Ning, Guo Xiang; Verma, Piyush; Batarseh, Fadi; Chua, Gek Soon; Fujimura, Akira; Pang, Linyong

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is described wherein a calibrated model-based `Virtual' Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) mask writer process simulator is used to accurately verify complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) mask designs prior to Mask Data Preparation (MDP) and mask fabrication. This type of verification addresses physical effects which occur in mask writing that may impact lithographic printing fidelity and variability. The work described here is motivated by requirements for extreme accuracy and control of variations for today's most demanding IC products. These extreme demands necessitate careful and detailed analysis of all potential sources of uncompensated error or variation and extreme control of these at each stage of the integrated OPC/ MDP/ Mask/ silicon lithography flow. The important potential sources of variation we focus on here originate on the basis of VSB mask writer physics and other errors inherent in the mask writing process. The deposited electron beam dose distribution may be examined in a manner similar to optical lithography aerial image analysis and image edge log-slope analysis. This approach enables one to catch, grade, and mitigate problems early and thus reduce the likelihood for costly long-loop iterations between OPC, MDP, and wafer fabrication flows. It moreover describes how to detect regions of a layout or mask where hotspots may occur or where the robustness to intrinsic variations may be improved by modification to the OPC, choice of mask technology, or by judicious design of VSB shots and dose assignment.

  4. Adding irrelevant information to the content prime reduces the prime-induced unmasking effect on speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meihong; Li, Huahui; Gao, Yayue; Lei, Ming; Teng, Xiangbin; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the early part of a nonsense sentence in quiet improves recognition of the last keyword of the sentence in a masker, especially a speech masker. This priming effect depends on higher-order processing of the prime information during target-masker segregation. This study investigated whether introducing irrelevant content information into the prime reduces the priming effect. The results showed that presenting the first four syllables (not including the second and third keywords) of the three-keyword target sentence in quiet significantly improved recognition of the second and third keywords in a two-talker-speech masker but not a noise masker, relative to the no-priming condition. Increasing the prime content from four to eight syllables (including the first and second keywords of the target sentence) further improved recognition of the third keyword in either the noise or speech masker. However, if the last four syllables of the eight-syllable prime were replaced by four irrelevant syllables (which did not occur in the target sentence), all the prime-induced speech-recognition improvements disappeared. Thus, knowing the early part of the target sentence mainly reduces informational masking of target speech, possibly by helping listeners attend to the target speech. Increasing the informative content of the prime further improves target-speech recognition probably by reducing the processing load. The reduction of the priming effect by adding irrelevant information to the prime is not due to introducing additional masking of the target speech. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical use of the repeating patterns in mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masahiro; Inoue, Tadao; Yamabe, Masaki

    2010-03-01

    In May 2006, the Mask Design, Drawing, and Inspection Technology Research Department (Mask D2I) at the Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies (ASET) launched a 4-year program for reducing mask manufacturing cost and TAT by concurrent optimization of MDP, mask writing, and mask inspection. As one of the tasks being pursued at the Mask Design Data Technology Research Laboratory, we have evaluated the effect of reducing the drawing shot counts by utilizing the repeating patterns, and showed positive impact on mask making by using CP drawing. During the past four years, we have developed a software to extract repeating patterns from fractured OPCed mask data which can be used to minimize the shot counts. In this evaluation, we have used an actual device production data obtained from the member companies of MaskD2I. To the extraction software we added new functions for extracting common repeating patterns from a set of multiple masks, and studied how this step can reduce the counts in comparison to the shot counts required during the conventional mask writing techniques. We have also developed software that uses the extraction result of repeating patterns and prepares drawing-data for the MCC/CP drawing system, which has been developed at the Mask Writing Equipment Technology Research Laboratory. With this software, we have simulated EB proximity effect on CP writing and examined how it affect the shot count reduction where CP shots with large CD errors are to be divided into VSB shots. In this paper, we will report the evaluation result of the practical application of repeating patterns in mask writing with this software.

  6. Overview of Mask Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Bryan J.; Jindal, Vibhu; Lin, C. C.; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Kwon, Hyuk Joo; Ma, Hsing-Chien; Goldstein, Michael; Chan, Yau-Wai; Goodwin, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the successor to optical lithography and will enable advanced patterning in semiconductor manufacturing processes down to the 8 nm half pitch technology node and beyond. However, before EUV can successfully be inserted into high volume manufacturing a few challenges must be overcome. Central among these remaining challenges is the requirement to produce "defect free" EUV masks. Mask blank defects have been one of the top challenges in the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. To determine defect sources and devise mitigation solutions, detailed characterization of defects is critical. However, small defects pose challenges in metrology scale-up. SEMATECH has a comprehensive metrology strategy to address any defect larger than a 20 nm core size to obtain solutions for defect-free EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center has been working since 2003 to develop the technology to support defect free EUV mask blanks. Since 2003, EUV mask blank defects have been reduced from 10000 of size greater than 100 nm to about a few tens at size 70 nm. Unfortunately, today's state of the art defect levels are still about 10 to 100 times higher than needed. Closing this gap requires progress in the various processes associated with glass substrate creation and multilayer deposition. That process development improvement in turn relies upon the availability of metrology equipment that can resolve and chemically characterize defects as small as 30 nm. The current defect reduction efforts at SEMATECH have intensively included a focus on inspection and characterization. The facility boasts nearly 100M of metrology hardware, including an FEI Titan TEM, Lasertec M1350 and M7360 tools, an actinic inspection tool, AFM, SPM, and scanning auger capabilities. The newly established Auger tool at SEMATECH can run a standard 6-inch mask blank and is already providing important information on sub-100 nm defects on EUV

  7. [The laryngeal mask].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltroniéri, J

    1990-01-01

    A new type of airway has been widely used for two years, throughout hospitals in the United Kingdom. Designed and created since 1983 by Dr AIJ Brain, the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a compromise between the endotracheal tube and the face-mask. Blindly inserted in an anaesthetized patient, without either a laryngoscope or neuromuscular blockade, it provides a good airway in almost all cases. It is often able to offer an effective alternative to difficult intubation. The LMA can be used with either spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation. Because it doesn't provide a reliable protection of the airway from aspiration, it should never be used in the patient with a full stomach. The spontaneously breathing patient, undergoing elective surgery for 15 to 60 minutes, in supine position, who would ordinarily be managed with a face-mask is the more likely candidate for the LMA. But, longer procedures, in lateral or prone position, with controlled ventilation can usually be carried out using the Brain's device. More effective and less demanding than the facial-mask, much less hurtful than the endotracheal tube, the Laryngeal Mask is potentially an important and valuable addition to anaesthetic care.

  8. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  9. Subliminal repetition primes help detection of phonemes in a picture: Evidence for a phonological level of the priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoiloff, Laura; Segui, Juan; Hallé, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we combine a cross-form word-picture visual masked priming procedure with an internal phoneme monitoring task to examine repetition priming effects. In this paradigm, participants have to respond to pictures whose names begin with a prespecified target phoneme. This task unambiguously requires retrieving the word-form of the target picture's name and implicitly orients participants' attention towards a phonological level of representation. The experiments were conducted within Spanish, whose highly transparent orthography presumably promotes fast and automatic phonological recoding of subliminal, masked visual word primes. Experiments 1 and 2 show that repetition primes speed up internal phoneme monitoring in the target, compared to primes beginning with a different phoneme from the target, or sharing only their first phoneme with the target. This suggests that repetition primes preactivate the phonological code of the entire target picture's name, hereby speeding up internal monitoring, which is necessarily based on such a code. To further qualify the nature of the phonological code underlying internal phoneme monitoring, a concurrent articulation task was used in Experiment 3. This task did not affect the repetition priming effect. We propose that internal phoneme monitoring is based on an abstract phonological code, prior to its translation into articulation.

  10. Almost Graded Prime Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Jaber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Graded commutative ring with unity over an abelian group were introduced by many authors such as T. Y. Lam and C. T. C. Wall, and almost prime ideals over commutative rings with unity were introduced by S.M. Batwadeker and P.K. Sharma, and this forced us to try to extend the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Approach: We develop the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Results: We extended some basic results about almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case, and then we gave a relationship between n-almost graded prime ideals and weakly graded prime ideals. Conclusion: The extended results about almost and n-almost graded prime ideals allow us to classify further properties about almost graded prime ideals. 2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 13 A 02.

  11. Cross-modal plasticity in the deaf enhances processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Seema; Patil, Gouri Shanker; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-08-15

    Compensatory changes as a result of auditory deprivation in the deaf lead to higher visual processing skills. In two experiments, we explored if such brain plasticity in the deaf modulates processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality. Deaf and normal-hearing participants responded to targets either voluntarily or by instruction. Masked primes related to the response were presented briefly before the targets at the center and the periphery. In Experiment 1, targets appeared only at the foveal region whereas, in Experiment 2, they appeared both at the fovea and the periphery. The deaf showed higher sensitivity to masked primes in both the experiments. They chose the primed response more often and also were faster during congruent responses compared to the normal hearing. These results suggest that neuroplasticity in the deaf modulates how they perceive and use information with reduced visibility for action selection and execution.

  12. COAs: Behind the Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Szifra

    1993-01-01

    Provides information on alcoholism and codependency to help teachers identify and respond to children of alcoholics (COAs). Discusses characteristics of alcoholic homes and problems encountered by children and adult COAs. Examines survival "masks" of COAs, including hero, rebel, adjustor, clown, and caretaker. Lists organizational,…

  13. COAs: Behind the Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Szifra

    1993-01-01

    Provides information on alcoholism and codependency to help teachers identify and respond to children of alcoholics (COAs). Discusses characteristics of alcoholic homes and problems encountered by children and adult COAs. Examines survival "masks" of COAs, including hero, rebel, adjustor, clown, and caretaker. Lists organizational,…

  14. Masked mycotoxins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiller, Franz; Crews, Colin; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Saeger, Sarah De; Haesaert, Geert; Karlovsky, Petr; Oswald, Isabelle P; Seefelder, Walburga; Speijers, Gerrit; Stroka, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on plant metabolites of mycotoxins, also called masked mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to human and animals. Toxigenic fungi often grow on edible plants, thus contaminating food and feed. Plants, as living organisms, can alter the chemical structure of mycotoxins as part of their defence against xenobiotics. The extractable conjugated or non-extractable bound mycotoxins formed remain present in the plant tissue but are currently neither routinely screened for in food nor regulated by legislation, thus they may be considered masked. Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusaric acid) are prone to metabolisation or binding by plants, but transformation of other mycotoxins by plants (ochratoxin A, patulin, destruxins) has also been described. Toxicological data are scarce, but several studies highlight the potential threat to consumer safety from these substances. In particular, the possible hydrolysis of masked mycotoxins back to their toxic parents during mammalian digestion raises concerns. Dedicated chapters of this article address plant metabolism as well as the occurrence of masked mycotoxins in food, analytical aspects for their determination, toxicology and their impact on stakeholders.

  15. CADAT integrated circuit mask analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CADAT System Mask Analysis Program (MAPS2) is automated software tool for analyzing integrated-circuit mask design. Included in MAPS2 functions are artwork verification, device identification, nodal analysis, capacitance calculation, and logic equation generation.

  16. Conscious, but not unconscious, logo priming of brands and related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintazzoli, Gigliola; Soetens, Eric; Deroost, Natacha; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed whether real-life stimulus material can elicit conscious and unconscious priming. A typical masked priming paradigm was used, with brand logo primes. We used a rigorous method to assess participants' awareness of the subliminal information. Our results show that shortly presented and masked brand logos (e.g., logo of McDonald's) have the power to prime their brand names (e.g., "McDonald's") and, remarkably, words associated to the brand (e.g., "hamburger"). However, this only occurred when the logos could be categorized clearly above the consciousness threshold. Once the primes were presented close to the consciousness threshold, no subliminal influences on behavior were observed.

  17. Optimization of mask shot count using MB-MDP and lithography simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Gek Soon; Wang, Wei Long; Choi, Byoung IL; Zou, Yi; Tabery, Cyrus; Bork, Ingo; Nguyen, Tam; Fujimura, Aki

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain manageable process windows, mask shapes at the 20nm technology node and below become so complex that mask write times reach 40 hours or might not be writeable at all since the extrapolated write time reaches 80 hours. The recently introduced Model Based Mask Data Preparation (MB-MDP) technique is able to reduce shot count and therefore mask write time by using overlapping shots. Depending on the amount of shot count reduction the contour of the mask shapes is changed leading to the question how the mask contour influences wafer performance. This paper investigates the tradeoff between mask shot count reduction using MB-MDP and wafer performance using lithography simulation. A typical Source-Mask-Optimization (SMO) result for a 20nm technology will be used as an example.

  18. Mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Al; Bassist, Larry

    1994-12-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters in determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, very little was known about industry performance in these areas until an assessment was authored and presented at the 1993 BACUS Symposium by Larry Regis of Intel Corporation, Neil Paulsen of Intel Corporation, and James A. Reynolds of Reynolds Consulting. This data has been updated and will be published and presented at this year's BACUS Symposium. Contributor identities will again remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to compile the submittals. Participation was consistent with last year's representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reasons from 1988 through Q2, 1994, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT).

  19. Effects of reading proficiency on embedded stem priming in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Grainger, Jonathan; Casalis, Séverine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2015-11-01

    Prior evidence from masked morphological priming has revealed conflicting findings regarding the acquisition of morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanisms in developing readers. Here, we examined changes in masked morphological priming across grade within a large sample of French primary school children (n = 191, Grades 2-5) and how these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading proficiency, spelling proficiency, and morphological awareness. Target words were preceded by either (a) a suffixed word prime (e.g., tristesse-TRISTE), (b) a suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristerie-TRISTE), (c) a non-suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristald-TRISTE), or (d) an unrelated prime (e.g., direction-TRISTE) using very short prime durations (50 ms). Moreover, a frequency manipulation was included for suffixes and non-suffixes. The results revealed robust suffixed word priming across all children independent of grade and proficiency. On the other hand, priming in the suffixed and non-suffixed nonword conditions was modulated by reading proficiency, with high-proficiency children showing facilitation and low-proficiency children showing inhibition. The effects of suffix and non-suffix frequency were modulated by grade, with decreasing effects as grade increased. None of the observed priming effects were modulated by grade, spelling proficiency, or morphological awareness. The results suggest that reading proficiency is an important predictor for embedded stem activation mechanisms in primary school children, which we discuss in the context of recent theories of morphological processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Masked multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiecki, A.L.; Kroop, D.C.; McGee, M.K.; Lenkszus, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical instrument and particularly a time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for processing a large number of analog signals irregularly spaced over a spectrum, with programmable masking of portions of the spectrum where signals are unlikely in order to reduce memory requirements and/or with a signal capturing assembly having a plurality of signal capturing devices fewer in number than the analog signals for use in repeated cycles within the data processing time period.

  1. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  2. BIRD FLU MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASAR KESKIN

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splashes of blood or other potentially infectious substances. They are not necessarily designed for filtration efficiency, or to seal tightly to the face. Masks and respirators are components of a number of infection control measures intended to protect healthcare workers, and prevent the spread of diseases. All healthcare workers who come into contact with a possible or probable case of any respiratory track infections should wear a respirator conforming to at least EN149:2001 FFP3. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(4.000: 296-306

  3. Transposed-letter priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Wu, Simon; Norris, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    A masked nonword prime generated by transposing adjacent inner letters in a word (e.g., jugde) facilitates the recognition of the target word (JUDGE) more than a prime in which the relevant letters are replaced by different letters (e.g., junpe). This transposed-letter (TL) priming effect has been widely interpreted as evidence that the coding of letter position is flexible, rather than precise. Although the TL priming effect has been extensively investigated in the domain of visual word recognition using the lexical decision task, very few studies have investigated this empirical phenomenon in reading aloud. In the present study, we investigated TL priming effects in reading aloud words and nonwords and found that these effects are of equal magnitude for the two types of items. We take this result as support for the view that the TL priming effect arises from noisy perception of letter order within the prime prior to the mapping of orthography to phonology.

  4. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

    2014-10-01

    In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase.

  5. An ERP investigation of orthographic priming with superset primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktori, Maria; Midgley, Katherine; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-12

    Prime stimuli formed by inserting unrelated letters in a given target word (called "superset" primes) provide a means to modify the relative positions of the letters shared by prime and target. Here we examined the time-course of superset priming effects in an ERP study using the sandwich-priming paradigm. We compared the effects of superset primes formed by the insertion of unrelated letters (e.g., maurkdet-MARKET), or by the insertion of hyphens (e.g., ma-rk-et-MARKET), with identity priming (e.g., market-MARKET), all measured relative to unrelated control primes. Behavioral data revealed significantly greater priming in the hyphen-insert condition compared with the letter-insert condition. In the ERP signal, letter-insert priming emerged later than hyphen-insert priming and produced a reversed priming effect in the N400 time-window compared with the more typical N400 priming effects seen for both hyphen-insert priming and identity priming. The different pattern of priming effects seen for letter-insert primes and hyphen-insert primes suggests that compared with identity priming, letter superset priming reflects the joint influence of: (1) a disruption in letter position information, and (2) an inhibitory influence of mismatching letters.

  6. Dynamics of structural priming

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Gaurav

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is about how our syntactic choice changes with linguistic experience. Studies on syntactic priming show that our decisions are influenced by sentences that we have recently heard or recently spoken. They also show that not all sentences have an equal amount of influence; that repetition of verbs increases priming (the lexical-boost effect) and that some verbs are more susceptible to priming than others. This thesis explores how and why syntactic decisions change with time and what...

  7. Priming semantico e museografia

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Banzi

    2012-01-01

    Il priming è una tipologia di memoria implicita che facilita l’apprendimento di stimoli di diversa natura (stimoli visivi, semantici, etc.). Un allestimento museale che adotti strumenti basati sul priming potrebbe aiutare il pubblico a selezionare i contenuti relativi agli oggetti esposti. In questo articolo viene descritta l’applicazione del priming semantico allo spazio museale. Questa operazione in prima battutta potrebbe essere letta come una mancanza di fiducia nelle capacità cognitive d...

  8. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  9. Is Morphological Priming Stronger for Transparent than Opaque Words? It Depends on Individual Differences in Spelling and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sally; Lo, Steson

    2013-01-01

    This experiment used the masked priming lexical decision task to address previous contradictory evidence about the relative strength of priming for (i) transparent pairs (e.g., "worker" "WORK") which are morphologically and semantically related; (ii) opaque pairs (e.g., "corner" "CORN") which appear to be morphological relatives but are not…

  10. Is Morphological Priming Stronger for Transparent than Opaque Words? It Depends on Individual Differences in Spelling and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sally; Lo, Steson

    2013-01-01

    This experiment used the masked priming lexical decision task to address previous contradictory evidence about the relative strength of priming for (i) transparent pairs (e.g., "worker" "WORK") which are morphologically and semantically related; (ii) opaque pairs (e.g., "corner" "CORN") which appear to be morphological relatives but are not…

  11. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  12. F1000 prime reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F1000 Prime is a revolutionary post-publication peer review service that comprehensively and systematically highlights and recommends the most interesting articles published in the biomedical sciences...

  13. American ASTP prime crew participate in photography mission briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three American ASTP prime crew astronauts participate in a photography mission briefing in bldg 5 with Dr. Farouk El-Baz (wearing face mask) during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) pre-flight activity at JSC. They are, left to right, Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; Dr. El-Baz; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot. Dr. El-Baz is with the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. The face mask is to protect the crewmen from possible exposure to disease prior to launch time.

  14. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  15. Assessing EUV mask defectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Tchikoulaeva, Anna; Ackmann, Paul; Wood, Obert; La Fontaine, Bruno; Bubke, Karsten; Holfeld, Christian; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Kini, Sumanth; Watson, Sterling; Lee, Isaac; Mu, Bo; Lim, Phillip; Raghunathan, Sudhar; Boye, Carol

    2010-04-01

    This paper assesses the readiness of EUV masks for pilot line production. The printability of well characterized reticle defects, with particular emphasis on those reticle defects that cause electrical errors on wafer test chips, is investigated. The reticles are equipped with test marks that are inspected in a die-to-die mode (using DUV inspection tool) and reviewed (using a SEM tool), and which also comprise electrically testable patterns. The reticles have three modules comprising features with 32 nm ground rules in 104 nm pitch, 22 nm ground rules with 80 nm pitch, and 16 nm ground rules with 56 nm pitch (on the wafer scale). In order to determine whether specific defects originate from the substrate, the multilayer film, the absorber stack, or from the patterning process, the reticles were inspected after each fabrication step. Following fabrication, the reticles were used to print wafers on a 0.25 NA full-field ASML EUV exposure tool. The printed wafers were inspected with state of the art bright-field and Deep UV inspection tools. It is observed that the printability of EUV mask defects down to a pitch of 56 nm shows a trend of increased printability as the pitch of the printed pattern gets smaller - a well established trend at larger pitches of 80 nm and 104 nm, respectively. The sensitivity of state-of-the-art reticle inspection tools is greatly improved over that of the previous generation of tools. There appears to be no apparent decline in the sensitivity of these state-of-the-art reticle inspection tools for higher density (smaller) patterns on the mask, even down to 56nm pitch (1x). Preliminary results indicate that a blank defect density of the order of 0.25 defects/cm2 can support very early learning on EUV pilot line production at the 16nm node.

  16. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  17. The time course of temporal attention effects on nonconscious prime processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Torsten; Palazova, Marina; Hutt, Axel

    2013-11-01

    We presented a masked prime at various prime-target intervals (PTIs) before a target that required a speeded motor response and investigated the impact of temporal attention on the nonconscious prime processing. The allocation of temporal attention to the target was manipulated by presenting an accessory tone and comparing that condition with a no-tone condition. The results showed that, independently of the visibility of the prime, temporal attention led to an enhanced effect of prime-target congruency on the reaction times, and that the amount of the enhancement increased with increasing PTIs. This effect pattern is consistent with the assumption of increasing influences of temporal attention and of the increasing PTI on nonconscious prime processing; it argues against the hypothesis that temporal attention narrows the time period in which the prime may affect target processing. An accumulator model is proposed assuming that target-related temporal attention increases the accumulation rate for masked primes and, thus, enhances the impact of the prime on the speed of choice decisions.

  18. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  19. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  20. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  1. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  2. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plant

  3. Masked hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrie, Guillaume; Clerson, Pierre; Ménard, Joël; Postel-Vinay, Nicolas; Chatellier, Gilles; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to review the literature on masked hypertension. Studies, reviews and editorials on masked hypertension were identified by PubMed, Pascal BioMed and Cochrane literature systematic searches. Then, we carried out a meta-analysis of the six cohort studies reporting quantitative data for masked hypertension prognosis. There is still no clear consensus definition of masked hypertension and the reproducibility of the phenomenon is unknown. Nevertheless, the prevalence of masked hypertension seems to lie between 8 and 20%, and can be up to 50% in treated hypertensive patients. Subjects with masked hypertension have a higher risk of cardiovascular accidents [hazard ratios: 1.92 (1.51-2.44)] than normotensive subjects. This is due to a possible failure to recognize and appropriately manage this particular form of hypertension, the frequent association with other risk factors and coexisting target organ damage. The remaining unresolved questions are as follows: is masked hypertension a clinical entity that requires identification and characterization or a statistical phenomenon linked to the variability of blood pressure measurements?; because screening of the entire population is not feasible, how to identify individuals with masked hypertension?; and, in the absence of randomized trial, how to treat masked hypertension?

  4. The semantic priming project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

    2013-12-01

    Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies.

  5. Prime Submodules and Flat Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.AZIZI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some characterizations of prime submodules in fiat modules and, particularly,in free modules are given. Furthermore, the height of prime submodules and some saturated chain of prime submodules are also given.

