WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation electronic resource

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  6. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  7. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  10. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  11. Preparing Students for the Electronic Cottage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Sally L.; Burdin, Joel

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on Alvin Toffler's "electronic cottage" concept as a way of helping counselors become aware of futuristic thinking patterns, changing work roles and patterns in society, and techniques for preparing students for these changes. (Author/ABB)

  12. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  13. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  14. Scanning Electron Microscopy Sample Preparation and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jenny Ngoc Tran; Harbison, Amanda M

    2017-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes allow us to reach magnifications of 20-130,000× and resolve compositional and topographical images with intense detail. These images are created by bombarding a sample with electrons in a focused manner to generate a black and white image from the electrons that bounce off of the sample. The electrons are detected using positively charged detectors. Scanning electron microscopy permits three-dimensional imaging of desiccated specimens or wet cells and tissues by using variable pressure chambers. SEM ultrastructural analysis and intracellular imaging supplement light microscopy for molecular profiling of prokaryotes, plants, and mammals. This chapter demonstrates how to prepare and image samples that are (a) desiccated and conductive, (b) desiccated and nonconductive but coated with an electron conductive film using a gold sputter coater, and (c) wet and maintained in a hydrated state using a Deben Coolstage.

  15. Preparing a business justification for going electronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, A Orlando; Luyckx, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Exponential advances in the technology sector and computer industry have benefited the science and practice of radiology. Modalities such as digital radiography, computed radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, digital angiography, and gamma cameras are all capable of producing DICOM compliant images. Text can likewise be acquired using voice recognition technology (VRT) and efficiently rendered into a digital format. All of these digital data sets can subsequently be transferred over a network between machines for display and further manipulation on workstations. Large capacity archiving units are required to store these voluminous data sets. The enterprise components of radiology departments and imaging centers--radiology information systems (RIS) and picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)--have thus undergone a transition from hardcopy to softcopy. When preparing to make transition to a digital environment, the first step is introspective. A detailed SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis, with a focus on the status of "electronic preparedness," ensues. The next step in the strategic planning process is to formulate responses to the following questions: Will this technology acquisition provide sufficient value to my organization to justify the expense? Is there a true need for the new technology? What issues or problems does this technology address? What customer needs will this technology satisfy today and tomorrow? How will the organization's shareholders benefit from this technology? The answers to these questions and the questions that they in turn generate will stimulate the strategic planning process to define demands, investigate technology and investment options, identify resources and set goals. The mission of your radiology center will determine what you will demand from the electronic environment. All radiology practices must address the demand of clinical service. Additional

  16. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  17. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  18. Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

    2005-12-01

    Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the USDOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well with the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including as polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo – catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methylpyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

  19. Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

    2005-06-01

    Abstract Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the U.S. DOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals, and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds, and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the USA’s dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well into the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo-catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

  20. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  1. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  2. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  3. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2014-01-01

    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  4. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  5. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  6. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  7. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  8. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  9. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  10. Electron collisions with coherently prepared atomic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.S. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia). Electronics Structure of Materials Centre; Csanak, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The subject of electron scattering by laser-excited atoms is briefly reviewed. To demonstrate some aspects of these electron collision processes, the authors describe the procedures and the results of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic scattering by coherently excited {sup 138}Ba (...6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) atoms. Examples of experimental and theoretical collision parameters and magnetic sublevel differential cross sections for elastic scattering are given and compared. The convergent close coupling calculations (with the neglect of spin-orbit interaction) are in good agreement with experiment at 20 eV impact energy and 10, 15 and 20{degree} scattering angles and can be expected to yield reliable integral magnetic sublevel and alignment creation cross sections. The role of these quantities in plasma polarization spectroscopy is pointed out.

  11. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  12. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  13. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  14. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  15. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  16. Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals: Needs, Strategies, Programs, and Online Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Dunbar, R. W.; Beane, R. J.; Bruckner, M.; Bralower, T. J.; Feiss, P. G.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience faculty, departments, and programs play an important role in preparing future geoscience professionals. One challenge is supporting the diversity of student goals for future employment and the needs of a wide range of potential employers. Students in geoscience degree programs pursue careers in traditional geoscience industries; in geoscience education and research (including K-12 teaching); and opportunities at the intersection of geoscience and other fields (e.g., policy, law, business). The Building Strong Geoscience Departments project has documented a range of approaches that departments use to support the development of geoscience majors as professionals (serc.carleton.edu/departments). On the Cutting Edge, a professional development program, supports graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing an academic career through workshops, webinars, and online resources (serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep). Geoscience departments work at the intersection of student interests and employer needs. Commonly cited program goals that align with employer needs include mastery of geoscience content; field experience; skill in problem solving, quantitative reasoning, communication, and collaboration; and the ability to learn independently and take a project from start to finish. Departments and faculty can address workforce issues by 1) implementing of degree programs that develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students need, while recognizing that students have a diversity of career goals; 2) introducing career options to majors and potential majors and encouraging exploration of options; 3) advising students on how to prepare for specific career paths; 4) helping students develop into professionals, and 5) supporting students in the job search. It is valuable to build connections with geoscience employers, work with alumni and foster connections between students and alumni with similar career interests, collaborate with

  17. 75 FR 8745 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan Amendment and Associated Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...; fisheries; archaeology and cultural resources; minerals, geology; forestry; lands and realty; soils... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan Amendment and Associated... Field Office, California intends to prepare an amendment to the Redding Resource Management Plan...

  18. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  19. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  20. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  1. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  2. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  3. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  4. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  5. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  6. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  7. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  8. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  9. Thermo-analysis of Preparation Process for Electron Trapping Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heated process of raw materials for electron trapping materials (ETM) is investigated by thermo-analysis method. The temperature ranges of raw materials experienced some physical and chemical change processes, such as dehydration, organic solvent removal, crystal sulphur burning, oxidation of alkaline earth sulfides and solid phase reaction (rare earth doped) and so on, are obtained. The experimental results also show that the presence of trace oxygen in shielded gas is very harmful to prepare the ETM.The raw material thermo-analysis results provide very important experimental reference for optimizing the ETM preparation techniques.

  10. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Škerget

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy: preparation and imaging for SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chris G

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been almost universally applied for the surface examination and characterization of both natural and man-made objects. Although an invasive technique, developments in electron microscopy over the years has given the microscopist a much clearer choice in how invasive the technique will be. With the advent of low vacuum SEM in the 1970s (The environmental cold stage, 1970) and environmental SEM in the late 1980s (J Microsc 160(pt. 1):9-19, 1989), it is now possible in some circumstances to examine samples without preparation. However, for the examination of biological tissue and cells it is still advisable to chemically fix, dehydrate, and coat samples for SEM imaging and analysis. This chapter aims to provide an overview of SEM as an imaging tool, and a general introduction to some of the methods applied for the preparation of samples.

  12. Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Brandalise, Michele; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: dfsilva@ipen.br; espinace@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol solutions containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The water/ethylene glycol ratio (v/v) was evaluated as synthesis parameters. The Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts were prepared with a nominal Pt:Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 and were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The obtained Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts showed the typical fcc structure of platinum-ruthenium alloys and the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the preparation.

  13. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  14. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  15. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  16. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  17. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  18. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  19. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  20. Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts prepared using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy Segura; Brandalise, Michele; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: espinace@ipen.br

    2007-10-15

    Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) were prepared submitting water/ethylene glycol mixtures containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX), X ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts showed superior performance for methanol electro-oxidation at room temperature compared to commercial Pt Ru/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  1. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  2. Designing Online Resources in Preparation for Authentic Laboratory Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Rachel; Parisky, Alex; Leong, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Professional development for science teachers can be benefited through active learning in science laboratories. However, how online training materials can be used to complement traditional laboratory training is less understood. This paper explores the design of online training modules to teach molecular biology and user perception of those modules that were part of an intensive molecular biology "boot camp" targeting high school biology teachers in the State of Hawaii. The John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii had an opportunity to design and develop professional development that prepares science teachers with an introduction of skills, techniques, and applications for their students to conduct medical research in a laboratory setting. A group of 29 experienced teachers shared their opinions of the online materials and reported on how they used the online materials in their learning process or teaching.

  3. Medical resource preparation and allocation for humanitarian assistance based on module organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Ruxue; Zhong, Shaobo; Qian, Yangming; Huang, Quanyi

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to associate the allocation of medical resources with the function of the modular organization and the possible needs for humanitarian assistance missions. The overseas humanitarian medical assistance mission, which was sent after a disaster on the hospital ship Peace Ark, part of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy, was considered as study model. The cases used for clustering and matching sample formation were randomly selected from the existing information related to Peace Ark's mission. Categories of the reusable resources clustered by this research met the requirement of the actual consumption almost completely (more than 95%) and the categories of non-reusable resources met the requirement by more than 80%. In the mission's original resource preparing plan, more than 30% of the non-reusable resource categories remained unused during the mission. In the original resource preparing plan, some key non-reusable resources inventories were completely exhausted at the end of the mission, while 5% to 30% of non-reusable resources remained in the resource allocation plan generated by this research at the end of the mission. The medical resource allocation plan generated here can enhance the supporting level for the humanitarian assistance mission. This research could lay the foundation for an assistant decision-making system for humanitarian assistance mission.

  4. Preparation and characterization of keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mira; Kim, Byoung-Suhk [Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Kyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    The biocompatible and highly porous keratin-based hydrogels were prepared using electron beam irradiation (EBI). The conditions for keratin-based hydrogel formation were investigated depending on several conditions, including the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), concentration of keratin solution, EBI dose, and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) additives. The pure keratin (human hair and wool) aqueous solution was not gelled by EBI, while the aqueous keratin solutions blended with PVA were gelled at an EBI dose of more than 90 kGy. Furthermore, in the presence of PEI, the aqueous keratin solution blended with PVA could be gelled at a considerably lower EBI dose, even at 10 kGy. This finding suggests that the PEI additives significantly influence the rate of gelation and that PEIs function as an accelerator during gelation. The resulting keratin-based hydrogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel fraction, degree of swelling, gel strength, and kinetics of swelling analyses. - Highlights: • The biocompatible and highly porous keratin-based hydrogels were prepared using EBI. • The conditions for keratin-based hydrogel formation were examined. • PEI would play an accelerator role in the formation of keratin-based hydrogels. • The resulting keratin-based hydrogels are expected to be more environmentally friendly.

  5. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  6. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Yael; Hadad, Binyamin; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  7. Effects of electrons on the shape of nanopores prepared by focused electron beam induced etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebes, Yael; Ashkenasy, Nurit [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Hadad, Binyamin, E-mail: nurita@bgu.ac.il [The Ilze Kaz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653 Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-15

    The fabrication of nanometric pores with controlled size is important for applications such as single molecule detection. We have recently suggested the use of focused electron beam induced etching (FEBIE) for the preparation of such nanopores in silicon nitride membranes. The use of a scanning probe microscope as the electron beam source makes this technique comparably accessible, opening the way to widespread fabrication of nanopores. Since the shape of the nanopores is critically important for their performance, in this work we focus on its analysis and study the dependence of the nanopore shape on the electron beam acceleration voltage. We show that the nanopore adopts a funnel-like shape, with a central pore penetrating the entire membrane, surrounded by an extended shallow-etched region at the top of the membrane. While the internal nanopore size was found to depend on the electron acceleration voltage, the nanopore edges extended beyond the primary electron beam spot size due to long-range effects, such as radiolysis and diffusion. Moreover, the size of the peripheral-etched region was found to be less dependent on the acceleration voltage. We also found that chemical etching is the rate-limiting step of the process and is only slightly dependent on the acceleration voltage. Furthermore, due to the chemical etch process the chemical composition of the nanopore rims was found to maintain the bulk membrane composition.

  8. Preparation of diffusion coatings in ion-electron melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anfinogenov; A.; I.; Chebykin; V.; V.; Chernov; Ya.; B.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure of Ni, Cr, Mn, Co, and Mo (Me) transfer onto iron substrate in ionic-electronic melts LiCl-Li, CaCl2-Ca, and BaCl2-Ba was elaborated and the transport processes were studied. The saturated vapor pressure of these ionic-electronic melts is as low as enabled working at atmosphere pressure in an inert media up to 1000 ℃.Armco iron was used as a substrate because it practically does not interact with lithium, calcium, and barium. The metals-diffusants were put into the melts in the form of a powder. The complete saturation of the melts with lithium, calcium, and barium was ensured by a preceding contact of a molten salt with an excess of Li, Ca, or Ba before loading of iron.The reactions take place despite the metals and iron were separated from each other by the molten salt. The quantity of the metals transfered was determined by the change in mass before and after experiments, by microprobe analysis, and x-raying of the iron surface layer. The experiments were carried out at 900, 950 and 1000℃ during 5, 10, 15 and 20 hours.At the first stage of the process the formation of the ionic-electronic melt occurs. For example, dissolution of calcium in the case of the system CaCl2-Ca is mainly proceeded in the form of one-valent cations: Ca + Ca2+()Ca+. As soon as the metal-diffusance is immersed into the melt, its dissolution in the form of negative ions takes place: Me + Ca+() Me-+ Ca2+. In the vicinity of the iron substrate the last equilibrium will shift to the left generating a solid solution or intermetallide. The thickness of the diffusion layer rises as the temperature and saturation time increase. The obtained coverings were 20-60 (m thick,and their surface layer contained 15%-80% (mass fraction) of the metal-diffusance.Both the composition of the melt and the procedure of the coverings preparation in ionic-electronic melts have been patented (Patent RU2058422, 1996, pr. 30.09.93).

  9. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  10. Preparation of 2D crystals of membrane proteins for high-resolution electron crystallography data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Chami, Mohamed; Pantelic, Radosav S; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography is a powerful technique for the structure determination of membrane proteins as well as soluble proteins. Sample preparation for 2D membrane protein crystals is a crucial step, as proteins have to be prepared for electron microscopy at close to native conditions. In this review, we discuss the factors of sample preparation that are key to elucidating the atomic structure of membrane proteins using electron crystallography.

  11. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  12. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  13. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  14. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  15. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  16. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  17. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  18. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  19. Preparing Students for Success in Hybrid Learning Environments with Academic Resource Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel; Dickinson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes institutional and andragogical best practices for preparing students to succeed in hybrid courses through the programming of academic resource centers, offers information on how to create peer support systems for students, and outlines some of the common pitfalls for students encountering a hybrid course for the first time.

  20. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  1. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  2. 79 FR 41594 - Notice of Intent To Amend the 1999 Owyhee Resource Management Plan and Prepare an Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Amend the 1999 Owyhee Resource Management Plan and Prepare... Management (BLM) Owyhee Field Office, Marsing, Idaho, intends to prepare a Resource Management Plan (RMP) amendment with an associated Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Owyhee Field Office. This...

  3. 77 FR 13141 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Master Leasing Plan, Amendments to the Resource Management Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Master Leasing Plan, Amendments to the Resource..., intend to prepare a Master Leasing Plan (MLP), amendments to the 2008 Moab and Monticello Resource Management Plans (RMPs), and a single environmental impact statement (EIS) to consider leasing for oil...

  4. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  5. Field emission from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes prepared in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, N.; van Druten, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Individual multiwalled carbon nanotube field emitters were prepared in a scanning electron microscope. The angular current density, energy spectra, and the emission stability of the field-emitted electrons were measured. An estimate of the electron source brightness was extracted from the

  6. PtRu/C Electrocatalysts Prepared Using Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation for Methanol Electrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles were prepared in a single step submitting water/2-propanol mixtures containing Pt(IV and Ru(III ions and the carbon support to gamma and electron beam irradiation. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electrooxidation. PtRu/C electrocatalyst can be prepared in few minutes using high dose rate electron beam irradiation while using low dose rate gamma irradiation some hours were necessary to prepare it. The obtained materials showed the face-centered cubic (fcc structure of Pt and Pt alloys with average nanoparticle sizes of around 3 nm. The material prepared using electron beam irradiation was more active for methanol electrooxidation than the material prepared using gamma irradiation.

  7. Developing an Electronic Infrastructure To Support Multimedia Telecomputing Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Bernard; Miller, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Houston Consortium of Urban Professional Development and Technology Schools project, developed to prepare teachers for urban, multicultural classrooms is continuing its development of a telecommunications infrastructure for its members--faculty, teachers, staff and students from colleges, public schools, and regional educational service…

  8. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  9. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  10. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  11. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhen Li; Chao Wu; Yanyan Liu; Tiebing Liu; Zheng Jiao; Minghong Wu

    2008-11-01

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and morphology of prepared PbSe nanoparticles were analysed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The results indicated that the obtained materials were cubic nanocrystalline PbSe with an average grain size of 30 nm. The optical properties of prepared PbSe nanocrystalline were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The possible mechanism of the PbSe grain growth by electron beam irradiation method is proposed.

  12. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  13. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  14. Electron Cryomicroscopy of Membrane Proteins: Specimen Preparation for Two-Dimensional Crystals and Single Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possi...

  15. Manuscript Preparation, Submission and Features of the Electronic IBVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, A.

    IBVS is a small journal in the field of variable star research, which is fully electronic now. The HTML version of the journal features object database links and reference links. The necessary markup is provided by the authors, using the macros implemented in the LaTeX style file. We are testing a web-based manuscript submission tool, which would enable authors to submit data files, draw or upload simple figures, and enter plain ASCII or LaTeX text. The text is typeset on the server. The submitted manuscript can be previewed, and links tested by the authors themselves. The markup has been designed to facilitate automatic information exchange between the journal and databases. A short description is given on the other features of the electronic IBVS.

  16. An Analysis of Electronic Media to Prepare Children for Safe and Ethical Practices in Digital Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.; Desai, Shreya; Falls, Donald; Fenaughty, John

    2008-01-01

    A range of electronic resources, including video-based instruction, are used to promote cybersafety to young people at school. This evaluation analyzed seven distinct programs that use electronic media in Internet safety initiatives in schools. The findings highlight emerging evidence on successful approaches to engage children in assessing risky…

  17. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  18. U-10Mo Sample Preparation and Examination using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rhodes, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzman, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines to prepare specimens of uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) for optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy. This document also provides instructions to set up an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to analyze U-10Mo specimens and to obtain the required information.

  19. Preparation of human resources for future nuclear energy using FBNR as the instrument of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang; Espinoza, Patricio; Guerrero, Victor Hugo [Escuela Politecnica Nacional (EPN), Quito (Ecuador); and others

    2015-11-15

    An increasing number of developing countries are showing interest to become the emerging countries to nuclear energy. Most of these countries lack human resources and adequate infrastructures to enter such a venture. The principle objective of activities of FBNR Group is to train human resources for the countries that at the present lack the necessary conditions, but aim at the future clean and safe nuclear energy through the fourth generation and INPRO compatible nuclear reactors. The preparation for the future nuclear energy is done through development of innovative nuclear reactor that meets the INPRO philosophies and criteria. These countries may or may not have decided as yet to utilize nuclear energy, but are interested to gain a strong educational foundation for their future. The research and development of a small innovative nuclear reactor FBNR is used as the instrument for learning. The young scientists will learn how to be innovative with the vision of INPRO philosophy and criteria.

  20. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  1. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  2. Electron microscopy of flatworms standard and cryo-preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvenmoser, Willi; Egger, Bernhard; Achatz, Johannes G; Ladurner, Peter; Hess, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) has long been indispensable for flatworm research, as most of these worms are microscopic in dimension and provide only a handful of characters recognizable by eye or light microscopy. Therefore, major progress in understanding the histology, systematics, and evolution of this animal group relied on methods capable of visualizing ultrastructure. The rise of molecular and cellular biology renewed interest in such ultrastructural research. In the light of recent developments, we offer a best-practice guide for users of transmission EM and provide a comparison of well-established chemical fixation protocols with cryo-processing methods (high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, HPF/FS). The organisms used in this study include the rhabditophorans Macrostomum lignano, Polycelis nigra and Dugesia gonocephala, as well as the acoel species Isodiametra pulchra.

  3. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  4. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  5. Histological preparation of developing vestibular otoconia for scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The unique nature of vestibular otoconia as calcium carbonate biominerals makes them particularly susceptible to chemical deformation during histological processing. We fixed and stored otoconia from all three otolith endorgans of embryonic, hatchling and adult Japanese quail in glutaraldehyde containing either phosphate or non-phosphate buffers for varying lengths of time and processed them for scanning electron microscopy. Otoconia from all age groups and otolith endorgans processed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) showed abnormal surface morphology when compared to acetone fixed controls. Otoconia processed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate or HEPES buffered artificial endolymph (pH 7.4) showed normal morphology that was similar to controls. The degree of otoconial deformation was directly related to the time exposed to phosphate buffer. Short duration exposure produced particulate deformations while longer exposures resulted in fused otoconia that formed solid sheets. Otoconial surface deformation and fusing was independent of the glutaraldehyde component of the histological processing. These findings should help vestibular researchers to develop appropriate histological processing protocols in future studies of otoconia.

  6. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  7. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  8. The Integrate Student Portal: Online Resources to Prepare Students for the Workforce of a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Manduca, C. A.; Egger, A. E.; Macdonald, H.