  6. What Is Being Masked in Object Substitution Masking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Cole, Geoff; Skarratt, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur when a perceptual object is hypothesized that is mismatched by subsequent sensory evidence, leading to a new hypothesized object being substituted for the first. For example, when a brief target is accompanied by a longer lasting display of nonoverlapping mask elements, reporting of target…

  7. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  8. A pattern-based method to automate mask inspection files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Baharin, Ezni Aznida Binti; Muhsain, Mohamad Fahmi Bin; Ahmad Ibrahim, Muhamad Asraf Bin; Ahmad Noorhani, Ahmad Nurul Ihsan Bin; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Hurat, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Mask inspection is a critical step in the mask manufacturing process in order to ensure all dimensions printed are within the needed tolerances. This becomes even more challenging as the device nodes shrink and the complexity of the tapeout increases. Thus, the amount of measurement points and their critical dimension (CD) types are increasing to ensure the quality of the mask. In addition to the mask quality, there is a significant amount of manpower needed when the preparation and debugging of this process are not automated. By utilizing a novel pattern search technology with the ability to measure and report match region scan-line (edge) measurements, we can create a flow to find, measure and mark all metrology locations of interest and provide this automated report to the mask shop for inspection. A digital library is created based on the technology product and node which contains the test patterns to be measured. This paper will discuss how these digital libraries will be generated and then utilized. As a time-critical part of the manufacturing process, this can also reduce the data preparation cycle time, minimize the amount of manual/human error in naming and measuring the various locations, reduce the risk of wrong/missing CD locations, and reduce the amount of manpower needed overall. We will also review an example pattern and how the reporting structure to the mask shop can be processed. This entire process can now be fully automated.

  9. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...... Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (P...

  10. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  11. A Relation between Prime Numbers and Twin Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Every mathematician has been concerned with prime numbers, and has metwith mysterious surprises about them. Besides intuition, using empirical methods has an important role to findrelations between prime numbers. A relation between any prime numberand any twin prime number has been obtained.

  12. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya Menoth Mohan; Parmod Kumar; Faisal Mahmood; Kian Foong Wong; Abhishek Agrawal; Mohamed Elgendi; Rohit Shukla; Natania Ang; April Ching; Justin Dauwels; Alice H D Chan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EE...

  13. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van der Sande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. METHODOLOGY: We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  14. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  15. Biological Activity of Masked Endotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Gornicec, Jan; Neuper, Theresa; Parigiani, Maria Alejandra; Wallner, Michael; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2017-01-01

    Low endotoxin recovery (LER) is a recently discovered phenomenon describing the inability of limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assays to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) because of a “masking effect” caused by chelators or detergents commonly used in buffer formulations for medical products and recombinant proteins. This study investigates the masking capacities of different buffer formulations and whether masked endotoxin is biologically active. We show that both naturally occurring endotoxin as well as control standard endotoxin can be affected by LER. Furthermore, whereas masked endotoxin cannot be detected in Factor C based assays, it is still detectable in a cell-based TLR4-NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in primary human monocytes, masked LPS induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and surface activation markers even at very low concentrations. We therefore conclude that masked LPS is a potent trigger of immune responses, which emphasizes the potential danger of masked LPS, as it may pose a health threat in pharmaceutical products or compromise experimental results. PMID:28317862

  16. Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shan

    2009-01-01

    An effective vaccine usually requires more than one time immunization in the form of prime-boost. Traditionally the same vaccines are given multiple times as homologous boosts. New findings suggested that prime-boost can be done with different types of vaccines containing the same antigens. In many cases such heterologous prime-boost can be more immunogenic than homologous prime-boost. Heterologous prime-boost represents a new way of immunization and will stimulate better understanding on the...

  17. The Set of Prime Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Iovane, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    In this work we show that the prime distribution is deterministic. Indeed the set of prime numbers P can be expressed in terms of two subsets of N using three specific selection rules, acting on two sets of prime candidates. The prime candidates are obtained in terms of the first perfect number. The asymptotic behaviour is also considered. We obtain for the first time an explicit relation for generating the full set P of prime numbers smaller than n or equal to n.

  18. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  19. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  20. Vibrotactile masking through the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-09-01

    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  1. Emotional valence of words modulates the subliminal repetition priming effect in the left fusiform gyrus: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qian; Peng, Danling; Jin, Zhen; Xu, Duo; Xiao, Lihui; Ding, Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated if the emotional valence of words modulates the subliminal repetition priming effect in the brain, in particular, the occipitotemporal visual cortex, by adopting a rapid presentation event-related fMRI design. A masked repetition priming paradigm was adopted, in which, before the presentation of the target (either positive or negative or neutral in meaning), a masked prime word that was either a repetition or an unrelated word of the target was presented. The subject made a perceptual judgment on the target. The results revealed that the left mid-fusiform gyrus was sensitive to the emotional manipulation of the repetition priming effect and that the priming effect in the region was greater in the positive than in the negative word condition. The priming effect in the fusiform gyrus in neutral words was not significant, which might be a result of suppression caused by the emotional context. No effect of valence or repetition was found in the amygdala.

  2. Efficient prime counting and the Chebyshev primes

    CERN Document Server

    Planat, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The function $\\epsilon(x)=li(x)-\\pi(x)$ is known to be positive up to the (very large) Skewes' number. Besides, according to Robin's work, the functions $\\epsilon_{\\theta}(x)=li[\\theta(x)]-\\pi(x)$ and $\\epsilon_{\\psi}(x)=li[\\psi(x)]-\\pi(x)$ are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH) holds (the first and the second Chebyshev function are $\\theta(x)=\\sum_{p \\le x} \\log p$ and $\\psi(x)=\\sum_{n=1}^x \\Lambda(n)$, respectively, $li(x)$ is the logarithmic integral, $\\mu(n)$ and $\\Lambda(n)$ are the M\\"obius and the Von Mangoldt functions). Negative jumps in the above functions $\\epsilon$, $\\epsilon_{\\theta}$ and $\\epsilon_{\\psi}$ may potentially occur only at $x+1 \\in \\mathcal{P}$ (the set of primes). One denotes $j_p=li(p)-li(p-1)$ and one investigates the jumps $j_p$, $j_{\\theta(p)}$ and $j_{\\psi(p)}$. In particular, $j_p1$ for $p<10^{11}$. Besides, $j_{\\psi(p)}<1$ for any odd $p \\in \\mathcal{Ch}$, an infinite set of so-called {\\it Chebyshev primes} with partial list ${109, 113, 139, 181, 197, 199, ...

  3. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...... with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception....

  4. Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models.

  5. Mask specification guidelines in spacer patterning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kohji; Mukai, Hidefumi; Miyoshi, Seiro; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Yuuji; Kawano, Kenji; Hirano, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    We have studied both the mask CD specification and the mask defect specification for spacer patterning technology (SPT). SPT has the possibility of extending optical lithography to below 40nm half-pitch devices. Since SPT necessitates somewhat more complicated wafer process flow, the CD error and mask defect printability on wafers involve more process factors compared with conventional single-exposure process (SEP). This feature of SPT implies that it is very important to determine mask-related specifications for SPT in order to select high-end mask fabrication strategies; those are for mask writing tools, mask process development, materials, inspection tools, and so on. Our experimental studies reveal that both mask CD specification and mask defect specification are somehow relaxed from those in ITRS2007. This is most likely because SPT reduces mask CD error enhanced factor (MEF) and the reduction of line-width roughness (LWR).

  6. "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior": Correction to Payne et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reports an error in "Replicable effects of primes on human behavior" by B. Keith Payne, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi and Chris Loersch (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Oct], Vol 145[10], 1269-1279). In the article, the graph in Figure 5 did not contain the asterisk mentioned in the figure caption, which was intended to indicate a statistically significant difference between bet and pass prime. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-46925-002.) The effect of primes (i.e., incidental cues) on human behavior has become controversial. Early studies reported counterintuitive findings, suggesting that primes can shape a wide range of human behaviors. Recently, several studies failed to replicate some earlier priming results, raising doubts about the reliability of those effects. We present a within-subjects procedure for priming behavior, in which participants decide whether to bet or pass on each trial of a gambling game. We report 6 replications (N = 988) showing that primes consistently affected gambling decisions when the decision was uncertain. Decisions were influenced by primes presented visibly, with a warning to ignore the primes (Experiments 1 through 3) and with subliminally presented masked primes (Experiment 4). Using a process dissociation procedure, we found evidence that primes influenced responses through both automatic and controlled processes (Experiments 5 and 6). Results provide evidence that primes can reliably affect behavior, under at least some conditions, without intention. The findings suggest that the psychological question of whether behavior priming effects are real should be separated from methodological issues affecting how easily particular experimental designs will replicate. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Detecting Priming News Events

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Di; Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Liu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We study a problem of detecting priming events based on a time series index and an evolving document stream. We define a priming event as an event which triggers abnormal movements of the time series index, i.e., the Iraq war with respect to the president approval index of President Bush. Existing solutions either focus on organizing coherent keywords from a document stream into events or identifying correlated movements between keyword frequency trajectories and the time series index. In this paper, we tackle the problem in two major steps. (1) We identify the elements that form a priming event. The element identified is called influential topic which consists of a set of coherent keywords. And we extract them by looking at the correlation between keyword trajectories and the interested time series index at a global level. (2) We extract priming events by detecting and organizing the bursty influential topics at a micro level. We evaluate our algorithms on a real-world dataset and the result confirms that ou...

  8. Sums of many primes

    CERN Document Server

    Languasco, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH) holds, we prove an explicit formula for the number of representations of an integer as a sum of $k\\geq 5$ primes. Our error terms in such a formula improve by some logarithmic factors an analogous result by Friedlander-Goldston.

  9. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  10. On Particles and Primes

    CERN Document Server

    Knill, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Primes in the two complete associative normed division algebras C and H have affinities with structures seen in the standard model of particle physics. On the integers in the two algebras, there are two equivalence relations: a strong one, related to a U(1) and SU(3) symmetry allowing to permute and switch signs of the coordinates of the integers, as well as a weak relation with origins from units U(1),SU(2) in the algebra. Weak equivalence classes within the strong equivalence classes of odd primes in C case relate to leptons, the inert ones being neutrino like, and the split ones resembling electron-positron pairs. In the H case, for odd primes, the equivalence classes come in groups of two or three, leading to a caricature of hadrons featuring either mesons built by a quark pair or then baryons obtained by quark triplets. We can now list for every rational prime p all these particles and attach fractional charges to its constituents.

  11. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  12. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  13. The nature of semantic priming by subliminal spatial words: Embodied or disembodied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Bucur, Madalina; Crepaldi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Theories of embodied semantics (ES) suggest that a critical part of understanding what a word means consists of simulating the sensorimotor experience related to the word's referent. Some proponents of ES have suggested that sensorimotor activations are mandatory and highly automatic during semantic processing. Evidence supporting this claim comes from masked priming studies showing that unconsciously perceived spatial words (e.g., up, down) can directly modulate action performance on the basis of their meaning. However, a closer look reveals that such priming effects can be explained also in terms of symbolic (disembodied) semantic priming or nonsemantic mechanisms. In this study we sought to understand whether sensorimotor processing takes place during language understanding outside awareness. We used spatial words as a test bed and across 6 experiments we teased apart the possibility that action priming could be explained by: (a) nonsemantic mechanisms, (b) symbolic semantic priming, or (c) embodied semantic priming. The critical finding is that when symbolic and nonsemantic mechanisms were prevented, allowing only for a genuinely embodied semantic priming, no effect was found. Conversely, facilitation emerged in the same experimental paradigm when embodied priming was prevented and symbolic priming was allowed. Despite extensive testing, we found no evidence that unconsciously perceived words can activate sensorimotor processes, although these words are processed up to the semantic level. We thus conclude that sensorimotor activations might need conscious access to emerge during language understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Chen's Theorem with Small Primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Chun CAI

    2002-01-01

    Let N be a sufficiently large even integer. In this paper it is proved that the equationN = p + P2, p ≤ N0.95,is solvable, where p denotes a prime and P2 denotes an almost prime with at most two prime factors.

  15. Chen's Theorem with Small Primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjie LI; Yingchun CAI

    2011-01-01

    Let N be a sufficiently large even integer. Let p denote a prime and P2 denote an almost prime with at most two prime factors. In this paper, it is proved that the equation N - p+ P2 (p ≤ AT0.945) is solvable.

  16. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  17. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  18. Production mask composition checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Wang, Alice; Lin, Roger; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The mask composition checking flow is an evolution of the traditional mask rule check (MRC). In order to differentiate the flow from MRC, we call it Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC). The mask house does MRC only to identify process limitations including writing, etching, metrology, etc. There still exist many potential errors that could occur when the frame, main circuit and dummies all together form a whole reticle. The MDCC flow combines the design rule check (DRC) and MRC concepts to adapt to the complex patterns in today's wafer production technologies. Although photomask data has unique characteristics, the MRC tool in Calibre® MDP can easily achieve mask composition by using the Extended MEBES job deck (EJB) format. In EJB format, we can customize the combination of any input layers in an IC design layout format, such as OASIS. Calibre MDP provides section-based processing for many standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands that support DRC-like checks on mask data. Integrating DRC-like checking with EJB for layer composition, we actually perform reticle-level DRC, which is the essence of MDCC. The flow also provides an early review environment before the photomask pattern files are available. Furthermore, to incorporate the MDCC in our production flow, runtime is one of the most important indexes we consider. When the MDCC is included in the tape-out flow, the runtime impact is very limited. Calibre, with its multi-threaded processes and good scalability, is the key to achieving acceptable runtime. In this paper, we present real case runtime data for 28nm and 14nm technology nodes, and prove the practicability of placing MDCC into mass production.

  19. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (Phypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  20. Informational masking and musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Andrew J; Fligor, Brian J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between musical training and informational masking was studied for 24 young adult listeners with normal hearing. The listeners were divided into two groups based on musical training. In one group, the listeners had little or no musical training; the other group was comprised of highly trained, currently active musicians. The hypothesis was that musicians may be less susceptible to informational masking, which is thought to reflect central, rather than peripheral, limitations on the processing of sound. Masked thresholds were measured in two conditions, similar to those used by Kidd et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 3475-3480 (1994)]. In both conditions the signal was comprised of a series of repeated tone bursts at 1 kHz. The masker was comprised of a series of multitone bursts, gated with the signal. In one condition the frequencies of the masker were selected randomly for each burst; in the other condition the masker frequencies were selected randomly for the first burst of each interval and then remained constant throughout the interval. The difference in thresholds between the two conditions was taken as a measure of informational masking. Frequency selectivity, using the notched-noise method, was also estimated in the two groups. The results showed no difference in frequency selectivity between the two groups, but showed a large and significant difference in the amount of informational masking between musically trained and untrained listeners. This informational masking task, which requires no knowledge specific to musical training (such as note or interval names) and is generally not susceptible to systematic short- or medium-term training effects, may provide a basis for further studies of analytic listening abilities in different populations.

  1. Cantor Primes as Prime-Valued Cyclotomic Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Salas, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Cantor primes are primes p such that 1/p belongs to the middle-third Cantor set. One way to look at them is as base-3 analogues of the famous Mersenne primes, which encompass all base-2 repunit primes, i.e., primes consisting of a contiguous sequence of 1's in base 2 and satisfying an equation of the form p + 1 = 2^q. The Cantor primes encompass all base-3 repunit primes satisfying an equation of the form 2p + 1 = 3^q, and I show that in general all Cantor primes > 3 satisfy a closely related equation of the form 2pK + 1 = 3^q, with the base-3 repunits being the special case K = 1. I use this to prove that the Cantor primes > 3 are exactly the prime-valued cyclotomic polynomials of the form $\\Phi_s(3^{s^j}) \\equiv 1$ (mod 4). Significant open problems concern the infinitude of these, making Cantor primes perhaps more interesting than previously realised.

  2. A Double Dissociation between Conscious and Non-conscious Priming of Responses and Affect: Evidence for a Contribution of Misattributions to the Priming of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Florian; Khalid, Shah; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated conscious and non-conscious priming of responses and of affect. Concerning response priming, presenting a target-related (congruent) distractor prior to a target typically facilitates target responses. This facilitation - the response-priming effect - is observed in comparison to a less related (incongruent) distractor. An incongruent distractor would interfere with the required response to the target. This response-priming effect is found with both conscious distractors, of which participants are aware, and non-conscious distractors, of which participants are not aware. In partly related research, distractors have also yielded affective priming effects on the evaluations of task-unrelated neutral symbols that followed the target: In comparison to the congruent condition, participants evaluated a neutral symbol presented after an incongruent distractor-target sequence as more negative. This affective priming effect was sometimes ascribed to the participants' misattributions of distractor-target conflict to the unrelated neutral symbols. Here, we set out to test this possibility. If the misattribution explanation of affective priming holds true, affective priming would be stronger with non-conscious than with conscious distractors: Mostly the non-conscious distractors would mask distractor-target conflict as the true affect-origin and, therefore, invite participants' misattribution of the primed affect to the neutral symbol in temporal vicinity. In contrast, only with conscious distractors, participants would be aware of distractor-target conflict as the true affect-origin and should, therefore, be better able to attribute their affective responses to the distractor-target relationship itself. In three experiments, we confirmed this prediction of a stronger affective priming effect in non-conscious than conscious distractor conditions, while at the same time showing conscious response-priming effects to even exceed non-conscious response-priming

  3. A Double Dissociation between Conscious and Non-conscious Priming of Responses and Affect: Evidence for a Contribution of Misattributions to the Priming of Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Florian; Khalid, Shah; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated conscious and non-conscious priming of responses and of affect. Concerning response priming, presenting a target-related (congruent) distractor prior to a target typically facilitates target responses. This facilitation – the response-priming effect – is observed in comparison to a less related (incongruent) distractor. An incongruent distractor would interfere with the required response to the target. This response-priming effect is found with both conscious distractors, of which participants are aware, and non-conscious distractors, of which participants are not aware. In partly related research, distractors have also yielded affective priming effects on the evaluations of task-unrelated neutral symbols that followed the target: In comparison to the congruent condition, participants evaluated a neutral symbol presented after an incongruent distractor-target sequence as more negative. This affective priming effect was sometimes ascribed to the participants’ misattributions of distractor-target conflict to the unrelated neutral symbols. Here, we set out to test this possibility. If the misattribution explanation of affective priming holds true, affective priming would be stronger with non-conscious than with conscious distractors: Mostly the non-conscious distractors would mask distractor-target conflict as the true affect-origin and, therefore, invite participants’ misattribution of the primed affect to the neutral symbol in temporal vicinity. In contrast, only with conscious distractors, participants would be aware of distractor-target conflict as the true affect-origin and should, therefore, be better able to attribute their affective responses to the distractor-target relationship itself. In three experiments, we confirmed this prediction of a stronger affective priming effect in non-conscious than conscious distractor conditions, while at the same time showing conscious response-priming effects to even exceed non

  4. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  5. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  6. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  7. Subliminal Semantic Priming in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Perrin, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test) were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction) and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT). Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets) and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets). This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime. PMID:21655277

  8. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  9. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  10. Extreme ultraviolet lithography mask etch study and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay; Chandrachood, Madhavi; Sabharwal, Amitabh

    2013-04-01

    An overview of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask etch is presented and a EUVL mask etch study was carried out. Today, EUVL implementation has three critical challenges that hinder its adoption: extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source power, resist resolution-line width roughness-sensitivity, and a qualified EUVL mask. The EUVL mask defect challenges result from defects generated during blank preparation, absorber and multilayer deposition processes, as well as patterning, etching and wet clean processes. Stringent control on several performance criteria including critical dimension (CD) uniformity, etch bias, micro-loading, profile control, defect control, and high etch selectivity requirement to capping layer is required during the resist pattern duplication on the underlying absorber layer. EUVL mask absorbers comprise of mainly tantalum-based materials rather than chrome- or MoSi-based materials used in standard optical masks. Compared to the conventional chrome-based absorbers and phase shift materials, tantalum-based absorbers need high ion energy to obtain moderate etch rates. However, high ion energy may lower resist selectivity, and could introduce defects. Current EUVL mask consists of an anti-reflective layer on top of the bulk absorber. Recent studies indicate that a native oxide layer would suffice as an anti-reflective coating layer during the electron beam inspection. The absorber thickness and the material properties are optimized based on optical density targets for the mask as well as electromagnetic field effects and optics requirements of the patterning tools. EUVL mask etch processes are modified according to the structure of the absorber, its material, and thickness. However, etch product volatility is the fundamental requirement. Overlapping lithographic exposure near chip border may require etching through the multilayer, resulting in challenges in profile control and etch selectivity. Optical proximity correction is applied to further

  11. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device placed over a patient's nose, mouth, or tracheostomy to administer oxygen or aerosols. (b)...

  12. Mask qualification strategies in a wafer fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehnert, Carmen; Kunowski, Angela

    2007-02-01

    Having consistent high quality photo masks is one of the key factors in lithography in the wafer fab. Combined with stable exposure- and resist processes, it ensures yield increases in production and fast learning cycles for technology development and design evaluation. Preventive controlling of incoming masks and quality monitoring while using the mask in production is essential for the fab to avoid yield loss or technical problems caused by mask issues, which eventually result in delivery problems to the customer. In this paper an overview of the procedures used for mask qualification and production release, for both logic and DRAM, at Infineon Dresden is presented. Incoming qualification procedures, such as specification checks, incoming inspection, and inline litho process window evaluation, are described here. Pinching and electrical tests, including compatibility tests for mask copies for high volume products on optimized litho processes, are also explained. To avoid mask degradation over lifetime, re-inspection checks are done for re-qualification while using the mask in production. The necessity of mask incoming inspection and re-qualification, due to the repeater printing from either the processing defects of the original mask or degrading defects of being used in the fab (i.e. haze, ESD, and moving particles, etc.), is demonstrated. The need and impact of tight mask specifications, such as CD uniformity signatures and corresponding electrical results, are shown with examples of mask-wafer CD correlation.

  13. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...

  14. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On the fractal distribution of primes and prime-indexed primes by the binary image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Carlo; Ciancio, Armando

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the distribution of primes and prime-indexed primes (PIPs) is studied by mapping primes into a binary image which visualizes the distribution of primes. These images show that the distribution of primes (and PIPs) is similar to a Cantor dust, moreover the self-similarity with respect to the order of PIPs (already proven in Batchko (2014)) can be seen as an invariance of the binary images. The index of primes plays the same role of the scale for fractals, so that with respect to the index the distribution of prime-indexed primes is characterized by the self-similarity alike any other fractal. In particular, in order to single out the scale dependence, the PIPs fractal distribution will be evaluated by limiting to two parameters, fractal dimension (δ) and lacunarity (λ), that are usually used to measure the fractal nature. Because of the invariance of the corresponding binary plots, the fractal dimension and lacunarity of primes distribution are invariant with respect to the index of PIPs.

  16. Difference between consecutive primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾朝华

    1995-01-01

    Suppose that B is a sufficiently large positive constant, ε is a sufficiently small positive constant, X and N are sufficiently large. It is mainly proved that i) for the positive integers n, Xprime number; ii) if A = N1/2+s, then the even numbers in the interval (N, N+A), except for 0(Alog-B N) values, are all Goldbach numbers.

  17. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  18. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety)", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  19. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  20. Spatial release from informational masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakerd, Brad; Aaronson, Neil L.

    2001-05-01

    A new method for investigating spatial release from informational masking was developed and employed in two experiments. The new method is computer controlled and efficient. It employs the versatile coordinate response measure speech stimulus set [Bolia et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1065 (2000)]. The experiments were conducted in an anechoic room, with a primary loudspeaker in front of the listener and a secondary loudspeaker at 60 deg to the right. Target messages were presented from the primary speaker only. For a standard, distractor messages, simultaneous with the target, were also presented from the primary speaker only. Spatial release was measured by presenting the distractors from both primary and secondary speakers with a temporal offset. Experiment 1 fixed the offset (secondary leading, +4 ms) and varied the number of distractors (1 to 3) and the target-to-distractor ratio (-12 to +4 dB). Masking release, sometimes as large as 10 dB, was found for all combinations of these variables. Experiment 2 varied the offset over a wide range of values. Substantial release from masking was found for both positive and negative offsets, but only in the range in which speech echoes are suppressed (<50 ms). [Work supported by NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  1. Prime mover progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-05-01

    Manufacturers continue to upgrade fluidized bed and steam technologies to meet more stringent emission, efficiency and service challenges from global power market customers. Offshore, suppliers are being pushed to provide quality, low-cost production and significant local competitive presence in nearly all international markets. The ability to meet customer and regulatory demands for emissions across different global market segments remains a priority for prime mover suppliers as they develop environmental technical improvements. Products initially developed for the more stringent European regulations are now finding a market in the US. In developing countries, demand continues for utility-size boiler products, but pollution control equipment costs remain a parallel consideration. Industry improvements to steam cycle equipment, namely turbines, continue to reap benefits in terms of efficiency and operational flexibility. Boiler and steam manufacturers` response to global markets remains right on target as product development strategies are constantly adjusted and analyzed to reach an optimum marketing mix. Innovation and advances in prime mover power equipment technology remain a mainstay of suppliers` ability to meet the needs of a changing, competitive clientele.

  2. Prime injections and quasipolarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Alberto Agustín-Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $p$ be a prime number. Consider the injection\\[ \\iota:\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\to\\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}:x\\mapsto px, \\]and the elements $e^{u}.v:=(u,v\\in \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ and$e^{w}.r:=(w,r\\in \\mathbb{Z}/pn \\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/pn\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$. Suppose that $e^{u}.v\\in\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}\\rtimes \\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}^{\\times}$ is seen as an automorphism of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$defined by $e^{u}.v(x=vx+u$; then $e^{u}.v$ is a \\emph{quasipolarity} if it is an involution without fixed points.In this brief note we give an explicit formula for the number of quasipolarities of $\\mathbb{Z}/n\\mathbb{Z}$ interms of the prime decomposition of $n$, and we prove sufficient conditions such that $(e^{w}.r\\circ \\iota=\\iota\\circ (e^{u}.v$, where $e^{w}.r$ and $e^{u}.v$ are quasipolarities.

  3. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  4. Multi-shaped e-beam technology for mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramss, Juergen; Stoeckel, Arnd; Weidenmueller, Ulf; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Bloecker, Martin; Sczyrba, Martin; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Melzer, Detlef

    2010-09-01

    Photomask lithography for the 22nm technology node and beyond requires new approaches in equipment as well as mask design. Multi Shaped Beam technology (MSB) for photomask patterning using a matrix of small beamlets instead of just one shaped beam, is a very effective and evolutionary enhancement of the well established Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technique. Its technical feasibility has been successfully demonstrated [2]. One advantage of MSB is the productivity gain over VSB with decreasing critical dimensions (CDs) and increasing levels of optical proximity correction (OPC) or for inverse lithography technology (ILT) and source mask optimization (SMO) solutions. This makes MSB an attractive alternative to VSB for photomask lithography at future technology nodes. The present paper describes in detail the working principles and advantages of MSB over VSB for photomask applications. MSB integrates the electron optical column, x/y stage and data path into an operational electron beam lithography system. Multi e-beam mask writer specific requirements concerning the computational lithography and their implementation are outlined here. Data preparation of aggressive OPC layouts, shot count reductions over VSB, data path architecture, write time simulation and several aspects of the exposure process sequence are also discussed. Analysis results of both the MSB processing and the write time of full 32nm and 22nm node critical layer mask layouts are presented as an example.

  5. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  6. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  7. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  8. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  9. How to Make L2 Easier to Process ?The Role of L2 Proficiency and Semantic Category in Translation Priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN WANG

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports four masked translation priming experiments and demonstrates that L2 proficiency plays a role in translation priming but it is not the only factor determining translation priming patterns . Instead , language dominance might be more accurate in predicting priming patterns . Given the asymmetrical representations of L 1 and L2 as described by most bilingual models , the conditions to produce L2‐L1 priming not only depends on the task , but also the category size in semantic categorization . Relevant results will be discussed in relation to bilingual models . One implication of the current results is that processing L2 in a specific semantic context can be optimal to L2 lexical access .

  10. High performance mask fabrication process for the next-generation mask production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagawa, Keisuke; Ugajin, Kunihiro; Suenaga, Machiko; Kobayashi, Yoshihito; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu

    2014-07-01

    ArF immersion lithography combined with double patterning has been used for fabricating below half pitch 40nm devices. However, when pattern size shrinks below 20nm, we must use new technology like quadruple patterning process or next generation lithography (NGL) solutions. Moreover, with change in lithography tool, next generation mask production will be needed. According to ITRS 2013, fabrication of finer patterns less than 15nm will be required on mask plate in NGL mask production 5 years later [1]. In order to fabricate finer patterns on mask, higher resolution EB mask writer and high performance fabrication process will be required. In a previous study, we investigated a potential of mask fabrication process for finer patterning and achieved 17nm dense line pattern on mask plate by using VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) type EB mask writer and chemically amplified resist [2][3]. After a further investigation, we constructed higher performance mask process by using new EB mask writer EBM9000. EBM9000 is the equipment supporting hp16nm generation's photomask production and has high accuracy and high throughput. As a result, we achieved 15.5nm pattern on mask with high productivity. Moreover, from evaluation of isolated pattern, we proved that current mask process has the capability for sub-10nm pattern. These results show that the performance of current mask fabrication process have the potential to fabricate the next-generation mask.

  11. Mask data volume: explosion or damp squib?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Chris; Goad, Scott; Buck, Peter; Gladhill, Richard; Cinque, Russell

    2005-11-01

    Mask data file sizes are increasing as we move from technology generation to generation. The historical 30% linear shrink every 2-3 years that has been called Moore's Law, has driven a doubling of the transistor budget and hence feature count. The transition from steppers to step-and-scan tools has increased the area of the mask that needs to be patterned. At the 130nm node and below, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has become prevalent, and the edge fragmentation required to implement OPC leads to an increase in the number of polygons required to define the layout. Furthermore, Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs) such as Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) or tri-tone Phase Shift Masks (PSM) require additional features to be defined on the mask which do not resolve on the wafer, further increasing masks volumes. In this paper we review historical data on mask file sizes for microprocessor designs. We consider the consequences of this increase in file size on Mask Data Prep (MDP) activities, both within the Integrated Device Manufacturer (IDM) and Mask Shop, namely: computer resources, storage and networks (for file transfer). The impact of larger file sizes on mask writing times is also reviewed. Finally we consider, based on the trends that have been observed over the last 5 technology nodes, what will be required to maintain reasonable MDP and mask manufacturing cycle times.

  12. The chronometry of visual perception: review of occipital TMS masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Koivisto, Mika; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) continues to deliver on its promise as a research tool. In this review article we focus on the application of TMS to early visual cortex (V1, V2, V3) in studies of visual perception and visual awareness. Depending on the asynchrony between visual stimulus onset and TMS pulse (SOA), TMS can suppress visual perception, allowing one to track the time course of functional relevance (chronometry) of early visual cortex for vision. This procedure has revealed multiple masking effects ('dips'), some consistently (∼+100ms SOA) but others less so (∼-50ms, ∼-20ms, ∼+30ms, ∼+200ms SOA). We review the state of TMS masking research, focusing on the evidence for these multiple dips, the relevance of several experimental parameters to the obtained 'masking curve', and the use of multiple measures of visual processing (subjective measures of awareness, objective discrimination tasks, priming effects). Lastly, we consider possible future directions for this field. We conclude that while TMS masking has yielded many fundamental insights into the chronometry of visual perception already, much remains unknown. Not only are there several temporal windows when TMS pulses can induce visual suppression, even the well-established 'classical' masking effect (∼+100ms) may reflect more than one functional visual process.

  13. Almost primes in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that the short interval(x-x101/232,x] contains at least an almost prime P2 for sufficiently large x,where P2 denotes an integer having at most two prime factors counted with multiplicity.

  14. Immediate Priming and Cognitive Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three forced-choice perceptual word identification experiments tested the claim that transitions from positive to negative priming as a function of increasing prime duration are due to cognitive aftereffects. These aftereffects are similar in nature to perceptual aftereffects that produce a negative image due to overexposure and habituation to a…

  15. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  16. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  17. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  18. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  19. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  20. Language dominance in translation priming: evidence from balanced and unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    It is well established in the masked translation priming literature that the priming effect is sensitive to language direction with noncognates-namely, the priming effect is consistently observed from first language (L1) to second language (L2), but not always from L2 to L1. Several recent reports demonstrated both L1-L2 and L2-L1 priming and attributed the restoration of L2-L1 priming to high proficiency in L2. Here, the current study tested two groups of highly proficient Chinese-English bilinguals, with one group more dominant in English and the other more balanced in both languages. The L2-L1 priming effect was only observed with the balanced bilinguals, but not the English-dominant ones. Based on these results, I argue that the language proficiency account is not sufficient to explain the priming asymmetry and that the relative bilingual balance is a more accurate account. Theoretically, the cross-language balance is determined by the representational difference between L1 and L2 at the semantic level. I discuss the results in relation to various bilingual models, in particular, the sense model and the distributional representational model (DRM), which capture the semantic representations of bilinguals.

  1. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects in developing readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeguers, M H T; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W; Snellings, P

    2017-06-23

    It has been assumed that fluent reading requires efficient integration of orthographic and phonological codes. However, it is thus far unclear how this integration process develops when children learn to become fluent readers. Therefore, we used masked priming to investigate time courses of orthographic and phonological code activation in children at incremental levels of reading development (2nd, 4th and 6th grade). The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. The second study manipulated the strength of the phonological difference between prime and target to clarify whether phonological difference influences phonological priming effects. Results in both studies showed that orthographic priming effects became facilitative at increasingly short durations during reading development, but phonological priming was absent. These results are taken to suggest that development of reading fluency is accompanied by increased automatization of orthographic representations. The absence of phonological priming suggests that developing readers cannot yet activate phonological codes automatically.

  2. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dhanya Menoth; Kumar, Parmod; Mahmood, Faisal; Wong, Kian Foong; Agrawal, Abhishek; Elgendi, Mohamed; Shukla, Rohit; Ang, Natania; Ching, April; Dauwels, Justin; Chan, Alice H D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs). Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs), and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  3. Affective priming of emotional pictures in parafoveal vision: left visual field advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Avero, Pedro

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated whether stimulus affective content can be extracted from visual scenes when these appear in parafoveal locations of the visual field and are foveally masked, and whether there is lateralization involved. Parafoveal prime pleasant or unpleasant scenes were presented for 150 msec 2.5 degrees away from fixation and were followed by a foveal probe scene that was either congruent or incongruent in emotional valence with the prime. Participants responded whether the probe was emotionally positive or negative. Affective priming was demonstrated by shorter response latencies for congruent than for incongruent prime-probe pairs. This effect occurred when the prime was presented in the left visual field at a 300-msec prime-probe stimulus onset asynchrony, even when the prime and the probe were different in physical appearance and semantic category. This result reveals that the affective significance of emotional stimuli can be assessed early through covert attention mechanisms, in the absence of overt eye fixations on the stimuli, and suggests that right-hemisphere dominance is involved.

  4. Effect of Subliminal Lexical Priming on the Subjective Perception of Images: A Machine Learning Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Menoth Mohan

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of subliminal priming in terms of the perception of images influenced by words with positive, negative, and neutral emotional content, through electroencephalograms (EEGs. Participants were instructed to rate how much they like the stimuli images, on a 7-point Likert scale, after being subliminally exposed to masked lexical prime words that exhibit positive, negative, and neutral connotations with respect to the images. Simultaneously, the EEGs were recorded. Statistical tests such as repeated measures ANOVAs and two-tailed paired-samples t-tests were performed to measure significant differences in the likability ratings among the three prime affect types; the results showed a strong shift in the likeness judgment for the images in the positively primed condition compared to the other two. The acquired EEGs were examined to assess the difference in brain activity associated with the three different conditions. The consistent results obtained confirmed the overall priming effect on participants' explicit ratings. In addition, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines (SVMs, and AdaBoost classifiers were applied to infer the prime affect type from the ERPs. The highest classification rates of 95.0% and 70.0% obtained respectively for average-trial binary classifier and average-trial multi-class further emphasize that the ERPs encode information about the different kinds of primes.

  5. Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects reaction times, but not priming effects, in a masked prime task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaghecken, F.; Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Rothwell, J.C.; Eimer, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces motor cortex excitability, but it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences in healthy subjects. METHODS: We examined the effects of 1 Hz rTMS (train of 20 min; stimulus intensity 80% of active motor thr

  6. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  7. Exodus: Prime Mover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  8. Sequential experiments with primes

    CERN Document Server

    Caragiu, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    With a specific focus on the mathematical life in small undergraduate colleges, this book presents a variety of elementary number theory insights involving sequences largely built from prime numbers and contingent number-theoretic functions. Chapters include new mathematical ideas and open problems, some of which are proved in the text. Vector valued MGPF sequences, extensions of Conway’s Subprime Fibonacci sequences, and linear complexity of bit streams derived from GPF sequences are among the topics covered in this book. This book is perfect for the pure-mathematics-minded educator in a small undergraduate college as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduate students looking for a significant high-impact learning experience in mathematics.

  9. Priming semantico e museografia / Semantic priming and museography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Banzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Il priming è una tipologia di memoria implicita che facilita l’apprendimento di stimoli di diversa natura (stimoli visivi, semantici, etc.. Un allestimento museale che adotti strumenti basati sul priming potrebbe aiutare il pubblico a selezionare i contenuti relativi agli oggetti esposti. In questo articolo viene descritta l’applicazione del priming semantico allo spazio museale. Questa operazione in prima battutta potrebbe essere letta come una mancanza di fiducia nelle capacità cognitive del visitatore nel discriminare il significato delle informazioni. In realtà è una forma di sostegno per aiutare il visitatore a sviluppare gradualmente una propria metodologia di approccio ai contenuti proposti nel museo. Grazie al priming, il pubblico riceve una serie di stimoli che possono aiutare a costituire la base delle proprie conoscenze in ambito storico-artistico ed essere il punto di partenza sul quale costruire un metodo critico.   Many psychological aspects such as motivation, emotion, and attention, affect human learning. Among these, priming triggers and tunes implicit memory processes. Hence the goal of this paper is to check whether semantic priming can be used as an effective tool to design a supportive museum environment where people can easily learn. Moreover, the resulting stronger and more persistent memories could encourage museum visitors to learn more and better, and to develop a method to “read” the artworks. After a brief overview of current models of semantic priming, practical and theoretical issues are considered and discussed.

  10. Visibility predicts priming within but not between people: a cautionary tale for studies of cognitive individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2014-06-01

    With resurgent interest in individual differences in perception, cognition and behavioral control as early indicators of disease, endophenotypes, or a means to relate brain structure to function, behavioral tasks are increasingly being transferred from within-subject settings to between-group or correlational designs. The assumption is that where we know the mechanisms underlying within-subject effects, these effects can be used to measure individual differences in those same mechanisms. However, between-subjects variability can arise from an entirely different source from that driving within-subject effects, and here we report a clear-cut demonstration of this. We examined the debated relationship between the visibility of a masked-prime stimulus and the direction of priming it causes (positive or reversed). Such reversal of priming has been hypothesized to reflect an automatic inhibitory mechanism that controls partially activated responses and allows behavioral flexibility. Within subjects, we found an unambiguous systematic transition from reversed priming to positive priming as prime visibility increased, replicated 7 times, and using different stimulus manipulations. However, across individuals there was never a relationship between prime discrimination ability and priming. Specifically, these data resolve the controversial debate on visibility and reversed priming, indicating that they arise from independent processes relying on partially shared stimulus signals. More generally, they stand as an exemplar case in which variance between individuals arises from a different source from that produced by stimulus manipulations.

  11. Two-way interactions between music and language: evidence from priming recognition of tune and lyrics in familiar songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Radeau, Monique; Arguin, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A priming technique was employed to study the relations between melody and lyrics in song memory. The procedure involved the auditory presentation of a prime and a target taken from the same song, or from unrelated but equally familiar songs. To promote access to memory representations of songs, we varied the format of primes and targets, which were either spoken or sung, using the syllable /1a/. In each of the four experiments, a prime taken from the same song as the target facilitated target recognition, independently of the format in which it occurred. The facilitation effects were also found in conditions close to masked priming because prime recognizability was very low, as assessed in Experiment 1 by d' measures. Above all, backward priming effects were observed in Experiments 2, 3, and 4, where song order was reversed in the prime-target sequence, suggesting that words and tones of songs are not connected by strict temporal contingencies. Rather, the results indicate that, in song memory, text and tune are related by tight connections that are bidirectional and automatically activated by relatively abstract information. Rhythmic similarity between linguistic stress pattern and musical meter might account for these priming effects.

  12. Helical apodizers for tunable hyper Gaussian masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Castañeda, J.; Ledesma, Sergio; Gómez-Sarabia, Cristina M.

    2013-09-01

    We discuss an optical method for controlling the half-width of Gaussian like transmittance windows, by using a pair of absorption masks that have both radial and helical amplitude variations. For describing the radial part of the proposed masks, we employ amplitude transmittance profiles of the form T(ρ) = exp(- ρ s ). For s = 2, one has an amplitude transmittance that is proportional to a Gaussian function. A sub Gaussian mask is defined by a value of s 2, one has super Gaussian masks. Our discussion considers that any of these radially varying masks has also helical modulations. We show that by using a suitable pair of this type of masks, one can control the halfwidth of Gaussian like windows.

  13. Formulation design and optimization of taste-masked mouth-dissolving tablets of Tramadol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to mask the extremely bitter taste of Tramadol HCL, an opioid analgesic, and to formulate a tablet which can rapidly disintegrate in saliva (rapidly disintegrating tablet. The crucial aspect in the formulation of mouth-dissolving tablets is to mask the bitter taste and to minimize the disintegration time. Taste masking was done using sweetening agent and D-mannitol and taste-masked pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique. Prepared pellets were tested for drug content, taste evaluation in oral cavity and molecular property. Pellet shows significant taste masking, confirmed by in vitro taste evaluation; therefore, it was selected for further study. Pellets were evaluated for density, angle of repose, Carr′s index, Hausner′s ratio and sphericity while tablets were evaluated for disintegration and in vitro dissolution. A 3 2 full factorial design and statistical models were applied to optimize the effect of two factors, i.e. superdisintegrant sodium starch glycolate and taste-masking agent (D-mannitol. In this study, response surface methodology was used for designing of the experiment, generation of mathematical models and optimization study. Taste evaluation of pellets in human volunteers revealed considerable taste masking with a degree of bitterness below threshold value (2.0 within 10 s, whereas Tramadol HCl was rated intensely bitter with a score of +4 for 10 s. The size of the pellets varied from 0.895 to 1.423 mm for different batch and found to be a spherical. Disintegration time of different formulations varied from 30 to 60 s. It was observed that the responses, i.e. disintegration time and sphericity were affected by both the factors. The statistical models were validated and can be successfully used to prepare optimized taste-masked mouth-dissolving tablets of Tramadol HCl with adequate disintegration and shape.

  14. Computational defect review for actinic mask inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram

    2013-04-01

    As optical lithography continues to extend into low-k1 regime, resolution of mask patterns continues to diminish. The limitation of 1.35 NA posed by water-based lithography has led to the application of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET), for example, use of strong phase-shifting masks, aggressive OPC and sub-resolution assist features, customized illuminators, etc. The adoption of these RET techniques combined with the requirements to detect even smaller defects on masks due to increasing MEEF, poses considerable challenges for a mask inspection engineer. Inspecting masks under their actinic-aerial image conditions would detect defects that are more likely to print under those exposure conditions. However, this also makes reviewing such defects in their low-contrast aerial images very challenging. On the other hand, inspecting masks under higher resolution inspection optics would allow for better viewing of defects post-inspection. However, such inspections generally would also detect many more defects, including printable and nuisance, thereby making it difficult to judge which are of real concern for printability on wafer. Often, an inspection engineer may choose to use Aerial and/or high resolution inspection modes depending on where in the process flow the mask is and the specific device-layer characteristics of the mask. Hence, a comprehensive approach is needed in handling defects both post-aerial and post-high resolution inspections. This analysis system is designed for the Applied Materials Aera™ mask inspection platform, all data reported was collected using the Aera.

  15. X-ray lithography masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  16. Women's Greater Ability to Perceive Happy Facial Emotion Automatically: Gender Differences in Affective Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Uta-Susan Donges; Anette Kersting; Thomas Suslow

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral...

  17. Automatic classification and accurate size measurement of blank mask defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Samir; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2015-07-01

    A blank mask and its preparation stages, such as cleaning or resist coating, play an important role in the eventual yield obtained by using it. Blank mask defects' impact analysis directly depends on the amount of available information such as the number of defects observed, their accurate locations and sizes. Mask usability qualification at the start of the preparation process, is crudely based on number of defects. Similarly, defect information such as size is sought to estimate eventual defect printability on the wafer. Tracking of defect characteristics, specifically size and shape, across multiple stages, can further be indicative of process related information such as cleaning or coating process efficiencies. At the first level, inspection machines address the requirement of defect characterization by detecting and reporting relevant defect information. The analysis of this information though is still largely a manual process. With advancing technology nodes and reducing half-pitch sizes, a large number of defects are observed; and the detailed knowledge associated, make manual defect review process an arduous task, in addition to adding sensitivity to human errors. Cases where defect information reported by inspection machine is not sufficient, mask shops rely on other tools. Use of CDSEM tools is one such option. However, these additional steps translate into increased costs. Calibre NxDAT based MDPAutoClassify tool provides an automated software alternative to the manual defect review process. Working on defect images generated by inspection machines, the tool extracts and reports additional information such as defect location, useful for defect avoidance[4][5]; defect size, useful in estimating defect printability; and, defect nature e.g. particle, scratch, resist void, etc., useful for process monitoring. The tool makes use of smart and elaborate post-processing algorithms to achieve this. Their elaborateness is a consequence of the variety and

  18. Priming and memory of stress responses in organisms lacking a nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Monika; Schwachtje, Jens; Baier, Margarete; Balazadeh, Salma; Bäurle, Isabel; Geiselhardt, Sven; Hincha, Dirk K; Kunze, Reinhard; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rillig, Matthias C; Rolff, Jens; Romeis, Tina; Schmülling, Thomas; Steppuhn, Anke; van Dongen, Joost; Whitcomb, Sarah J; Wurst, Susanne; Zuther, Ellen; Kopka, Joachim

    2016-11-01

    Experience and memory of environmental stimuli that indicate future stress can prepare (prime) organismic stress responses even in species lacking a nervous system. The process through which such organisms prepare their phenotype for an improved response to future stress has been termed 'priming'. However, other terms are also used for this phenomenon, especially when considering priming in different types of organisms and when referring to different stressors. Here we propose a conceptual framework for priming of stress responses in bacteria, fungi and plants which allows comparison of priming with other terms, e.g. adaptation, acclimation, induction, acquired resistance and cross protection. We address spatial and temporal aspects of priming and highlight current knowledge about the mechanisms necessary for information storage which range from epigenetic marks to the accumulation of (dormant) signalling molecules. Furthermore, we outline possible patterns of primed stress responses. Finally, we link the ability of organisms to become primed for stress responses (their 'primability') with evolutionary ecology aspects and discuss which properties of an organism and its environment may favour the evolution of priming of stress responses.

  19. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  20. Model-based mask verification on critical 45nm logic masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, F.; Foussadier, F.; Takigawa, T.; Wiley, J.; Vacca, A.; Depre, L.; Chen, G.; Bai, S.; Wang, J.-S.; Howell, R.; Arnoux, V.; Hayano, K.; Narukawa, S.; Kawashima, S.; Mohri, H.; Hayashi, N.; Miyashita, H.; Trouiller, Y.; Robert, F.; Vautrin, F.; Kerrien, G.; Planchot, J.; Martinelli, C.; Di-Maria, J. L.; Farys, V.; Vandewalle, B.; Perraud, L.; Le Denmat, J. C.; Villaret, A.; Gardin, C.; Yesilada, E.; Saied, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the continuous battle to improve critical dimension (CD) uniformity, especially for 45-nanometer (nm) logic advanced products, one important recent advance is the ability to accurately predict the mask CD uniformity contribution to the overall global wafer CD error budget. In most wafer process simulation models, mask error contribution is embedded in the optical and/or resist models. We have separated the mask effects, however, by creating a short-range mask process model (MPM) for each unique mask process and a long-range CD uniformity mask bias map (MBM) for each individual mask. By establishing a mask bias map, we are able to incorporate the mask CD uniformity signature into our modelling simulations and measure the effects on global wafer CD uniformity and hotspots. We also have examined several ways of proving the efficiency of this approach, including the analysis of OPC hot spot signatures with and without the mask bias map (see Figure 1) and by comparing the precision of the model contour prediction to wafer SEM images. In this paper we will show the different steps of mask bias map generation and use for advanced 45nm logic node layers, along with the current results of this new dynamic application to improve hot spot verification through Brion Technologies' model-based mask verification loop.

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  2. Inflammasome priming is similar for francisella species that differentially induce inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Ghonime

    Full Text Available Inflammasome activation is a two-step process where step one, priming, prepares the inflammasome for its subsequent activation, by step two. Classically step one can be induced by LPS priming followed by step two, high dose ATP. Furthermore, when IL-18 processing is used as the inflammasome readout, priming occurs before new protein synthesis. In this context, how intracellular pathogens such as Francisella activate the inflammasome is incompletely understood, particularly regarding the relative importance of priming versus activation steps. To better understand these events we compared Francisella strains that differ in virulence and ability to induce inflammasome activation for their relative effects on step one vs. step two. When using the rapid priming model, i.e., 30 min priming by live or heat killed Francisella strains (step 1, followed by ATP (step 2, we found no difference in IL-18 release, p20 caspase-1 release and ASC oligomerization between Francisella strains (F. novicida, F. holarctica -LVS and F. tularensis Schu S4. This priming is fast, independent of bacteria viability, internalization and phagosome escape, but requires TLR2-mediated ERK phosphorylation. In contrast to their efficient priming capacity, Francisella strains LVS and Schu S4 were impaired in inflammasome triggering compared to F. novicida. Thus, observed differences in inflammasome activation by F. novicida, LVS and Schu S4 depend not on differences in priming but rather on their propensity to trigger the primed inflammasome.