    2014-12-01

    The InTeGrate Student Portal is a suite of web pages that utilize InTeGrate resources to support student success by providing undergraduates with tools and information necessary to be proactive in their career choices and development. Drawn from various InTeGrate workshops and programming, the Portal organizes these resources to illuminate a variety of career opportunities and pathways to both traditional and non-traditional jobs that support a sustainable future. Informed from a variety of sources including employers, practitioners, faculty, students, reports, and articles, the pages explore five facets: (1) sustainability across the disciplines, (2) workforce preparation, (3) professional communication, (4) teaching and teaching careers, and (5) the future of green research and technology. The first three facets explore how sustainability is integrated across disciplines and how sustainability and 'green' jobs are available in a wide range of traditional and non-traditional workplaces within and beyond science. They provide students guidance in preparing for this sustainability workforce, including where to learn about jobs and how to pursue them, advice for strengthening their job applications, and how to build a set of skills that employers seek. This advice encompasses classroom skills as well as those acquired and strengthened as part of extracurricular or workplace experiences. The fourth facet, aimed at teaching assistants with little or no experience as well as at students who are interested in pursuing teaching as a career, provides information and resources about teaching. The fifth facet explores future directions of technology and the need for innovations in the workforce of the future to address sustainability issues. We seek your input and invite you to explore the Portal at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/students/

  9. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  10. Preparation of thermal resistant-enhanced separators for lithium ion battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Micro-porous membrane made of polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) is most widely used as physical separators between the cathode and anode in lithium secondary batteries. However, the polymer membranes so soften or melt when the temperature reaches 130 .deg. C or higher because of thermal shrinkage of the polyolefin separators, and thaw low thermal stability may cause internal short circuiting or lead to thermal runaway. In this study, to realize a highly safe battery, we prepared three type separators as crosslinked PE separator, polymer-coated PE separator, and ceramic-coated PE separators, for lithium secondary battery by electron beam irradiation. We prepared crosslinked PE separators with the improved thermal stability by irradiating a commercial PE separator with an electron beam. A polymer-coated PE separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. Ceramic-coated PE separator was prepared by coating ceramic particles on a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The prepared separators were characterized with FT-IR, SEM, electrolyte uptake, ion conductivity, thermal shrinkage and battery performance test.

  11. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  12. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  13. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  14. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  15. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  16. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  17. The Preparation and Properties of Niobium Superconducting Structures Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation in Uhv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin S.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This work has achieved the development of a fabrication method for the realisation of superconductor-insulator -superconductor (SIS) junctions based on niobium thin films with an artificial barrier layer. Such devices are likely to have advantages over lead alloy devices because of the enhanced mechanical and chemical stability. A principal objective was to attempt to exploit the offset mask technology developed by Dolan that has been successfully employed by Davies et.al. in the realisation of lead alloy SIS junction heterodyne mixers. In order to transfer this technology to niobium based devices it is essential that an evaporation method is used to allow shadow formation beneath the offset mask. As a result of the chemical reactivity and the low vapour pressure of niobium, a UHV system has been developed which incorporates an electrostatically focussed electron beam evaporation source. This is capable of providing deposition rates of close to 10A/sec. with a source to substrate distance of 120mm. During deposition the system pressure is below 5 times 10 ^{-9} mbar. These process parameters have been recorded, for a number of depositions, on a specially built data acquisition system controlled by a BBC microcomputer. Such recording allows detailed comparison of conditions which helps in the understanding of differences between the superconducting behaviour of various films. A further extremely important aspect of these real time measurements is that it helps to ensure optimum settings of the focus conditions of the electron beam source. The results of the depositions are extremely encouraging with critical temperatures of between 9.1 and 9.3K being achieved. These results compare well with expected values for bulk niobium. An all-metal offset mask technology has been developed to replace the photo-resist technique pioneered by Dolan. This new method is needed because the photo-resist is not compatible

  18. Separating limits on preparation versus online processing in multitasking paradigms: Evidence for resource models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Victor; Miller, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We conducted 2 multitasking experiments to examine the finding that first-task reaction times (RTs) are slower in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm than in the prioritized processing (PP) paradigm. To see whether this difference between the 2 paradigms could be explained entirely by differences in first-task preparation, which would be consistent with the standard response selection bottleneck (RSB) model for multitasking interference, we compared the size of this difference for trials in which a second-task stimulus actually occurred against the size of the difference for trials without any second-task stimulus. The slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm was larger when the second-task stimulus appeared than when it did not, indicating that the difference cannot be explained entirely by between-paradigm differences in first-task preparation. Instead, the results suggest that the slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm is partly because of differences between paradigms in the online reallocation of processing capacity to tasks. Thus, the present results provide new evidence supporting resource models over the RSB model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy Specimen Preparation Method for Multiphase Porous Functional Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2013-01-01

    An optimum method is proposed to prepare thin foil transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamellae of multiphase porous functional ceramics: prefilling the pore space of these materials with an epoxy resin prior to focused ion beam milling. Several advantages of epoxy impregnation are demonstrate...

  1. The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is Preparing to Delete the Approval Right for Mineral Resources Geological Prospecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Yu Haifeng, Deputy Director of Geological Prospecting Department and Executive Deputy Director of the Mineral Prospecting Office under the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, disclosed at the recently concluded National Prospecting Meeting for 2013 that, the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources is con

  2. Practical Guide to Using Cryoprotectants in Biological Sample Preparation at Cryogenic temperature for Electron Microscopic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-Reum Je

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryo-fixation enables the preservation of the fine structures of intracellular organelles in a condition that is as close to their native state as possible compared with chemical fixation and room temperature processing. Fixation is the initial step for biological sample preparation in electron microscopy. This step is critically important because the goals of electron microscopic observation are fundamentally dependent on well-preserved specimens resulting from this fixation. In the present work, key components of cryo-fixation, cryoprotectants, are tested with various cell types of interest. The results show that dextran can be easily adapted for use with animal cells and cyanobacteria, whereas 1-hexadecene is applicable to plant and yeast cells. The current report provides useful information on the preparation of cryo-fixed biological specimens using high pressure freezing and freeze-substitution aimed at electron microscopic observation.

  3. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  4. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  5. Metallographic preparation of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy for analysis by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, M G; Martínez-Flores, E E; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Escalera, M Dolores

    2014-08-01

    Samples of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy (Zinalco) that will be heavily deformed were prepared using five different manual mechanical metallographic methods. Samples were analyzed before tensile testing using the orientation imaging microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (OIM-EBSD) technique. The effect of type and particle size during the final polishing stages for this material were studied in order to identify a method that produces a flat, damage free surface with a roughness of about 50 nm and clean from oxide layers, thereby producing diffraction patterns with high image quality (IQ) and adequate confidence indexes (CI). Our results show that final polishing with alumina and silica, as was previously suggested by other research groups for alloys that are difficult to prepare or alloys with low melting point, are not suitable for manual metallographic preparation of this alloy. Indexes of IQ and CI can be used to evaluate methods of metallographic preparation of samples studied using the OIM-EBSD technique.

  6. New Technique for Successful Thermal Barrier Coating Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickey; Lee

    2000-05-01

    Reliability of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) hinges on the adhesion of a thermally grown oxide scale to an insulative ceramic topcoat and an underlying metallic bondcoat. The width of the scale and its interfaces makes transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an appropriate tool for its analysis. However, specimen preparation has proven to be a challenging obstacle leading to a dearth of TEM research on TBCs. A new approach to cross-section TBC TEM specimen preparation is described. The principal advantages of this technique are reproducibility, reduced specimen damage, and time savings resulting from decreased ion milling. This technique has been successfully applied to numerous TBC specimens with various thermal histories.

  7. Preparation of cluster states with trapped electrons on a liquid helium surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Ling-Yan; Shi Yan-Li; Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for the preparation of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) cluster states with electrons trapped on a liquid helium surface and driven by a classical laser beam.The two lowest levels of the vertical motion of the electron act as a two-level system,and the quantized vibration of the electron along one of the parallel directions (the x direction) serves as the bosonic mode.The degrees of freedom of the vertical and parallel motions of the trapped electron can be coupled together by a classical laser field.With the proper frequency of the laser field,the cluster states can be realized.

  8. Electron-Induced Secondary Electron Emission Properties of MgO/Au Composite Thin Film Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Hu, Wenbo; Wei, Qiang; Wu, Shengli; Hua, Xing; Zhang, Jintao

    2016-12-01

    As a type of electron-induced secondary electron emitter, MgO/Au composite thin film was prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering of individual Mg target and Au target, and the effects of key process parameters on its surface morphology and secondary electron emission (SEE) properties were investigated. It is found that to deposit a NiO buffer layer on the substrate is conducive to the subsequent growth of MgO grains owing to the lattice matching. The gold addition can raise the electrical conductivity of MgO film and further suppress the surface charging. However, the gold deposition would interfere with the MgO crystallization and increase the surface roughness of MgO/Au film. Therefore, MgO/Au composite thin film with a NiO buffer layer and proper deposition times of MgO and Au can achieve superior SEE properties due to good MgO crystallization, low surface roughness and reasonable electrical conductivity. The optimized MgO/Au composite thin film has a higher SEE coefficient and a lower 1-h SEE degradation rate under electron beam bombardment in comparison with MgO film.

  9. 78 FR 42970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Bering Sea-Western Interior...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... existing 1981 Southwest Planning Area Management Framework Plan and portions of the 1986 Central Yukon RMP..., Evaluation, Planning, and Management; 15. The BLM will incorporate Environmental Justice considerations in... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Bering Sea...

  10. 78 FR 45266 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... incorporate, where applicable, management decisions brought forward from existing planning documents. 6... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas Planning Area and an Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCIES: Bureau of Land...

  11. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... costs of management. Preliminary planning criteria include: 1. Lands addressed in the RMP will be public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area in the State of Oregon and Associated Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau...

  12. 76 FR 41814 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the 1985 Wells Resource Management Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the 1985 Wells Resource Management Plan for Recreation in the... of Land Management (BLM) Wells Field Office, Elko, Nevada, is proposing to amend the 1985 Wells... initiates the public scoping process for the amendment to the Wells RMP and associated EA. Comments...

  13. 76 FR 43704 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the 1992 Three Rivers Resource Management Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the 1992 Three Rivers Resource Management Plan for Land Tenure in the Skull Creek Area and Associated Environmental Assessment, Oregon... process for the EA and Land Tenure Amendment to the Three Rivers RMP. Comments on issues may be...

  14. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  15. Preparation of {sup 114m}In low energy conversion electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, C., E-mail: wrede@uw.ed [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Filippone, B.W. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Garcia, A.; Harper, G.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lassell, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Liu, J. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Mendenhall, M.P. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Palmer, A.S.C. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Pattie, R.W. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Will, D.I. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Young, A.R. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} Controlled ion implantation of In-113 into thin Al substrate. {yields} Production of In-114m (half life = 50 days) by neutron irradiation. {yields} Use of In-114m as a source of electron lines and continuum for calibrations. {yields} Source reactivation by short neutron irradiation. -- Abstract: The preparation of {sup 114m}In sources of conversion electrons in the energy range 162-190 keV and {beta} continuum with a 1989 keV endpoint via ion implantation of {sup 113}In into Al substrates and subsequent irradiation by thermal and epi-thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor is described.

  16. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  17. Specimen preparation by ion beam slope cutting for characterization of ductile damage by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Hans-Bernward; Gerstein, Gregory; Maier, Hans Jürgen; Nürnberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    To investigate ductile damage in parts made by cold sheet-bulk metal forming a suited specimen preparation is required to observe the microstructure and defects such as voids by electron microscopy. By means of ion beam slope cutting both a targeted material removal can be applied and mechanical or thermal influences during preparation avoided. In combination with scanning electron microscopy this method allows to examine voids in the submicron range and thus to analyze early stages of ductile damage. In addition, a relief structure is formed by the selectivity of the ion bombardment, which depends on grain orientation and microstructural defects. The formation of these relief structures is studied using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction and the use of this side effect to interpret the microstructural mechanisms of voids formation by plastic deformation is discussed. A comprehensive investigation of the suitability of ion beam milling to analyze ductile damage is given at the examples of a ferritic deep drawing steel and a dual phase steel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characterization of epoxy resin containing nano clay prepared by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Seok; Lee, Seung Jun; Lim, Youn Mook; Jeong, Sung In; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Shin, Young Min; Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chan [Research Division for Industry AND Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Epoxy resin is widely used as aerospace, automobile, construction and electronics due to their good mechanical and electrical properties and environmental advantages. However, the inherent flammability of epoxy resin has limited its application in some field where good flame retardancy is required. Nano clay can enhance the properties of polymers such as flames retardancy and thermal stability. In this study, we have investigated the nanoclay filled epoxy composite, which has good flame retardancy while maintaining high mechanical properties. The cured epoxy resins were obtained using an electron beam curing process. The nano clays were dispersed in epoxy acrylate solution and mechanically stirred. The prepared mixtures were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator. The composites were characterized by gel content and thermal/ mechanical properties. Moreover, the flammability of the composite was evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI). The flame retardancy of nano clay filled epoxy composite was evidently improved.

  19. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  20. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  1. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-03-01

    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  2. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  3. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured Pt/TiO2 thin films treated using electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Hyeok; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Bo-Hye; Lee, Byung Cheol; Jun, Jin

    2010-05-01

    Pt nanoparticle-doped titanium dioxide (Pt/TiO2) thin films were prepared on a silicon wafer substrate by sol-gel spin coating process. The prepared thin films were treated with electron beam (EB at 1.1 MeV, 100, 200, 300 kGy) at air atmosphere. The effect of EB-irradiation on the composition of the treated thin films, optical properties and morphology of thin films were investigated by various analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal structure of the TiO2 layer was found to be an anatase phase and the size of TiO2 particles was determined to be about 13 nm. Pt nanoparticles with diameter of 5 nm were observed on surface of the films. A new layer (presumed to be Pt-Ti complex and/or PtO2 compound) was created in the Pt/TiO2 thin film treated with EB (300 kGy). The transmittance of thin film decreased with EB treatment whereas the refractive index increased.

  4. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  5. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  6. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  7. Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ruimin [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: zhourm47@staff.shu.edu.cn; Wu Xinfeng; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongbin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Rao Weihong [Shenzhen Tianding Fine Chemical Engineering Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Electron beam radiation was applied to prepare nano-size copper in water system using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, gluten and polyethylene glycol as the surfactants, respectively. The irradiated products were characterized by XRD, TEM and LSPSDA. The XRD and TEM showed that relative pure copper products with an average size of 20 nm, 40 nm and 20 nm can be obtained by using gluten, PEG and SDBS as surfactant, respectively. An admixture of copper and cuprous oxide was obtained in PVA system. The LSPSDA showed that the size of the Cu nanoparticles decreased with increasing the glutin concentration.

  8. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-12-15

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature.

  9. Preparation of polymer-coated separators using an electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2008-12-01

    A polymer-coated polyethylene (PE) separator was prepared by a dip-coating of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA on both sides of a PE separator followed by an electron beam irradiation. The thermal and electrochemical properties of the polymer-coated PE separator were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM, DSC and an impedance analyzer. The results showed that the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA layer was covalently bound to the PE separator and also crosslinked by an electron beam irradiation. Thermal shrinkage dramatically decreased with an increase in the absorption dose and the PEGDMA content due to the crosslinking of the coated PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA by an irradiation. The PE separator coated with the composition of PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA (9.5/0.5) and irradiated to 150 kGy showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 125% and ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature.

  10. Group-based antenatal birth and parent preparation for improving birth outcomes and parenting resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg

    2013-01-01

    To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education.......To examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of group based antenatal education for improving childbirth and parenting resources compared to auditorium based education....

  11. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  12. Electron microscopic and preparative methods for the analysis of isopod cuticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Hans Michael Seidl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustacean cuticle consists of a complex organic matrix and a mineral phase. The physical and chemical properties of the cuticle are corellated to the specific functions of cuticular elements, leading to a large variety in its structure and composition. Investigation of the structure-function relationship in crustacean cuticle requires sophisticated methodological tools for the analysis of different aspects of the cuticular architecture. In the present paper we report improved preparation methods that, in combination with various electron microscopic techniques, have led to new insights of cuticle structure and composition in the tergite cuticle of Porcellio scaber. We used thin sections of non-decalcified tergites and decalcified resin embedded material for transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Etched sagittal planes of bulk tergite samples were analysed with field emission scanning electron microscopy. We have found a distinct distal region within the exocuticle that differs from the subjacent proximal exocuticle in the arrangement of fibres. Within this distal exocuticle chitin-protein fibrils assemble to fibres with diameters between 15 and 50 nm that are embedded in a mineral matrix. In the proximal exocuticle and the endocuticle fibrils do not assemble to fibres and are surrounded by mineral individually. Furthermore, we show that the pore canals are filled with mineral, and demonstrate that mild etching of polished sagittal cuticle surfaces reveals regions containing mineral of diverse solubility.

  13. Influence of electron beam Irradiation on PP/Piassava fiber composite prepared by melt extrusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Michelle G.; Ferreira, Maiara S.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: michellegoncalvesgomes@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the latest years, the interest for the use of natural fibers in materials composites polymeric has increased significantly due to their environmental and technological advantages. Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera) have been used as reinforcement in the matrix of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. In the present work (20%, in mass), piassava fibers with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were incorporated in the polypropylene matrix (PP) no irradiated and polypropylene matrix containing 10 % and 30 % of polypropylene treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy (PP/PPi/Piassava). The composites PP/Piassava and PP/PPi/Piassava were prepared by using a twin screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The composite material samples obtained were treated by electron-beam radiation at 40 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature, in presence of air. After irradiation treatment, the irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to thermo-mechanical tests, melt flow index (MFI), sol-gel analysis, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  14. Sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy of plant surfaces--horses for courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, A K; Bond, J; Gaskin, R E

    2008-12-01

    Plant tissues must be dehydrated for observation in most electron microscopes. Although a number of sample processing techniques have been developed for preserving plant tissues in their original form and structure, none of them are guaranteed artefact-free. The current paper reviews common scanning electron microscopy techniques and the sample preparation methods employed for visualisation of leaves under specific types of electron microscopes. Common artefacts introduced by specific techniques on different leaf types are discussed. Comparative examples are depicted from our lab using similar techniques; the pros and cons for specific techniques are discussed. New promising techniques and microscopes, which can alleviate some of the problems encountered in conventional methods of leaf sample processing and visualisation, are also discussed. It is concluded that the choice of technique for a specific leaf sample is dictated by the surface features that need to be preserved (such as trichomes, epidermal cells or wax microstructure), the resolution to be achieved, availability of the appropriate processing equipment and the technical capabilities of the available electron microscope.

  15. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  16. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  17. Studies on artefacts induced in the specimen preparation routines of electron microscopy characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monikandan, V. V.; Joseph, M. A.; Rajendrakumar, P. K.

    2016-09-01

    Artefacts are induced during the preparation of specimens for electron microscopic characterization. The present work is a study of the artefacts induced on worn surfaces and wear debris specimens of AA6061-B4C-Gr hybrid composites. The worn surfaces are prepared using routines such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and ion milling. Apart from these routines, a novel trial is made to prepare the worn surface using femtosecond laser machining. The wear debris is pelletized and sectioned using ultramicrotome. In femtosecond laser machining, FIB milling and ion milling operations, melting and re-solidification of ablated debris, re-deposition and melting of sputtered debris and formation of the amorphous layer, respectively are the major artefacts that diminish the accuracy of the inferences made on the microstructural characteristics of the specimen. In ultramicrotomy, knife marks, tearing of sections and absence of wear debris distribution reduce the effectiveness of the routine, making it impossible to derive any substantial inference from the micrographs.

  18. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Shamala; L C S Murthy; K Narasimha Rao

    2004-06-01

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated films varied from 2.65 × 10-2 -cm to 3.57 × 10-3 -cm in the temperature range 150–200°C. For undoped spray pyrolyzed films, the resistivity was observed to be in the range 1.2 × 10-1 to 1.69 × 10-2 -cm in the temperature range 250–370°C. Hall effect measurements indicated that the mobility as well as carrier concentration of evaporated films were greater than that of spray deposited films. The lowest resistivity for antimony doped tin oxide film was found to be 7.74 × 10-4 -cm, which was deposited at 350°C with 0.26 g of SbCl3 and 4 g of SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.065). Evaporated films were found to be amorphous in the temperature range up to 200°C, whereas spray pyrolyzed films prepared at substrate temperature of 300–370°C were polycrystalline. The morphology of tin oxide films was studied using SEM.

  19. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  20. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  2. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  3. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  4. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  5. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  6. Preparing This Generation to be the Next Generation: Educator Climate Literacy Practices and Needs, Desirable Attainments, and Exemplar Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Ledley, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Today's students are increasingly aware of climate change and the relationship between climate change, energy use, society and sustainability. Scientific knowledge about these topics is advancing at a rapid pace, and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) include performance expectations about energy, sustainability and climate. If we intend to prepare this generation of students for their roles as the next generation of citizens, scientists, and professionals of all sorts, what knowledge, skills and habits of mind will be important, and how do these occur in the NGSS? This presentation will outline these teaching targets, and will describe educator teaching practices and needs around climate and energy literacy dimensions, as derived from surveys and interviews of a group of educators grades 6-16. This presentation will also present examples of resources, including peer-reviewed resources from the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network collection which can contribute to achieving these newly emphasized learning desirata.

  7. 高校图书馆的人才资源准备%Preparation for personnel resources of academic libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊彦

    2011-01-01

    文章分析了高校图书馆人才资源的优势以及影响高校图书馆人才发展的不利因素,提出了在人员老龄化、大学生毕业分配就业制度改革下高校图书馆人才资源准备的措施。%This paper analyzes the advantage of academic libraries' personnel resources and the disadvantages of influencing its development, and suggests solutions to preparing for persormel resources for academic libraries under the aging condition and the employment system reform of allocation of the graduates.

  8. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.

    2016-08-04

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.

  9. MAGNETORESISTANCE EFFECT OBSERVED IN Fe/Mo MULTILAYERS PREPARED BY ELECTRON BEAM EVAPORATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. He; B. Zhao; Y. Gao; F. Zeng; F. Pan

    2003-01-01

    The Fe/Mo multilayers were prepared by electron beam evaporation, the microstructure and magnetic properties of the multilayers were studied by X-ray diffraction, vibratingsample magnetometer (VSM) et al. The experimental results revealed that the Fe/Mo multilayers in our experimental conditions behaved magnetoresistance effect with a sharp peak on magnetoresistance (MR) ratio curve, and magnetoresistance is easily saturated at low applied magnetic fields. For [Fe(1.5nm)/Mo(1.0nm)]42 multilayers,MR ratio could arrive to 0.1%. The antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling could be observed in some films at room temperature. The strength of the antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling J in the films is low because of the low saturation field Hs. The relationship between magnetic properties and microstructure was also discussed in this paper.

  10. Preparation of cross-sectional specimens of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, O; Heuer, A H; Mitchell, T E

    1990-04-01

    During the microstructural examination of ceramic thermal barrier coatings by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), initial efforts for the preparation of cross-sectional thin foils from interface regions by conventional means were mostly failures. Delamination of the Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic coating from the nickel-base alloy substrate sometimes occurred during fine polishing at around 80 microns thickness but mostly occurred during dimpling. Because of this sensitivity, special techniques for mechanical handling were developed so that ion milling could give thin enough regions of the metal-ceramic interface. TEM showed convincingly that the highly fragile nature of the coatings is in fact due to the extensive porosity at the interface developed as a result of heat treatment.

  11. Using Innovative Resources and Programs to Prepare Pre- and In-Service Teachers for New Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, R. J.; Short, J.; Contino, J.; Cooke-Nieves, N.; Howes, E.; Kravitz, D.; Randle, D.; Trowbridge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Leveraging the Rose Center for Earth and Space and active research departments in Earth and Planetary Science, Astrophysics, and Paleontology, the Education Department at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers an MAT program to prepare new Earth Science teachers (~100 new teachers by 2018) as well as a range of professional development (PD) opportunities for over 3,000 K-12 teachers annually, providing opportunities to learn with scientists; inquiry-based experiences; and standards-aligned resources. The AMNH produces innovative geoscience and other STEM resources supporting teacher and student science investigations with data visualizations and analysis tools, teaching case materials and other resources that provide rich nonfiction reading and writing opportunities for use in Earth and space science curricula that are integrated in the MAT and PD programs. Museum resources and the MAT and PD programs are aligned to support the recently released Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core State Standards. The NGSS is a set of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas to help cultivate teachers' and K-12 students' scientific habits of mind, develop their knowledge and abilities to engage in scientific investigations, and teach them how to reason in context; goals that closely align with those of the AMNH's teacher preparation and professional development programs. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) is a required text for the MAT program, and this text as well as the NGSS Performance Expectations guide the PD programs as well. Researchers working with Museum scientists and educators find it is not enough for programs for pre- and in-service teachers to provide access to resources. Research suggests that these programs need to engage pre- and in-service teachers in using and reflecting on these types of resources, as well as take

  12. Preparation of electron buffer layer with crystalline ZnO nanoparticles in inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Kang, Taeho; Choi, Yoon-Young; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method were used to fabricate the electron buffer layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) after thermal treatment. To investigate the effect of thermal treatment on the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, the amorphous ZnO nanoparticles were treated via hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase of ZnO with well-ordered structure could be obtained when the amorphous phase of ZnO was processed under hydrothermal treatment at 170 °C. The crystalline structure of ZnO thin film in inverted organic solar cell could be obtained under relatively low annealing temperature by using thermally treated ZnO nanoparticles. The OPVs fabricated by using crystalline ZnO nanoparticles for electron buffer layer exhibited higher efficiency than the conventional ZnO nanoparticles. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for 7.16% through the ZnO film using the crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. The proposed method to prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) could effectively reduce energy consumption during the fabrication of OPVs, which would greatly contribute to advantages such as lower manufacturing costs, higher productivity and application on flexible substrates.

  13. Preparation of solid silver nanoparticles for inkjet printed flexible electronics with high conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xianpeng; Huang, Qijin; Xu, Qingsong; Song, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) which could be kept in solid form and were easily stored without degeneration or oxidation at room temperature for a long period of time were synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly wet chemistry method in an aqueous phase. Highly stable dispersions of aqueous silver NP inks, sintered at room temperature, for printing highly conductive tracks (~8.0 μΩ cm) were prepared simply by dispersing the synthesized silver NP powder in water. These inks are stable, fairly homogeneous and suitable for a wide range of patterning techniques. The inks were successfully printed on paper and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a common color printer. Upon annealing at 180 °C, the resistivity of the printed silver patterns decreased to 3.7 μΩ cm, which is close to twice that of bulk silver. Various factors affecting the resistivity of the printed silver patterns, such as annealing temperature and the number of printing cycles, were investigated. The resulting high conductivity of the printed silver patterns reached over 20% of the bulk silver value under ambient conditions, which enabled the fabrication of flexible electronic devices, as demonstrated by the inkjet printing of conductive circuits of LED devices.Silver nanoparticles (NPs) which could be kept in solid form and were easily stored without degeneration or oxidation at room temperature for a long period of time were synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly wet chemistry method in an aqueous phase. Highly stable dispersions of aqueous silver NP inks, sintered at room temperature, for printing highly conductive tracks (~8.0 μΩ cm) were prepared simply by dispersing the synthesized silver NP powder in water. These inks are stable, fairly homogeneous and suitable for a wide range of patterning techniques. The inks were successfully printed on paper and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a common color printer. Upon annealing at 180 °C, the

  14. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWalking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL.Materials and MethodsSixteen older men and women (age 77.2 ± 5.6 years with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task, dim lighting (dim task, carrying a tray (carry task, negotiating obstacles (obstacles task and wearing a weighted vest (vest task. Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat.ResultsPrefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks.DiscussionThese findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults.

  15. Evaluation of Electrospray as a Sample Preparation Tool for Electron Microscopic Investigations: Toward Quantitative Evaluation of Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Johannes; Dohányosová, Pavla; Müller, Philipp; López-Vidal, Silvia; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2017-02-01

    The potential of electrospray deposition, for the controlled preparation of particles for imaging in electron microscopes, is evaluated on various materials: from mono-modal suspensions of spherical particles to multimodal suspensions and to real-world industrial materials. It is shown that agglomeration is reduced substantially on the sample carrier, compared with conventional sample preparation techniques. For the first time, it is possible to assess the number concentration of a tri-modal polystyrene suspension by electron microscopy, due to the high deposition efficiency of the electrospray. We discovered that some suspension stabilizing surfactants form artifact particles during electrospraying. These can be avoided by optimizing the sprayed suspension.

  16. Effects of the preparation processes on structural, electronic, and optical properties of LaHoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siaï, Amira, E-mail: amira_siai@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Horchani-Naifer, Karima [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia); Haro-González, Patricia [Fluorescence Imaging Group, Department of physical material C-IV, Madrid Autonoma University, C/Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National des Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P.73 Soliman 8027, Technopole Borj Cedria (Tunisia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The preparation of LaHoO{sub 3} by combustion and hydrothermal techniques was performed. • The crystal structure and characterization of the synthesized oxides were carried out. • The lattice distortions have effects on Raman, luminescence and optical band gap. • Electronic properties and band structure have been carried out by DFT method. • Sample prepared by hydrothermal process gives higher emission intensities. - ABSTRACT: Lanthanum holmium oxide (LaHoO{sub 3}) was synthesized using combustion and hydrothermal processes in order to compare the effects of preparation method on structural, electronic, and optical properties. For this purpose, the as-prepared samples were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electronic microscopy. The Rietveld refinements structure of as-prepared samples show that lattice distortions and volume expansion were obtained for LaHoO{sub 3} synthesized with hydrothermal method compared to combustion process. The luminescence properties were investigated upon 488 and 750 nm laser excitations. The emission curves show the presence of characteristic Ho{sup 3+} transitions with a higher emission intensity for a sample prepared by hydrothermal method than the one obtained by combustion process. The structures properties effects on the band structure and the density of states were realized via generalized gradient approximation functional with Hubbard correction. The lattice distortions were found to have effects on Raman, luminescence and optical band gap.

  17. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  18. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  19. Human Resources Development and Preparation for Operations Braka Nuclear Power Plant, ENEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Rae [ENEC, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of the Human Resources Development Strategy is to identify needed capabilities, assess the ability of the current market to provide those capabilities and then develop skills and abilities in the UAE so that they are available when needed and certainly for the start of operations in the spring of 2017. The goal of the strategy is to provide enough well-qualified people to meet the staffing needs of ENEC, the Prime Contractor, FANR, and UAE industry. These strategies require engaging with key players in Abu Dhabi early in the process so that they contribute to development and implementation of the strategies and become 'owners' who play a part to achieve the ENEC vision and the goal of building a talent pool to support the newborn nuclear industry. Educational programs are designed to support ENEC's long range staffing plan and support national capacity building goals. Strong partnerships are in place with UAE Education Institutions and future collaborations are underway. The potential risks to the success of this strategy include the ability to attract sufficient numbers of people to the program. We believe that these risks can be overcome by implementing intelligent initiatives and leveraging UAE resources.

  20. Evaluation of Er:YAG laser radiation cavity preparation under transmitted and polarized light and by electron microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Krejsa, Otakar; Rokytova, Kveta; Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel

    1993-12-01

    The results of evaluation of Er:YAG radiation cavity preparation under transmitted and polarized light and by the electron microanalyzer are presented. We examined the longitudinal sections of intact teeth, teeth with early dental caries, teeth with laser preparation in enamel and teeth with Er:YAG laser preparation in enamel and dentine class I and V. We examined intact teeth and laser prepared teeth for the variation of mineralization. Phosphorus and calcium were regularly distributed. The margins of cavities had no necrosis zones. The defects of mineralization in caries depend on demineralization of hard tissues. In the structures was irregular loss of calcium and phosphorus. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation with water cooling has been found to be a non-invasive preparation technique.

  1. Preparing for Operations in a Resource-Depleted and/or Extended Evacuation Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Gabe; Lafayette, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are the only conflicts to which many medics have ever been exposed. These mature theaters have robust medical systems that ensure rapid access to full-spectrum medical care for all combat-wounded and medically injured personnel. As current conflicts draw to a close, U.S. medics may be deployed to environments that will require the ability to stabilize casualties for longer than 1 hour. Historical mission analysis reveals the need to review skills that have not been emphasized during upgrade and predeployment training. This unit?s preparation for the extended care environment can be accomplished using a 4-point approach: (1) review of specific long-term skills training, (2) an extended care lab that reviews extended care skills and then lets the medic practice in a real-time scenario, (3) introduction to the HITMAN mnemonic tool, which helps identify and address patient needs, and (4) teleconsultation.

  2. Characterization of pitch prepared from pyrolysis fuel oil via electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Gun; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kwac, Lee Ku; Shin, Hye Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Pitch samples were obtained from pyrolysis fuel oil by thermal treatment for 2 h at 300 °C after electron beam irradiation (EBI) treatment and by thermal treatment alone for different temperature of 250 °C, 300 °C, and 350 °C. EBI treatment was found to be an effective treatment for preparing pitch compare to the pitch obtained without EBI treatment. These results were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analyses, which showed the increase in the intensities of peaks corresponding to aromatic compounds. In the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra, the amount of components with medium molecular weights in the pitch was found to increase with the temperature; likewise, in the case of the pitch obtained via EBI treatment, we found that the amount of components with higher molecular weight over 1000 (m/v) similarly increased. Further, the thermal stability and carbon yield at 850 °C of the pitch obtained by EBI were greater than those of samples subjected to thermal treatment at 250 and 300 °C.

  3. Closer to the native state. Critical evaluation of cryo-techniques for Transmission Electron Microscopy: preparation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielanczyk, Lukasz; Matysiak, Natalia; Michalski, Marek; Buldak, Rafal; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Over the years Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has evolved into a powerful technique for the structural analysis of cells and tissues at various levels of resolution. However, optimal sample preservation is required to achieve results consistent with reality. During the last few decades, conventional preparation methods have provided most of the knowledge about the ultrastructure of organelles, cells and tissues. Nevertheless, some artefacts can be introduced at all stagesofstandard electron microscopy preparation technique. Instead, rapid freezing techniques preserve biological specimens as close as possible to the native state. Our review focuses on different cryo-preparation approaches, starting from vitrification methods dependent on sample size. Afterwards, we discuss Cryo-Electron Microscopy Of VItreous Sections (CEMOVIS) and the main difficulties associated with this technique. Cryo-Focused Ion Beam (cryo-FIB) is described as a potential alternative for CEMOVIS. Another post-processing route for vitrified samples is freeze substitution and embedding in resin for structural analysis or immunolocalization analysis. Cryo-sectioning according to Tokuyasu is a technique dedicated to high efficiency immunogold labelling. Finally, we introduce hybrid techniques, which combine advantages of primary techniques originally dedicated to different approaches. Hybrid approaches permit to perform the study of difficult-to-fix samples and antigens or help optimize the sample preparation protocol for the integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy (iLEM) technique.

  4. Extending the detection limit of dopants for focused ion beam prepared semiconductor specimens examined by off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel;

    2009-01-01

    Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the activ...

  5. Lights Will Guide You : Sample Preparation and Applications for Integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Correlative microscopy is the combined use of two different forms of microscopy in the study of a specimen, allowing for the exploitation of the advantages of both imaging tools. The integrated Laser and Electron Microscope (iLEM), developed at Utrecht University, combines a fluorescence microscope (FM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in a single set-up. The region of interest in the specimen is labeled or tagged with a fluorescent probe and can easily be identified within a large field of view with the FM. Next, this same area is retraced in the TEM and can be studied at high resolution. The iLEM demands samples that can be imaged with both FM and TEM. Biological specimen, typically composed of light elements, generate low image contrast in the TEM. Therefore, these samples are often ‘contrasted’ with heavy metal stains. FM, on the other hand, images fluorescent samples. Sample preparation for correlative microscopy, and iLEM in particular, is complicated by the fact that the heavy metals stains employed for TEM quench the fluorescent signal of the probe that is imaged with FM. The first part of this thesis outlines preparation procedures for biological material yielding specimen that can be imaged with the iLEM. Here, approaches for the contrasting of thin sections of cells and tissue are introduced that do not affect the fluorescence signal of the probe that marks the region of interest. Furthermore, two novel procedures, VIS2FIXH and VIS2FIX­FS are described that allow for the chemical fixation of thin sections of cryo-immobilized material. These procedures greatly expedite the sample preparation process, and open up novel possibilities for the immuno-labeling of difficult antigens, eg. proteins and lipids that are challenging to preserve. The second part of this thesis describes applications of iLEM in research in the field of life and material science. The iLEM was employed in the study of UVC induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of

  6. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  7. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  8. Parallel preparation of plan-view transmission electron microscopy specimens by vapor-phase etching with integrated etch stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, Timothy S., E-mail: englisht@stanford.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Provine, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marshall, Ann F.; Koh, Ai Leen [Stanford Nano Shared Facilities, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kenny, Thomas W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Specimen preparation remains a practical challenge in transmission electron microscopy and frequently limits the quality of structural and chemical characterization data obtained. Prevailing methods for thinning of specimens to electron transparency are serial in nature, time consuming, and prone to producing artifacts and specimen failure. This work presents an alternative method for the preparation of plan-view specimens using isotropic vapor-phase etching with integrated etch stops. An ultrathin amorphous etch-stop layer simultaneously serves as an electron transparent support membrane whose thickness is defined by a controlled growth process such as atomic layer deposition with sub-nanometer precision. This approach eliminates the need for mechanical polishing or ion milling to achieve electron transparency, and reduces the occurrence of preparation induced artifacts. Furthermore, multiple specimens from a plurality of samples can be thinned in parallel due to high selectivity of the vapor-phase etching process. These features enable dramatic reductions in preparation time and cost without sacrificing specimen quality and provide advantages over wet etching techniques. Finally, we demonstrate a platform for high-throughput transmission electron microscopy of plan-view specimens by combining the parallel preparation capabilities of vapor-phase etching with wafer-scale micro- and nanofabrication. - Highlights: • Parallel thinning of plan-view specimens enables high-throughput microscopy studies. • The support membrane thickness is controlled with sub-nanometer precision. • No physical etching (polishing, dimpling, or ion milling) is required. • Large area and uniformly thin specimens are suitable for Cs-corrected HRTEM. • Wafer-scale integration enables custom specimens for in situ experiments.

  9. Preparing for an Academic Career Workshops: Resources for Graduate Students and Post-Doctoral Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. W.; MacDonald, R.

    2004-12-01

    The professional development program, "On the Cutting Edge", offers annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Goals are to prepare participants to become more effective teachers, stronger candidates for academic positions, and more aware of the realities of academic jobs. Insights that participants especially hope to gain from these workshops include feedback on the application process, especially an understanding of how search committees work; the different realities of balancing teaching, research, and personal life in a range of academic institutions; and expectations for tenure. The ten-person leadership team represents, by design, a wide range of academic career paths and institutions, and provides approximately 1:6 leader: participant ratio. Specific sessions include research on learning, an introduction to course and lab design, effective teaching and assessment strategies, developing a teaching statement, time management and early career faculty success, and moving research forward into new settings. Optional workshop sessions and discussions include the following topics: dual-career couples; families and careers; teaching portfolios; effective negotiation strategies; tenure and promotion; effective field trips; getting started in undergraduate research; opportunities in K-12 education; career options beyond faculty positions. Highlights of the workshop are faculty panel discussions about career paths and the academic job search. By workshop end, participants complete a goal setting and action planning activity. Two years of evaluation data suggest our goals are being met. Participants particularly appreciate the practical ideas and the opportunity to interact with, and learn from, a diverse leadership team and other participants.

  10. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  11. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  12. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  13. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  14. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  16. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  17. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  18. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  19. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  20. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  1. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  2. Quantitating morphological changes in biological samples during scanning electron microscopy sample preparation with correlative super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Huang, Tao; Jorgens, Danielle M; Nickerson, Andrew; Lin, Li-Jung; Pelz, Joshua; Gray, Joe W; López, Claudia S; Nan, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical to biological electron microscopy (EM), and there have been continuous efforts on optimizing the procedures to best preserve structures of interest in the sample. However, a quantitative characterization of the morphological changes associated with each step in EM sample preparation is currently lacking. Using correlative EM and superresolution microscopy (SRM), we have examined the effects of different drying methods as well as osmium tetroxide (OsO4) post-fixation on cell morphology during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sample preparation. Here, SRM images of the sample acquired under hydrated conditions were used as a baseline for evaluating morphological changes as the sample went through SEM sample processing. We found that both chemical drying and critical point drying lead to a mild cellular boundary retraction of ~60 nm. Post-fixation by OsO4 causes at least 40 nm additional boundary retraction. We also found that coating coverslips with adhesion molecules such as fibronectin prior to cell plating helps reduce cell distortion from OsO4 post-fixation. These quantitative measurements offer useful information for identifying causes of cell distortions in SEM sample preparation and improving current procedures.

  3. Creating an Effective System of Education to Prepare Future Human Resources within the Context Provided by the Global Shift toward a "Green Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Frolova, Evgenia Evgenevna; Kucherenko, Petr Aleksandrovich; Samusenko, Tatyana Mikhailovna; Voikova, Natalya Andreevna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the major aspects of putting together effective national systems of education oriented toward providing academic instruction to the population and preparing future human resources for work within the economy in specific alignment with the concept of environmental responsibility (or that of "green economy"). The…

  4. A resource for those preparing for and responding to natural disasters, humanitarian crises, and major healthcare emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Claire

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the dissemination and knowledge transfer activities of Evidence Aid, which was established after the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 to provide a single source of evidence that would help people make well-informed decisions when preparing for and responding to disasters. Evidence Aid has a dedicated website (www.EvidenceAid.org) to provide access to more than 160 systematic reviews and several other documents relevant to people working on disaster risk reduction, planning, response, recovery, rehabilitation, and resilience. It combines this with a social media presence and Special Collections that bundle together related Cochrane Reviews (www.TheCochraneLibrary.com). The aim is to make it easier for users who need this evidence and don't have time to browse through multiple documents and distill them before making their decisions. Evidence Aid will continue to identify and share resources and knowledge with those who most need it at the time that they need it most. It is working with several partners to identify relevant Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews and is engaging with users who, by sharing their information and their knowledge needs, will allow Evidence Aid to target its efforts to these priority areas.