  3. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  4. TASTE MASKING TECHNOLOGIES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTY OF PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acceptability of any dosage form are mainly depends over its taste i.e. mouth feel. Drug molecule interacts with taste receptor on the tongue to give bitter, sweet or salty taste sensation, when they dissolve in saliva. This sensation of the taste is the result of signal transduction from the receptor organs for taste, commonly known as taste buds. In market, there are numbers of pharmaceutical preparations available in which actives are bitter in taste. The improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations, which improved performance and acceptability. The bitterness of preparation also leads to patient incompliance. So masking of bitterness becomes essential. To overcome this problem, many techniques have been developed to mask the bitter taste of drugs. These techniques are not only mask the bitter taste of drug but also enhance the bioavailability and performance of drug dosage form. It includes adding sugars, flavors, sweeteners, use of lipoproteins, numbing taste buds, granulation, use of adsorbates ,coating drug, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifier, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug and salt formation, inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion and Ion Exchange Resins (IERs which have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review article highlights different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  5. Mask process correction (MPC) modeling and its application to EUV mask for electron beam mask writer EBM-7000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Hara, Shigehiro; Anze, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Bai, Shufeng; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Howell, Rafael; Chen, George; Li, Jiangwei; Tao, Jun; Wiley, Jim; Kurosawa, Terunobu; Saito, Yasuko; Takigawa, Tadahiro

    2010-09-01

    In electron beam writing on EUV mask, it has been reported that CD linearity does not show simple signatures as observed with conventional COG (Cr on Glass) masks because they are caused by scattered electrons form EUV mask itself which comprises stacked heavy metals and thick multi-layers. To resolve this issue, Mask Process Correction (MPC) will be ideally applicable. Every pattern is reshaped in MPC. Therefore, the number of shots would not increase and writing time will be kept within reasonable range. In this paper, MPC is extended to modeling for correction of CD linearity errors on EUV mask. And its effectiveness is verified with simulations and experiments through actual writing test.

  6. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  7. Masking the Feeling of Being Stupid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sally L.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching experience at The Lab School of Washington has shown that learning-disabled children and adults cope with their lack of self-esteem and feelings of stupidity by developing masks to hide their hurt. These include masks of super-competence, helplessness, invisibility, clowning, injustice collecting, indifference, boredom, outrageousness,…

  8. Masked hypertension, a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    Masked hypertension (blood pressure that is normal in the physicians' office but elevated elsewhere) is a common phenomenon as prevalence among studies varies from 8 to 45% and is seen at all ages. large discrepancies, however, exist between studies that have dealt with masked hypertension. It is of

  9. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  10. [Use of respiratory masks in healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotti, C; Bouvet, E; Abiteboul, D

    2008-08-01

    Two different types of filtering respiratory masks are available in healthcare settings. The first ones are used to protect patients from droplets coming from the mouth of healthcare workers (HCW) and the second ones are protective masks. For the moment, we lack information regarding application of Ministry of Health recommendations and on adherence of HCW to mask use. Geres, the HCW exposure risk study group, and the INRS, are now conducting a survey in several hospitals in France to evaluate the use of respiratory masks in healthcare settings. Two phases are planned. Phase I is a self survey using a questionnaire for occupational doctors and hygienists and phase II includes three steps on HCW behavior: evaluation of knowledge and practice concerning respiratory masks, evaluation of respiratory mask use, evaluation of wear and fit test in a context of airborne isolation with a FFP1 and FFP2 respiratory mask. Phase I is finished and phase II is beginning. The first phase I data show that the Ministry's recommendations are observed: respiratory masks are available, written recommendations are present; information and training are organized for healthcare workers. Phase II results are not available yet.

  11. No priming for global motion in crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Gall, Martin G; Manassi, Mauro; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does not survive crowding. Crowding persisted despite variations in the direction of the flankers with respect to the prime's direction. Motion priming was still absent under crowding when 85% of the flankers moved in the same direction as the prime. Crowding also persisted despite variations in the speed of the flankers relative to the prime even when the flankers' speed was four times slower than the speed of the prime. However, a priming effect was evident when the prime's spatial location was precued and its distance to the flankers increased, suggesting a release from crowding. These results suggest that transient attention induced by precueing the spatial location of the prime may improve subjects' ability to discriminate its direction. Spatial cueing could act to decrease the integration field, thereby diminishing the influence of nearby distracters. In an additional experiment in which we used fewer flankers, we found a priming effect under conditions in which the interelement distance varied between flankers and prime. Overall, the results suggest that motion priming is strongly affected by crowding, but transient attention can partially retrieve such facilitation.

  12. Continued fractions constructed from prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marek

    2010-01-01

    We give 50 digits values of the simple continued fractions whose denominators are formed from a) prime numbers, b) twin primes, c) primes of the form m^2+1 and Mersenne primes. All these continued fractions belong to the set of measure zero of exceptions to the Khinchin Theorem.

  13. Extinction controlled adaptive phase-mask coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Bourget, P; Mawet, D; Haguenauer, P

    2012-01-01

    Context. Phase-mask coronagraphy is advantageous in terms of inner working angle and discovery space. It is however still plagued by drawbacks such as sensitivity to tip-tilt errors and chromatism. A nulling stellar coronagraph based on the adaptive phase-mask concept using polarization interferometry is presented in this paper. Aims. Our concept aims at dynamically and achromatically optimizing the nulling efficiency of the coronagraph, making it more immune to fast low-order aberrations (tip-tilt errors, focus, ...). Methods. We performed numerical simulations to demonstrate the value of the proposed method. The active control system will correct for the detrimental effects of image instabilities on the destructive interference. The mask adaptability both in size, phase and amplitude also compensates for manufacturing errors of the mask itself, and potentially for chromatic effects. Liquid-crystal properties are used to provide variable transmission of an annulus around the phase mask, but also to achieve t...

  14. Locus of single-prime negative priming: the role of perceptual form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2013-07-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon in which after a single prime word is briefly presented, repeating it as the probe target results in a delay in responding to the target. The present study investigated the locus of this negative priming effect. Experiment 1 showed that repeating the identity of the prime produced a negative priming effect but merely repeating the response of the prime did not. Experiment 2 showed that the negative priming effect transformed into positive priming when the probe distractor was absent. Experiments 3 and 4 further revealed that single-prime negative priming was observed when the perceptual form was repeated. Taken together, these results suggest that single-prime negative priming involves a perceptual locus.

  15. Response Priming with More or Less Biological Movements as Primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, David; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Response priming in general is a suitable tool in cognitive psychology to investigate motor preactivations. Typically, compatibility effects reflect faster reactions in cases in which prime and target suggest the same response (i.e., compatible trials) compared with cases in which prime and target suggest opposite responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving dots that were horizontally aligned, Bermeitinger (2013) found a stable pattern of results: with short SOAs, faster responses in compatible trials were found; with longer SOAs up to 250 ms, faster responses in incompatible trials were found. It is unclear whether these results are specific to the special motion used therein or whether it generalizes to other motions. We therefore used other motions realized by arrangements of dots. In four experiments, we tested point-light displays (biological coherent walkers vs. less biological scrambled/split displays) as primes. In two experiments, eye gaze motions realized by moving dots representing irises and pupils (i.e., biological) versus the same motion either without surrounding face information or integrated in an abstract line drawing (i.e., less biological) were used. We found overall large positive compatibility effects with biological motion primes and also positive-but smaller-compatibility effects with less biological motion primes. Most important, also with very long SOAs (up to 1320 ms), we did not find evidence for negative compatibility effects. Thus, the pattern of positive-followed-by-negative-compatibility effects found in Bermeitinger (2013) seems to be specific to the materials used therein, whereas response priming in general seems an applicable tool to study motion perception.

  16. Differences in semantic and translation priming across languages: the role of language direction and language dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, we examined bilingual memory organization, using the priming paradigm. Many of the previous studies in which this experimental technique has been used in the bilingual domain appear to have had several differences in methodology that have caused there to be a lot of variation in the data reported. The aim of the present work was to create an experimental situation that was well constrained so that automatic processes could be observed. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals participated in an unmasked semantic- and translation-priming study in which a lexical decision task was used. The results revealed significant translation-priming effects in both language directions and, unexpectedly, significant semantic priming in the L2-L1 direction only. In Experiment 2, we examined semantic- and translation-priming effects with a forward mask design. The results indicated that significant priming was obtained only for translation word pairs in both language directions. These results are discussed with regard to current models of bilingual memory representation.

  17. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  18. Evaluative priming from subliminal emotional words: insights from event-related potentials and individual differences related to anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning

    2009-06-01

    The present ERP study investigated effects of subliminal emotional words on preference judgments about subsequent visual target stimuli (paintings, portraits). Each target was preceded by a masked 17-ms emotional adjective. Four classes of prime words were distinguished according to the combinations of positive/negative valence and high/low arousal. Targets were liked significantly more after positive-arousing primes (e.g., happy), relative to negative-arousing (brutal), positive-nonarousing (mild), and negative-nonarousing primes (lazy). In the target ERP, amplitude of right-hemisphere positive slow wave was increased after positive-arousing compared to negative-arousing primes. Evaluative priming effects on judgments and ERPs were more pronounced in high state-anxious participants. The results suggest that (1) there is indeed affective/semantic processing of unconscious words, (2) evaluative priming operates relatively late during target processing, (3) to be effective, prime words need to score high on the arousal dimension, and (4) individual differences in state anxiety modulate the susceptibility to subliminal evaluative priming.

  19. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  20. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  1. The occurrence of prime numbers revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tapia Moore; José Tapia Yañez

    2016-01-01

    Based on an arithmetical and autocatalytic approach, the authors propose a solution for the occurrence of prime numbers. Exact arithmetical calculations are provided for: the closest prime to any given positive integer (or any number of bigger or smaller primes from that integer); the quantity of prime (and composite) numbers between 1 and any positive integer; the quantity of prime (and composite) numbers between any two positive integers.

  2. The occurrence of prime numbers revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Tapia Moore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on an arithmetical and autocatalytic approach, the authors propose a solution for the occurrence of prime numbers. Exact arithmetical calculations are provided for: the closest prime to any given positive integer (or any number of bigger or smaller primes from that integer; the quantity of prime (and composite numbers between 1 and any positive integer; the quantity of prime (and composite numbers between any two positive integers.

  3. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects...

  4. Early dynamics of the semantic priming shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Chanquoy, Lucile; Dumercy, Laurent; Vitu, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target. However, the possibility for an early semantic priming shift is still to be tested, and its dynamics as a function of association strength remain unknown. Three multiple priming experiments are proposed that cross-manipulate association strength between each of two successive primes and a target, for different values of short SOAs and prime durations. Results show an early priming shift ranging from priming of associates to the first prime only to priming of strong associates to the first prime and all of the associates to the second prime. We investigated the neural basis of the early priming shift by using a network model of spike frequency adaptive cortical neurons (e.g., Deco & Rolls, 2005), able to code different association strengths between the primes and the target. The cortical network model provides a description of the early dynamics of the priming shift in terms of pro-active and retro-active interferences within populations of excitatory neurons regulated by fast and unselective inhibitory feedback. PMID:23717346

  5. Mask tuning for process window improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Birkner, Robert; Graitzer, Erez; Cohen, Avi; Triulzi, Benedetta; Romeo, Carmelo

    2011-03-01

    For the next years optical lithography stays at 193nm with a numerical aperture of 1.35. Mask design becomes more complex, mask and lithography specifications tighten. The k1 factor comes close to 0.25 which leads to a tremendously increased Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF). This means that CD errors on mask are getting highly amplified on wafer. Process control becomes more important than ever. Accurate process control is a key factor to success to maintain a high yield in chip production. One key parameter to ensure a high and reliable functionality for any integrated circuit is the critical dimension uniformity (CDU). There are different contributors which impact the intra-field CD performance at wafer such as mask CD uniformity, scanner fingerprint, resist process etc. In the present work we focus on improvement of mask CD signature which is one of the main contributors to intra-field CD uniformity. The mask CD uniformity has been measured by WLCD32 which measures the CD based on proven aerial image technology. Based on this CD input the CD uniformity was corrected by CDC200TM and afterwards verified by WLCD32 measurement. The CDC200TM tool utilizes an ultrafast femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In ElementsTM) inside the bulk material of the mask. By adjusting the density of the shading elements, the light transmission through the mask is locally changed in a manner that improves wafer CDU when the corrected mask is printed. Additionally, the impact of the improved CD uniformity on the lithography process window was investigated. Goal of the work is to establish a process flow for mask CD uniformity improvement based on mask CD metrology by WLCD32 and mask CD uniformity control by CDC200TM and to verify its impact on the lithography process window. The proposed process flow will be validated by wafer prints. It was shown that the WLCD32 has an excellent correlation to wafer data and an outstanding CD repeatability. It provides

  6. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF TASTE MASKED NIZATIDINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Parasuram Rajan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of Nizatidine and to formulate Orodispersible tablet (ODT and get rapid onset of action, to increase bioavailability and to increase patient compliance. Orodispersible tablets are an innovative technology, which disperse rapidly, usually in a matter of seconds, without the need for water, providing optimal convenience to the patient. The taste masking was done by complexing Nizatidine with methacrylate copolymer, Eudragit E100 in different ratios by mass extrusion method. The drug polymer complex was optimized by determining the drug content and in vitro drug release in simulated salivary fluid (SSF of pH 6.8. Complex which did not release the drug in SSF was considered as the optimized batch and used for formulation of ODTs. The effects of various superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium, Crosspovidone used in formulation of ODTs were studied. The formulation blend was evaluated for bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, angle of repose etc. The ODTs were prepared by direct compression technique and evaluated for hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro drug release etc. Among all formulation, F3 containing 5% w/w concentration of crosspovidone was considered to be the best formulation, with disintegration time of 34 seconds and in vitro drug release of 99.5% in 15 minutes in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets.

  7. Masking property of quantum random cipher with phase mask encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation (CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.

  8. Polymer masks for structured surface and plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vital, Alexane [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Groupe de Recherches sur l’Énergétique des Milieux Ionisés (GREMI), Polytech’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Vayer, Marylène, E-mail: marylene.vayer@univ-orleans.fr [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Sinturel, Christophe [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée (CRMD), 1b rue de la Férollerie, F45071 Orléans Cedex (France); Tillocher, Thomas; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Dussart, Rémi [Groupe de Recherches sur l’Énergétique des Milieux Ionisés (GREMI), Polytech’Orléans, 14 rue d’Issoudun, B.P. 6744, F45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sub-micrometric silicon structures were prepared by cryogenic plasma etching. • Polymer templates based on phase-separated films of PS/PLA were used. • Silica structured masks were prepared by filling the polymer templates. • Etching of underlying silicon through silica templates gave original structures. - Abstract: Silica and silicon structures have been prepared at the sub-micrometer length-scale, using laterally phase-separated thin films of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) homopolymer blends. The selective removal of one polymer and the filling of the released space by silica precursor solution led, after calcination, to silica structures on silicon such as arrays of bowl-shape features or pillars, layers with through or non-through cylindrical holes, which has not been observed for some of them. The control of the morphology of the initial polymer film was a key point to achieve such type of structures. Particularly relevant was the use of solvent vapor annealing (vs thermal annealing) of the initial spin-coated films that favored and stabilized laterally phase-separated morphologies. Characteristic dimension of the domains were shown to be coupled with the thickness of the film, thinner films giving smaller domain sizes. Despite a relatively high incompatibility of the two polymers, a macro-phase separation was prevented in all the studied conditions. Sub-micrometric domains were formed, and for the thinner films, nanometric domains as small as 74 nm in size can be obtained. The silica structures formed by the infiltration of the polymer templates were used as hard masks for the cryogenic etching of underlying silicon. New structured surfaces, arrays of silicon pillars which can be plain or hollow at the upper part or arrays of cylindrical holes were formed. A selectivity as high as 21 was obtained using this type of mask for 1.5 μm deep holes having a typical diameter of 200 nm.

  9. Space and time in masking and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Masking and crowding are major phenomena associated with contextual modulations, but the relationship between them remains unclear. We have recently shown that crowding is apparent in the fovea when the time available for processing is limited, pointing to the strong relationship between crowding in the spatial and temporal domains. Models of crowding emphasize the size (acuity) of the target and the spacing between the target and flankers as the main determinants that predict crowding. Our model, which is based on lateral interactions, posits that masking and crowding are related in the spatial and temporal domains at the fovea and periphery and that both can be explained by the increasing size of the human perceptive field (PF) with increasing eccentricity. We explored the relations between masking and crowding using letter identification and contrast detection by correlating the crowding effect with the estimated size of the PF and with masking under different spatiotemporal conditions. We found that there is a large variability in PF size and crowding effects across observers. Nevertheless, masking and crowding were both correlated with the estimated size of the PF in the fovea and periphery under a specific range of spatiotemporal parameters. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, crowding and masking share common neural mechanisms that underlie the spatiotemporal properties of these phenomena in both the fovea and periphery. These results could explain the transfer of training gains from spatiotemporal Gabor masking to letter acuity, reading, and reduced crowding.

  10. Intact crowding and temporal masking in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Adi; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael H; Ahissar, Merav

    2015-01-01

    Phonological deficits in dyslexia are well documented. However, there is an ongoing discussion about whether visual deficits limit the reading skills of people with dyslexia. Here, we investigated visual crowding and backward masking. We presented a Vernier (i.e., two vertical bars slightly offset to the left or right) and asked observers to indicate the offset direction. Vernier stimuli are visually similar to letters and are strongly affected by crowding, even in the fovea. To increase task difficulty, Verniers are often followed by a mask (i.e., backward masking). We measured Vernier offset discrimination thresholds for the basic Vernier task, under crowding, and under backward masking, in students with dyslexia (n = 19) and age and intelligence matched students (n = 27). We found no group differences in any of these conditions. Controls with fast visual processing (good backward masking performance), were faster readers. By contrast, no such correlation was found among the students with dyslexia, suggesting that backward masking does not limit their reading efficiency. These findings indicate that neither elevated crowding nor elevated backward masking pose a bottleneck to reading skills of people with dyslexia.

  11. Pupil Masks for Spectrophotometry of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Satoshi; Matsuo, Taro; Goda, Shohei; Shibai, Hiroshi; Sumi, Takahiro

    2017-09-01

    Spectrophotometric stability, which is crucial in the spectral characterization of transiting exoplanets, is affected by photometric variations arising from field-stop loss in space telescopes with pointing jitter or primary mirror deformation. This paper focuses on a new method for removing slit-loss or field-stop-loss photometric variation through the use of a pupil mask. Two types of pupil function are introduced: the first uses conventional (e.g., Gaussian or hyper-Gaussian) apodizing patterns; whereas the second, which we call a block-shaped mask, employs a new type of pupil mask designed for high photometric stability. A methodology for the optimization of a pupil mask for transit observations is also developed. The block-shaped mask can achieve a photometric stability of 10-5 for a nearly arbitrary field-stop radius when the pointing jitter is smaller than approximately 0.7λ /D and a photometric stability of 10-6 at a pointing jitter smaller than approximately 0.5λ /D. The impact of optical aberrations and mask imperfections upon mask performance is also discussed.

  12. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2012-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply among the top critical issues for lithography. A survey was designed by SEMATECH with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers to objectively assess the overall conditions of the mask industry. With the continued support of the industry, this year's assessment was the tenth in the current series of annual reports. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2011 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that ultimately produce a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. We received data from 11 companies this year, which was a record high since the beginning of the series. The responding companies represented more than 96% of the volume shipped and about 90% of the 2011 revenue for the photomask industry. These survey reports are often used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. They will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities. Results can also be used to guide future investments in critical path issues.

  13. Neopuff T-piece mask resuscitator: is mask leak related to watching the pressure dial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark B; Klimek, J; Shingde, V; Hinder, M; Maheshwari, R; Tracy, S K

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study is to compare mask leak and delivered ventilation during Neopuff (NP) mask ventilation in two modes: (i) with NP pressure dial hidden and resuscitator watching chest wall (CW) rise with, (ii) CW movement hidden and resuscitator watching NP pressure dial. Thirty-six participants gave mask ventilation to a modified manikin designed to measure mask leak and delivered ventilation for two minutes in each mode randomly assigned. Paired t-tests were used to analyse differences in mean values. Linear regression was used to determine the association of mask leak with delivered ventilation. Of 7277 inflations analysed, 3621 were observing chest wall mode (CWM) and 3656 observing NP mode (NPM). Mask leak was similar between the groups; 31.6% for CWM and 31.5% (p = 0.56) for NPM. There were no significant differences in airways pressures and expired tidal volumes (TVe) between modes. Mask leak was strongly associated with TVe (R = -0.86 p mask leak is not greater when resuscitators watch the NP pressure dial. Mask leak is related to TVe. Mask ventilation training with manikins should include tidal volume measurements. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Printed shadow masks for organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yoshiaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2007-09-01

    We have manufactured organic field-effect transistors by using shadow masks that are patterned by a screen printing system. The 50-nm-thick pentacene layer is sublimed as a channel in the vacuum system through the shadow mask on the base film with a multilayer patterned by ink-jet. After the deposition of the pentacene layer, the shadow mask is peeled off from the base film without any mechanical damages to the lower structures. The mobility in the saturation regime is 0.4cm2/Vs and the on-off ratio exceeds 105.

  15. AutoMOPS- B2B and B2C in mask making: Mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction improvement through better information flow management using generic models and standardized languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filies, Olaf; de Ridder, Luc; Rodriguez, Ben; Kujiken, Aart

    2002-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing has become a global business, in which companies of different size unite in virtual enterprises to meet new opportunities. Therefore Mask manufacturing is a key business, but mask ordering is a complex process and is always critical regarding design to market time, even though mask complexity and customer base are increasing using a wide variety of different mask order forms which are frequently faulty and very seldom complete. This is effectively blocking agile manufacturing and can tie wafer fabs to a single mask The goal of the project is elimination of the order verification through paperless, electronically linked information sharing/exchange between chip design, mask production and production stages, which will allow automation of the mask preparation. To cover these new techniques and their specifications as well as the common ones with automated tools a special generic Meta-model will be generated, based on the current standards for mask specifications, including the requirements from the involved partners (Alcatel Microelectronics, Altis, Compugraphics, Infineon, Nimble, Sigma-C), the project works out a pre-normative standard. The paper presents the current status of work. This work is partly funded by the Commission of the European Union under the Fifth Framework project IST-1999-10332 AutoMOPS.

  16. Subliminal presentation of emotionally negative vs positive primes increases the perceived beauty of target stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Vanessa; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Emotions have a profound influence on aesthetic experiences. Studies using affective priming procedures demonstrate, for example, that inducing a conscious negative emotional state biases the perception of abstract stimuli towards the sublime (Eskine et al. Emotion 12:1071-1074, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027200). Moreover, subliminal happy facial expressions have a positive impact on the aesthetic evaluation of abstract art (Flexas et al. PLoS ONE 8:e80154, 2013). Little is known about how emotion influences aesthetic perception of non-abstract, representational stimuli, especially those that are particularly relevant for social behaviour, like human bodies. Here, we explore whether the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged visual primes modulates the explicit subjective aesthetic judgment of body images. Using a forward/backward masking procedure, we presented subliminally positive and negative, arousal-matched, emotional or neutral primes and measured their effect on the explicit evaluation of perceived beauty (high vs low) and emotion (positive vs negative) evoked by abstract and body images. We found that negative primes increased subjective aesthetic evaluations of target bodies or abstract images in comparison with positive primes. No influence of primes on the emotional dimension of the targets was found, thus ruling out an unspecific arousal effect and strengthening the link between emotional valence and aesthetic appreciation. More specifically, that subliminal negative primes increase beauty ratings compared to subliminal positive primes indicates a clear link between negative emotions and positive aesthetic evaluations and vice versa, suggesting a possible link between negative emotion and the experience of sublime in art. The study expands previous research by showing the effect of subliminal negative emotions on the subjective aesthetic evaluation not only of abstract but also of body images.