  5. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  6. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbiao; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Guo, Sen

    2008-08-30

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N(-)) states above the valence band of TiO(2) modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO(2).

  7. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R., E-mail: chitta@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Mastanaiah, P. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, E. Rajendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition.

  8. Scanning electron microscopy study of cavity preparation in deciduous teeth using the Er:YAG laser with different powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sun; Chen, Tao; Ge, Li-hong

    2012-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we evaluated the morphology of cavity surfaces in deciduous teeth prepared in vitro with the Er:YAG laser with different power parameters. Eight extracted cavity-free deciduous teeth with an intact crown were prepared using a traditional handpiece or an Er:YAG laser with different parameters (10 Hz/200 mJ, 10 Hz/300 mJ and 10 Hz/400 mJ). Samples were then processed and cavity surface morphology was evaluated by SEM to detect open dentinal tubules, or melting or cracking of the dentin. SEM showed that laser cavity preparation in deciduous teeth using different parameters left no smear layer and the dentinal tubules were clear. Dentin melting was not seen after cavity preparation at 200 mJ or 300 mJ, while visible dentin melting and cracks were detected at 400 mJ. The use of the laser at 10 Hz/200 mJ and 10 Hz/300 mJ for cavity preparation in deciduous teeth is safe and effective, but higher powers may damage the dentin.

  9. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  10. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  11. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, Behdja

    2010-10-01

    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  12. Rapid specimen preparation to improve the throughput of electron microscopic volume imaging for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truc Quynh; Nguyen, Huy Bang; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Takashi; Joh, Kensuke; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy enables rapid observations of three-dimensional ultrastructures in a large volume of biological specimens. However, such imaging usually requires days for sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In this study, we report a rapid procedure to acquire serial electron microscopic images within 1 day for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures. This procedure is based on serial block-face with two major modifications, including a new sample treatment device and direct polymerization on the rivets, to reduce the time and workload needed. The modified procedure without uranyl acetate can produce tens of embedded samples observable under serial block-face scanning electron microscopy within 1 day. The serial images obtained are similar to the block-face images acquired by common procedures, and are applicable to three-dimensional reconstructions at a subcellular resolution. Using this approach, regional immune deposits and the double contour or heterogeneous thinning of basement membranes were observed in the glomerular capillary loops of an autoimmune nephropathy model. These modifications provide options to improve the throughput of three-dimensional electron microscopic examinations, and will ultimately be beneficial for the wider application of volume imaging in life science and clinical medicine.

  13. Electroactive materials for organic electronics: preparation strategies, structural aspects and characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, Adam; Gawrys, Pawel; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Djurado, David; Demadrille, Renaud

    2010-07-01

    This critical review discusses specific chemical and physicochemical requirements which must be met for organic compounds to be considered as promising materials for applications in organic electronics. Although emphasis is put on molecules and macromolecules suitable for fabrication of field effect transistors (FETs), a large fraction of the discussed compounds can also be applied in other organic or hybrid (organic-inorganic) electronic devices such as photodiodes, light emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, etc. It should be of interest to chemists, physicists, material scientists and electrical engineers working in the domain of organic electronics (423 references).

  14. Web-Based Resources to Help Students and Faculty Prepare to use Information Technology in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    Teaching in the field is undergoing a revolution as new information technologies are being used to support a wide range of instructional activities in geology, oceanography, ecology, and related disciplines. In particular, the use of ruggedized laptop and palmtop computers with integrated GPS, GIS, data management, imaging and note-taking software presents a fundamentally new way to map and collect other data in the field. By bringing information technologies into the field, it is now possible to integrate many types of data such as digital elevation maps, air photo and satellite imagery, a variety of geophysical and geochemical databases (e.g. chemical anomaly maps, aeromagnetics, gravity). This allows students to engage much deeper levels of decision-making, problem-solving, and critical-thinking while still in the field setting. This technology also allows instructors to more closely monitor the progress of student projects in the field, and to assess the process as well as the products of student field work. For professional geologists, data acquisition and interpretation using digital technology in the field will rapidly become the industry standard, and now is the time to begin to prepare students to regularly use these new capabilities. To address the new possibilities of teaching with information technology in the field, a workshop was convened in February 2007 at Montana State University to aggregate and disseminate the practical advice and experience of geoscience instructors already using this technology. The outcome of this workshop is a website that contains advice on "best practices" in using these information technologies in field instruction including sections on: definition of learning goals, thinking skills and problem solving strategies, student and faculty preparation, selecting hardware and software, data resources, logistical consideration, GPS and learning, taking e-notes, mobile collaborations, and examples of field exercises. This website

  15. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  16. Transition to Electronic Access of Government Information: Are the Depository Libraries Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Liwen Qiu; Dolan, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the readiness of depository libraries in Canada to adopt new technologies for disseminating government publications. Findings are reported on current use of different publication formats, type of help sought by users, staff skills and training needs, adequacy of physical and financial resources, support from governing bodies, and…

  17. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  18. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  19. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  20. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  1. Characteristics and properties of metal aluminum thin films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Yu-Qing; Li Xing-Cun; Chen Qiang; Lei Wen-Wen; Zhao Qiao; Sang Li-Jun; Liu Zhong-Wei; Wang Zheng-Duo; Yang Li-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Metal aluminum (Al) thin films are prepared by 2450 MHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition on glass and p-Si substrates using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and hydrogen as the reductive gas.We focus our attention on the plasma source for the thin-film preparation and annealing of the as-deposited films relative to the surface square resistivity.The square resistivity of as-deposited Al films is greatly reduced after annealing and almost reaches the value of bulk metal.Through chemical and structural analysis,we conclude that the square resistivity is determined by neither the contaminant concentration nor the surface morphology,but by both the crystallinity and crystal size in this process.

  2. Effect of Pt:Sn atomic ratio on the preparation of PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V., E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: espinace@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 in water/2-propanol using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The ethanol electro-oxidation was studied by chronoamperometry. The XRD diffractograms of the PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed typical face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of platinum and the presence of a SnO{sub 2} phase (cassiterite). The mean crystallite sizes of Pt fcc phase was in the range of 3.0-3.5 nm. The PtSn/C electrocatalysts were active for ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature and the material prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1 showed the best activity. (author)

  3. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  4. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in electron beam evaporation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongping Zhang(张东平); Meiqiong Zhan(占美琼); Ming Fang(方明); Hongbo He(贺洪波); Jianda Shao(邵建达); Zhengxiu Fan(范正修)

    2004-01-01

    ZrO2 thin films were prepared in electron beam thermal evaporation method. And the deposition rate changed from 1.3 to 6.3 nm/s in our study. X-ray diffractometer and spectrophotometer were employed to characterize the films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra pattern shows that films structure changed from amorphous to polycrystalline with deposition rate increasing. The results indicate that internal stresses of the films are compressive in most case. Thin films deposited in our study are inhomogeneous, and the inhomogeneity is enhanced with the deposition rate increasing.

  5. Enantioselective semi-preparative HPLC separation of PCB metabolites and their absolute structures determined by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, H.P.; Larsson, C.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Hoffmann, F.; Froeba, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Bergmann, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The present paper represents a first result of an ongoing systematic study of atropisomeric methylsulfonyl, methylthionyl, hydroxy, and methoxy metabolites of environmentally most relevant PCBs. This involves semi-preparative enantioselective HPLC separation to obtain pure atropisomers from synthesized PCB metabolite standards, their configuration estimation using the electronic circular dichroism (UV-CD) method and the determination / confirmation of these absolute configurations applying the combined vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) / ab initio approach. The following substances have been investigated: 4-HO-, 4-MeO-, 4-MeS-, 4-MeSO2-, 3-MeS- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149.

  6. Investigation of resins suitable for the preparation of biological sample for 3-D electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyaprak, Caroline; Longo, Giovanni; Daraspe, Jean; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-02-01

    In the last two decades, the third-dimension has become a focus of attention in electron microscopy to better understand the interactions within subcellular compartments. Initially, transmission electron tomography (TEM tomography) was introduced to image the cell volume in semi-thin sections (∼ 500 nm). With the introduction of the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope, a new tool, FIB-SEM tomography, became available to image much larger volumes. During TEM tomography and FIB-SEM tomography, the resin section is exposed to a high electron/ion dose such that the stability of the resin embedded biological sample becomes an important issue. The shrinkage of a resin section in each dimension, especially in depth, is a well-known phenomenon. To ensure the dimensional integrity of the final volume of the cell, it is important to assess the properties of the different resins and determine the formulation which has the best stability in the electron/ion beam. Here, eight different resin formulations were examined. The effects of radiation damage were evaluated after different times of TEM irradiation. To get additional information on mass-loss and the physical properties of the resins (stiffness and adhesion), the topography of the irradiated areas was analysed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further, the behaviour of the resins was analysed after ion milling of the surface of the sample with different ion currents. In conclusion, two resin formulations, Hard Plus and the mixture of Durcupan/Epon, emerged that were considerably less affected and reasonably stable in the electron/ion beam and thus suitable for the 3-D investigation of biological samples.

  7. Electronic structure and size of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles of controlled size prepared by aerosol methods

    CERN Document Server

    Soriano, L; Sanchez-Agudo, M; Sanz, J M; Ahonen, P P; Kauppinen, E I; Palomares, F J; Bressler, P R

    2002-01-01

    A complete characterization of nanostructures has to deal both with electronic structure and dimensions. Here we present the characterization of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles of controlled size prepared by aerosol methods. The electronic structure of these nanoparticles was probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the particle size by atomic force microscopy (AFM). XAS spectra show that the particles crystallize in the anatase phase upon heating at 500 sup o C, whereas further annealing at 700 sup o C give crystallites of 70 % anatase and 30 % rutile phases. Raising the temperature to 900 sup o C results in a complete transformation of the particles to rutile. AFM images reveal that the mean size of the anatase particles formed upon heating at 500 sup o C is 30 nm, whereas for the rutile particles formed upon annealing at 900 sup o C 90 nm were found. The results obtained by these techniques agree with XRD data. (author)

  8. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, T

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  9. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  10. Lights Will Guide You : Sample Preparation and Applications for Integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Correlative microscopy is the combined use of two different forms of microscopy in the study of a specimen, allowing for the exploitation of the advantages of both imaging tools. The integrated Laser and Electron Microscope (iLEM), developed at Utrecht University, combines a fluorescence microscope

  11. 75 FR 22836 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Eastern Washington and San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... should be addressed in the plan. The BLM will work collaboratively with interested parties to identify..., Recreation, Visual Resource Management, Wilderness, Wild and Scenic Rivers, sociology, and economics....

  12. Study on the preparation of resist mask based on two-consecutive electron beam exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yanbing; Wang, Li; Sun, Yanjun; Dong, Lianhe

    2016-10-01

    To overcome the alignment error caused by the overlay when the conventional electron beam lithography produces the four-step relief structure, the paper did a detailed research on the influence of different accelerating voltage on the exposure depth during the process of exposure. Therefore, it drew out the limit value of exposure depth under different accelerating voltage and the relationship between the electron beam energy and critical exposed dose. Through the analysis of the experimental results, it worked out the optimum process parameter combination of exposure. The accelerating voltage of the first exposure was 5keV and the exposed dose was 100μC/cm2, while the second accelerating voltage was 15keV and the exposed dose was 150μC/cm2. Finally, the four-step relief structure was made on the resist layer and this structure met the needs of the graphic transfer process on the etch mask.

  13. Preparation and characterization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate microgels using electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, Mohd Yusof [Makmal Nanoteknologi, Bahagian Teknologi Sinaran (Malaysia); Isa, Naurah Mat; Napia, Liyana M. Ali [ALURTRON, Bahagian Kemudahan Iradiasi, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanosized gels based on polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. PEGDA was solubilized in n-heptane with use of sodium docusate (AOT) at 0.15M concentration to form reverse micelles. These micelles were than irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using electron beam (EB) to crosslink the entrapped polymer in the micelles. Ionizing radiation was imparted to the emulsions to generate crosslinking reaction in the micelles formed. The nanosized gels were evaluated in terms of particle diameter using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the images of the nanosized gels were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size and shape of the particles are influenced by concentration of PEGDA and radiation dose. This study showed that this method can be utilized to produce nanosized gels.

  14. Preparation and characterization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate microgels using electron beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Isa, Naurah Mat; Napia, Liyana M. Ali

    2014-02-01

    The use of microemulsion in the development of nanosized gels based on polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. PEGDA was solubilized in n-heptane with use of sodium docusate (AOT) at 0.15M concentration to form reverse micelles. These micelles were than irradiated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy using electron beam (EB) to crosslink the entrapped polymer in the micelles. Ionizing radiation was imparted to the emulsions to generate crosslinking reaction in the micelles formed. The nanosized gels were evaluated in terms of particle diameter using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the images of the nanosized gels were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show that the size and shape of the particles are influenced by concentration of PEGDA and radiation dose. This study showed that this method can be utilized to produce nanosized gels.

  15. Method for the preparation of inorganic single crystal and polycrystalline electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, W. O. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    Large area, semiconductor crystals selected from group 3-5 compounds and alloys are provided for semiconductor device fabrication by the use of a selective etching operation which completely removes the substrate on which the desired crystal was deposited. The substrate, selected from the same group as the single crystal, has a higher solution rate than the epitaxial single crystal which is essentially unaffected by the etching solution. The preparation of gallium phosphide single crystals using a gallium arsenide substrate and a concentrated nitric acid etching solution is described.

  16. Preparation and Electronic Property Investigation of Zinc(II)-Schiff Base Complexes in the Confined Space

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Shang; Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Metal-Schiff base complexes have attracted continued research interest regarding their intriguing and useful features, while the electronic properties of these complexes in the confined space have not been sufficiently addressed in previous studies. In this work, a new zinc(II)-Schiff base complex bis(N-dodecyl salicylideneiminato)Zn(II) (1) was synthesized and subsequently loaded in an inorganic solid host. A large red shift (~40 nm) of the absorption onset was recorded, when the microenviro...

  17. Efficacy of Different Root Canal Irrigants on Smear Layer Removal after Post Space Preparation: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirseifinejad, Rahele; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Davari, Abdolrahim; Mehravar, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Effective durable adhesion between post material and dentine using resin cements is essential for longevity of restoration. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different irrigants on smear layer removal after post space preparation. A total of 75 extracted anterior human teeth were selected. The canals were instrumented by rotary system and then were filled. After preparing the post space, teeth were divided into 5 groups according to irrigants: 17% EDTA; 17% EDTA+2% CHX; 5.25% NaOCl; 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl; and saline. The canals were irrigated with 5 cc of each irrigants for 1 min. Specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hulsmann's score was used for marking of smear layer removal at coronal, middle and apical thirds of post space. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results revealed that subsequent use of 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl was more effective than the other groups in smear layer removal. No statistical difference was found among different levels of root canal within each group. It can be concluded that 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl could be an effective irrigant for smear layer removal after post space preparation.

  18. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  19. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  20. Proposed Draft Military Handbook for Preparation of View Packages in Support of Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...and Charles S. Sawyer, "Test and Evaluation of The Navy Technical Information Presentation System (NTIPS), AN/SPA-25D Test Results," DTRC-88/035 (Sep...F. Tittle 1 NOSC 1 EER Systems R. Smillie N. Bukowski 1 NUSC 1 EG&G A. Valm L. Snodgrass 2 NTSC I General Dynamics W. Rizzo Electronic Division IL

  1. Preparation and property of a novel soluble electron transport POSS-based hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Juan Shen; Jin Cui Wu; Min Fang; Hong Yao Xu

    2008-01-01

    A novel POSS-based organic/inorganic hybrid covalently attached at molecular level, 2-(4-(allyloxy)phenyl)-5-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-POSS (6) (abbreviated as oxadiazole-POSS) was synthesized by Pt (dcp) catalyst. The hybrid was soluble in common organic solvents such as CHCl3, toluene, C2H4Cl2, and THF. Its structures and properties were characterized and evaluated with FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 29Si NMR, EA, TGA, DSC, GPC, and CV, respectively. The results show that the novel hybrid possesses high thermal stability and good electron injection ability.

  2. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Sample Preparation of Si(1-x)Gex in c-Plane Sapphire Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Sang H.; Bae, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Tae Woo

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-invented X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, including the total defect density measurement method and the spatial wafer mapping method, have confirmed super hetero epitaxy growth for rhombohedral single crystalline silicon germanium (Si1-xGex) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. However, the XRD method cannot observe the surface morphology or roughness because of the method s limited resolution. Therefore the authors used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with samples prepared in two ways, the focused ion beam (FIB) method and the tripod method to study the structure between Si1-xGex and sapphire substrate and Si1?xGex itself. The sample preparation for TEM should be as fast as possible so that the sample should contain few or no artifacts induced by the preparation. The standard sample preparation method of mechanical polishing often requires a relatively long ion milling time (several hours), which increases the probability of inducing defects into the sample. The TEM sampling of the Si1-xGex on sapphire is also difficult because of the sapphire s high hardness and mechanical instability. The FIB method and the tripod method eliminate both problems when performing a cross-section TEM sampling of Si1-xGex on c-plane sapphire, which shows the surface morphology, the interface between film and substrate, and the crystal structure of the film. This paper explains the FIB sampling method and the tripod sampling method, and why sampling Si1-xGex, on a sapphire substrate with TEM, is necessary.

  3. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雷

    2012-01-01

      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  4. Z-scan studies of the nonlinear optical properties of gold nanoparticles prepared by electron beam deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, M H; Nady, A; Penny, R; Chong, W Y; Zakaria, R

    2015-11-20

    This paper details the fabrication process for placing single-layer gold (Au) nanoparticles on a planar substrate, and investigation of the resulting optical properties that can be exploited for nonlinear optics applications. Preparation of Au nanoparticles on the substrate involved electron beam deposition and subsequent thermal dewetting. The obtained thin films of Au had a variation in thicknesses related to the controllable deposition time during the electron beam deposition process. These samples were then subjected to thermal annealing at 600°C to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au nanoparticles. Observation from field-effect scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images indicated the size of Au nanoparticles ranges from ∼13 to ∼48  nm. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear effects on the fabricated Au nanoparticle layers where it strongly relates LSPR and nonlinear optical properties.

  5. Electronically Stabilized Copoly(Styrene-Acrylic Acid Submicrocapsules Prepared by Miniemulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation and characterization of poly(styrene-acrylic acid (St/AA submicrocapsules by using the miniemulsion copolymerization method. AA was introduced to miniemulsion polymerization of St to increase the zeta potential and the resulting electrostatic stability of St/AA submicrocapsules. Phytoncide oil was adopted as the core model material. Miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was conducted at a fixed monomer concentration (0.172 mol with a varying monomer feed ratio [AA]/[St] (0.2, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, and 1.0. Concentrations of initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile; 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 3.0 × 10−3, and 4.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; 0.6 × 10−3, 1.0 × 10−3, and 1.4 × 10−3 mol were also controlled to optimize the miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Dynamic light scattering and microscopic analyses confirmed the optimum condition of miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Long-term colloidal stability of aqueous St/AA submicrocapsule suspension was evaluated by using TurbiscanTM Lab. In this work, the optimum condition for miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was determined ([AA]/[St] = 0.33; [SDS] = 1.0 × 10−3 mol; [AIBN] = 2.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer. St/AA submicrocapsules prepared at the optimum condition (392.6 nm and −55.2 mV of mean particle size and zeta potential, respectively showed almost no variations in backscattering intensity (stable colloids without aggregation.

  6. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Solid Silver Nanoparticles (<10 nm) for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2015-07-02

    Metal conductive ink for flexible electroncs has exhibited a promising future recently. Here, an innovative strategy was reported to synthesize silver nanocolloid (2.5 ± 0.5 nm) and separate solid silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) effectively. Specifically, silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as silver precursor, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent, fatty acid (CnH2n+1COOH) as dispersant agent, ammonia (NH3•H2O) and hydrochloride (HCl) as pH regulator and complexing agent in aqueous. The main mechanism is the solubility changes of fatty acid salts (CnH2n+1 COO-NH4+) and fatty acid (CnH2n+1 COOH) coated on the synthesized silver nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous. This change determinates the suspension and precipitation of silver NPs directly. The results show that when n in dispersant is 12, and molar ratio (C12H24O2/AgNO3) is 1.0, the separation yield of silver NPs is up to 94.8 %. After sintered at 125 ℃ for 20 minutes, the as-prepared conductive silver nanoink (20 wt. %) presents a satisfactory resistivity (as low as 6.6 μΩ.cm on polyester-PET substrate), about 4 times the bulk silver. In addition, the efficacy of the as-prepared conductive ink was verified with the construction of radio frequency antenna by inkjet printing and conductive character pattern (Fudan-Fudan) by direct wiring, showing with excellent electrical performance.