  17. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  18. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  19. Masked Priming Effects in Aphasia: Evidence of Altered Automatic Spreading Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkes, JoAnn P.; Rogers, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has suggested that impairments of automatic spreading activation may underlie some aphasic language deficits. The current study further investigated the status of automatic spreading activation in individuals with aphasia as compared with typical adults. Method: Participants were 21 individuals with aphasia (12 fluent, 9…

  20. Tom Pickering as a clinical scientist: masked hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Kazuo

    2010-04-01

    Masked hypertension has been 'unmasked' by the use of the out-of-office measurement of blood pressure, as home BP monitoring or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has become available. The term masked hypertension could be used more widely than the original version of masked hypertension; morning hypertension, stress-induced hypertension, and nocturnal hypertension are all classified as subtypes of masked hypertension. Masked hypertension can also be seen in patients with diabetes, that could change clinical practice in diabetes. Masked hypertension is associated with cardiovascular events, but most of the outcome studies are on antihypertensive medications. Therefore, masked hypertension includes insufficient treatment of hypertension. In Dr Pickering's latest review of masked hypertension, prehypertension or high normal blood pressure was stressed as an associating factor with masked hypertension. The biggest theme in the field of hypertension is how we can detect masked hypertension. I present two interesting cases of possible masked hypertension in this commentary.

  1. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  2. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

    2010-03-12

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  3. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  4. Polishing Your Transparencies: Mounting, Masking, Overlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Holly; Cannon, Glenn

    This brief guide discusses the mounting of overhead transparencies on frames, the types of mounts, the proper masking for presentation, and the use of overlays. Numerous line drawings provide the reader with a helpful visual reference. (RAO)

  5. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  6. Role of mask in asian shamanism

    OpenAIRE

    POVALYASHKO GALINA; ABAYEVA SABINA

    2015-01-01

    In the article there is considered a phenomena of shamanism as a cultural universal. Analysis object is a clay mask of National Museum of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It was found in Keder settlement (Kuiryktobe), located in Otrar Oasis at one of the most busy part of the Silk Road. The mask as shamanistic ritual attribute is considered as an obligatory condition for meditative function of shaman.

  7. No masking between test and mask components in perceptually different depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeler, Patrick J; Olzak, Lynn A

    2011-01-01

    2-D cues to perceived depth organization have been used to segregate test and mask stimulus components in a discrimination task. Observers made either spatial-frequency or orientation judgments on a rectangular test component by itself or in the presence of constant rectangular masks. There were two basic masking conditions: same-plane or different-plane. In the same-plane conditions, the test components and masks are perceived as existing in the same depth plane. In the different-plane conditions, the test and mask components are perceived to exist in different depth planes. The perception of different depth planes was achieved by using perceived occlusion, which could place either component closer or further from the observer. The results suggest that when test and mask components are separated into different depth planes they no longer influence one another. This effect could be observed in either depth organization, test components in front of the masks or mask components in front of the test. These results indicate that the figure-ground organization of components is not important. Only the designation as existing in the same or different depth planes affects whether or not a mask is effective.

  8. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring.

  9. Phase mask coronagraphy at JPL and Palomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serabyn E.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the imaging of faint companions, phase mask coronagraphy has the dual advantages of a small inner working angle and high throughput. This paper summarizes our recent work in developing phase masks and in demonstrating their capabilities at JPL. Four-quadrant phase masks have been manufactured at JPL by means of both evaporation and etching, and we have been developing liquid crystal vortex phase masks in partnership with a commercial vendor. Both types of mask have been used with our extreme adaptive optics well-corrected subaperture at Palomar to detect known brown dwarf companions as close as ~ 2.5 λ/D to stars. Moreover, our recent vortex masks perform very well in laboratory tests, with a demonstrated infrared contrast of about 10−6 at 3 λ/D, and contrasts of a few 10−7 with an initial optical wavelength device. The demonstrated performance already meets the needs of ground-based extreme adaptive optics coronagraphy, and further planned improvements are aimed at reaching the 10−10 contrast needed for terrestrial exoplanet detection with a space-based coronagraph.

  10. Claude Levi-Strauss: Mask and Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Kovač

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss a relationship between mask and myth and how the appropriate analysis by Claude Levi-Strauss may make clearer a complex field of masks in the part of North America. Claude Levi-Strauss stressed the multi- layered character of myth structure. Similar multi-layered character can be seen at the level of expression, content and meaning of Salish, Kwakiutl and other unique masks of this part of North America. Claude Levi-Strauss analysed certain myths trying to explain ‘the path’ of the masks that belong to the people with similar languages, or those who lived nearby. The mythology of Tsimshian, Tlingit and Haïda people have certain common characteristics that point to the similarities with the nearby groups (Kwakiutl. Despite differences that exist at the level of meanings of the masks, there is also common ‘mythological heritage’ of the people who used to live in the Northern Pacific Coast. Claude Levi-Strauss showed that there is no final solution in the myth analysis, and that there is no possibility that the dissection of the problem will reveal some hidden unity. "As mythical though does not want to start clearly somewhere and come somewhere, it never goes through its whole trajectory: there is always something waiting to be fullfield. The same way as rituals, myths are infinite." It seems that Levi-Strauss explanation of the Path of masks goes in that direction.

  11. VSP wave separation by adaptive masking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua

    2016-06-01

    In vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data processing, the first step might be to separate the down-going wavefield from the up-going wavefield. When using a masking filter for VSP wave separation, there are difficulties associated with two termination ends of the up-going waves. A critical challenge is how the masking filter can restore the energy tails, the edge effect associated with these terminations uniquely exist in VSP data. An effective strategy is to implement masking filters in both τ-p and f-k domain sequentially. Meanwhile it uses a median filter, producing a clean but smooth version of the down-going wavefield, used as a reference data set for designing the masking filter. The masking filter is implemented adaptively and iteratively, gradually restoring the energy tails cut-out by any surgical mute. While the τ-p and the f-k domain masking filters target different depth ranges of VSP, this combination strategy can accurately perform in wave separation from field VSP data.

  12. Uncertainty and confusion in temporal masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, C.; Zhang, T.

    2001-05-01

    In a landmark study, Wright et al. [Nature 387, 176-178 (1997)] reported an apparent backward-masking deficit in language-impaired children. Subsequently, these controversial results have been influential in guiding treatments for childhood language problems. In this study we revisited Wright et al.'s temporal-masking paradigm to evaluate listener uncertainty effects. Masked detection was measured for 20-ms sinusoids (480, 1000, or 1680 Hz) presented at temporal positions before, during, or after a gated narrowband (W=600-1400 Hz) masker. Listener uncertainty was investigated by cueing various stimulus temporal properties with a 6000-Hz sinusoid presented either ipsi- or contra-lateral to the test ear or bilaterally. The primary cueing effect was measured in the backward-masking condition for a contralateral cue gated simultaneously with the on-frequency 1000-Hz signal. The resulting cued masked-detection threshold was reduced to quiet threshold. No significant cueing effects were obtained for other signal temporal positions in the masker nor for any off-frequency signal conditions. These results indicate that (1) uncertainty can be reduced or eliminated for on-frequency backward masking by cueing the signal and (2) the deficit reported by Wright et al. for language-impaired children may reflect uncertainty and confusion rather than a temporal-processing deficit per se. [Research supported by NIDCD.

  13. Development of taste masked film of valdecoxib for oral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to develop oral films of valdecoxib using Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Films of Eudragit EPO, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Eudragit EPO combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were prepared by film casting method. Glycerol, menthol and aspartame were incorporated in the drug containing films as plasticizer, cooling agent and sweetener, respectively. The drug loading was 10 mg valdecoxib per 4 cm2 of the film. The films were evaluated for hydration study, folding endurance and in vitro drug dissolution in the distilled water. The films containing both Eudragit EPO and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films showed neutral surface pH when prepared using 0.1 N HCl as a solvent. Glycerol played a critical role in imparting flexibility to the film and improving the drug release from film. The bitter taste of the drug was masked by using aspartame and menthol accompanied by the synergistic effect of Eudragit and glycerol. Water uptake by films was found to be dependant both on the amount of Eudragit EPO and glycerol. The films containing the higher proportion of glycerol showed higher water uptake and faster drug release at all the sampling time in the in vitro dissolution test. Optimum plasticity was obtained using the required concentration of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and glycerol. The study revealed that taste masked valdecoxib films can be developed by the selection of appropriate film former and by the use of auxiliary excipients.

  14. Master masks for big patterns by electron-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, Vladimir A.; Mamonov, V. I.; Vasiljeva, Olga G.

    1995-05-01

    Modern technologies for power semiconductor devices, laser and micro optics, micromechanics requires microlithography of patterns having a large are up to 100 cm2 with complicate precise drawing. The electron beam lithography (EBL) tools with variable shape beam have good prospects for this purpose, but their application has a few problems in case of the tasks pointed above. The main problems are a great volume of information and a large exposure time of such patterns. We propose the system for preparation of the exposure data having more than 100 MB volume that consists from set of personal computers, network adapters, and software. The preparation of graphic information and exposure strategy are presented. The optimum exposure conditions are determined by program modeling the exposure process in dependence on the statistic distribution of sizes of EBL figures. Our method permits to decrease the exposure time in several times under certain conditions and brings that nearer to theoretical limit Tmin equals SD/IBmax, where Tmin is minimum exposure time, S is exposure area, D is dose density, IBmax is maximum beam current. This approach is valid if the basic factor limiting the writing speed is IBmax. The developed computer system and writing strategy was applied us for mask making on modified ZBA-21 tool. These masks were meant for production of power semiconductor and laser optics devices.

  15. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  16. Clean induced feature CD shift of EUV mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesládek, Pavel; Schedel, Thorsten; Bender, Markus

    2016-05-01

    EUV developed in the last decade to the most promising Second contributor is the fact that EUV mask is currently in contrary to optical mask not yet equipped with sealed pellicle, leading to much higher risk of mask contamination. Third reason is use of EUV mask in vacuum, possibly leading to deposition of vacuum contaminants on the EUV mask surface. Latter reason in combination with tight requirements on backside cleanliness lead to the request of frequent recleaning of the EUV mask, in order to sustain mask lifetime similar to that of optical mask. Mask cleaning process alters slightly the surface of any mask - binary COG mask, as well as phase shift mask of any type and naturally also of the EUV mask as well. In case of optical masks the changes are almost negligible, as the mask is exposed to max. 10-20 re-cleans within its life time. These modifications can be expressed in terms of different specified parameters, e.g. CD shift, phase/trans shift, change of the surface roughness etc. The CD shift, expressed as thinning (or exceptionally thickening) of the dark features on the mask is typically in order of magnitude 0.1nm per process run, which is completely acceptable for optical mask. Projected on the lifetime of EUV mask, assuming 100 clean process cycles, this will lead to CD change of about 10nm. For this reason the requirements for EUV mask cleaning are significantly tighter, << 0.1 nm per process run. This task will look even more challenging, when considering, that the tools for CD measurement at the EUV mask are identical as for optical mask. There is one aspect influencing the CD shift, which demands attention. The mask composition of the EUV mask is significantly different from the optical mask. More precisely there are 2 materials influencing the estimated CD in case of EUV mask, whereas there is one material only in case of optical masks, in first approximation. For optical masks, the CD changes can be attributed to modification of the absorber

  17. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donck, J. C. J.; Stortelder, J. K.; Derksen, G. B.

    2011-11-01

    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle front sides are exceptionally vulnerable to particles. It was also shown that particles on the backside of a reticle may cause tool down time. These effects set extreme requirements to the cleanliness level of the fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The cost of EUV masks justifies the use of equipment that is qualified on particle cleanliness. Until now equipment qualification on particle cleanliness have not been carried out with statistically based qualification procedures. Since we are dealing with extreme clean equipment the number of observed particles is expected to be very low. These particle levels can only be measured by repetitively cycling a mask substrate in the equipment. Recent work in the EUV AD-tool presents data on added particles during load/unload cycles, reported as number of Particles per Reticle Pass (PRP). In the interpretation of the data, variation by deposition statistics is not taken into account. In measurements with low numbers of added particles the standard deviation in PRP number can be large. An additional issue is that particles which are added in the routing outside the equipment may have a large impact on the testing result. The number mismatch between a single handling step outside the tool and the multiple cycling in the equipment makes accuracy of measurements rather complex. The low number of expected particles, the large variation in results and the combined effect of added particles inside and outside the equipment justifies putting good effort in making a test plan. Without a proper statistical background, tests may not be suitable for proving that equipment qualifies for the limiting cleanliness levels. Other risks are that a

  18. Competition Effects in Phonological Priming: The Role of Mismatch Position between Primes and Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sophie; Peereman, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined lexical competition effects using the phonological priming paradigm in a shadowing task. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that an inhibitory priming effect occurred when the primes mismatched the targets on the last phoneme (/bagar/-/bagaj/). In contrast, a facilitatory priming effect was observed when the primes…

  19. Optical inspection of EPL stencil masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Tung; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Lovell, Edward G.; Kawata, Shintaro; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Sogard, Michael R.

    2003-06-01

    We are now at a major junction in lithography where non-optical lithographies, such as Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) [1], are being introduced. The mask used in EPL is a non-transparent silicon substrate with a thin silicon (~2μm) membrane with openings for electrons to pass through acting as a scatterer. This must be inspected as defects may cause printable defects. Initial mask inspection work has used SEM inspection to find these defects. However, we have historically used optical mask inspection tools, utilising wavelengths at or above what we are using for imaging, to qualify masks. This technology has been increasingly difficult to sustain as we have moved from imaging using mercury lamp based sources to pulsed excimer laser based sources that are not very suited to the inspection imaging. Indeed, review of defects found has moved from optical microscopes to SEM based tools. Inspection tools have also evolved, with the first SEM based mask inspection tools being developed to find the smallest defects, however these have the penalty of very low throughput. We will show the potential of using optical systems for the transmissive inspection of these EPL masks. The high potential of existing tools will be shown together with the need for a next generation of inspection tools. We will show that simulations indicate that an inspection source with 193nm wavelength would be required for the detection of 50nm defects on a mask used to print 70nm dense lines. It will also be shown how the position of the defect within the membrane greatly influences detection as well as the implications of moving to a thinner silicon membrane.

  20. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  1. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  2. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  3. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  4. Bol loops of odd prime exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Foguel, Tuval

    2009-01-01

    Although any finite Bol loop of odd prime exponent is solvable, we show there exist such Bol loops with trivial center. We also construct finitely generated, infinite, simple Bruck loops of odd prime exponent for sufficiently large primes. This shows that the Burnside problem for Bruck loops has a negative answer.

  5. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  6. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  7. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  8. Machine specific fracture optimization for JEOL e-beam mask writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Johnny; Kondepudy, Raghava; Kulkarni, Parikshit; Kawase, Yuichi; Cinque, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, Mask Data Preparation (MDP) flow for Variable Shape E-Beam (VSB) writers has been optimized in a generic fashion to minimize slivers and reduce shot count while maintaining data symmetry. To date, this approach has been sufficient and allowed the mask industry to meet requirements for CD uniformity, registration, and write time. However, ever tighter error budgets and increasing pattern complexity are driving a need for writer-specific optimization of MDP. This paper summarizes the joint development effort between Synopsys and JEOL to optimize MDP fractures for the JEOL platform. The advantages and challenges of platform specific optimization are discussed.

  9. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  10. Diophantine Approximation with Two Primes and One Square of Prime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ping; WANG Tian-ze

    2012-01-01

    We show that if λ1,λ2,λ3 are non-zero real numbers,not all of the same sign,η is real and λ1/λ2 is irrational,then there are infinitely many ordered triples of primes (p1,p2,p3) for which |λ1p1 + λ2p2 + λ3P23 +η| < (maxpj)-1/40 (log maxpj)4.

  11. Metrology on phase-shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Maurer, Wilhelm; Blaesing-Bangert, Carola

    1992-06-01

    In the evaluation of new manufacturing processes, metrology is a key function, beginning with the first step of process development through the final step of everyday mass production at the fabrication floor level. RIM-type phase shift masks are expected to be the first application of phase shift masks in high volume production, since they provide improved lithography process capability at the expense of only moderate complexity in their manufacturing. Measurements of critical dimension (CD) and pattern position (overlay) on experimental rim-type and chromeless phase shift masks are reported. Pattern placement (registration) was measured using the Leitz LMS 2000. The overall design and important components were already described. The pattern placement of the RIM type phase shift structures on the photomask described above was determined within a tolerance of 25 nm (3s); nominal accuracy was within 45 nm (3s). On the chromeless phase shift mask the measurement results were easily obtained using a wafer intensity algorithm available with the system. The measurement uncertainties were less than 25 nm and 50 nm for precision and nominal accuracy respectively. The measurement results from the Leitz CD 200 using transmitted light were: a CD- distribution of 135 nm (3s) on a typical 6 micrometers structure all over the mask; the 0.9 micrometers RIM structure had a distribution of 43 nm (3s). Typical long term precision performance values for the CD 200 on both chrome and phase shift structures have been less than 15 nm.

  12. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  13. OPC aware mask and wafer metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Wilhelm; Wiaux, Vincent; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Philipsen, Vicky; Hoffmann, Thomas; Verhaegen, Staf; Ronse, Kurt G.; England, Jonathan G.; Howard, William B.

    2002-08-01

    Lithography at its limit of resolution is a highly non- linear pattern transfer process. Typically the shapes of printed features deviate considerably from their corresponding features in the layout. This deviation is known as Optical Proximity Effect, and its correction Optical Proximity effect Correction or OPC. Although many other so-called optical enhancement technologies are applied to cope with the issues of lithography at its limit of resolution, almost none of these can re-store the linearity of the pattern transfer. Hence fully functional OPC has become a very basic requirement for current and future lithography processes. In general, proximity effects are two-dimensional (2d) effects. Thus any measurement of proximity effects or any characterization of the effectiveness of OPC has to be two- dimensional. As OPC modifies shapes in the data for mask writing in a way to compensate for the expected proximity effects of the following processing steps, parameters describing the particular OPC-mask quality is a major concern. One-dimensional mask specifications, such as linewidth mean-to-target and uniformity, pattern placement, and maximum size of a tolerable defect, are not sufficient anymore to completely describe the functionality of a given mask for OPC. Two-dimensional mask specifications need to be evaluated. We present in this paper a basic concept for 2d metrology. Examples for 2d measurements to assess the effectiveness of OPC are given by the application of an SEM Image Analysis tool to an advanced 130nm process.

  14. Not All Masks Are Created Equal: Masking Success in Clinical Trials of Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren; Black, Sarah R; Arnold, L Eugene; Fristad, Mary A

    2017-07-17

    The current study assessed the success of masking omega-3 (Ω3) and psychotherapy in clinical trials of youth with depression or bipolar spectrum disorder. Participants were youth ages 7-14 with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed depressive (n = 72) or bipolar spectrum (n = 23) disorders. Inclusion diagnoses were depressive disorder, cyclothymic disorder, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Exclusion diagnoses included bipolar I or II disorder, chronic medical condition or autism. Youth participated in 2 × 2 randomized controlled trials, in which they received Ω3 or placebo (PBO) and psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP) or active monitoring (AM). Participants and study staff (including independent interviewers) were masked to Ω3/PBO allocation. Besides the masked independent interviewers, one coprincipal investigator (Co-PI) was fully masked to both conditions and completed all consensus conference ratings postrandomization. At the endpoint assessment or last completed interview, interviewers and the masked Co-PI guessed whether each child was assigned to Ω3 or PBO and to PEP or AM. Masking failure was calculated using the degree of correct guesses above chance level using binomial tests across all participants for Ω3 versus PBO and PEP versus AM. For all guessers, Ω3 allocation was guessed correctly approximately half the time (50%-52.5%). Rates of correct guessing were higher for PEP, but only the interviewer guesses were correct significantly more often (58.5%-68.7%) than chance. Reporting of masking success should be an essential element of RCTs. Psychotherapy is generally more difficult to mask, but with attentive masking procedures reasonable masking can be achieved.

  15. Taste masking of ofloxacin and formation of interpenetrating polymer network beads for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to carry out taste masking of ofloxacin (Ofl by ion exchange resins (IERs followed by sustained release of Ofl by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN beads. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of Ofl to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared by batch method and investigated for in vivo and in vitro taste masking. DRC of methacrylic acid-divinyl benzene (MD resin and Ofl prepared at a ratio of 1:4 was used to form IPN beads. IPN beads of MD 1:4 were prepared by following the ionic cross-linking method using sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum (SCMXG and SCMXG-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMXG-SCMC. IPN beads were characterized with FT-IR and further studied on sustained release of Ofl at different pH. In vivo taste masking carried out by human volunteers showed that MD 1:4 significantly reduced the bitterness of Ofl. Characterization studies such as FT-IR, DSC, P-XRD and taste masking showed that complex formation took place between drug and resin. In vitro study at gastric pH showed complete release of drug from MD 1:4 within 30 min whereas IPN beads took 5 h at gastric pH and 10 h at salivary pH for the complete release of drug. As the crosslinking increased the release kinetics changed into non-Fickian diffusion to zero-order release mechanism. MD 1:4 showed better performance for the taste masking of Ofl and IPNs beads prepared from it were found useful for the sustained release of Ofl at both the pH, indicating a versatile drug delivery system.

  16. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  17. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  18. SU-8 negative photoresist for optical mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Alexei L.

    2000-06-01

    The requirements for better control, linearity, and uniformity of critical dimension (CD) on photomasks in fabrication of 180 and 150 nm generation devices result in increasing demand for thinner, more etching durable, and more sensitive e-beam resists. Novolac based resists with chemical amplification have been a choice for their sensitivity and stability during etching. However, difficult CD control due to the acid catalyzer diffusion and quite narrow post exposure bake (PEB) process window are some of the major drawbacks of these resists. SU-8 is recently introduced to the market negative photoresist. High sensitivity, fairly good adhesion properties, and relatively simple processing of SU-8 make it a good substitution for novolac based chemically amplified negative e-beam resists in optical mask manufacturing. The replacement of traditional chemically amplified resists by SU- 8 can increase the process latitude and reduce resist costs. Among the obvious drawbacks of SU-8 are the use of solvent- based developer and demand of oxygen plasma for resist removal. In this paper the use of SU-8 for optical mask manufacturing is reported. All steps of resist film preparation, exposure and development are paid a share of attention. Possibilities to use reactive ion etching (RIE) with oxygen in order to increase resist mask contrast are discussed. Special exposure strategy (pattern outlining) was employed to further improve the edge definition. The resist PEB temperature and time were studied to estimate their weight in overall CD control performance. Specially designed test patterns with 0.25 micrometer design rule could be firmly transferred into a chromium layer both by wet etching and ion milling. Influence of exposure dose variation on the pattern CD change was studied.

  19. Coherent Diffractive Imaging Using Randomly Coded Masks

    CERN Document Server

    Seaberg, Matthew H; Turner, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) provides new opportunities for high resolution X-ray imaging with simultaneous amplitude and phase contrast. Extensions to CDI broaden the scope of the technique for use in a wide variety of experimental geometries and physical systems. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a new extension to CDI that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks. The information gained from the few additional diffraction measurements removes the need for typical object-domain constraints; the algorithm uses prior information about the masks instead. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments. Diffraction patterns are collected with up to 15 different masks placed between a CCD detector and a single sample. Phase retrieval is performed using a convex relaxation routine known as "PhaseCut" followed by a variation on Fienup's input-output algorit...

  20. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene...... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...... diameter and 20 nm periodicity are successfully transferred to both substrates. The method allowed to realize the first ever transfer of moiré patterns to silicon. Furthermore, in collaboration with CNG, device with nanostructured graphene are fabricated and electrical measurements made on these devices...

  1. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  2. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  3. Controllability, Bezoutian and relative primeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Datta

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let f(x and g(x be two polynomials of degree n. Then it is well-known that the Bezoutian matrix Bfg associated with f(x and g(x is nonsingular if and only if f(x and g(x are relatively prime. We give an alternative proof of this result. The proof is based on a result on controllability derived in this note.

  4. Nonconscious Influences from Emotional Faces: A Comparison of Visual Crowding, Masking, and Continuous Flash Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eFaivre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the study of nonconscious processing, different methods have been used in order to renderstimuli invisible. While their properties are well described, the level at which they disruptnonconscious processing remains unclear. Yet, such accurate estimation of the depth ofnonconscious processes is crucial for a clear differentiation between conscious and nonconsciouscognition. Here, we compared the processing of facial expressions rendered invisible through gazecontingentcrowding (GCC, masking, and continuous flash suppression (CFS, three techniquesrelying on different properties of the visual system. We found that both pictures and videos of happyfaces suppressed from awareness by GCC were processed such as to bias subsequent preferencejudgments. The same stimuli manipulated with visual masking and CFS did not bias significantlypreference judgments, although they were processed such as to elicit perceptual priming. Asignificant difference in preference bias was found between GCC and CFS, but not between GCCand masking. These results provide new insights regarding the nonconscious impact of emotionalfeatures, and highlight the need for rigorous comparisons between the different methods employedto prevent perceptual awareness.

  5. Affective Priming Caused by Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Sato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, arousal increases when telling a lie, as indicated in psychophysiological studies about lie detection. But the emotional valence induced by lying is unknown, though intuition indicates that it may be negative. Indeed, the Electrodermal Activity (EDA, used in such studies, only shows arousal changes during an emotional response. In this study, we examined the emotional valence induced by lying using two tasks. First, in the deceptive task, participants answered “no” to every question regarding the nature of displayed playing cards. Therefore, they told a lie about specific cards. During the task, their EDA was recorded. Secondly, in the figure estimation task, they assessed pictures by “like” or “dislike” after looking at playing cards visibly or subliminally as prime stimuli. We expected them to tend to estimate figures by “dislike” when cards relevant to deception were previously shown. This would mean that an affective priming effect due to telling a lie happened. Actually, this effect was found only when prime stimuli were displayed visibly. This result suggests that lying per se induces negative emotions even without motivation or punishment due to lying. Furthermore, we found that such effect was more blatant in participants whose EDA changes were salient while lying.

  6. KAPAO Prime: Design and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Lorcan; Choi, P. I.; Severson, S. A.; Spjut, E.

    2013-01-01

    KAPAO (KAPAO A Pomona Adaptive Optics instrument) is a dual-band natural guide star adaptive optics system designed to measure and remove atmospheric aberration over UV-NIR wavelengths from Pomona College’s telescope atop Table Mountain. We present here, the final optical system, KAPAO Prime, designed in Zemax Optical Design Software that uses custom off-axis paraboloid mirrors (OAPs) to manipulate light appropriately for a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, deformable mirror, and science cameras. KAPAO Prime is characterized by diffraction limited imaging over the full 81” field of view of our optical camera at f/33 as well as over the smaller field of view of our NIR camera at f/50. In Zemax, tolerances of 1% on OAP focal length and off-axis distance were shown to contribute an additional 4 nm of wavefront error (98% confidence) over the field of view of our optical camera; the contribution from surface irregularity was determined analytically to be 40nm for OAPs specified to λ/10 surface irregularity (632.8nm). Modeling of the temperature deformation of the breadboard in SolidWorks revealed 70 micron contractions along the edges of the board for a decrease of 75°F when applied to OAP positions such displacements from the optimal layout are predicted to contribute an additional 20 nanometers of wavefront error. Flexure modeling of the breadboard due to gravity is on-going. We hope to begin alignment and testing of KAPAO Prime in Q1 2013.

  7. Further beyond: registration and overlay control enhancements for optical masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Cohen, Avi; Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Beyer, Dirk; Degel, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Mask registration control is one of the key performance specifications during the mask qualification process. It is becoming an important factor for yield improvement with the continuously tightening registration specs driven by tight wafer overlay specs. Understanding the impact of miss classified masks on the final wafer yield is gaining more and more attention, especially with the appearance of Multiple Patterning Technologies, where mask to mask overlay effect on wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration. ZEISS has established a promising closed loop solution implemented in the mask house, where the PROVE® system - a highly accurate mask registration and overlay metrology measurement tool, is being used to feed the RegC® - a registration and mask to mask overlay correction tool that can also accurately predict the correction potential in advance. The well-established RegC® process typically reaches 40-70% improvement of the mask registration/overlay error standard deviation. The PROVE® - RegC® closed loop solution has several advantages over alternative registration control methods apart of the mask re-write saving. Among the advantages is the capability to correct for pellicle mounting registration effects without the need to remove the pellicle. This paper will demonstrate improved method for enhanced mask to mask overlay control based on a new scheme of data acquisition and performance validation by the PROVE®. The mask registration data as well as additional mask information will be used to feed the RegC® correction process. Significantly improved mask to mask overlay correction results will be discussed and presented in details.

  8. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  9. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  10. Advances in mask fabrication and alignment for masked ion-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, David P.; Damm, George A.; Engler, D. W.; Fong, F. O.; Sen, S.; Wolfe, John C.; Randall, John N.; Mauger, Phillip E.; Shimkunas, Alex R.; Loeschne, Hans

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes recent developments in three areas ofmasked ion beam lithography (MIBL). These are 1) fabrication oflarge area, low distortion, silicon stencilmasks for demagnifying ion projection lithography, 2) fabrication ofstencil masks with nanometer scale resolution for 1:1 proximity printing, and 3) development of a direct method of alignment using the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02. These topics are discussed below. Demagnifying ion projection masks: We describe the fabrication of stencil masks in large area, low stress (10 MPa), n-type silicon membranes. The projection masks have a silicon foil area 95 mm in diameter, thicknesses between 1.5-5 and resolution of0.6um. Measured distortion (3a) in the IPL masks ranges between 0.23gm and 0.65,um, with an experimental error of 0.20 1um. Proximity printing masks: A process is described for fabricating stencil masks with 50 nm resolution in low stress, n-type silicon membranes. Membranes less than 0.5 ,ttm thick are shown to be free of the sidewall taper that limits resolution in thicker masks. These thin membranes show a slightly flared profile due to the imperfectly collimated etching ions. Alignment: A direct method of alignment is being developed which uses the ion beam induced fluorescence of Si02 marks. Fluorescence yield is characterized as a function of ion energy and resist coating thickness. The yield for Si02 is in the range between 0.1-1.0 photons/proton, while the yields for Si, Al, and photoresist are negligibly small. Thus, a simple alignment technique can be implemented where registration of a grating in the mask with a corresponding oxide pattern is detected as a fluorescence maximum. A simple model predicts that 50 nm alignment can be accomplished, following a 1 im prealignment, in 2 seconds.

  11. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  12. Taste-masking effect of physical and organoleptic methods on peppermint-scented orally disintegrating tablet of famotidine based on suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Takeshi; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are useful for improving benefits for patients of various ages. Masking the unpleasant taste of a drug is an important factor in the compliance of patients who take ODTs. We evaluated the taste acceptability effects of various taste-masking methods on bitter famotidine ODTs as a clinical pharmacological study. The following methods were tested to compare taste-masking effects: physical masking by spray-coating famotidine with ethyl cellulose versus organoleptic masking with added sweetener and flavor. The ODT samples were prepared as single or combinations of each taste-masking method using a novel suspension spray-coating method including a placebo. A total of 31 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study and asked to score their bitterness, sweetness and total palate impressions by 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS scores were significantly improved by the physical and organoleptic methods as compared to without taste-masked ODTs. Furthermore, the combination of both taste-masking methods was most effective for improving palatability and VAS scores were similar to those of placebo ODTs. The results of this study suggest that different taste-masking mechanisms function cooperatively.

  13. Optimisation of microencapsulation of turmeric extract for masking flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokuldilok, Natcha; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-ang, Niramon

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the odour masking property, encapsulation efficiency and physicochemical properties of turmeric extract prepared by a binary blend of wall materials, i.e. brown rice flour (BRF) and beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effect of encapsulation processing variables, including core loading mass (5-25%) and β-CD (5-20%) concentration on product recovery, moisture content, hygroscopicity, curcuminoids encapsulation and volatile release. To investigate odour masking properties of a wall material combination, volatiles in headspace were monitored by GC-MS using ar-turmerone and 2-methyl-4-vinylguaiacol as marker compounds to represent turmeric extract. The obtained results revealed an optimal encapsulation process was 5% of core loading mass with addition 20g/L of β-CD, since it enabled high curcuminoids encapsulation with low volatile release, moisture content and hygroscopicity. Turmeric powder with reduced odour can be used as a nutrient supplement or natural colorant for food products.

  14. Implicit encoding of extrinsic object properties in stored representations mediating recognition: evidence from shadow-specific repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, E Charles; Davitt, Lina I; Cristino, Filipe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether, and under what conditions, stored shape representations mediating recognition encode extrinsic object properties that vary according to viewing conditions. This was examined in relation to cast shadow. Observers (N = 90) first memorised a subset of 3D multi-part novel objects from a limited range of viewpoints rendered with either no shadow, object internal shadow, or both object internal and external (ground) plane shadow. During a subsequent test phase previously memorised targets were discriminated from visually similar distractors across learned and novel views following brief presentation of a same-shape masked prime. The primes contained either matching or mismatching shadow rendering from the training condition. The results showed a recognition advantage for objects memorised with object internal shadow. In addition, objects encoded with internal shadow were primed more strongly by matching internal shadow primes, than by same shape primes with either no shadow or both object internal and external (ground) shadow. This pattern of priming effects generalises to previously unseen views of targets rendered with object internal shadow. The results suggest that the object recognition system contains a level of stored representation at which shape and the extrinsic object property of cast shadow are bound. We propose that this occurs when cast shadow cannot be discounted during perception on the basis of external cues to the scene lighting model.

  15. Semantic and translation priming from a first language to a second and back: Making sense of the findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbaert, Sofie; Duyck, Wouter; Brysbaert, Marc; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated cross-language priming effects with unique noncognate translation pairs. Unbalanced Dutch (first language [L1])-English (second language [L2]) bilinguals performed a lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm. The results of two experiments showed significant translation priming from L1 to L2 (meisje-girl) and from L2 to L1 (girl-meisje), using two different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) (250 and 100 msec). Although translation priming from L1 to L2 was significantly stronger than priming from L2 to L1, the latter was significant as well. Two further experiments with the same word targets showed significant cross-language semantic priming in both directions (jongen [boy]-girl; boy-meisje [girl]) and for both SOAs. These data suggest that L1 and L2 are represented by means of a similar lexico-semantic architecture in which L2 words are also able to rapidly activate semantic information, although to a lesser extent than L1 words are able to. This is consistent with models assuming quantitative rather than qualitative differences between L1 and L2 representations.

  16. Positive and negative spatial priming in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Stark, Rudolf; Kern, Georg; Laiacker, Manuela; Kirsch, Peter; Vaitl, Dieter

    2006-07-01

    Priming tasks are used for investigating the deficits of selective attention in schizophrenia, which are thought to be related to the psychotic symptoms. Priming was assessed in acutely psychotic unmedicated (n = 22) and medicated (n = 36) schizophrenia patients and in control subjects (n = 42). The subjects had to indicate the location of a target stimulus in two consecutive stimulus displays (prime and probe). Each stimulus appeared together with a distractor on a screen. Negative Priming is characterized by an increase in reaction time, whenever a probe target is presented at a prime distractor location. Positive Priming is characterized by a decrease in reaction time, when the probe target is presented at the prime target location. Schizophrenia patients altogether showed no abnormalities in priming effects, neither in the acute phase of illness (medicated and unmedicated) nor in partial remission (one month later, medicated). In unmedicated patients however Negative Priming was inversely correlated with the severity of positive symptoms. This indicates a priming deficit in a small subgroup of severely ill patients. The data support the notion that automatic (implicit) mechanisms of learning are unimpaired in schizophrenia patients unless symptoms exceed a certain critical level.

  17. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  18. The temporal dynamics of visual object priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P; Mason, Emily J; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-11-01

    Priming reflects an important means of learning that is mediated by implicit memory. Importantly, priming occurs for previously viewed objects (item-specific priming) and their category relatives (category-wide priming). Two distinct neural mechanisms are known to mediate priming, including the sharpening of a neural object representation and the retrieval of stimulus-response mappings. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between these neural mechanisms could help explain why item-specific priming generates faster responses than category-wide priming. Participants studied pictures of everyday objects, and then performed a difficult picture identification task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP). The identification task gradually revealed random line segments of previously viewed items (Studied), category exemplars of previously viewed items (Exemplar), and items that were not previously viewed (Unstudied). Studied items were identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of item-specific priming, and importantly Exemplar items were also identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of category-wide priming. Early activity showed sustained neural suppression of parietal activity for both types of priming. However, these neural suppression effects may have stemmed from distinct processes because while category-wide neural suppression was correlated with priming behavior, item-specific neural suppression was not. Late activity, examined with response-locked ERPs, showed additional processes related to item-specific priming including neural suppression in occipital areas and parietal activity that was correlated with behavior. Together, we conclude that item-specific and category-wide priming are mediated by separate, parallel neural mechanisms in the context of the current paradigm. Temporal differences in behavior are determined by the timecourses of these distinct processes.

  19. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matos da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%. Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%, followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

  20. A new approach for defect inspection on large area masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Gerd; Döbereiner, Stefan; Hillmann, Frank; Falk, Günther; Brück, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-02-01

    Besides the mask market for IC manufacturing, which mainly uses 6 inch sized masks, the market for the so called large area masks is growing very rapidly. Typical applications of these masks are mainly wafer bumping for current packaging processes, color filters on TFTs, and Flip Chip manufacturing. To expose e.g. bumps and similar features on 200 mm wafers under proximity exposure conditions 9 inch masks are used, while in 300 mm wafer bumping processes (Fig. 1) 14 inch masks are handled. Flip Chip manufacturing needs masks up to 28 by 32 inch. This current maximum mask dimension is expected to hold for the next 5 years in industrial production. On the other hand shrinking feature sizes, just as in case of the IC masks, demand enhanced sensitivity of the inspection tools. A defect inspection tool for those masks is valuable for both the mask maker, who has to deliver a defect free mask to his customer, and for the mask user to supervise the mask behavior conditions during its lifetime. This is necessary because large area masks are mainly used for proximity exposures. During this process itself the mask is vulnerable by contacting the resist on top of the wafers. Therefore a regular inspection of the mask after 25, 50, or 100 exposures has to be done during its whole lifetime. Thus critical resist contamination and other defects, which lead to yield losses, can be recognized early. In the future shrinking feature dimensions will require even more sensitive and reliable defect inspection methods than they do presently. Besides the sole inspection capability the tools should also provide highly precise measurement capabilities and extended review options.

  1. A paradox of syntactic priming: Why response tendencies show priming for passives, and response latencies show priming for actives

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, M.; Segaert, K.; Menenti, L.; Weber, K; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in re...

  2. A paradox of syntactic priming: Why response tendencies show priming for passives, and response latencies show priming for actives

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, M.; Segaert, K.; Menenti, L.; Weber, K.; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in re...

  3. Defect printability in CPL mask technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Jan-Pieter; Verhappen, Arjan; Pijnenburg, Wil; Conley, Will; Litt, Lloyd C.; Wu, Wei; Montgomery, Patrick; Roman, Bernard J.; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.; Progler, Christopher J.; Socha, Robert J.; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Schaefer, Erika; Cook, Pat

    2004-05-01

    Each generation of semiconductor device technology drive new and interesting resolution enhancement technology (RET"s). The race to smaller and smaller geometry"s has forced device manufacturers to k1"s approaching 0.40. The authors have been investigating the use of Chromeless phase-shifting masks (CPL) exposed with ArF, high numerical aperture (NA), and off-axis illumination (OAI) has been shown to produce production worthy sub-100nm resist patterns with acceptable overlapped process window across feature pitch. These new reticle technologies have many issues that are similar to simple binary masks. The authors have investigated the printability of defects in CPL mask technology. Programmed defects of various sizes and types have been simulated and printed for sub 100nm imaging. High resolution scanning electron microscopy has been used to characterize these defects and develop an understanding of size and type that prints. In this paper the authors will focus on image line end shortening and the impact of through dose and focus performance for very high NA ArF imaging. The authors have built a number of test structures that require superior 2D control for SRAM gate structures. Various types of line ends have been evaluated for either straight CPL mask or hybrid type builds.

  4. A new mask exposure and analysis facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, E. te; Koster, N.B.; Deutz, A.F.; Staring, W.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of ever higher source powers in EUV systems causes increased risks for contamination and degradation of EUV masks and pellicles. Appropriate testing can help to inventory and mitigate these risks. To this end, we propose EBL2: a laboratory EUV exposure system capable of operating at

  5. The fastest saccadic responses escape visual masking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien M Crouzet

    Full Text Available Object-substitution masking (OSM occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference under either OSM or backward masking, as they did under the low-contrast condition. This finding supports the hypothesis that masking interferes mostly with reentrant processing at later stages, while leaving early feedforward processing largely intact.

  6. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J

    2008-02-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  7. Posleslovije k "Zolotoi maske" / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Vene draamafestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" lavastusest : "September.doc", lav. Mihhail Ugarov, I. Võrõpajevi "Hapnik" lav. Viktor Rõzhakov Teatr.doc esituses, Sophoklese "Kuningas Oidipus" lav. Andrei Prikotenko Peterburi Teatri Liteinõi esituses, M. Ugarovi lavastus "OblomOFF"

  8. Testing Tactile Masking between the Forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-10

    Masking, in which one stimulus affects the detection of another, is a classic technique that has been used in visual, auditory, and tactile research, usually using stimuli that are close together to reveal local interactions. Masking effects have also been demonstrated in which a tactile stimulus alters the perception of a touch at a distant location. Such effects can provide insight into how components of the body's representations in the brain may be linked. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at corresponding contralateral locations. To explore the matching of corresponding points across the body, we can measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on contralateral masking. Careful controls are required to rule out direct effects of the remote stimulus, for example by mechanical transmission, and also attention effects in which thresholds may be altered by the participant's attention being drawn away from the stimulus of interest. The use of this technique is beneficial as a behavioural measure for exploring which parts of the body are functionally connected and whether the two sides of the body interact in a somatotopic representation. This manuscript describes a behavioural protocol that can be used for studying contralateral tactile masking.

  9. Chromium Contamination in Army Face Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    containing carbon particles by inhalation when wearing face masks. Other potential health effects are chrome allergies and nonneoplastic lesions of...chronic inflammation—have been reported in chrome -platers and other workers exposed to aerosols of chromium (VI) compounds. Chronic pharyngitis...monochromates and dichromates of sodium, potassium , ammonium, lithium, cesium, and rubidium. ACGIH includes chromium in its list of known human

  10. TASTE MASKING IN PHARMACEUTICAL: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. Nevertheless it is that arena of product development that has been overlooked and undermined for its importance. The problem of bitter and obnoxious taste of is a challenge to the pharmacist in the present scenario. Taste is an important parameter governing compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have unpleasant, bitter-tasting components. In numerous cases, the bitter taste modality is an undesirable trait of the product or formulations and can considerably affect its acceptability by consumers. Bitter characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by various known processes, but no universally applicable technology for bitterness inhibition has ever been recognized. The desire of improved palatability in these products has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability Taste masking technologies offer a great scope for invention and patents. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of coating polymers for inhibiting bitterness, microencapsulation, prodrug formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system, addition of effervescent agents and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.

  11. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  12. Masked object registration in the Fourier domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padfield, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    Registration is one of the most common tasks of image analysis and computer vision applications. The requirements of most registration algorithms include large capture range and fast computation so that the algorithms are robust to different scenarios and can be computed in a reasonable amount of time. For these purposes, registration in the Fourier domain using normalized cross-correlation is well suited and has been extensively studied in the literature. Another common requirement is masking, which is necessary for applications where certain regions of the image that would adversely affect the registration result should be ignored. To address these requirements, we have derived a mathematical model that describes an exact form for embedding the masking step fully into the Fourier domain so that all steps of translation registration can be computed efficiently using Fast Fourier Transforms. We provide algorithms and implementation details that demonstrate the correctness of our derivations. We also demonstrate how this masked FFT registration approach can be applied to improve the Fourier-Mellin algorithm that calculates translation, rotation, and scale in the Fourier domain. We demonstrate the computational efficiency, advantages, and correctness of our algorithm on a number of images from real-world applications. Our framework enables fast, global, parameter-free registration of images with masked regions.

  13. A new mask exposure and analysis facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, E. te; Koster, N.B.; Deutz, A.F.; Staring, W.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of ever higher source powers in EUV systems causes increased risks for contamination and degradation of EUV masks and pellicles. Appropriate testing can help to inventory and mitigate these risks. To this end, we propose EBL2: a laboratory EUV exposure system capable of operating at

  14. Masks, Performing Traditions, and Cultural Diversity: Exploring African Culture through African Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Escalera, Brenda L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the mask and masquerade traditions, focusing specifically on African culture as a source of exciting and varied materials that can help theater arts teachers and specialists who are in search of culturally diverse materials. Offers a classroom application. (PRA)

  15. Green binary and phase shifting mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; Hong, Chao-Sin; Wu, Cheng-San; Chen, S. J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Ting, Yung-Chiang

    2009-12-01

    SixNy/Ni thin film green mask blanks were developed , and are now going to be used to replace general chromium film used for binary mask as well as to replace molydium silicide embedded material for AttPSM for I-line (365 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm) and Contact/Proximity lithography. A bilayer structure of a 1 nm thick opaque, conductive nickel layer and a SixNy layer is proposed for binary and phase-shifting mask. With the good controlling of plasma CVD of SixNy under silane (50 sccm), ammonia (5 sccm) and nitrogen (100 sccm), the pressure is 250 mTorr. and RF frequency 13.56 MHz and power 50 W. SixNy has enough deposition latitude to meet the requirements as an embedded layer for required phase shift 180 degree, and the T% in 193, 248 and 365 nm can be adjusted between 2% to 20% for binary and phase shifting mask usage. Ni can be deposited by E-gun, its sheet resistance Rs is less than 1.435 kΩ/square. Jeol e-beam system and I-line stepper are used to evaluate these thin film green mask blanks, feature size less than 200 nm half pitch pattern and 0.558 μm pitch contact hole can be printed. Transmission spectrums of various thickness of SixNy film are inspected by using UV spectrometer and FTIR. Optical constants of the SixNy film are measured by n & k meter and surface roughness is inspected by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

  16. Lithographic performance evaluation of a contaminated EUV mask after cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Dittmar, Kornelia; Holfeld, Christian; Wuest, Andrea

    2009-11-16

    The effect of surface contamination and subsequent mask surface cleaning on the lithographic performance of a EUV mask is investigated. SEMATECH's Berkeley micro-field exposure tool (MET) printed 40 nm and 50 nm line and space (L/S) patterns are evaluated to compare the performance of a contaminated and cleaned mask to an uncontaminated mask. Since the two EUV masks have distinct absorber architectures, optical imaging models and aerial image calculations were completed to determine any expected differences in performance. Measured and calculated Bossung curves, process windows, and exposure latitudes for the two sets of L/S patterns are compared to determine how the contamination and cleaning impacts the lithographic performance of EUV masks. The observed differences in mask performance are shown to be insignificant, indicating that the cleaning process did not appreciably affect mask performance.

  17. First observation of the M1 transition $\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, L; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 106 million $\\psi^\\prime$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium $S$-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited $S$-wave spin-singlet states: $\\psi^\\prime\\to\\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$. Analyses of the processes $\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime$ with $\\eta_c^\\prime\\to \\K_S^0 K\\pi$ and $K^+K^-\\pi^0$ gave an $\\eta_c^\\prime$ signal with a statistical significance of greater than 10 standard deviations under a wide range of assumptions about the signal and background properties. The data are used to obtain measurements of the $\\eta_c^\\prime$ mass ($M(\\eta_c^\\prime)=3637.6\\pm 2.9_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 1.6_\\mathrm{sys}$ MeV/$c^2$), width ($\\Gamma(\\eta_c^\\prime)=16.9\\pm 6.4_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 4.8_\\mathrm{sys}$ MeV), and the product branching fraction ($\\BR(\\psi^\\prime\\to \\gamma\\eta_c^\\prime)\\times \\BR(\\eta_c^\\prime\\to K\\bar K\\pi) = (1.30\\pm 0.20_\\mathrm{stat}\\pm 0.30_\\mathrm{sys})\\tim...

  18. Systematic study of source mask optimization and verification flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yu; Latypov, Azat; Chua, Gek Soon; Zou, Yi

    2012-06-01

    Source mask optimization (SMO) emerged as powerful resolution enhancement technique (RET) for advanced technology nodes. However, there is a plethora of flow and verification metrics in the field, confounding the end user of the technique. Systemic study of different flows and the possible unification thereof is missing. This contribution is intended to reveal the pros and cons of different SMO approaches and verification metrics, understand the commonality and difference, and provide a generic guideline for RET selection via SMO. The paper discusses 3 different type of variations commonly arise in SMO, namely pattern preparation & selection, availability of relevant OPC recipe for freeform source and finally the metrics used in source verification. Several pattern selection algorithms are compared and advantages of systematic pattern selection algorithms are discussed. In the absence of a full resist model for SMO, alternative SMO flow without full resist model is reviewed. Preferred verification flow with quality metrics of DOF and MEEF is examined.