  7. Preparation and Electronic Property Investigation of Zinc(II-Schiff Base Complexes in the Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-Schiff base complexes have attracted continued research interest regarding their intriguing and useful features, while the electronic properties of these complexes in the confined space have not been sufficiently addressed in previous studies. In this work, a new zinc(II-Schiff base complex bis(N-dodecyl salicylideneiminatoZn(II (1 was synthesized and subsequently loaded in an inorganic solid host. A large red shift (~40 nm of the absorption onset was recorded, when the microenvironment of 1 changed from the solvent ethanol to the inorganic solid medium, evidencing the confined space effect. The marked shift of the absorption onset was associated with a band-gap reduction between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO. Theoretical calculation results showed that the confined space effect is distance dependent and exerts a more profound influence on the HOMO than the LUMO within an effective distance range. An initial study implied that the confined space effect is also accompanied with the electron density variation.

  8. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  9. 76 FR 5607 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Rock Springs Field Office, Wyoming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... habitat, healthy landscapes initiative, air quality and global climate change, wild horse and burro...: cultural and historic resources, Native American concerns, energy and minerals development, renewable energy and associated transmission infrastructure, fire and fuels management, lands and realty...

  10. Electron microscopy observations of MgB 2 wire prepared by an internal Mg diffusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Y.; Kubota, Y.; Hata, S.; Ikeda, K.; Nakashima, H.; Matsumoto, A.; Togano, K.; Kumakura, H.

    2011-11-01

    Microstructure in a high-density MgB2 wire fabricated by an internal Mg diffusion (IMD) process has been investigated by electron microscopy imaging and analysis at different scales. In the IMD process, a pure Mg rod was used as Mg source, and nanosized SiC powders were mixed with amorphous B powders. In the case of a heat treatment at 640 °C for 1 h carried out after rolling and drawing processes, the wire has two microstructural features that degrade critical current density: uncrystallized zones composed mainly of unreacted B and SiC powders, and cracks partly filled with course Mg2Si crystals. Those cracks were formed in the uncrystallized zones as well as in crystallized MgB2 zones. It indicate that the cracks formed by the mechanical milling and drawing remain after the heat treatment.

  11. Electronic packaging materials prepared by powder injecting molding and pressure infiltration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AlSiCp (65 vol.% SiC) electronic packaging materials were manufactured by powder injection molding (PIM) and pressure infiltration process in order to obtain near net-shaped parts. SiCp preformed compacts obtained by pre-sintering process at 1150 K have high strength and good appearance, and the ratio of open porosity to total porosiry is nearly 98%. The relative density of composites is bigger than 99%. The thermal conductivity of AlSiCp composites fabricated by this method is 198 W·m-1·K-1, and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 8.0 × 10-6/K (298 K).

  12. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  13. One-Step Preparation of Silver Hexagonal Microsheets as Electrically Conductive Adhesive Fillers for Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hu-Ming; Guo, Ying; Huang, Sheng-Yun; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M F; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Yu, Shuhui; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-06-24

    A facile one-step solution-phase chemical reduction method has been developed to synthesize Ag microsheets at room temperature. The morphology of Ag sheets is a regular hexagon more than 1 μm in size and about 200 nm in thickness. The hexagonal Ag microsheets possess a smoother and straighter surface compared with that of the commercial Ag micrometer-sized flakes prepared by ball milling for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs). The function of the reagents and the formation mechanism of Ag hexagonal microsheets are also investigated. For the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate facet-selective capping, the Ag atoms freshly reduced by N2H4 would orientationally grow alone on the {111} facet of Ag seeds, with the synergistically selective etching of irregular and small Ag particles by H2O2, to form Ag hexagonal microsheets. The hexagonal Ag microsheet-filled epoxy adhesives, as electrically conductive materials, can be easily printed on various substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), epoxy, glass, and flexible papers. The hexagonal Ag microsheet filled ECAs demonstrate lower bulk resistivity (approximately 8 × 10(-5) Ω cm) than that of the traditional Ag micrometer-sized-flake-filled ECAs with the same Ag content of 80 wt % (approximately 1.2 × 10(-4) Ω cm).

  14. Preparation, theory, and biological applications of highly luminescent cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide quantum dots in optical and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, James Christopher

    This dissertation describes the preparation, theory, and applications of ZnS overcoated CdSe (core) quantum dots for applications as fluorescent probes in optical microscopy and as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) probes in electron microscopy, with applications to the biological sciences. The dissertation begins with a brief overview of quantum dots and their history. Next, a brief overview of the necessary semiconductor theory is discussed including the origin of the band gap, the origin of holes, the concepts of phonons, and trap states. Then, the role of the confinement potential in the quantum dot fluorescent spectrum is discussed in the context of the 3-dimensional spherical well. Included in this discussion is the role of excitonic electron-hole bound states. To provide a complete document useful to anyone who wishes to continue work along these lines, included is a methods section which describes the complete process of synthesis of the CdSe cores, overcoating the cores with ZnS, size selection of nanocrystals, water solubilization, and protein conjugation. The methods used in live cell labeling are included as well. In the section that follows, a discussion of the mathematical methods of image correlation spectroscopy (ICS) for extracting dynamic constants such as flow rates and diffusion constants from time lapse optical image data is discussed in the context of quantum dot fluorescent probes. Dynamic constants were obtained using live NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells labeled with IgG-anti-EGF conjugated quantum dots. These same cells were then fixed, imbedded in resin, sectioned to 100nm thick sections and imaged under the electron microscope. The electron dense cadmium selinide provides the contrast necessary to perform direct imaging of EGF receptor sites. In order to improve the data and move toward multi-channel imaging in the electron microscope, EELS spectroscopy and elemental mapping of quantum dots was performed. The theory along with a

  15. Intertwisted fibrillar diamond-like carbon films prepared by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武保; 王久丽; 张谷令; 范松华; 刘赤子; 杨思泽

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the structures, optical and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films are studied, which are prepared by a self-fabricated electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method at room temperature in the ambient gases of mixed acetylene and nitrogen. The morphology and microstructure of the processed film are characterized by the atomic force microscope image, Raman spectra and middle Fourier transform infrared transmittance spectra, which reveal that there is an intertwisted fibrillar diamond-like structure in the film and the film is mainly composed of sp3 CH, sp3 C-C, sp2 C=C, C=N and C60. The film micro-hardness and bulk modulus are measured by a nano-indenter and the refractive constant and deposition rate are also calculated.

  16. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Yong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.

  17. Optical characteristics of ZnS {sub x}Se{sub 1-x} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Hassan, Khedr M.M. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, School of Engineering, UCSI, Lot 18113, Off Jalan Cerdas, Taman Connaught, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: khedr@ucsi.edu.my; Muhamad, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, K.L. Malaysia (Malaysia); Radhakrishna, S

    2005-11-22

    The optical transmission measurements are used to determine various optical constants and properties of ZnS {sub x}Se{sub 1-x} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation onto glass substrates at 60 deg. C. The dispersion of the complex refractive index, the complex dielectric function and the absorption coefficient is studied in the transparent region of the spectrum and compared with the theoretical results calculated based on the model dielectric function. The fundamental optical energy gap is estimated by fitting the absorption coefficient data in the high absorption region to the direct transition expression. The variation of the energy gap with the composition in the film is investigated and compared with the results reported previously by other workers. The shift in the energy gap caused by the uniaxial stress inside the film and the grain size effect is estimated.

  18. Multifractal spectra of scanning electron microscope images of SnO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-09-01

    The concept of fractal geometry has proved useful in describing structures and processes in experimental systems. In this Letter, the surface topographies of SnO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for various substrate temperatures were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifractal spectra f(α) show that the higher the substrate temperature, the wider the spectrum, and the larger the Δf(Δf=f(α)-f(α)). It is apparent that the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases with the increasing substrate temperature, and the liquid droplets of SnO2 thin films are formed on previous thin films. These results show that the SEM images can be characterized by the multifractal spectra.

  19. Multifractal spectra of scanning electron microscope images of SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Shek, C.H. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-09-26

    The concept of fractal geometry has proved useful in describing structures and processes in experimental systems. In this Letter, the surface topographies of SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition for various substrate temperatures were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifractal spectra f({alpha}) show that the higher the substrate temperature, the wider the spectrum, and the larger the {delta}f({delta}f=f({alpha}{sub min})-f({alpha}{sub max})). It is apparent that the nonuniformity of the height distribution increases with the increasing substrate temperature, and the liquid droplets of SnO{sub 2} thin films are formed on previous thin films. These results show that the SEM images can be characterized by the multifractal spectra.

  20. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping.

  1. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  2. Electronic microscopy analysis of HAP single crystals prepared by hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友法; 闫玉华; 李美娟; 张宏泉

    2003-01-01

    H ydroxyapatite(HAP, Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2) is one of the quite important bone implant materials. Thehydroxyapatite crystals were synthesized under hydrothermal condition. The specimen was verified to be HAP crys-tal by the X-ray powder diffractometry(XRD). Then the specimen was distinguished single crystal from polycrystalby the use of the transmission electron microscope(TEM). The diffraction pattern of the specimen is neatly arrangeddiffraction spots, that verified the crystals were single crystals. The interplanar distance d calculated from diffrac-tion spot is coincided with that of HAP's JCPDS card. Moreover, crystal face angles calculated from crystal face in-dex are coincided with the values by measuring on the pattern. The HAP crystals are needle-like in shape with about3 μm in diameter and 180 μm in length. Most of the crystals are separate whiskers. Their length/diameter ratio ran-ges from 40 to 100. The average ratio is about 60.

  3. Structure and electronic properties features of amorphous chalhogenide semiconductor films prepared by ion-plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, N., E-mail: korobova3@mail.ru; Timoshenkov, S. [Department of Microelectronics, National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET), Zelenograd (Russian Federation); Almasov, N.; Prikhodko, O. [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tsendin, K. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21

    Structure of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductor glassy As-S-Se films, obtained by high-frequency (HF) ion-plasma sputtering has been investigated. It was shown that the length of the atomic structure medium order and local structure were different from the films obtained by thermal vacuum evaporation. Temperature dependence of dark conductivity, as well as the dependence of the spectral transmittance has been studied. Conductivity value was determined at room temperature. Energy activation conductivity and films optical band gap have been calculated. Temperature and field dependence of the drift mobility of charge carriers in the HF As-S-Se films have been shown. Bipolarity of charge carriers drift mobility has been confirmed. Absence of deep traps for electrons in the As{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} spectrum of localized states for films obtained by HF plasma ion sputtering was determined. Bipolar drift of charge carriers was found in amorphous As{sub 40}Se{sub 30}S{sub 30} films obtained by ion-plasma sputtering of high-frequency, unlike the films of these materials obtained by thermal evaporation.

  4. Lattice reorientation in tetragonal PMN-PT thin film induced by focused ion beam preparation for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneulin, Thibaud; Maeng, Wanjoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Hÿtch, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Focused ion beam sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can induce relaxation mechanisms in epitaxial thin films. Here, we describe a relaxation mechanism that can occur in materials having a tetragonal structure. We investigated the lattice structure of a 600 nm thick 0.4 [ Pb ( Mg 1 / 3 Nb 2 / 3 ) O 3 ] - 0.6 [ PbTiO 3 ] layer grown by epitaxy on (110) GdScO3 substrate using geometrical phase analysis applied to high resolution TEM images. The lattice mismatch at the interface is expected to favor the formation of c-domains. However, it was measured that the out-of-plane lattice parameter can decrease abruptly along the growth direction and the transition depends on the thickness of the TEM lamella. Different observations indicate that the crystal flipped by 90° following the preparation of the sample, so that the c-axis is oriented in the thinning direction. Such a mechanism can easily lead to misinterpretations and might happen in other materials with a similar structure.

  5. Evaluation of Pentachlorophenol Residues in Some Hygienic Papers Prepared from Virgin and Secondary Pulp by Electron Capture Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Akbari-adergani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual amount of pentachlorophenol (PCP as the most important paper preservative, which is extremely hazardous pollutant, was determined in some tissue papers and napkins. Twenty-five samples of two producing hygienic paper factories prepared from virgin and secondary pulp were analyzed for the presence of trace amount of PCP. The analytical procedure involved direct extraction of PCP from hygienic paper and its determination by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The statistical results for the analysis of all samples revealed that there were significant differences between mean of PCP in hygienic papers prepared from virgin and secondary pulp (P<0.05. This method gave recoveries of 86-98% for hygienic paper made from virgin pulp and 79-92% for hygienic paper made from secondary pulp. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ for PCP were 6.3 and 21.0 mg/kg, respectively. The analytical method has the requisite sensitivity, accuracy, precision and specificity to assay PCP in hygienic papers. This study demonstrates a concern with exposition to PCP considering that hygienic paper is largely consumed in the society.

  6. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姚竹; 马东

    2011-01-01

    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  7. High-Purity Nickel Prepared by Electron Beam Melting: Purification Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Shang, Zaiyan; Chen, Ming; He, Jinjiang; Lv, Baoguo; Wang, Xingquan; Xiong, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    A bulk cylindrical high-purity nickel ingot, with purity of more than 99.999 pct (5N) in mass, was obtained from the raw nickel with 99.95 pct (3N5) initial purity by virtue of double electron beam melting (EBM). A chemical analysis was performed by using glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) analysis for all elements in the periodic table except carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which were tested by the high-performance combustion and fusion method. The major impurities B, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, As, Ag, Sb, and Pb showed an excellent removal effect with removal efficiency of more than 85 pct following the double EBMs. Li, Mg, Cl, K, V, Mn, Ga, Ge, Cd, Se, In, Sn, Tl, Au, and Pt were below the detection limit. No significant change in concentration was found for the refractory elements W, Mo, Ta, Nb, and Ir. Be, F, Sc, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Y, Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Re, Os, Hg, Bi, Th, and U were not detectable following the purification as compared to the raw nickel. Gaseous impurities, C, N, O, especially for N, was removed sufficiently. Theoretical calculations for removal efficiency of impurity Fe based on the calculated vapor pressure, activity coefficient, and melt temperature were in good agreement with measured results, and the purification mechanism was ascribed to the evaporation of major impurities and subsequently evacuation by repetitive EBM.

  8. Morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er:YAG laser (LiteTouch, Syneron), Carisolv and rotary instruments. A scanning electron microscopy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanova, Snejana Ts; Tomov, Georgi T

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro investigation aimed to study by means of scanning electron microscope the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after using several different methods for caries removal and cavity preparation. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth with carious lesions were used in the study. They were assigned to four groups depending on the method used for preparation: Group 1--Cavity preparation using Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch, Syneron, Israel). Group 2--Chemomechanical preparation using colourless Carisolv gel (MediTeam AB, Savedalen, Sweden). Group 3--Mechanical rotary preparation using diamond burs and air turbine. Group 4--Mechanical rotary preparation using by steel burs and micromotor. The preparations were performed strictly according to the manufacturer's instructions for proper use of instruments. The teeth samples were prepared for histological study and investigated by a scanning electron microscope at different magnification; the morphological changes in the tissues were registered and compared. There were considerable differences in the surface characteristics of the dental tissues when we analysed the photomicrographs of the specimens obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface after laser treatment remained highly retentive with no residual smear layer; the second best results in this respect were registered when teeth were chemomechanically excavated with Carisolv gel. The mechanical methods of cavity preparation resulted in surfaces with a smear layer of dentin without any microretentions. The scanning electron microscopy of hard dental tissues prepared using steel and diamond burs showed surfaces covered with a thick smear layer that may be relevant to the subsequent bonding of adhesive restorative materials to the prepared cavity. In preparing the surface using a turbine with diamond burs the smear layer was thinner and part of the dentinal tubules orifices were open in the area of water turbulence. SEM analysis of hard

  9. Electronic transport in highly conducting Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Vai, Alex T.; Edwards, Peter P., E-mail: peter.edwards@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Al-Mamouri, Malek; Stuart Abell, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    Highly conducting (ρ = 3.9 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm) and transparent (83%) polycrystalline Si-doped ZnO (SiZO) thin films have been deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition from (ZnO){sub 1−x}(SiO{sub 2}){sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) ceramic targets prepared using a sol-gel technique. Along with their structural, chemical, and optical properties, the electronic transport within these SiZO samples has been investigated as a function of silicon doping level and temperature. Measurements made between 80 and 350 K reveal an almost temperature-independent carrier concentration consistent with degenerate metallic conduction in all of these samples. The temperature-dependent Hall mobility has been modeled by considering the varying contribution of grain boundary and electron-phonon scattering in samples with different nominal silicon concentrations.

  10. Multiple double cross-section transmission electron microscope sample preparation of specific sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Lynne M; Mittal, Surbhi; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Cohen, Guy M; Sleight, Jeffrey W

    2011-12-01

    The ability to prepare multiple cross-section transmission electron microscope (XTEM) samples from one XTEM sample of specific sub-10 nm features was demonstrated. Sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire (NW) devices were initially cross-sectioned using a dual-beam focused ion beam system in a direction running parallel to the device channel. From this XTEM sample, both low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from six separate, specific site Si NW devices. The XTEM sample was then re-sectioned in four separate locations in a direction perpendicular to the device channel: 90° from the original XTEM sample direction. Three of the four XTEM samples were successfully sectioned in the gate region of the device. From these three samples, low- and high-resolution TEM images of the Si NW were taken and measurements of the NW diameters were obtained. This technique demonstrated the ability to obtain high-resolution TEM images in directions 90° from one another of multiple, specific sub-10 nm features that were spaced 1.1 μm apart.

  11. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 °C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 °C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 ± 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO).

  12. 75 FR 55344 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Cedar City Field Office, Utah, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    .... The issues include: Renewable energy development for geothermal, wind, and solar power; management of rights-of-way for renewable energy and other uses; visual resource management; evaluation of potential... climate change. 4. Areas potentially suitable for ACECs and other special management designations will...

  13. Toward the 21st Century: Preparing Proactive Visionary Transformational Leaders for Building Learning Communities. Human Resource Development. Phoenix Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    This document describes the human resources development (HRD) seminar that has been part of Nova University's nontraditional practitioner-oriented, problem-solving, field-based doctoral program in higher education since 1990. Discussed first are HRD in the agricultural and business industrial eras and changing HRD practices/needs in the context of…

  14. Preparanda a Sus Hijos para la Universidad. Guia para Padres (Preparing Your Child for College. A Resource Book for Parents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Elizabeth; Tikoff, Valentina K.

    This document is a Spanish translation of a resource book designed to help parents help their children with the process of making decisions about college. Its purpose is to help parents to: set high expectations for their children's future; know what college options are available; plan their finances with college in mind; and know what financial…

  15. 76 FR 56790 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the Caliente Resource Management Plan and Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Caliente RMP identifies parcels one and two for land tenure adjustment through land exchanges to consolidate natural resource values. Under the Caliente RMP, public lands identified for land tenure... tenure adjustment. All public lands in the Coast Management Area were identified as possibly...

  16. 75 FR 32962 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... planning documents; 8. The BLM will work cooperatively and collaboratively with cooperating agencies and... questions and concerns that should be addressed in the plan. The BLM will work collaboratively with... resource management, wilderness, wild and scenic rivers, sociology and economics, and forest...

  17. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  18. A Microbiological Preparation Based on the Homofermentative Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from the Natural Sources for Bioconservation of Plant Resources (Review of Studies between 2000 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Shurkhno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies performed by the author for improving the process of bioconservation of plant resources by creating an effective microbiological preparation based on the active strains of lactic acid bacteria. It is known that the problem of production of biological preservatives can be solved by using the basic principles of microbiological and biotechnological processes that contribute to the creation of biological preservatives ensuring the most optimal and efficient fermentation of plant mass, i.e., by using homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from the natural ecological niches, as well as by conservation of plant mass with the help of lactic acid bacteria at the stage of high physiological activity. In view of the above features, а microbial preparation “Universal Silage Ferment – BIOAGRO” was developed on the basis of two new strains of Lactobacillus plantarum RS3 and L. plantarum RS4, both isolated from natural sources, and implemented in the industrial production. Indus-trial introduction and testing of the microbiological preparation was carried out for 3 years (2012–2014 in ten farms of eight districts of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia. It was found that the use of the preparation along with an optimized technology of bioconservation of high-protein perennials, annual grasses, their mixtures and corn, and slightly dried herbs in anaerobic conditions improves the qualitative characteristics of silage and haylage, as well as increases their energy value and enhances the economic performance of technological processes of fodder conservation.

  19. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (<50 μm) for Scanning Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature and our own tests, we have distilled a simpler (although slightly crude) method to prepare bacterial samples in a fast way. We only employ readily available chemicals requiring no more than a fume hoo...

  20. Rationale for using integrated enzymatic preparation for receiving food fibers from secondary resources of vegetable material processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to establish some rational modes of receipt of the food fibers (FF from secondary resources of vegetable raw materials. Studying chemical properties of research objects has been carried out by standard methods in accordance with the GOST 26183–84, GOST 7636–85, GOST 25555.3–82, GOST 28561–90. Determination of reducing and not reducing sugars content has been performed by the cyanide method; determination of pectinaceous substances' content – by the calcium-pectate method. As an enzyme medicine the earlier not studied complex enzyme medicine of proteolytic and amilolytic action of Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium emersonii cultures has been tested. Studying heat stability of complex enzyme medicine has been carried out at varying of the hydrolysis temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C. The fractional composition of carbohydrates of secondary resources of aubergines, vegetable marrows and onions conversion has been researched. Content of FF (cellulose, gemitsellyuloza, pectin in waste from conversion of vegetable marrows constitutes 42 % of general content of carbohydrates, aubergines – 39,2 %, and onion – 30,4 %. Chemical and carbohydrate structures of secondary resources of vegetable raw materials allow consider them as FF source, and also shows feasibility of their conversion without fractionation by the form of secondary resources. The rational modes of hydrolysis of vegetable raw materials secondary resources' mix for removing the accompanying organic compounds have been determined. The maximum proteolytic activity of enzyme medicine takes place at the temperature of 50 °C, amilolytic activity – at 70 °C. In case of рН increase from 2.0 to 6.0 proteolytic and amilolytic activity reaches the maximum and constitutes 94 % and 95 % respectively, in case of further increase рН the activity decreases. The rational value of рН of reactionary environment when carrying out enzymatic hydrolysis in the

  1. Preparation of cultured cells using high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution for subsequent 2D or 3D visualization in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Philippa C

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an invaluable technique used for imaging the ultrastructure of samples and it is particularly useful when determining virus-host interactions at a cellular level. The environment inside a TEM is not favorable for biological material (high vacuum and high energy electrons). Also biological samples have little or no intrinsic electron contrast, and rarely do they naturally exist in very thin sheets, as is required for optimum resolution in the TEM. To prepare these samples for imaging in the TEM therefore requires extensive processing which can alter the ultrastructure of the material. Here we describe a method which aims to minimize preparation artifacts by freezing the samples at high pressure to instantaneously preserve ultrastructural detail, then rapidly substituting the ice and infiltrating with resin to provide a firm matrix which can be cut into thin sections for imaging. Thicker sections of this material can also be imaged and reconstructed into 3D volumes using electron tomography.

  2. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  3. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  4. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  5. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  6. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  7. Using a Web-Based Resource to Prepare Students for Fieldwork: Evaluating the Dark Peak Virtual Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Julia

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on development of a Dark Peak website and its use to prepare first-year geography students for a one-day physical geography field course in the south Pennines. The Virtual Tour (VT) component of the website is the main focus of this paper. Pre- and post-fieldwork evaluations of the first version of the VT by 195 students are…

  8. Using a Web-Based Resource to Prepare Students for Fieldwork: Evaluating the Dark Peak Virtual Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Julia

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on development of a Dark Peak website and its use to prepare first-year geography students for a one-day physical geography field course in the south Pennines. The Virtual Tour (VT) component of the website is the main focus of this paper. Pre- and post-fieldwork evaluations of the first version of the VT by 195 students are…

  9. Preparation of nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/polyethylene separator crosslinked by electron beam irradiation for lithium secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Young-Chang; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa; Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Yoon-Mook; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Although micro-porous membranes made of polyethylene (PE) offer excellent mechanical strength and chemical stability, they exhibit large thermal shrinkage at high temperature, which causes a short circuit between positive and negative electrodes in cases of unusual heat generation. We tried to develop a new technology to reduce the thermal shrinkage of PE separators by introducing γ-Al2O3 particles treated with coupling agent on PE separators. Nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators were prepared by the dip coating of polyethylene(PE) separators in γ-Al2O3/poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/crosslinker (1,3,5-trially-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H,3 H,5 H)-trione (TTT) solution with humidity control followed by electron beam irradiation. γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT (95/5/2)-coated PE separator showed the highest electrolyte uptake (157%) and ionic conductivity (1.3 mS/cm). On the basis of the thermal shrinkage test, the nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators containing TTT irradiated by electron beam exhibited a higher thermal resistance. Moreover, a linear sweep voltammetry test showed that the irradiated nanocomposite γ-Al2O3/PE separators have electrochemical stabilities of up to 5.0 V. In a battery performance test, the coin cell assembled with γ-Al2O3/PVDF-HFP/TTT-coated PE separator showed excellent discharge cycle performance.

  10. Preparation of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films by sequential electron beam evaporation and oxygen annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, J.; Tsaur, B.; Anderson, A.C.; Strauss, A.J.

    1989-01-30

    Superconducting films with nominal composition Bi/sub 2/Sr/sub 2/Ca/sub 1/Cu/sub 2/O/sub x/ have been prepared on <100> MgO substrates by sequential electron beam evaporation of Cu, Bi, and Sr/sub 2/3/ Ca/sub 1/3/ F/sub 2/, followed by annealing in flowing wet, then dry, O/sub 2/. X-ray diffraction data show that the films contain the two Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O phases that have been identified in the literature as a superconducting phase with capprox.31 A and a semiconducting phase with capprox.24 A. Both phases are strongly textured with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate. For the best film, which was annealed at 870 /sup 0/C for 30 min, zero resistance was observed at 90 K, and the critical current density increased from 0.8 x 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 77 K to 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K.

  11. Facile, Low-Cost, UV-Curing Approach to Prepare Highly Conductive Composites for Flexible Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fucheng; Chen, Shilong; Wei, Yong; Liu, Konghua; Lin, Yong; Liu, Lan

    2016-07-01

    We present a facile approach to prepare high-performance ultraviolet (UV)-curable polyurethane-acrylate-based flexible electrical conductive adhesive (PUA-FECA) for flexible electronics applications. PUA is employed as the polymer matrix so that the ECA is flexible and UV-curable at room temperature in just a few minutes. The effects of the PUA-FECA formulation and curing procedure on the electrical properties have been studied. Very low volume resistivity (5.08 × 10-4 Ω cm) is obtained by incorporating 70 wt.% microsized Ag-coated Cu flakes. Moreover, by simply standing the PUA-FECA paste for 4 h before exposure to UV light, the bulk resistivity of the PUA-FECA is dramatically decreased to 3.62 × 10-4 Ω cm. This can be attributed to rearrangement of Ag-coated Cu flakes in the matrix while standing. PUA-FECA also presents stable electrical conductivity during rolling and compression, excellent adhesion, and good processability, making it easily scalable to large-scale fabrication and enabling screen-printing on various low-cost flexible substrates such as office paper and polyethylene terephthalate film.

  12. Structural and optical properties of Zn1−xNixTe thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zn1−xNixTe thin films with different composition (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 were deposited on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique followed by its characterization using advanced structural and optical analysis techniques. Structural properties of the prepared thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The XRD patterns revealed that the binary compounds transformed into a ternary compound with cubic structure having preferred orientation along the c-direction with (111 planes. Composition analysis of the films was determined by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX and found to be in agreement with the precursor composition. Optical properties such as extinction coefficient (k and band gap energy of these films were examined by using a spectroscopic ellipsometer. It was found that the extinction coefficient (k increased with the addition of Ni content in the alloy. In comparison, the band gap energy was also determined by using transmission spectra and found to be agreed with that of the ellipsometric results. These analyses confirm that the band gap energy decreases with the increase of Ni content in the alloy.

  13. A simple and low-toxic method of preparing small specimens of bacteria, flagellates and their likes for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, O. S.; Buchman, K.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of samples of bacteria and other very small organisms (Scanning Electron Microscopy is often complex and intricate, which typically involve the use of specialized filter systems, complex handling and toxic chemicals. Based on the methods described in the literature...

  14. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  15. STIRAP preparation of a coherent superposition of ThO $H^3\\Delta_1$ states for an improved electron EDM measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, C D; West, A D; Baron, J; Hess, P W; Hoffman, C; Kirilov, E; Overstreet, C B; West, E P; DeMille, D; Doyle, J M; Gabrielse, G

    2016-01-01

    Experimental searches for the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science \\textbf{343}, 269 (2014)], constraining time reversal symmetry ($T$) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO $H^3\\Delta_1$ states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using STIRAP. We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of $75\\pm5\\%$, representing a significant gain in signal for a next generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transfered via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.

  16. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑云; 张嵩

    2012-01-01

    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  17. The Resources 6th And 7th Grade Students Use While Preparing Projects And Performence Tasks For Socıal Studies Course, Use Of The Internet As A Resource, And The Difficulties That They Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKDAĞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the resources benefited by the pupils and the difficulties that they experience while preparing performance and project tasks related to the classroom activities in Social Sciences Program initiated in 2005. The universe of the study is all the sixth and seventh grade students of primary schools in Konya city. In the study, open-ended question with the convenient sampling method, which is used in qualitative research methods, is used, and for analyzing the qualitative data, contents analysis method, which is formed with recessive theme in theoretical sense and sub themes, is applied. The study demonstrated that the sixth grade students use internet, libraries, reference books and the others respectively, and the seventh grade students use internet, reference books, libraries and the others respectively. However, both sixth and seventh grade experience such problems as time limitation, difficulty of assignment and inability to understand, failing to find proper resources, structural characteristics of internet and layout of the assignment. Sixth and seventh grade students experience these problems at different levels. In the light of findings some suggestions are made.

  18. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  19. Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically short-lived carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of short lived molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically short-lived carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.

  20. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David; Truche, Robert; Rouviere, Jean-Luc

    2008-04-01

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  1. Reduction of electrical damage in specimens prepared using focused ion beam milling for dopant profiling using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, David [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: david.cooper@cea.fr; Truche, Robert [CEA LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Rouviere, Jean-Luc [CEA DRFMC-Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-04-15

    GaAs specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared using focused ion beam (FIB) milling for examination using off-axis electron holography. By lowering the FIB operating voltage from 30 to 8 kV, we have shown a systematic reduction of the electrically 'inactive' thickness from 220 to 100 nm, resulting in a significant increase in the step in phase measured across the junctions as well as an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that the step in phase measured across the junctions can be influenced by the intensity of the electron beam.

  2. Blotting-free and lossless cryo-electron microscopy grid preparation from nanoliter-sized protein samples and single-cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stefan A; Albiez, Stefan; Bieri, Andrej; Syntychaki, Anastasia; Adaixo, Ricardo; McLeod, Robert A; Goldie, Kenneth N; Stahlberg, Henning; Braun, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample preparation method for cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) that requires only 3-20nL of sample to prepare a cryo-EM grid, depending on the protocol used. The sample is applied and spread on the grid by a microcapillary. The procedure does not involve any blotting steps, and real-time monitoring allows the water film thickness to be assessed and decreased to an optimum value prior to vitrification. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for high-resolution cryo-EM and will enable alternative electron microscopy approaches, such as single-cell visual proteomics. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  4. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  5. A Novel Hybrid Ultramicrotomy/FIB-SEM Technique: Preparation of Serial Electron-Transparent Thin Sections of a Hayabusa Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese space agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission returned the first particulate samples (typically SEM). Using a diamond trim knife, the epoxy surrounding the grain is removed on 3 sides (to within a few microns of the grain); the depth of material removed extends well below the bottom of the particle. The sample is attached to an SEM pin mount, the epoxy coated with conductive paint, and the entire assembly coated with approx. 40nm of carbon to eliminate sample charging during FIB work. A protective carbon cap is placed according to the plan for the 15 FIB sections. The central 'spine' of the cap runs perpendicular to the front of the sample, and the 'ribs' protruding from either side run parallel. Each rib indicates the location of a planned FIB section, and the spine contains the final two planned sections. We use a cap with a 4 micron-wide spine and 2micron-wide ribs that have ?3.5 micron of space between them (narrower cuts result in too much re-deposition of material inside the trenches). Using a 30kV, 3nA ion-beam we expose the front surface of the grain and commence milling trenches between sections. Rather than using the typical C-cut to prepare the sample for lift-out, an L-cut is used instead, leaving the sample connected by an interior tab. tab. Sections are lifted out, attached to TEM grids and thinned to electron transparency. TEM analyses show that our hybrid technique preserves both interior and edge features, including surface modifications from exposure to the space environment, such as damaged rims that form in response to solar wind implantation effects and adhering grains. In addition, the FIB sections provide larger areas that are free of fractures and chatter effects in comparison to the microtome thin sections, thus enabling more accurate measurements of solar flare particle track densities that are used to determine the surface exposure age of the particles.

  6. Scanning transmission electron microscope analysis of amorphous-Si insertion layers prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition, causing low surface recombination velocities on crystalline silicon wafers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Microstructures of stacked silicon-nitride/amorphous-silicon/crystalline-silicon (SiN_x/a-Si/c-Si) layers prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition were investigated with scanning transmission electron microscopy to clarify the origin of the sensitive dependence of surface recombination velocities (SRVs) of the stacked structure on the thickness of the a-Si layer. Stacked structures with a-Si layers with thicknesses greater than 10 nm exhibit long effective carrier lifetimes, while thos...

  7. Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of High-Temperatur Oxidation of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy Prepared by Focused Ion Beam Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Focused Ion Beam (FIB technique was applied for cross section preparation of the oxidized alloy for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study. Prior to preparation, the specimens of Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy sheet were oxidized in air at 1200 oC for 2 minutes, 10 minutes, 2 hours, and 100 hours. The microstructure and elemental composition of the samples were characterized using TEM equipped with an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX. The Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS was used to determine of the light elements. The TEM investigation reveals remarkable microstructure evolution of the specimens during oxidation which generally exhibit a typical multi-layer structure. The TEM images, however, can provide detailed description about the phases occur after oxidation such as the Tungsten (W and the Gallium (Ga layers on top of the samples obviously formed during FIB preparation, the formation of Al2O3 and Cr2O3 layer, MgAl2O4 spinel, porosity, Zr/Hf/Mg phases or clusters inside the oxide scale. Hence, the FIB technique has been proven to be reliable preparation technique for microstructural and elemental studies of Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy using TEM.

  8. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  9. Sample Preparation of Nano-sized Inorganic Materials for Scanning Electron Microscopy or Transmission Electron Microscopy: Scientific Operating Procedure SOP-P-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    present other challenges, as destruction of detail structures may occur because this technique involves air drying, which may collapse cell...Procedure SOP-P-2 Charles A. Weiss, Jr., and Robert D. Moser Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development...conductors and may need to be coated to passivate the surface so that electrons from the electron beam are carried from the surface. Certain metal

  10. Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Bae Choi; Jong-Seok Park; Myung-Seob Khil; Hui-Jeong Gwon; Youn-Mook Lim; Sung-In Jeong; Young-Min Shin; Young-Chang Nho

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (S...

  11. The New Resource File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  12. The providing resources to enhance African American patients’ readiness to make decisions about kidney disease (PREPARED study: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Patti L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living related kidney transplantation (LRT is underutilized, particularly among African Americans. The effectiveness of informational and financial interventions to enhance informed decision-making among African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD and improve rates of LRT is unknown. Methods/design We report the protocol of the Providing Resources to Enhance African American Patients’ Readiness to Make Decisions about Kidney Disease (PREPARED Study, a two-phase study utilizing qualitative and quantitative research methods to design and test the effectiveness of informational (focused on shared decision-making and financial interventions to overcome barriers to pursuit of LRT among African American patients and their families. Study Phase I involved the evidence-based development of informational materials as well as a financial intervention to enhance African American patients’ and families’ proficiency in shared decision-making regarding LRT. In Study Phase 2, we are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial in which patients with new-onset ESRD receive 1 usual dialysis care by their nephrologists, 2 the informational intervention (educational video and handbook, or 3 the informational intervention in addition to the option of participating in a live kidney donor financial assistance program. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will include patients’ self-reported rates of consideration of LRT (including family discussions of LRT, patient-physician discussions of LRT, and identification of a LRT donor. Discussion Results from the PREPARED study will provide needed evidence on ways to enhance the decision to pursue LRT among African American patients with ESRD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01439516

  13. The effects of cavity-filling techniques on microleakage in class II resin restorations prepared with Er:YAG laser and diamond bur: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Emre; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Firatli, Erhan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two cavity-filling techniques affect microleakage in class II resin restorations prepared with Er:YAG laser and diamond bur. Standard MO and DO cavities were prepared in 20 extracted third molars, each randomly assigned to either Group-1 [Herculite XRV Ultra-bur-prepared cavity(bp)], Group-2 [Herculite XRV Ultra-laser-prepared cavity(lp)], Group-3 (SonicFill-(bp)], or Group-4 [SonicFill-(lp)]. For Groups 2 and 4, cavities were prepared by using an Er:YAG laser with a wavelength of 2.94 μm, output power of 200 mJ/pulse, and repetition rate of 20Hz. Teeth were restored with a one-step, self-etch adhesive material (OptiBond All-in-One), a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XRV Ultra), and a bulk-fill composite (SonicFill) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Five teeth from each group were chosen for microleakage investigation and two teeth for scanning electron microscope evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. Pair-wise comparisons were performed by Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction (p SCANNING 38:389-395, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  15. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  16. Evaluation of apical preparations performed with ultrasonic diamond and stainless steel tips at different intensities using a scanning electron microscope in endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martos, Ramón; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Segura-Egea, Juan-José; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-11-01

    The objective of our study is to analyse (with the help of scanning electron microscopes) the quality of the dental root surface and the appearance of dental cracks after performing apical preparations using two different types of ultrasonic tips. We used 32 single-rooted teeth that underwent a root canal and apical resection. Afterwards, the teeth were divided into 4 groups of 8 teeth each, with preparations of the apical cavities in the following manner: Group 1: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 33 KHz. Group 2: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 30 KHz. Group 3: diamond ultrasonic tip at 30 KHz. Group 4: diamond ultrasonic tip at 33 KHz. The quality of the root surface and the presence of cracks were evaluated by one single observer using a scanning electron microscope. All of the teeth in our study had cracks after the apical preparations. The mean number of cracks per tooth ranged between 6. ± 1.9 (group 1) and 3.5 ± 2.4 (group 4), with a significantly higher number found in the groups that used stainless steel tips (P=.03). The types of cracks produced involved: 8 complete cracks (4.5%), 167 incomplete cracks (94.4%), and 2 intradentinal cracks (1.1%), with no significant differences observed between the different frequencies used for each group. Stainless steel ultrasonic tips provoked a larger number of cracks than diamond tips. The frequency of vibration used did not have any effect on the number of cracks found.

  17. Dielectric and Insulating Properties of Embedded Capacitor for Flexible Electronics Prepared by Aerosol-Type Nanoparticle Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Amada, Hideyuki; Kumasaka, Fumiaki

    2013-05-01

    The rapid evolution in electronic equipment has created a demand for advanced devices that are flexible, thin, and light in weight. This demand is driving the development of a core technology for flexible and stretchable electronic devices. To produce wearable computers, we need to fabricate functional membranes that contain passive devices, such as capacitors and resistors, on resin sheets at low temperatures. These sheets can then serve as mounting boards for various electronic devices. By improving the technique for room-temperature aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition of a ceramic material, we have established a technology for forming a dielectric inorganic BaTiO3 film with an excellent degree of crystallinity and favorable electric properties for use in the production of flexible and stretchable electronic devices on a polyimide sheet. By this method of forming a homogeneous nanoparticle structure inside a film, we produced a capacitor film with a dielectric constant of 200 on a polyimide sheet at room temperature.

  18. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊贵琍; 余涛

    2012-01-01

    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  19. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  20. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Nho, Young-Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  1. Preparation and characterization of a PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separator for lithium-ion polymer battery by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Im, Jong Su; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    In this study, polyethylene separators were modified by dip coating of polyethylene (PE) separators in poly(vinylidene fluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA) mixtures at different humidity levels (0-50%), followed by electron beam irradiation. Micro-porous structures of the coating layer were generated by performing dip-coating process at high humidity levels (i.e. phase inversion process) and were found to be affected by the PEGDMA content and humidity level. The thermal shrinkage of the prepared separators significantly decreased with increasing EB absorption dose due to the formation of crosslinked networks of the PVDF-HFP/PEGDMA-coated PE separators. It was also observed that the separators prepared under high humidity condition showed a higher liquid electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity than the original PE separators.

  2. Electronic properties and the nature of metal–insulator transition in NdNiO{sub 3} prepared at ambient oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, M.K.; Yadav, C.S., E-mail: shkehar@iitmandi.ac.in

    2016-06-15

    We report the electronic properties of the NdNiO{sub 3}, prepared at the ambient oxygen pressure condition. The metal–insulator transition temperature is observed at 192 K, but the low temperature state is found to be less insulating compared to the NdNiO{sub 3} prepared at high oxygen pressure. The electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the compound show large hysteresis below the metal–insulator transition. The large value of the effective mass (m*~8m{sub e}) in the metallic state indicates the narrow character of the 3d band. The electric conduction at low temperatures (T=2–20 K) is governed by the variable range hopping of the charge carriers.

  3. Electronic properties and the nature of metal-insulator transition in NdNiO3 prepared at ambient oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, M. K.; Yadav, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    We report the electronic properties of the NdNiO3, prepared at the ambient oxygen pressure condition. The metal-insulator transition temperature is observed at 192 K, but the low temperature state is found to be less insulating compared to the NdNiO3 prepared at high oxygen pressure. The electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the compound show large hysteresis below the metal-insulator transition. The large value of the effective mass (m*~8me) in the metallic state indicates the narrow character of the 3d band. The electric conduction at low temperatures (T=2-20 K) is governed by the variable range hopping of the charge carriers.