  19. Auditory morphological processing: Evidence from phonological priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacovcin, Hezekiah Akiva; Goodwin Davies, Amy; Wilder, Robert J; Embick, David

    2017-07-01

    Using an auditory lexical decision task, we find evidence of a facilitatory priming effect for morphologically complex targets (e.g., snow-ed) preceded by primes which rhyme with the target's stem (e.g., dough). By using rhyme priming, we are able to probe for morphological processing in a way that avoids confounds arising from semantic relatedness that are inherent to morphological priming (snow/snow-ed). Phonological control conditions (e.g., targets code and grove for prime dough) are used to rule out alternative interpretations of the effect that are based on partial rhyme or phonological embedding of the stem. The findings provide novel evidence for an independent morphological component in lexical processing and demonstrate the utility of rhyme priming in probing morphological representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:28611952

  1. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  2. Prime focus spectrograph: Subaru's future

    OpenAIRE

    Sugai, Hajime; Dekany, Richard G.; Ellis, Richard S.; Seiffert, Michael D.; Smith, Roger M.

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) of the Subaru Measurement of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) project has been endorsed by Japanese community as one of the main future instruments of the Subaru 8.2-meter telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph targets cosmology with galaxy surveys, Galactic archaeology, and studies of galaxy/AGN evolution. Taking advantage of Subaru’s wide field of view, which is further extended with the recently completed Wide Fie...

  3. Can religious priming induce truthful preference revelation?

    OpenAIRE

    Stachtiaris, Spiros; Drichoutis, Andreas; Nayga, Rodolfo; Klonaris, Stathis

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether religious priming can induce more truthful preference revelation in valuation research. Using induced value second price Vickrey auctions in both hypothetical and non-hypothetical contexts, our results suggest that religious priming can indeed induce more truthful bidding and eliminate hypothetical bias in hypothetical contexts. In non-hypothetical contexts where there are real economic incentives, religious priming induces similar truthful bidding as the absence of religio...

  4. Effects of the combination of mask preconditioning with midazolam pretreatment on anxiety and mask acceptance during pediatric inhalational induction and postoperative mask fear in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Yun-ping; HUANG Zhen-hua; G.Allen Finley; ZUO Yun-xia

    2012-01-01

    Background Anxiety and fear frequently causes an aversion to applying a face mask and increases difficulty during pediatric induction.There is at present little study of this problem.Therefore,the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of mask preconditioning and midazolam pretrealment on mask acceptance during pediatric induction and on postoperative mask fear.Methods One hundred and sixty children were randomly assigned into four groups:the mask preconditioning group (MaG),the midazolam pretreatment group (MiG),the mask/midazolam combination group (Ma/MiG),and the saline group (SaG).The Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) was employed to assess the anxiety in the operation room (OR).A Mask Acceptance Score (MAS) was measured during inhalational induction and the incidence of mask fear (MAS ≤2) was evaluated postoperatively.Results The MaG and Ma/MiG groups had the highest mask acceptance scores but there were no differences between these two groups (P <0.05).The average anxiety level of children entering the OR was much lower in the MaG and Ma/MiG groups than in the SaG group (P <0.05).During induction,the anxiety level increased in the SaG and MaG groups but decreased in the MiG and Ma/MiG groups (P <0.05).At the postoperative third day,the incidence of mask fears was as high as 23% in the SaG group,15% in the MiG group,but only 2.5% in the MaG and Ma/MiG groups.Conclusions The single use of mask preconditioning has a better influence than midazolam for increasing mask acceptance during inhalational induction and reducing postoperative mask fear,reducing the anxiety level during induction,improving induction compliance and shortening the total mask time.A mask preconditioning and midazolam combination did not increase mask acceptance during inhalational induction,reduce mask fears postoperatively,improve induction compliance,nor shorten the total mask time.But it can better reduce the anxiety level during

  5. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  6. How color, regularity, and good Gestalt determine backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael

    2014-06-18

    The strength of visual backward masking depends on the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask. Recently, it was shown that the conjoint spatial layout of target and mask is as crucial as SOA. Particularly, masking strength depends on whether target and mask group with each other. The same is true in crowding where the global spatial layout of the flankers and target-flanker grouping determine crowding strength. Here, we presented a vernier target followed by different flanker configurations at varying SOAs. Similar to crowding, masking of a red vernier target was strongly reduced for arrays of 10 green compared with 10 red flanking lines. Unlike crowding, single green lines flanking the red vernier showed strong masking. Irregularly arranged flanking lines yielded stronger masking than did regularly arranged lines, again similar to crowding. While cuboid flankers reduced crowding compared with single lines, this was not the case in masking. We propose that, first, masking is reduced when the flankers are part of a larger spatial structure. Second, spatial factors counteract color differences between the target and the flankers. Third, complex Gestalts, such as cuboids, seem to need longer processing times to show ungrouping effects as observed in crowding. Strong parallels between masking and crowding suggest similar underlying mechanism; however, temporal factors in masking additionally modulate performance, acting as an additional grouping cue. © 2014 ARVO.

  7. Priming effects on the N400 in the affective priming paradigm with facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Dieguez-Risco, Teresa; Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of facial expression primes on the evaluation of target words through a variant of the affective priming paradigm. In order to make the affective valence of the faces irrelevant to the task, the participants were assigned a double prime-target task in which they were unpredictably asked either to identify the gender of the face or to evaluate whether the word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming were analyzed. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with affective priming. Although no significant behavioral priming was observed, electrophysiological indices showed a reverse priming effect, in the sense that the amplitude of the N400 was higher in response to congruent than to incongruent negative words. Moreover, a late positive potential (LPP), peaking around 700 ms, was sensitive to affective valence but not to prime-target congruency. This pattern of results is consistent with previous accounts of ERP effects in the affective priming paradigm that have linked the LPP with evaluative priming and the N400 with semantic priming. Our proposed explanation of the N400 priming effects obtained in the present study is based on two assumptions: a double check of affective stimuli in terms of valence and specific emotion content, and the differential specificities of facial expressions of positive and negative emotions.

  8. ILT Approach for Compensating 3-D Mask Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wei; ZHANG Jinyu; MinChun; WANG Yan; YU Zhiping

    2009-01-01

    As mask features scale to smaller dimensions,the so-called "3-D mask effects" which have mostly been neglected before,become important.This paper properly models the 3-D thick mask effects,and then analyses the object-based inverse lithography technique using a simulated annealing algorithm to determine the mask shapes that produce the desired on-wafer results.Evaluations against rigorous simulations show that the synthesized masks provide good image fidelity up to 0.94,and this approach gives improved accuracy and faster results than existing methods.

  9. Permeability of priming of pop out to expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, David; Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2012-09-29

    It is well established that repetition of the same target color across consecutive trials enhances search efficiency for pop-out targets; this phenomenon is known as Priming of Pop out (PoP). In three experiments, we addressed whether PoP interacts with top-down expectations in altering target visibility, which was manipulated via metacontrast masking. The target color either remained the same for n consecutive trials (blocked condition) or changed unpredictably (random condition). The results showed that PoP reduced the efficacy of masking and that its beneficial effect can be either potentiated or attenuated by participants' expectations about the upcoming target color. These findings undermine the view that PoP should be impermeable to top-down factors. In addition, we found evidence that both explicit and implicit expectations interact with PoP. The former can be induced via instructions on the rate of alternation of the target color, and the latter can be induced by random sequences in which repetitions of the same target color exceed those predicted by an internal model of randomness for binary events. In the latter case, more than three repetitions of the same target color led to a decline in target visibility. We speculate that, in the random condition, after few repetitions of the same target, participants developed an expectation for a change; this phenomenon is similar to the "gambler's fallacy." Finally, our analyses revealed no effect of expectation on switch trials (i.e., when the target color changed), which casts doubt on the efficacy of top-down control in feature search.

  10. Fmoc solid-phase synthesis of peptide thioesters by masking as trithioortho esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Albericio, F.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins by chemoselective ligation relies on C-terminal peptide thioesters as building blocks. Their preparation by standard Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis is made difficult by the lability of thioesters to aminolysis by the secondary amines used for removal of th...... of the Fmoc group. Here we present a novel backbone amide linker (BAL) strategy for their synthesis in which the thioester functionality is masked as a trithioortho ester throughout the synthesis....

  11. Fabrication of rectangular cross-sectional microchannels on PMMA with a CO2 laser and underwater fabricated copper mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-09-01

    CO2 lasers are commonly used for fabricating polymer based microfluidic devices. Despite several key advantages like low cost, time effectiveness, easy to operate and no requirement of clean room facility, CO2 lasers suffer from few disadvantages like thermal bulging, improper dimensional control, difficulty to produce microchannels of other than Gaussian cross sectional shapes and inclined surface walls. Many microfluidic devices require square or rectangular cross-sections which are difficult to produce using normal CO2 laser procedures. In this work, a thin copper sheet of 40 μm was used as a mask above the PMMA (Polymethyl-methacrylate) substrate while fabricating the microchannels utilizing the raster scanning feature of the CO2 lasers. Microchannels with different width dimensions were fabricated utilizing a CO2 laser in with mask and without-mask conditions. A comparison of both the fabricating process has been made. It was found that microchannels with U shape cross section and rectangular cross-section can efficiently be produced using the with mask technique. In addition to this, this technique can provide perfect dimensional control and better surface quality of the microchannel walls. Such a microchannel fabrication process do not require any post-processing. The fabrication of mask using a nanosecond fiber laser has been discussed in details. An underwater laser fabrication method was adopted to overcome heat related defects in mask preparation. Overall, the technique was found to be easy to adopt and significant improvements were observed in microchannel fabrication.

  12. The Fastest Saccadic Responses Escape Visual Masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Crouzet, Sébastien; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.

    2014-01-01

    , which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference......Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant...... visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task...

  13. Reduced basis method for source mask optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pomplun, J; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; Tyminski, J; Flagello, D; Toshiharu, N; 10.1117/12.866101

    2010-01-01

    Image modeling and simulation are critical to extending the limits of leading edge lithography technologies used for IC making. Simultaneous source mask optimization (SMO) has become an important objective in the field of computational lithography. SMO is considered essential to extending immersion lithography beyond the 45nm node. However, SMO is computationally extremely challenging and time-consuming. The key challenges are due to run time vs. accuracy tradeoffs of the imaging models used for the computational lithography. We present a new technique to be incorporated in the SMO flow. This new approach is based on the reduced basis method (RBM) applied to the simulation of light transmission through the lithography masks. It provides a rigorous approximation to the exact lithographical problem, based on fully vectorial Maxwell's equations. Using the reduced basis method, the optimization process is divided into an offline and an online steps. In the offline step, a RBM model with variable geometrical param...

  14. Multi-part mask for implanting workpieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.

    2016-05-10

    A multi-part mask has a pattern plate, which includes a planar portion that has the desired aperture pattern to be used during workpiece processing. The multi-part mask also has a mounting frame, which is used to hold the pattern plate. Prior to assembly, the pattern plate has an aligning portion, which has one or more holes through which reusable alignment pins are inserted. These alignment pins enter kinematic joints disposed on the mounting frame, which serve to precisely align the pattern plate to the mounting frame. After the pattern plate has been secured to the mounting frame, the aligning portion can be detached from the pattern plate. The alignment pins can be reused at a later time. In some embodiments, the pattern plate can later be removed from the mounting frame, so that the mounting frame may be reused.

  15. Masking mediated print defect visibility predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaochen; Nachlieli, Hila; Shaked, Doron; Shiffman, Smadar; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Banding is a well-known artifact produced by printing systems. It usually appears as lines perpendicular to the process direction of the print. Therefore, banding is an important print quality issue which has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers. However, little literature has focused on the study of the masking effect of content for this kind of print quality issue. Compared with other image and print quality research, our work is focused on the print quality of typical documents printed on a digital commercial printing press. In this paper, we propose a Masking Mediated Print Defect Visibility Predictor (MMPDVP) to predict the visibility of defects in the presence of customer content. The parameters of the algorithm are trained from ground-truth images that have been marked by subjects. The MMPDVP could help the press operator decide whether the print quality is acceptable for specific customer requirements. Ultimately, this model can be used to optimize the print-shop workflow.

  16. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R

    2003-09-01

    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  17. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  18. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: reflective mask technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Christopher C.; Kearney, Patrick A.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Bowers, Joel M.; Cerjan, Charles J.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Wilhelmsen, Karl C.; Fought, Eric R.; Moore, Craig E.; Larson, Cindy C.; Baker, Sherry L.; Burkhart, Scott C.; Hector, Scott D.

    2000-07-01

    EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7 nm-pitch bi-layers of Mo and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150 mm substrates, it was upgraded in July 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects > 100 nm below 0.05/cm2. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross- platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank

  19. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate...

  20. Masking a Compact AES S-box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-07

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 309–18, 2001. [2] D. Canright. A very compact S-box for AES. In CHES2005, volume 3659 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages...et al., editor, CHES2003, volume 2779 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 319–333. Springer, 2003. [4] Jovan Dj. Golić and Christophe Tymen...Multiplicative masking and power analysis of AES. In CHES 2002, volume 2523 of Lecture

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography - Reflective Mask Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, C.C.; Kearney, P.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Bowers, J.M.; Cerjan, C.; Warrick, A.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Fought, E.; Moore, C.; Larson, C.; Baker, S.; Burkhart, S.C.; Hector, S.D.

    2000-05-09

    EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7nm-pitch bi-layers of MO and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150mm substrates, it was upgraded in July, 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects >100nm below 0.05/cm{sup 2}. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross-platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank

  2. Mask image position correction for double patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu; Ikenaga, Osamu; Ishigo, Kazutaka

    2008-05-01

    Application of double patterning technique has been discussed for lithography of HP 3X nm device generation. In this case, overlay budget for lithography becomes so hard that it is difficult to achieve it with only improvement of photomask's position accuracy. One of the factors of overlay error will be induced by distortion of photomask after chucking on the mask stage of exposure tool, because photomasks are bended by the force of vacuum chucking. Recently, mask flatness prediction technique was developed. This technique is simulating the surface shape of mask when it is on the mask stage by using the flatness data of free-standing state blank and the information of mask chucking stage. To use this predicted flatness data, it is possible to predict a pattern position error after exposed and it is possible to correct it on the photomask. A blank supplier developed the flatness data transfer system to mask vender. Every blanks are distinguished individually by 2D barcode mark on blank which including serial number. The flatness data of each blank is linked with this serial number, and mask vender can use this serial number as a key code to mask flatness data. We developed mask image position correction system by using 2D barcode mark linked to predicted flatness data, and position accuracy assurance system for these masks. And with these systems, we made some masks actually.

  3. Dose masking feature for BNCT radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jeremy L.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.

    2000-01-01

    A system for displaying an accurate model of isodoses to be used in radiotherapy so that appropriate planning can be performed prior to actual treatment on a patient. The nature of the simulation of the radiotherapy planning for BNCT and Fast Neutron Therapy, etc., requires that the doses be computed in the entire volume. The "entire volume" includes the patient and beam geometries as well as the air spaces in between. Isodoses derived from the computed doses will therefore extend into the air regions between the patient and beam geometries and thus depict the unrealistic possibility that radiation deposition occurs in regions containing no physical media. This problem is solved by computing the doses for the entire geometry and then masking the physical and air regions along with the isodose contours superimposed over the patient image at the corresponding plane. The user is thus able to mask out (remove) the contour lines from the unwanted areas of the image by selecting the appropriate contour masking region from the raster image.

  4. Direct 3D printed shadow mask on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiminejad, S.; Köhler, E.; Enoksson, P.

    2016-10-01

    A 3D printed shadow mask method is presented. The 3D printer prints ABS plastic directly on the wafer, thus avoiding gaps between the wafer and the shadow mask, and deformation during the process. The wafer together with the 3D printed shadow mask was sputtered with Ti and Au. The shadow mask was released by immersion in acetone. The sputtered patches through the shadow mask were compared to the opening of the 3D printed shadow mask and the design dimensions. The patterned Au patches were larger than the printed apertures, however they were smaller than the design widths. The mask was printed in 4 min, the cost is less than one euro cent, and the process is a low temperature process suitable for temperature sensitive components.

  5. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  6. Prime pairs and the zeta function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Are there infinitely many prime pairs with given even difference? Most mathematicians think so. Using a strong arithmetic hypothesis, Goldston, Pintz and Yildirim have recently shown that there are infinitely many pairs of primes differing by at most sixteen. There is extensive numerical support for

  7. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  8. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  9. Semilocal formal fibers of principal prime ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Chatlos, John; Watson, Nathaniel G; Wu, Sherry X

    2009-01-01

    Let (T,m) be a complete local (Notherian) ring, C a finite set of pairwise incomparable nonmaximal prime ideals of T, and p a nonzero element. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for T to be the completion of an integral domain A containing the prime ideal pA whose formal fiber is semilocal with maximal ideals the elements of C.

  10. Goal priming as a situated intervention tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Research on goal priming has shown that cues in the environment can lead to goal-directed cognition and behaviour without the need for conscious intentions. This has sparked an interest in using goal priming as an intervention tool to strategically influence behaviour in line with an individual's

  11. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  12. Morphological Priming Effects on Children's Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Joao Manuel; Nunes, Terezinha

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that children in the early grades of primary school do not have much awareness of morphemes. In this study, a priming paradigm was used to try to detect early signs of morphological representation of stems through a spelling task presented to Portuguese children (N = 805; age range 6-9 years). Primes shared the stem…

  13. Prime pairs and the zeta function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, J.

    2009-01-01

    Are there infinitely many prime pairs with given even difference? Most mathematicians think so. Using a strong arithmetic hypothesis, Goldston, Pintz and Yildirim have recently shown that there are infinitely many pairs of primes differing by at most sixteen. There is extensive numerical support for

  14. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  15. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  16. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  17. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  18. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  19. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Hee Lee1,*, Goeun Choi1,*, Yeon-Ji Oh1, Je Won Park1, Young Bin Choy3, Mung Chul Park1, Yeo Joon Yoon1, Hwa Jeong Lee2, Hee Chul Chang4, Jin-Ho Choy1 1Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, 2Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences and College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea; 4Global Strategy Center and Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT, for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN. To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%, suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2 and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞ and maximum

  20. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  1. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...... for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers......, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm....

  2. Prime power polynomial maps over finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Berson, Joost

    2012-01-01

    We consider polynomial maps described by so-called prime power polynomials. These polynomials are defined using a fixed power of a prime number, say q. Considering invertible polynomial maps of this type over a characteristic zero field, we will only obtain (up to permutation of the variables) triangular maps, which are the most basic examples of polynomial automorphisms. However, over the finite field F_q automorphisms of this type have (in general) an entirely different structure. Namely, we will show that the prime power polynomial maps over F_q are in one-to-one correspondence with matrices having coefficients in a univariate polynomial ring over F_q. Furthermore, composition of polynomial maps translates to matrix multiplication, implying that invertible prime power polynomial maps correspond to invertible matrices. This alternate description of the prime power polynomial automorphism subgroup leads to the solution of many famous conjectures for this kind of polynomials and polynomial maps.

  3. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  4. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  5. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...... for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers......, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm....

  6. Effect of seed priming on agronomic performance and cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of seed priming on agronomic performance and cost effectiveness of rainfed, dry-seeded nerica rice. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... vitamin (Ascorbate) priming, hardening, osmohardening, and a non-primed control.

  7. Movement-Based Priming: Clinical Applications and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel Montie; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-01

    Priming can be described as behavior change generated by preceding stimuli. Although various types of priming have been long studied in the field of psychology, priming that targets motor cortex is a relatively new topic of research in the fields of motor control and rehabilitation. In reference to a rehabilitation intervention, priming is categorized as a restorative approach. There are a myriad of possible priming approaches including noninvasive brain stimulation, motor imagery, and sensory-based priming, to name a few. The authors report on movement-based priming which, compared to other priming types, is less frequently examined and under reported. Movement-based priming includes, but is not limited to, bilateral motor priming, unilateral priming, and aerobic exercise. Clinical and neural mechanistic aspects of movement-based priming techniques are explored.

  8. Exponential sums over primes in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jianya

    2006-01-01

    [1]Vinogradov,I.M.,Estimation of certain trigonometric sums with prime variables,Izv.Acad.Nauk.SSSR,1939,3:371-398.[2]Zhan,T.,On the representation of large odd integer as a sum of three almost equal primes,Acta Math.Sin.,1991,7:259-272.[3]Ren,X.M.,On exponential sums over primes and application in the Waring-Goldbach problem,Sci.China,Ser.A-Math.,2005,48(6):785-797.[4]Liu,J.Y.,Wooley,T.D.,Yu,G.,The quadratic Waring-Goldbach problem,J.Number Theory,2004,107:298-321.[5]Hua,L.K.,Some results in the additive prime number theory,Quart.J.Math.(Oxford),1938,9:68-80.[6]Liu,J.Y.,Zhan,T.,On sums of five almost equal prime squares,Acta Arith.,1996,77:369-383.[7]Bauer,C.,A note on sums of five almost equal prime squares,Arch.Math,1997,69:20-30.[8]Liu,J.Y.,Zhan,T.,Sums of five almost equal prime squares,Science in China,Ser.A,1998,41:710-722.[9]Liu,J.Y.,Zhan,T.,Hua's theorem on prime squares in short intervals,Acta Math.Sin.,2000,16:1-22.[10]Bauer,C.,Sums of five almost equal prime squares,Acta Math.Sin.,2005,21(4):833-840.[11]Lü,G.S.,Hua's Theorem with five almost equal prime variables,Chin.Ann.Math.,Ser.B,2005,26(2):291-304.[12]Vinogradov,I.M.,Elements of Number Theory,Dover Publications,1954.[13]Titchmarsh,E.C.,The Theory of the Riemann Zeta-function,2nd ed.,Oxford:Oxford University Press,1986.

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE MONOHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbaraju Prasanna Lakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to mask the unpleasant taste of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate with mannitol by co-grinding method and to formulate it as an oral disintegrating tablet by direct compression method. Drug-mannitol complexes were taken in 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 ratios and tested for in vitro and in vivo bitter masking capacity of mannitol, drug content and molecular property. Different super-disintegrants like croscaramellose, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone was used as disintegrating agents. The prepared tablets were characterized for tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and In vitro and in vivo disintegration time. In addition, aspartame is used as sweetening agent which gives more pleasant taste in the mouth. Among all the formulations F1 to F6, Formulation F6 has good taste masking capacity and fast disintegration within 40sec. Furthermore, 96.7% of the drug has been released in 15min.The results disclosed that the productivity of taste masking of the drug has been done effectively with mannitol and 40mg of crosscarmellose sodium is efficient for rapid disintegrating of tablet.

  10. Taste masked orodispersible formulation of fexofenadine hydrochloride using ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Suares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to mask the intense bitter taste of fexofenadine hydrochloride using weak cation exchange resins and to formulate orodispersible tablet of taste masked drug-resin complex. Five resins indion 204, indion 234, indion 414, kyron T-114 and kyron T-314 were used. Depending on maximum drug loading capacity of resins indion 234 and kyron T-314 were finalized for further study. Drug-resin complex was optimized by considering parameters such as drug to resin ratio, soaking time of resins, stirring time, temperature and pH on maximum drug loading. The drug-resin complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The drug-resin complex was also subjected to various evaluation studies such as taste mask evaluation by panel method, drug content and in vitro drug release at salivary and gastric pH. The orodispersible tablets of taste masked drug-resin complex for indion 234 and kyron T-314 were prepared by direct compression method. Formulated orodispersible tablets were subjected to various evaluation parameters such as diameter and thickness measurement, hardness test, weight variation test, in vitro United States Pharmacopoeia disintegration test, wetting time, test for content uniformity, assay, friability test and in vitro dissolution studies. The results indicate that orodispersible tablets of fexofenadine hydrochloride containing indion 234 and kyron T-314 are palatable and provide quick disintegration and fast drug release without addition of superdisintegrants.