  4. Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/β-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-06-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  5. Superconductivity and metallic behavior in Pb{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub δ} structures prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winhold, M., E-mail: winhold@Physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Weirich, P. M.; Schwalb, C. H.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Focused electron beam induced deposition as a direct-write approach possesses great potential to meet the demands for superconducting nanostructure fabrication especially regarding its 3D patterning capabilities combined with the high resolution in the nanometer regime. So far, however, it was not possible to fabricate superconducting structures with this technique. In this work, we present a lead-based superconductor prepared by focused electron beam induced deposition by dissociation of the precursor tetraethyllead. The as-grown structures exhibit metallic behavior and a minimum resistivity in the normal state of ρ = 16 μΩcm at T = 9 K followed by a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 7.2 K.

  6. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Reduced Graphene Oxide Decorated with Chitosan Oligosaccharide as Electrode Material for Enhancing the Direct Electron Transfer of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhimin; Yang, Dongliang; Qi, Guangqin; Yuwen, Lihui; Zhang, Yuqian; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-29

    Water-dispersed reduced graphene oxide/chitosan oligosaccharide (RGO-CTSO) was prepared by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and synchronous functionalization with biocompatible chitosan oligosaccharide (CTSO). ζ potential measurement indicated that RGO-CTSO was highly stable in the acidic aqueous solution. RGO-CTSO was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the growth template of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The enhanced direct electron transfer of E. coli on the RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with GCE or RGO-modified GCE, RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was more suitable for the adhesion growth of E. coli to improve direct electron transfer. The biocompatibility and versatility of RGO-CTSO made it promising for use as an anode material in microbial fuel cells.

  7. The Preparation of Electronic Assembly Process Planning%电子装配工艺规程的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弥锐

    2011-01-01

    工艺文件是产品生产重要的技术文件之一,本文从企业生产一线工艺的角度论述了工艺文件的两大组成部分、电子产品工艺文件的成套性编制和工艺文件的管理,着重讲述了指导技术操作的工艺文件--工艺规程的编制.%The process file is one of important technical documents of product production. This paper discussed two major components of process documents, the preparation of sets of technical documents and the management of process documents from the point of production line process, highlighted the preparation of technical documents which guide the technical operation.

  8. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  9. Study of a sandwich structure of transparent conducting oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Po Kai; Cho, Wen Hao; Chen, Hung Ping; Hsiao, Chien Nan; Yang, Jer Ren

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conducting ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrodes having electrical resistance much lower than that of widely used transparent electrodes were prepared by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IAD) under oxygen atmosphere. The optical parameters were optimized by admittance loci analysis to show that the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film can achieve an average transmittance of 93%. The optimum thickness for high optical transmittance and good electrical conductivity was found to be 11 nm ...

  10. Solar Wind Electron Strahl - Preparations for Measurement with Solar Orbiter's SWA/EAS Sensor after Lessons from Helios and Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of the electron strahl population in the solar wind is a key diagnostic of the connectivity of the magnetic field to the solar atmosphere. As such, its measurement is fundamental to the success of the Solar Orbiter mission, with its scientific goals largely focussed around making the link between physical processes observed remotely in the near-Sun environment and the fields and particle populations detected in situ at the spacecraft. The Electron Analyser System (EAS) is part of the Solar Wind Analysers (SWA) suite of sensors which will be flown on the mission. It will make measurements of the 3D velocity distribution of electrons in the energy range of a few eV up to ~5 keV. In this presentation we first briefly review the expected capabilities of EAS. We then describe the strategies being developed to accurately categorize the electron strahl population with the sensor, with particular reference to our ongoing studies of relevant existing datasets from the Helios and Cluster missions.

  11. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英

    2014-01-01

    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  12. Microstructural analysis and Transport Properties of MoO and MoC nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2014-07-01

    By electron-beam-induced deposition, we have succeeded in the direct fabrication of nanowires of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and molybdenum carbide (MoC) on a SiO2 substrate set in a scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare MoOx specimens of high purity, a precursor gas of molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] is used, mixed with oxygen gas. On the other hand, MoC is grown by mixing H2O gas with the precursor gas. The electrical transport properties of the nanowires are investigated by the DC four-terminal method. A highly resistive MoOx nanowire prepared from an as-deposited specimen by annealing in air shows nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and a high photoconductivity. The resistivity ρ of an as-deposited amorphous MoC (a-MoC) nanowire takes its maximum at a temperature T ~ 10 K and decreases to ~ 0 with decreasing temperature. This behavior of ρ(T) indicates the possible occurrence of superconductivity in a-MoC nanowires. The characteristic of ρ(T) below the superconducting transition temperature Tc ~ 4 K can be well explained by the quantum phase-slip model with a coherence length ξ(0) ~ 8 nm at T = 0.

  13. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed.

  14. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed. PMID:27359147

  15. Recovery of silica from electronic waste for the synthesis of cubic MCM-48 and its application in preparing ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieves using a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Tzong-Horng

    2012-07-01

    The electronics industry is one of the world's fastest growing manufacturing industries. However, e-waste has become a serious pollution problem. This study reports the recovery of e-waste for preparing valuable MCM-48 and ordered mesoporous carbon for the first time. Specifically, this study adopts an alkali-extracted method to obtain sodium silicate precursors from electronic packaging resin ash. The influence of synthesis variables such as gelation pH, neutral/cationic surfactant ratio, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and calcination temperature on the mesophase of MCM-48 materials is investigated. Experimental results confirm that well-ordered cubic MCM-48 materials were synthesized in strongly acidic and strongly basic media. The resulting mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 1,317 m2/g, mean pore size of about 3.0 nm, and a high purity of 99.87 wt%. Ordered mesoporous carbon with high surface area (1,715 m2/g) and uniform pore size of CMK-1 type was successfully prepared by impregnating MCM-48 template using the resin waste. The carbon structure was sensitive to the sulfuric acid concentration and carbonization temperature. Converting e-waste into MCM-48 materials not only eliminates the disposal problem of e-waste, but also transforms industrial waste into a useful nanomaterial.

  16. Structural, electronic properties of microscale (NH4)2V3O8 fabricated using a novel preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, G. S.; Enyashin, A. N.; Podval'naya, N. V.; Zhuravlev, N. A.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Gorodetsky, R. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhu, Q.

    2017-02-01

    A new method has been developed for the synthesis of diammonium trivanadate (NH4)2V3O8. Single crystals of (NH4)2V3O8 were synthesized on a large scale by a soft base hydrolysis of NH4VO3 in NH4OH solution in the presence of VOSO4·3H2O. The effects of vanadium(V) concentration, pH value on the product morphology and phase composition were investigated. The formation mechanism of (NH4)2V3O8 was suggested. The samples were characterized using combination of techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and thermal analysis. Electronic structure, chemical bonding and adsorption properties of the bulk compound and (001) surface were analyzed by means of DFT calculations.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane/Al2O3/Epoxy Resin Composites for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were prepared by using LCPU as modifier. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties of the LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were investigated systematically. The thermal oxidation analysis indicated that LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites can sustain higher thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE was also found to decrease with addition of LCPU and nano-Al2O3.

  18. Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Bae Choi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid (PAAc and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA. The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect.

  19. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  20. Characterization and antimicrobial property of poly(acrylic acid) nanogel containing silver particle prepared by electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Bae; Park, Jong-Seok; Khil, Myung-Seob; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Lim, Youn-Mook; Jeong, Sung-In; Shin, Young-Min; Nho, Young-Chang

    2013-05-24

    In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels). The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA). The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect.

  1. Comparison of sample preparation methods combined with gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for the analysis of multipesticide residues in lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-06-01

    Sample preparation is always the major bottleneck in analytical chemistry for the determination of pesticide residues. Different sample preparation methods have been proposed due to the wide variety of pesticides used and the inherent complexity of the matrices. In this study, different sample preparation methods including SPE, matrix solid-phase dispersion, the quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged, and safe method, and a one-step completion method were compared and evaluated for extracting pesticides from lotus seeds. Analysis was carried out using GC with electron-capture detection. The results showed that good recoveries for tested pesticides were obtained by using Florisil in the four methods, and the extraction efficiency of the one-step completion method was superior to the other three methods. The one-step completion method was confirmed to have good linearity, reproducibility, stability, and recovery for the detection of 36 pesticides in lotus seed samples. The data collected from this study are expected to prove useful in regulating the concentration of the residues in lotus seeds, as well as in protecting human health from the hazards posed by these residues.

  2. Preparation of Pt Au/C and Pt Au Bi/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Cardoso, Elisangela S.Z.; Gomes, Thiago B.; Linardi, Marcelo; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Spinace, Estevam V., E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Pt Au/C (50:50) and PtAuBi/C electrocatalysts with Pt:Au:Bi atomic ratios of 50:40:10, 50:30:20 and 50:10:40 were prepared in water/2-propanol using electron beam irradiation. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by chronoamperometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements for all electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks, which are associated with the planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure characteristic of Pt and Pt alloys. For PtAuBi/C it was also observed the presence of a mixture of BiPt alloys and bismuth phases. The average crystallite sizes for Pt/C, PtAu/C, PtAuBi/C (50:40:10), PtAuBi/C (50:30:20) and PtAuBi/C (50:10:40) were in the range of 2.0 - 4.0 nm. The activity of the electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium showed that PtAuBi/C (50:40:10) had a higher performance for ethanol oxidation compared to others electrocatalysts prepared. (author)

  3. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  4. Reprecipitation phenomena arising during the preparation of demineralised sections. III Scanning electron microscopic examinations of secondary calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, R S; Johnson, G A; Browne, R M; Rowles, S L

    1976-11-01

    Sections of teeth partly demineralized in 10% formic acid were examined by X-ray diffraction, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy. In the undemineralized circumpulpal dentin, the tubules were empty, lying in a matrix containing hydroxyapatite. In the "plume" areas of remineralisation, the tubules were filled with mineral deposits. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of brushite and monetite in these areas. In the outer layers of dentin the tubules were empty, lying in a matrix containing some residual hydroxyapatite. These findings confirmed that the remineralisation process occurred within the dentinal tubules.

  5. Azo polymers with electronical push and pull structures prepared via RAFT polymerization and its photoinduced birefringence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methacrylate monomers containing azo and electronical push and pull structure, e.g. 2-Methyl-acrylic-acid-2-{[4-(4-cyano-phenylazo-3-methyl-phenyl]-ethyl-amino-ethyl ester (MACP with cyano substituted and 2-Methylacrylic-acid-2-{ethyl-[4-(4-methoxy-phenylazo-3-methyl-phenyl]-amino}-ethyl ester (MAMP with methoxy substituted, were synthesized and polymerized using 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB as chain transfer agent and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The results showed that the polymerization displayed characteristics of ‘living’/controlled free radical polymerization. Thus, the obtained polymers, polyMACP (pMACP and polyMAMP (pMAMP, had controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weights distribution. The chain extension experiments of pMACP and pMAMP using styrene as the second monomer were successfully carried out. The photo-induced trans-cis-trans isomerization kinetic of pMACP and pMAMP in chloroform solution were described. Marked differences in rate for the trans-cis and cis-trans isomerization of pMACP and pMAMP were observed in chloroform solution due to the different electronic effects in these two polymers. Photoinduced birefringence and surface relief grating (SRG of the pMACP and pMAMP were investigated in thin film state.

  6. Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) state of sulfite oxidase prepared by one-electron reduction with Ti(III) citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Rachel; Astashkin, Andrei V; Pacheco, Andrew; Raitsimring, Arnold M; Enemark, John H

    2002-03-01

    The titration of chicken liver sulfite oxidase (SO) with the one-electron reductant Ti(III) citrate, at pH 7.0, results in nearly quantitative selective reduction of the Mo(VI) center to Mo(V), while the b-type heme center remains in the fully oxidized Fe(III) state. The selective reduction of the Mo(VI/V) couple has been established from electronic and EPR spectra. The electronic spectrum of the Fe(III) heme center is essentially unchanged during the titration, and the continuous wave (CW)-EPR spectrum shows the appearance of the well-known Mo(V) signal due to the low pH ( lpH) form of SO. Further confirmation of the selective formation of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO is provided by the approximately 1:1 ratio of the integrated intensities of the Mo(V) and low-spin Fe(III) EPR signals after addition of one equivalent of Ti(III). The selective generation of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO is unexpected, considering that previous microcoulometry and flash photolysis investigations have indicated that the Mo(VI/V) and Fe(III/II) couples of SO have similar reduction potentials at pH 7. The nearly quantitative preparation of the one-electron reduced Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO by reduction with Ti(III) has enabled the interaction between these two paramagnetic metal centers, which are linked by a flexible loop with no secondary structure, to be investigated for the first time by variable-frequency pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy. The ELDOR kinetics were obtained from frozen solutions at 4.2 K at several microwave frequencies by pumping on the narrow Mo(V) signal and observing the effect on the Fe(III) primary echo at both higher and lower frequencies within the microwave C-band region. The ELDOR data indicate that freezing the solution of one-electron reduced SO produces localized regions where the concentration of SO approaches that in the crystal structure, which results in the interpair interactions being the dominant dipolar interaction

  7. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  8. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  9. Adoption of electronic health records and preparations for demonstrating meaningful use: an American Academy of Ophthalmology survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Michael V; Chiang, Michael F; Lim, Michele C; Wedemeyer, Linda; Epley, K David; McCannel, Colin A; Silverstone, David E; Lum, Flora

    2013-08-01

    To assess the current state of electronic health record (EHR) use by ophthalmologists, including adoption rate, user satisfaction, functionality, benefits, barriers, and knowledge of meaningful use criteria. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 492 members of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). A random sample of 1500 AAO members were selected on the basis of their practice location and solicited to participate in a study of EHR use, practice management, and image management system use. Participants completed the survey via the Internet, phone, or fax. The survey included questions about the adoption of EHRs, available functionality, benefits, barriers, satisfaction, and understanding of meaningful use criteria and health information technology concepts. Current adoption rate of EHRs, user satisfaction, benefits and barriers, and availability of EHR functionality. Overall, 32% of the practices surveyed had already implemented an EHR, 15% had implemented an EHR for some of their physicians or were in the process of implementation, and another 31% had plans to do so within 2 years. Among those with an EHR in their practice, 49% were satisfied or extremely satisfied with their system, 42% reported increased or stable overall productivity, 19% reported decreased or stable overall costs, and 55% would recommend an EHR to a fellow ophthalmologist. For those with an electronic image management system, only 15% had all devices integrated, 33% had images directly uploaded into their system, and 12% had electronic association of patient demographics with the image. The adoption of EHRs by ophthalmology practices more than doubled from 2007 to 2011. The satisfaction of ophthalmologists with their EHR and their perception of beneficial effects on productivity and costs were all lower in 2011 than in 2007. Knowledge about meaningful use is high, but the percentage of physicians actually receiving incentive payments is relatively low. Given the importance

  10. Preparation of dual-sensitive graft copolymer hydrogel based on N-maleoyl-chitosan and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) by electron beam radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinchen Fan; Jie Chen; Liming Yang; Han Lin; Fangqi Cao

    2009-10-01

    Organic solvent-soluble N-maleoyl-chitosan (NMCS) was synthesized by reaction of chitosan with maleic anhydride (MAH) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). N-maleoyl-chitosan-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NMCS-g-PNIPAAm) copolymer hydrogel was prepared via free radical polymerization by electron beam (EB) irradiation. The copolymer obtained was analysed by FT–IR, XRD and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the grafting yield and grafting efficiency increased with increasing radiation absorbed dose and monomer amount, and then decreased. The swelling ratio of the copolymer hydrogel was low at pH 4–5, and LCST of the hydrogel was around 32°C.

  11. Preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour deposition system assisted with hot wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiu-Hong; Chen Guang-Hua; Yin Sheng-Yi; Rong Yan-Dong; Zhang Wen-Li; Hu Yue-Hui

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of high-quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film with a new microwave electron cyclotron resonance-chemical vapour deposition (MWECR-CVD) system assisted with hot wire is presented. In this system the hot wire plays an important role in perfecting the microstructure as well as improving the stability and the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film. The experimental results indicate that in the microstructure of the a-Si:H film, the concentration of dihydride is decreased and a trace of microcrystalline occurs, which is useful to improve its stability, and that in the optoelectronic properties of the a-Si:H film, the deposition rate reaches above 2.0nm/s and the photosensitivity increases up to 4.71× 105.

  12. Comparison of the electron work function, hole concentration and exciton diffusion length for P3HT and PT prepared by thermal or acid cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tousek, J.; Touskova, J.; Ludvík, J.

    2016-01-01

    The electron work function, hole concentration and diffusion length were compared for poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer (P3HT) that is commonly used for construction of solar cells, and two types of native polythiophene (PT) samples which are prospective candidates for this purpose. The polythiophene...... samples were prepared from 2 different precursors by thermal or chemical treatment at room temperature. Cyclic voltammetry and work function measurements were used for estimating the concentration of holes. The measured data were evaluated assuming the validity of band theory based on the tight...... of conjugated polymer materials in solar cells, was measured by a modified surface photovoltage method. The approach allowed us to identify the differences in the material properties related to the processing method. Morphology of the samples determined by AFM was another tool showing these differences...

  13. Evidence for cytochrome b5 as an electron donor in ricinoleic acid biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stymne, S; Stobart, K

    1992-01-01

    The major b-type cytochrome in microsomal membrane preparations from developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) was cytochrome b5. Cytochrome P-450 was also present. The microsomal membranes had delta 12-hydroxylase activity and catalysed the NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylation of oleate to yield ricinoleic acid. CO had no effect on the hydroxylase activity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the hydrophilic cytochrome b5 fragment purified from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) floret microsomes. The anti-(cytochrome b5) IgG inhibited delta 12-hydroxylase, delta 12-desaturase and cytochrome c reductase activity in the microsomes. The results indicate that electrons from NAD(P)H were transferred to the site of hydroxylation via cytochrome b5 and that cytochrome P-450 was not involved. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1417766

  14. Unconventional Specimen Preparation Techniques Using High Resolution Low Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy to Study Cell Motility, Host Cell Invasion, and Internal Cell Structures in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Heide; Ris, Hans

    2002-04-01

    Apicomplexan parasites employ complex and unconventional mechanisms for cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division that are only poorly understood. While immunofluorescence and conventional transmission electron microscopy have been used to answer questions about the localization of some cytoskeletal proteins and cell organelles, many questions remain unanswered, partly because new methods are needed to study the complex interactions of cytoskeletal proteins and organelles that play a role in cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division. The choice of fixation and preparation methods has proven critical for the analysis of cytoskeletal proteins because of the rapid turnover of actin filaments and the dense spatial organization of the cytoskeleton and its association with the complex membrane system. Here we introduce new methods to study structural aspects of cytoskeletal motility, host cell invasion, and cell division of Toxoplasma gondii, a most suitable laboratory model that is representative of apicomplexan parasites. The novel approach in our experiments is the use of high resolution low voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM) combined with two new specimen preparation techniques. The first method uses LVFESEM after membrane extraction and stabilization of the cytoskeleton. This method allows viewing of actin filaments which had not been possible with any other method available so far. The second approach of imaging the parasite's ultrastructure and interactions with host cells uses semithick sections (200 nm) that are resin de-embedded (Ris and Malecki, 1993) and imaged with LVFESEM. This method allows analysis of structural detail in the parasite before and after host cell invasion and interactions with the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole as well as parasite cell division.

  15. The annealing temperature dependence of anatase TiO2 thin films prepared by the electron-beam evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherniya, Atefeh; Raoufi, Davood

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we report on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by an electron beam evaporation method on quartz glass substrates (15 × 15 × 2 mm3 in size), followed by post-annealing at 300 °C to 600 °C for an annealing time of up to 2 h. The substrate temperature during the film deposition was kept at 150 °C. The effect of post-growth thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films were systematically studied as a function of annealing temperature. We found that the as-deposited TiO2 films are amorphous in structure, while the films started to crystallize into the anatase phase when annealed at temperatures ≥450 °C. An increase in annealing temperature results in a decrease of transmittance percentage and also in optical band gap energy. The refractive indices of the films were evaluated from the measured transmittance spectra using the envelope method. An increase in the refractive index with an increase of annealing temperature was observed.

  16. Electron beam assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticle in chitosan stabilizer: Preparation, stability and inhibition of building fungi studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannoo, Kanokwan; Teerapatsakul, Churapa; Punyanut, Adisak; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chitosan (CS) stabilizer were successfully synthesized using electron beam irradiation. The effects of irradiation dose, molecular weight (MW) of CS stabilizer, concentration of AgNO3 precursor and addition of tert-butanol on AgNPs production were studied. The stability of the AgNPs under different temperatures and storage times were also investigated. The AgNPs formation in CS was observed using UV-vis, FT-IR and XRD. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the obtained AgNPs was around 418 nm. The CS stabilizer and its MW, AgNO3 precursor and irradiation doses are important parameters for the synthesis of AgNPs. The optimum addition of 20% v/v tert-butanol could assist the formation of AgNPs. The AgNPs in CS stabilizer were stable over a period of one year when the samples were kept at 5 °C. The AgNPs observed from TEM images were spherical with an average particle size in the range of 5-20 nm depending on the irradiation doses. The AgNPs in CS solution effectively inhibited the growth of several fungi, i.e., Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, which commonly found on the building surface.