  11. Taste Masked Orodispersible Formulation of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Using Ion Exchange Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suares, Divya; Hiray, Arti

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to mask the intense bitter taste of fexofenadine hydrochloride using weak cation exchange resins and to formulate orodispersible tablet of taste masked drug-resin complex. Five resins indion 204, indion 234, indion 414, kyron T-114 and kyron T-314 were used. Depending on maximum drug loading capacity of resins indion 234 and kyron T-314 were finalized for further study. Drug-resin complex was optimized by considering parameters such as drug to resin ratio, soaking time of resins, stirring time, temperature and pH on maximum drug loading. The drug-resin complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The drug-resin complex was also subjected to various evaluation studies such as taste mask evaluation by panel method, drug content and in vitro drug release at salivary and gastric pH. The orodispersible tablets of taste masked drug-resin complex for indion 234 and kyron T-314 were prepared by direct compression method. Formulated orodispersible tablets were subjected to various evaluation parameters such as diameter and thickness measurement, hardness test, weight variation test, in vitro United States Pharmacopoeia disintegration test, wetting time, test for content uniformity, assay, friability test and in vitro dissolution studies. The results indicate that orodispersible tablets of fexofenadine hydrochloride containing indion 234 and kyron T-314 are palatable and provide quick disintegration and fast drug release without addition of superdisintegrants.

  12. In vivo evaluation of taste masking for developed chewable and orodispersible tablets in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorjahan, Aibani; Amrita, Bajaj; Kavita, Singh

    2014-05-01

    Rats have inherent licking behavior and responses to good and aversive tasting stimuli, which are comparable to humans. Taste masking of chewable and orodispersible tablets of an iron EDTA complex salt was evaluated using rat behavioral avoidance model, brief access test. Taste-masked chewable and orodispersible tablets of iron EDTA complex were prepared using various flavors and sweeteners as taste-masking agents. These formulations were presented to rats and their responses were recorded in terms of licking frequency and other avoidance responses. Formulations were also presented to human volunteers and a correlation between responses of humans and rats was tried to be established. Taste responses of rats were found to be similar to those of humans. A high correlation between the taste responses of rats and humans was observed. Evaluation of taste masking using human panels presents several difficulties such as ethical concerns, fatigue and subjectivity. Thus, rat behavioral avoidance model can be considered as a good alternative to taste assessment by human volunteers for further such investigations.

  13. In-focus wavefront sensing using non-redundant mask-induced pupil diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Wavefront estimation using in-focus image data is critical to many applications. This data is invariant to a sign flip with complex conjugation of the complex amplitude in the pupil, making for a non-unique solution. Information from an in-focus image taken through a non-redundant pupil mask (NRM) can break this ambiguity, enabling the true aberration to be determined. We demonstrate this by priming a full pupil Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval with NRM fringe phase information. We apply our method to measure simulated aberrations on the segmented James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mirror using full pupil and NRM data from its Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS).

  14. E 1 transitions from the. Upsilon. prime prime state and the fine structure of the. chi. sub b prime states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, M.; Lovelock, D.M.J.; Heintz, U.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Schamberger, R.D.; Willins, J.; Yanagisawa, C. (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (USA)); Franzini, P.; Tuts, P.M.; Kanekal, S.; Wu, Q.W. (Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (USA))

    1991-06-17

    Using the CUSB-II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have made precision measurements of the electric dipole transition rates from {Upsilon}{prime}{prime} to {chi}{sub {ital b}}{sup {prime}}, which are in excellent agreement with theory. The fine-structure splitting is found to be {ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}2}{sup {prime}}){minus}{ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}1}{sup {prime}})=13.5{plus minus}0.4{plus minus}0.5 MeV and {ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}1}{sup {prime}}){minus}{ital M}({chi}{sub {ital b}0}{sup {prime}})=23.3{plus minus}0.7{plus minus}0.7 MeV, leading to a ratio {ital R}=0.584{plus minus}0.024{plus minus}0.02. The fine structure measures the relative contributions of the spin-orbit interaction {ital a}=9.5{plus minus}0.2{plus minus}0.1 MeV and tensor interaction {ital b}=2.3{plus minus}0.1{plus minus}0.1 MeV. We also find that the long-range confining potential transforms as a Lorentz scalar.

  15. Priming effects of a peripheral visual stimulus in simple and go/no-go tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.F. Squella

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially visual prime stimulus described in the literature for simple reaction time tasks has been usually smaller than that described for complex (go/no-go, choice reaction time tasks. In the present study we investigated the reason for this difference. In a first and a second experiment we tested the participants in both a simple task and a go/no-go task, half of them beginning with one of these tasks and half with the other one. We observed that the prime stimulus had an early effect, inhibitory for the simple task and facilitatory for the go/no-go task, when the task was performed first. No early effect appeared when the task was performed second. In a third and a fourth experiment the participants were, respectively, tested in the simple task and in the go/no-go task for four sessions (the prime stimulus was presented in the second, third and fourth sessions. The early effects of the prime stimulus did not change across the sessions, suggesting that a habituatory process was not the cause for the disappearance of these effects in the first two experiments. Our findings are compatible with the idea that different attentional strategies are adopted in simple and complex reaction time tasks. In the former tasks the gain of automatic attention mechanisms may be adjusted to a low level and in the latter tasks, to a high level. The attentional influence of the prime stimulus may be antagonized by another influence, possibly a masking one.

  16. Priming effects of a peripheral visual stimulus in simple and go/no-go tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squella, S A F; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, L E

    2003-02-01

    The early facilitatory effect of a peripheral spatially visual prime stimulus described in the literature for simple reaction time tasks has been usually smaller than that described for complex (go/no-go, choice) reaction time tasks. In the present study we investigated the reason for this difference. In a first and a second experiment we tested the participants in both a simple task and a go/no-go task, half of them beginning with one of these tasks and half with the other one. We observed that the prime stimulus had an early effect, inhibitory for the simple task and facilitatory for the go/no-go task, when the task was performed first. No early effect appeared when the task was performed second. In a third and a fourth experiment the participants were, respectively, tested in the simple task and in the go/no-go task for four sessions (the prime stimulus was presented in the second, third and fourth sessions). The early effects of the prime stimulus did not change across the sessions, suggesting that a habituatory process was not the cause for the disappearance of these effects in the first two experiments. Our findings are compatible with the idea that different attentional strategies are adopted in simple and complex reaction time tasks. In the former tasks the gain of automatic attention mechanisms may be adjusted to a low level and in the latter tasks, to a high level. The attentional influence of the prime stimulus may be antagonized by another influence, possibly a masking one.

  17. TASTE MASKING AND FORMULATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting.

  18. Noninvasive CPAP with face mask: comparison among new air-entrainment masks and the Boussignac valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Giacomini, Matteo; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Pinciroli, Riccardo; Mantovani, Elena S; Umbrello, Michele; Palmisano, Debora; Formenti, Paolo; Destrebecq, Anne L L; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    The performances of 2 noninvasive CPAP systems (high flow and low flow air-entrainment masks) were compared to the Boussignac valve in 3 different scenarios. Scenario 1: pneumatic lung simulator with a tachypnea pattern (tidal volume 800 mL at 40 breaths/min). Scenario 2: Ten healthy subjects studied during tidal breaths and tachypnea. Scenario 3: Twenty ICU subjects enrolled for a noninvasive CPAP session. Differences between set and effective CPAP level and F(IO(2)), as well as the lowest airway pressure and the pressure swing around the imposed CPAP level, were analyzed. The lowest airway pressure and swing were correlated to the pressure-time product (area of the airway pressure curve below the CPAP level) measured with the simulator. P(aO(2)) was a subject's further performance index. Lung simulator: Boussignac F(IO(2)) was 0.54, even if supplied with pure oxygen. The air-entrainment masks had higher swing than the Boussignac (P = .007). Pressure-time product correlated better with pressure swing (Spearman correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.97) than with lowest airway pressure (ρ = 0.92). In healthy subjects, the high-flow air-entrainment mask showed lower difference between set and effective F(IO(2)) (P high-flow mask had lower swing than the Boussignac valve (P = .03) with similar P(aO(2)) increase. High-flow air-entrainment mask showed the best performance in human subjects. During high flow demand, the Boussignac valve delivered lower than expected F(IO(2)) and showed higher dynamic hyper-pressurization than the air-entrainment masks. © 2013 Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Strategy optimization for mask rule check in wafer fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuen Huei; Lin, Shaina; Lin, Roger; Wang, Alice; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin

    2015-07-01

    Photolithography process is getting more and more sophisticated for wafer production following Moore's law. Therefore, for wafer fab, consolidated and close cooperation with mask house is a key to achieve silicon wafer success. However, generally speaking, it is not easy to preserve such partnership because many engineering efforts and frequent communication are indispensable. The inattentive connection is obvious in mask rule check (MRC). Mask houses will do their own MRC at job deck stage, but the checking is only for identification of mask process limitation including writing, etching, inspection, metrology, etc. No further checking in terms of wafer process concerned mask data errors will be implemented after data files of whole mask are composed in mask house. There are still many potential data errors even post-OPC verification has been done for main circuits. What mentioned here are the kinds of errors which will only occur as main circuits combined with frame and dummy patterns to form whole reticle. Therefore, strategy optimization is on-going in UMC to evaluate MRC especially for wafer fab concerned errors. The prerequisite is that no impact on mask delivery cycle time even adding this extra checking. A full-mask checking based on job deck in gds or oasis format is necessary in order to secure acceptable run time. Form of the summarized error report generated by this checking is also crucial because user friendly interface will shorten engineers' judgment time to release mask for writing. This paper will survey the key factors of MRC in wafer fab.

  20. Gender difference in mask ventilation training of anesthesia residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tomomichi; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2009-05-01

    To investigate whether gender difference has an effect on an anesthesia resident's ability to perform successful mask ventilation. Cohort study. Surgical operation theater of a university-affiliated hospital. 839 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing general anesthesia performed by residents. Mask ventilation was performed by 21 different anesthesia residents. Difficult mask ventilation was defined as the inability of an unassisted resident to maintain oxygen saturation, significant gas flow leakage beneath the face mask, need to increase gas flow, no perceptible chest movement, assistance required using a two-handed mask ventilation technique, or use of the oxygen flush valve more than twice. Instances of difficult mask ventilation were observed in 210 patients (25.0%), though all were adequately ventilated with a face mask. Difficult mask ventilation was observed significantly more often with female (29.8%) than male (20.0%) residents. Residents' gender was shown to be an independent risk factor for difficult mask ventilation. Gender difference has an effect on the mask ventilation learning process, as it was more difficult for female residents to provide a tight air seal in the early stage of training.

  1. Mask data volume: historical perspective and future requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Chris; Goad, Scott; Buck, Peter; Gladhill, Richard; Cinque, Russell; Preuninger, Jürgen; Griesinger, Üwe; Blöcker, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Mask data file sizes are increasing as we move from technology generation to generation. The historical 30% linear shrink every 2-3 years that has been called Moore's Law, has driven a doubling of the transistor budget and hence feature count. The transition from steppers to step-and-scan tools has increased the area of the mask that needs to be patterned. At the 130nm node and below, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has become prevalent, and the edge fragmentation required to implement OPC leads to an increase in the number of polygons required to define the layout. Furthermore, Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RETs) such as Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) or tri-tone Phase Shift Masks (PSM) require additional features to be defined on the mask which do not resolve on the wafer, further increasing masks volumes. In this paper we review historical data on mask file sizes for microprocessor, DRAM and Flash memory designs. We consider the consequences of this increase in file size on Mask Data Prep (MDP) activities, both within the Integrated Device Manufacturer (IDM) and Mask Shop, namely: computer resources, storage and networks (for file transfer). The impact of larger file sizes on mask writing times is also reviewed. Finally we consider, based on the trends that have been observed over the last 5 technology nodes, what will be required to maintain reasonable MDP and mask manufacturing cycle times.

  2. 76 FR 26751 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in...), consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and...

  3. Source mask optimization using 3D mask and compact resist models

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sewefy, Omar; Chen, Ao; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Chung, Angeline; Foong, Yee Mei; Adam, Kostas; Sturtevant, John

    2016-03-01

    Source Mask Optimization (SMO) has played an important role in technology setup and ground rule definition since the 2x nm technology node. While improvements in SMO algorithms have produced higher quality and more consistent results, the accuracy of the overall solution is critically linked to how faithfully the entire patterning system is modeled, from mask down to substrate. Fortunately, modeling technology has continued to advance to provide greater accuracy in modeling 3D mask effects, 3D resist behavior, and resist phenomena. Specifically, the Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) approximates the 3D mask response as a superposition of edge-responses.1 The DDM can be applied to a sectorized illumination source based on Hybrid-Hopkins Abbe approximation,2 which provides an accurate and fast solution for the modeling of 3D mask effects and has been widely used in OPC modeling. The implementation of DDM in the SMO flow, however, is more challenging because the shape and intensity of the source, unlike the case in OPC modeling, is evolving along the optimization path. As a result, it gets more complicated. It is accepted that inadequate pupil sectorization results in reduced accuracy in any application, however in SMO the required uniformity and density of pupil sampling is higher than typical OPC and modeling cases. In this paper, we describe a novel method to implement DDM in the SMO flow. The source sectorization is defined by following the universal pixel sizes used in SMO. Fast algorithms are developed to enable computation of edge signals from each fine pixel of the source. In this case, each pixel has accurate information to describe its contribution to imaging and the overall objective function. A more continuous angular spectrum from 3D mask scattering is thus captured, leading to accurate modeling of 3D mask effects throughout source optimization. This method is applied on a 2x nm middle-of-line layer test case. The impact of the 3D mask model accuracy on

  4. Women and trauma: transformation of self through mask making and action-based mask work

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, June Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This secondary analysis study examined the stories of six women who were impacted by trauma. These women attended a ten-week counselling group in which they participated in the construction of masks and in action-based mask work as a means of expressing and working through their trauma experiences. Based on a constructivist approach, the methodology employed in this study was a narrative inquiry centred on the work of Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiach, and Zilber (1998). The data were generated from o...

  5. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai, Roopa S.; V. Kusum Devi; Singh, Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, pa...

  6. Taste Masked Orally Disintegrating Pellets of Antihistaminic and Mucolytic Drug: Formulation, Characterization, and In Vivo Studies in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Taj, Yasmeen; Pai,Roopa S.; V Kusum Devi; Singh,Gurinder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of orally disintegrating pellets (ODPs) as an approach for taste masking of bitter drugs, namely, Ambroxol hydrochloride (A-HCl) and Cetirizine dihydrochloride (C-DHCl). Pellets were prepared by extrusion/spheronization with Eudragit EPO, kyron T-134, Kyron T-314, mannitol, sorbitol, MCC (Avicel PH-101), sucralose, chocolate flavor, and 5% xanthum gum. The prepared pellets were characterized for percentage yield, drug content, pa...

  7. Re-naming D Double Prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  8. Early diagnosis of masked hypertension in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaev M.Ya.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve diagnosis of latent arterial hypertension by studying the characteristics of hemodynamics and the rigidity of the vascular walls of the arteries in adolescents with this phenomenon. Material and Methods. The study involved 147 children aged 11 to 18 years who did not have heart rhythm disorders, congenital heart defects, endocrine diseases and diseases of the kidneys. They were divided into three groups on the basis of blood pressure values (BP obtained during three measurements of blood pressure according to the method of N. S. Korotkov and when conducting 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Group 1 included children with blood pressure values in the range from 5 to 95 percentile. Group 2 was composed children with masked hypertension (values of office blood pressure in the range from 5 to 95 percentile but indicators of ABPM of blood pressure is greater than 95 percentile. Group 3 included children with stable arterial hypertension (blood pressure values exceeded the 95 percentile. The study was a comparative analysis of the hemodynamic and rigidity (stiffness of the arteries. Results: Most hemodynamic parameters in children with masked hypertension were higher than in children of group 1. However, these figures were lower than in children with stable arterial hypertension. Among the indicators of the rigidity of the arteries, the most sensitive indicator (dP/dt max was maximum rate of pressure rise. Children with masked hypertension had increased arterial stiffness, however it was lower than in children with stable arterial hypertension. Conclusion: The use of BPLab monitor with technology Vasotens allows physicians to evaluate the daily profile of arterial pressure, the hemodynamics and stiffness of blood vessels, which is an important step for early diagnostics of latent arterial hypertension in children

  9. Masking properties of ceramics for veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllouriotis, Andreas L; Yamamoto, Hideo L; Nathanson, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The translucency and opacity of ceramics play a significant role in emulating the natural color of teeth, but studies of the masking properties and limitations of dental ceramics when used as monolayer restorations are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the translucency of 6 materials used for veneer restorations by assessing their translucency parameters (TPs), contrast ratios (CRs), and potential to mask dark tooth colors. Ten square- or disk-shaped specimens (0.5-mm thickness, shade A2) were fabricated from Vitablocks Mark II (VMII; Vita Zahnfabrik), IPS e.max CAD LT (EMXC LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max CAD HT (EMXC HT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS Empress CAD LT (EMP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max Press LT (EMXP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and CZR (CZR; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc). Their luminance (Y) values over black and over white tiles were measured, followed by their color (CIELab) over black tiles and white tiles and shaded A2 (control group), A3.5, A4, and B4 acrylic resin blocks. All measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer in 2 different areas on each specimen. Then CRs, TPs, and color differences (over shaded backgrounds) were determined. Data were subjected to 1-way and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05) for analysis. Mean CR values of EMXP LT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, whereas VMII and EMXC HT had the lowest values (Pceramic materials, whereas shade B4 demonstrated the lowest mean background effect (Pceramics were revealed (Pceramics exhibited poor masking properties against the A4 background. The color differences of most tested ceramics were more acceptable when tested against the B4 background (ΔE*≤3.3). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 模糊Prime元%Fuzzy Prime Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶三平

    2012-01-01

    基于完备剩余格,本文在模糊完备格中,引入模糊Prime元概念.给出了模糊Prime元的等价刻画,证明了所有的模糊Prime元构成的模糊集是模糊完全分配格.%Based on complete residuated lattices, the concept of fuzzy Prime elements in fuzzy complete lattices is given, then the equivalent characterization of fuzzy Prime elements is obtained. We also prove that the fuzzy subsets of fuzzy Prime elements is a fuzzy completely distributice lattice.

  11. An introduction to E-Prime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Charbonneau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When running an experiment, precision is essential to ensure results are as exact as possible. Thus, computers, which offer endless accuracy, have become an inevitable tool to design experiments. To avoid programming from scratch for each new situation, a program, E-Prime, has been created to ease the conception of experiments. E-Prime, developed by PSTNet, offers a user-friendly interface that makes typical experiments easy to create. This paper shows how to effortlessly create an experiment with E-Prime, followed by a simple example.

  12. Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Palomares, Melanie; Majaj, Najib J

    2004-12-30

    A letter in the peripheral visual field is much harder to identify in the presence of nearby letters. This is "crowding." Both crowding and ordinary masking are special cases of "masking," which, in general, refers to any effect of a "mask" pattern on the discriminability of a signal. Here we characterize crowding, and propose a diagnostic test to distinguish it from ordinary masking. In ordinary masking, the signal disappears. In crowding, it remains visible, but is ambiguous, jumbled with its neighbors. Masks are usually effective only if they overlap the signal, but the crowding effect extends over a large region. The width of that region is proportional to signal eccentricity from the fovea and independent of signal size, mask size, mask contrast, signal and mask font, and number of masks. At 4 deg eccentricity, the threshold contrast for identification of a 0.32 deg signal letter is elevated (up to six-fold) by mask letters anywhere in a 2.3 deg region, 7 times wider than the signal. In ordinary masking, threshold contrast rises as a power function of mask contrast, with a shallow log-log slope of 0.5 to 1, whereas, in crowding, threshold is a sigmoidal function of mask contrast, with a steep log-log slope of 2 at close spacing. Most remarkably, although the threshold elevation decreases exponentially with spacing, the threshold and saturation contrasts of crowding are independent of spacing. Finally, ordinary masking is similar for detection and identification, but crowding occurs only for identification, not detection. More precisely, crowding occurs only in tasks that cannot be done based on a single detection by coarsely coded feature detectors. These results (and observers' introspections) suggest that ordinary masking blocks feature detection, so the signal disappears, while crowding (like "illusory conjunction") is excessive feature integration - detected features are integrated over an inappropriately large area because there are no smaller integration

  13. A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segaert, K.R.; Menenti, L.M.E.; Weber, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic

  14. Defectivity and particle reduction for mask life extension, and imprint mask replication for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Keiji; Sakai, Fumio; Sato, Chiaki; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nakano, Hitoshi; Takabayashi, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hattori, Tadashi; Hiura, Mitsuru; Ando, Toshiaki; Kawanobe, Yoshio; Azuma, Hisanobu; Iwanaga, Takehiko; Choi, Jin; Aghili, Ali; Jones, Chris; Irving, J. W.; Fletcher, Brian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2016-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of creating a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, test stand results demonstrate the potential for extending mask life to better than 1000 wafers. Additionally, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask chuck flatness simulation results were also performed and demonstrate that residual image placement errors can be reduced to as little as 1nm.

  15. EBM-9000: EB mask writer for product mask fabrication of 16nm half-pitch generation and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Nakayama, Takahito; Saito, Kenichi; Ando, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Hideo; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Nishimura, Rieko; Kojima, Yoshinori; Yashima, Jun; Anpo, Akihito; Nakazawa, Seiichi; Iijima, Tomohiro; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Anze, Hirohito; Katsap, Victor; Golladay, Steven; Kendall, Rodney

    2014-10-01

    In the half pitch (hp) 16nm generation, the shot count on a mask is expected to become bipolar. The multi-patterning technology in lithography seems to maintain the shot count around 300G shots instead of increase in the number of masks needed for one layer. However, as a result of mask multiplication, the better positional accuracy would be required especially in Mask-to-Mask overlay. On the other hand, in complex OPC, the shot count on a mask is expected to exceed 1T shots. In addition, regardless of the shot count forecast, the resist sensitivity needs to be lower to reduce the shot noise effect so as to get better LER. In other words, slow resist would appear on main stream, in near future. Hence, such trend would result in longer write time than that of the previous generations. At the same time, most mask makers request masks to be written within 24 hours. Thus, a faster mask writer with better writing accuracy than those of previous generations is needed. With this background, a new electron beam mask writing system, EBM- 9000, has been developed to satisfy such requirements of the hp 16nm generation. The development of EBM-9000 has focused on improving throughput for larger shot counts and improving the writing accuracy.

  16. Revolution with and without the mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanko Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to provide a certain “second reading” of those commonplaces which imply that a particular, personal interest always lies behind the mask of objectivity, necessity and truth. As a paradigmatic example of this kind of structure that implies “hidden truths”, here will be taken that of a revolution, whether it is a fascist, a liberal-democratic or a communist revolution. By reexamining how this motif of “truth-behind-the-mask” figures in those regimes, we will try to say something about each of them, and also about the specific kind of subject that is produced under them.

  17. Computer-assisted area detector masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher J; Zhou, Xiao Dong

    2017-03-01

    Area detectors have become the predominant type of detector for the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction, small-angle scattering and total scattering. These detectors record the scattering for a large area, giving each shot good statistical significance to the resulting scattered intensity I(Q) pattern. However, many of these detectors have pixel level defects, which cause error in the resulting one-dimensional patterns. In this work, new software to automatically find and mask these dead pixels and other defects is presented. This algorithm is benchmarked with both ideal simulated and experimental datasets.

  18. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  19. On the relations between crowding and visual masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckauf, Anke; Heller, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    To study the question of which processes contribute to crowding and whether these are comparable to those of visual temporal masking, we varied the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and flankers in a crowding setting. Monotonically increasing Type A masking functions observedfor small spacings and large eccentricities indicate that the integration of information from target and flankers underlies crowding. Decreasing masking functions obtained for large spacings and small eccentricities relate processes of crowding to those contributing to Type B masking. In addition, Type B masking was more frequent with letter-like nonletter flankers than with letter flankers, suggesting that Type B masking, just like crowding over large areas, is due to higher level interactions. The rapid decrease of the effects of interletter spacing and eccentricity with increasing SOA indicates that positional information is transient.

  20. Constellation-masked secure communication technique for OFDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Yu, Jianjun

    2012-10-22

    This paper proposes a novel secure communication technique using constellation masking for applications in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON). The constellation masking is applied both on each subcarrier and among different subcarriers. The Arnold mapping is utilized as the parameter function for the mask factors. A interleave length is employed to provide a scalable masking granularity for different ONUs. A 15.54 Gb/s constellation-masked 32QAM-OFDM signal has been successfully transmitted over 25-km single mode fiber in the experiment. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively protect the system from illegal ONU without wasting the bandwidth. The constellation-masked technique suggests an effective solution for the physical secure communication in future OFDM access network.