  17. Effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 nanorod electrodes prepared by the solvothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells: Surface reconfiguration and improved electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyong; Yao, Jianxi; Zhang, Yongzhe; Guli, Mina; Xiao, Li

    2014-06-01

    Solvothermal synthesis is considered a novel method of preparing the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which can directly synthesize material with good crystallinity at low temperatures without thermal treatment. However, how thermal treatment influences the properties of the materials synthesized by this method is still unclear, especial at the microscopic level. In this study, we applied TiO2 nanorod arrays prepared by the solvothermal method to DSSCs. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman results indicate that the crystal structure of TiO2 nanorods did not change after thermal treatment. However, the photovoltaic performance improved by 39%. Detailed analysis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results demonstrate that a surface reconfiguration occurred, shifting one thin amorphous TiO2 layer to tiny crystallite spheres. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further confirm this morphology change, and the surface states also become more suitable for dye absorption, which leads to a significant improvement in efficiency. Moreover, good electrical transport is observed due to the low concentration of surface defects. Therefore, we believe the performance improvement comes from crystalline surface and surface chemical bonding improvements. Our results could be useful in photoelectrical applications of the solvothermal synthesis method.

  18. Glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevan Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelhos dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-supported metal nanoparticles were prepared for fuel cell applications by radiation-induced reduction of metal ions precursors. Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts (Pd:Sn atomic ratio 90:10), prepared by using electron beam irradiation, were tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC). EDX analysis showed that the Pd:Sn atomic ratio is very similar to the nominal one. X-ray diffractograms of PdSn/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd (fcc) phase. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicated that Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts have good activity for glycerol electro-oxidation, at room temperature. Experiments with single ADGFC were carried out from 60 to 90 deg C, using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts and glycerol 2.0 mol.L{sup -1}, as fuel. The best performance was obtained at 85 deg C, for both electrocatalysts. The Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar performance (34 mW cm{sup -2}), at 85 deg C. (author)

  19. 复合凝聚法制备电子墨水纳米胶囊%Preparation of nanoencapsulated electronic ink by complex coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登武; 王芳; 马素德; 赵晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the nanoencapsulated electronic ink containing TiO2 nanoparticles modified with stearic acid dispersed in tetrachloroethylene(TCE)were prepared by complex coacervation using gelatin-gum acacia as wall materials, and the factors effected the dispersion ability of suspension was discussed, and the nanoencapsulated electric inks were also prepared. The results showed the dispersion was able to be obtained by optimizing the factors. The nanocapsules prepared with uniform size distribution, and the TiO2 nanoparticles were encapsulated in nanocapsules identified by TEM.%以明胶-阿拉伯树胶为壁材,四氯乙烯(TCE)为分散介质,硬脂酸表面改性的纳米TiO2为显示颗粒,Span-80为稳定剂,采用复凝聚法一步制备了电子墨水纳米胶囊.讨论了各种因素对电泳液分散体系的影响,并制备了电子墨水纳米胶囊.结果表明,通过分析影响颗粒分散稳定性影响因素,可使得显色颗粒在体系中稳定存在.而纳米胶囊化处理后,制得的纳米胶囊粒径分布均匀,TiO2纳米颗粒被包覆在纳米胶囊内.

  20. Survey of shark fisheries and preparation of a National Plan of Action (NPOA) for conservation and management of shark resources in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The report presents; terms of reference; work progress; surveys of shark fishers and traders; shark biodiversity survey; and a National Plan of Action (NPOA) for conservation and management of shark resources in Bangladesh.

  1. Preparing Electronic Clinical Data for Quality Improvement and Comparative Effectiveness Research: The SCOAP CERTAIN Automation and Validation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Emily Beth; Capurro, Daniel; van Eaton, Erik; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Yanez, N David; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Flum, David R; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The field of clinical research informatics includes creation of clinical data repositories (CDRs) used to conduct quality improvement (QI) activities and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Ideally, CDR data are accurately and directly abstracted from disparate electronic health records (EHRs), across diverse health-systems. Investigators from Washington State's Surgical Care Outcomes and Assessment Program (SCOAP) Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN) are creating such a CDR. This manuscript describes the automation and validation methods used to create this digital infrastructure. SCOAP is a QI benchmarking initiative. Data are manually abstracted from EHRs and entered into a data management system. CERTAIN investigators are now deploying Caradigm's Amalga™ tool to facilitate automated abstraction of data from multiple, disparate EHRs. Concordance is calculated to compare data automatically to manually abstracted. Performance measures are calculated between Amalga and each parent EHR. Validation takes place in repeated loops, with improvements made over time. When automated abstraction reaches the current benchmark for abstraction accuracy - 95% - itwill 'go-live' at each site. A technical analysis was completed at 14 sites. Five sites are contributing; the remaining sites prioritized meeting Meaningful Use criteria. Participating sites are contributing 15-18 unique data feeds, totaling 13 surgical registry use cases. Common feeds are registration, laboratory, transcription/dictation, radiology, and medications. Approximately 50% of 1,320 designated data elements are being automatically abstracted-25% from structured data; 25% from text mining. In semi-automating data abstraction and conducting a rigorous validation, CERTAIN investigators will semi-automate data collection to conduct QI and CER, while advancing the Learning Healthcare System.

  2. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以婧; 李明

    2012-01-01

    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  3. Imaging the interphase of carbon fiber composites using transmission electron microscopy:Preparations by focused ion beam, ion beam etching, and ultramicrotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qing; Li Min; Gu Yizhuo; Wang Shaokai; Zhang Zuoguang

    2015-01-01

    Three sample preparation techniques, focused ion beam (FIB), ion beam (IB) etching, and ultramicrotomy (UM) were used in comparison to analyze the interphase of carbon fiber/epoxy composites using transmission electron microscopy. An intact interphase with a relatively uniform thickness was obtained by FIB, and detailed chemical analysis of the interphase was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It shows that the interphase region is 200 nm wide with an increasing oxygen-to-carbon ratio from 10% to 19% and an almost constant nitrogen-to-carbon ratio of about 3%. However, gallium implantation of FIB tends to hinder fine structure analysis of the interphase. For IB etching, the interphase region is observed with transition morphology from amorphous resin to nano-crystalline carbon fiber, but the uneven sample thickness brings difficulty for quantitative chemical analysis. Moreover, UM tends to cause damage and/or deformation on the interphase. These results are meaningful for in-depth understanding on the interphase characteristic of carbon fiber composites.

  4. Critical assessment of electron spin resonance studies on Cu(I)-NO complexes in Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by solid- and liquid-state ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, V; Hartmann, Martin; Pöppl, Andreas

    2005-10-27

    Cu(I)-NO adsorption complexes were formed over Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by (i) solid-state ion exchange of NH(4)-ZSM-5 with CuCl and (ii) liquid-state ion exchange of ZSM-5 with Cu(CH(3)COO)(2). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two different Cu(I)-NO species A and B in both systems, whose spin Hamiltonian parameters are comparable with those already reported for the Cu(I)-NO species formed over 66% Cu(II) liquid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 materials. The population of the species A and B differs for the two systems studied. Formation of species B is more favored in the solid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 when compared to the liquid-state exchanged zeolite. The X-, Q- and W-band electron spin resonance spectra recorded at 6 and 77 K reveal the presence of a rigid geometry of the adsorption complexes at 6 K and a dynamic complex structure at higher temperatures such as 77 K. This is indicated by the change in the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the formed Cu(I)-NO species in both the liquid- and solid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites from 6 to 77 K. Possible models for the motional effects found at elevated temperatures are discussed. The temperature dependence of the electron spin phase memory time measured by two-pulse electron spin-echo experiments indicates, likewise, the onset of a motional process of the adsorbed NO molecules at temperatures above 10 K. The studies support previous assignments where the NO complexes are formed at two different Cu(I) cationic sites in the ZSM-5 framework and highlight that multifrequency electron spin resonance experiments at low temperatures are essential for reliable determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the formed adsorption complexes for further comparison with Cu(I)-NO complex structures predicted by quantum chemical calculations.

  5. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  6. 物流企业人力资源准备度评价指标体系的构建%Establishment of Human Resources Preparation Level Assessment Index System of Logistics Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲丽

    2014-01-01

    通过对物流企业人员流失和人力资源准备度进行分析,基于平衡计分卡和360度考核方法构建了物流企业人力资源准备度的关键绩效考核指标,通过对指标的量化考核,不断完善企业人力资源准备度相关流程,最终提高物流企业人力资源准备度的有效性。%In this paper, through analyzing the turnover and preparedness of the human resources of the logistics enterprises, we built the key performance examination system of the human resources preparation level of the logistics enterprises on the basis of the balanced scorecard process and 360 degrees examination system and next quantified the examination indexes to improve the human resources preparation process of the enterprises.

  7. Preparation of anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film by low temperature annealing as an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hongche [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seong-Geun, E-mail: seongoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seung Soon, E-mail: imss007@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Anatase thin film of TiO{sub 2} was prepared by low temperature annealing. • Anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was obtained from amorphous form through solvothermal process. • Anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was used to prepare thin film on ITO glass. • Polymer solar cell fabricated on anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film showed 2.6% of PCE. - Abstract: To prepare the anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films on ITO glass, amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was synthesized through the simple sol-gel method by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a precursor. This amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin-coating, then treated at 450 °C to obtain anatase TiO{sub 2} film (for device A). For other TiO{sub 2} films, amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was treated through solvothermal process at 180 °C to obtain anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution. This anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin coating, and then annealed at 200 °C (for device B) and 130 °C (for device C), respectively. The average particle size of amorphous TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was about 1.0 nm and that of anatase TiO{sub 2} colloidal solution was 10 nm. The thickness of TiO{sub 2} films was about 15 nm for all cases. When inverted polymer solar cells were fabricated by using these TiO{sub 2} films as an electron transport layer, the device C showed the highest PCE (2.6%) due to the lack of defect, uniformness and high light absorbance of TiO{sub 2} films. The result of this study can be applied for the preparation of inverted polymer solar cell using TiO{sub 2} films as a buffer layer at low temperature on plastic substrate by roll-to roll process.

  8. Wonderfully Made: Preparing Children To Learn and Succeed. Worship, Educational, Community Outreach, and Advocacy Resources for Protestant, Catholic, Jewish and Other Faith Traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Harris, Shannon

    This booklet provides resource materials for the National Observance of Children's Sabbaths, a weekend of worship, education, outreach, and advocacy that proclaims and responds to a faith-based call to meet the needs of children. The theme of 1999's Children's Sabbath focuses on getting all children ready to learn and succeed. The booklet's…

  9. Toward the 21st Century: Preparing Proactive Visionary Transformational Leaders for Building Learning Communities. Human Resource Development. Tampa Cluster. Winter 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    This document describes the Tampa Cluster human resources development (HRD) seminar that was conducted as part of Nova University's distance education program in higher education (PHE). Discussed first are HRD in the agricultural and business industrial eras and changing HRD practices/needs, Nova University's PHE and HRD program, the proceedings…

  10. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  11. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  12. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For example...site: www.niso.org/news/Metadata_simpler.pdf International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  13. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin film by low temperature annealing as an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hongche; Oh, Seong-Geun; Im, Seung Soon

    2015-04-01

    To prepare the anatase TiO2 thin films on ITO glass, amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was synthesized through the simple sol-gel method by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a precursor. This amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin-coating, then treated at 450 °C to obtain anatase TiO2 film (for device A). For other TiO2 films, amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was treated through solvothermal process at 180 °C to obtain anatase TiO2 colloidal solution. This anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin coating, and then annealed at 200 °C (for device B) and 130 °C (for device C), respectively. The average particle size of amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was about 1.0 nm and that of anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was 10 nm. The thickness of TiO2 films was about 15 nm for all cases. When inverted polymer solar cells were fabricated by using these TiO2 films as an electron transport layer, the device C showed the highest PCE (2.6%) due to the lack of defect, uniformness and high light absorbance of TiO2 films. The result of this study can be applied for the preparation of inverted polymer solar cell using TiO2 films as a buffer layer at low temperature on plastic substrate by roll-to roll process.

  14. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰

    2011-01-01

    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  15. Long-term osseointegration of 3D printed CoCr constructs with an interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Omar, Omar; Suska, Felicia; Snis, Anders; Matic, Aleksandar; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-05-01

    In orthopaedic surgery, cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively for their high strength and wear properties, but with concerns over stress shielding and bone resorption due to the high stiffness of CoCr. The structural stiffness, principally related to the bulk and the elastic modulus of the material, may be lowered by appropriate design modifications, to reduce the stiffness mismatch between metal/alloy implants and the adjacent bone. Here, 3D printed CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants of similar macro-geometry and interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting (EBM) were evaluated following 26week implantation in adult sheep femora. Despite higher total bone-implant contact for Ti6Al4V (39±4%) than CoCr (27±4%), bone formation patterns were similar, e.g., densification around the implant, and gradual ingrowth into the porous network, with more bone in the outer half (periphery) than the inner half (centre). Raman spectroscopy revealed no major differences in mineral crystallinity, the apatite-to-collagen ratio, or the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed similar Ca/P ratio of the interfacial tissue adjacent to both materials. Osteocytes made direct contact with CoCr and Ti6Al4V. While osteocyte density and distribution in the new-formed bone were largely similar for the two alloys, higher osteocyte density was observed at the periphery of the porous network for CoCr, attributable to slower remodelling and a different biomechanical environment. The results demonstrate the possibility to achieve bone ingrowth into open-pore CoCr constructs, and attest to the potential for fabricating customised osseointegrated CoCr implants for load-bearing applications. Although cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively in orthopaedic surgery, stress shielding due to the high stiffness of CoCr is of concern. To reduce the stiffness mismatch between CoCr and bone, CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants having

  16. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery.

  17. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  18. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum 1111 (Sudan); Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd [Polycomposite Sdn Bhd, No.75-2, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tajau, Rida [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [No. 107, Jalan 2, Taman Kajang Baru, Sg Jelok, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000, Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  19. Preparation of highly conjugated water-dispersible graphene-butyric acid for the enhancement of electron transfer within polyamic acid-benzoxazole: potential applications in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Chen, Shi-Liang; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-15

    To break through the long time and complex procedures for the preparation of highly conjugated reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) in developing electrochemical sensor, a time-saving and simple method is investigated in this study. One novel step of the exfoliated accompanying carboxylated graphene sheet from pristine is achieved via Friedel-Crafts acylation. By electrophilic aromatic substitution, the succinic anhydride ring is opened and attaches covalently to the graphene sheet (Gs) to form exfoliated graphene with grafted 1-one-butyric acid (Gs-BA). The grafting chain converts anions in aqueous solution to maintain Gs-BA in a stable dispersion and noticeably decreases the π-π stacking of the exfoliated Gs during the drying process. The analytical results of the absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that the conjugation of Gs-BA is not significantly destroyed by this chemical modification; Gs-BA retains the Gs electrical properties favorable for developing electrochemical sensors. When polyamic acid-benzoxazole (PAA-BO), a hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-sensitive probe, hybridizes with Gs-BA to form Gs-BA-PAA-BO, the electron transfer rate relating to the response time improves markedly from 1.09 s(-1) to 38.8 s(-1). Additionally, it offers a high performance for H₂O₂ sensing in terms of sensitivity and response time, making this method applicable for developing glucose and choline biosensors.

  20. 脂肪组织扫描电镜样品制备方法%Adipose tissue sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔芳; 刘超; 杨建民; 王丽

    2012-01-01

    脂肪组织由于自身脂类含量丰富,采用常规扫描电镜生物样品制备法,很难达到预期效果.经过数次摸索,作者在常规制备样品基础上,增加了锇酸后固定,以使脂肪酸和磷脂蛋白得到稳定,即而稳定细胞膜结构;为使组织细胞内有机溶剂充分置换,又延长脱水时间.通过对这些具体操作细节进行改良,取得了较为满意的结果.%Conventional sample preparation technique for adipose tissue is difficult to achieve satisfactory results for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We adopted a strategy of postfix with osmium tetroxide to stabilize the fatty acids, phospholipids protein, and hence the membrane structure. Also by extending the dehydration time to fully replace the organic solvents, we achieved satisfactory results for SEM of adipose samples.

  1. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondin de; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelho dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/CCNH/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental problems and the world growing demand for energy has mobilized the scientific community in finding of clean and renewable energy sources. In this context, fuel cells appear as appropriate technology for generating electricity through alcohols electro-oxidation. Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-supported Pd and trimetallic PdAuSn (Pd:Au:Sn 50:10:40 atomic ratio) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by VC, Chronoamperometry, EDX, TEM and XRD. The catalytic activities of electrocatalysts toward ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) in a range temperature 60 to 90 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C: 33 mW.cm{sup -2} and 31 mW.cm{sup -2} for Pd/ MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts, respectively. X-ray diffractograms of electrocatalysts showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) and Au-rich (fcc) phases. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments showed that PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalyst demonstrated similar activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to electrocatalyst Pd/MWCNT. (author)

  2. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/c and PdRh/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) and bimetallic PdRh (Pd:Rh 90:10 atomic ratio) (PdRh/C) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The morphology and composition of the obtained materials were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Chronoamperometry (CA), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activities of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in a range temperature of 50 to 85 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C (25 mW.cm{sup -2}) and 75 deg C (38 mW.cm{sup -2}) for Pd/C and PdRh/C electrocatalysts, respectively. The XRD of the PdRh/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) phase. CV and CA experiments showed that PdRh/C electrocatalyst demonstrated superior activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to Pd/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  3. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  4. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷东升; 郭振英

    2016-01-01

    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  5. Electrical and optical properties of indium nitride and indium-rich nitrides prepared by molecular beam epitaxy for opto-electronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai

    Great interest in III-nitride semiconductors has been driven by the significant technological importance of this material system. GaN and its alloy have been used in the fabrication of a range of electronic and photonic devices. Blue light emitting diode and laser diode with InGaN as the active layer have been commercialized for several years. Due to such technological importance, considerable research efforts have been made to understand the fundamental properties of III-N semiconductors. However, unlike the intensively studied GaN, InGaN and other nitride compounds, InN, which is also an important component of the III-N system, remains the least studied nitride material. This is mainly due to the difficulty in preparation of high-quality InN epilayers. Two of the main difficulties are the lack of suitable substrate material and the low dissociation temperature of InN. As a result, many fundamental parameters of InN were adopted from some very early reports based on polycrystalline InN films produced by RF sputtering method. Those reports are seemingly good but have never been repeated. This thesis reports epitaxial growth of InN and In-rich nitrides by molecular beam epitaxy. The optimum growth conditions of InN were investigated, which results in the best electrical properties of InN film reported in recent years. For the first time, non-degenerate InN film was produced and the surface charge accumulation of InN films was identified. Detailed and original structural characterizations were carried out. By collaborating with outside labs, many fundamentals properties of InN were measured or rediscovered. One of the main accomplishments in the study is the discovery of the narrow fundamental bandgap of InN, which is around 0.7 eV instead of the widely accepted 1.9 eV. This significant result provides new research guidance for the scientific community. By further preparing In-rich nitrides, the bowing parameters of InGaN and InAIN were first accurately measured. For

  6. Electronic structure and Schottky-barrier formation on GaAs (100) surfaces prepared by thermal desorption of a protective arsenic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindt, C.J.; Yamada, M.; Meissner, P.L.; Miyano, K.E.; Kendelewicz, T.; Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E. (Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4055 (United States)); Arko, A.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1992-05-15

    Soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to characterize GaAs(100) surfaces and interfaces grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and prepared by the thermal desorption of a protective As coating. The samples studied were grown and arsenic capped identically to those used in a previous study (Brillson {ital et} {ital al}., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 1263 (1988)). In this previous work, unpinned'' Schottky-barrier formation was reported, with barrier heights over a wide (0.75-eV) range. This is a striking result, as it was previously believed that all metals will pin GaAs surfaces in a narrow energy range near the middle of the band gap. This large range of barrier heights later led to the suggestion that the (100) surface could become an insulating layer that could screen out the effects of metal-induced gap states. Motivated by this work, we have studied Al and Au Schottky barriers since the deposition of these two metals gave the extreme low and high barriers in the 0.75-eV range. We have also characterized the clean surfaces prepared by desorbing the As caps at different temperatures. The As 3{ital d} and Ga 3{ital d} core levels showed that the surface stoichiometry could be varied significantly with the desorption temperature. The As 3{ital d} line shape was found to be the best indication of the surface stoichiometry after the anneal. The valence-band spectra did not show any strong features which could be used to determine when the sample was completely decapped. The electronic structure of the surface layer was investigated experimentally, and no evidence of an insulating reconstruction was found. In our study of band bending, we found that the low-doped samples used here and in the earlier study showed significant photovoltages resulting in incorrect band-bending measurements. We also found that the Au measurements are made difficult by the presence of core-level shifts due to Au-Ga alloying.

  7. Mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar weldments of RAFMS and AISI 316L (N) SS prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Das, C.R. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India); Mastanaiah, P.; Patel, M. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, Rajendra [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Increase of W content in RAFM steel can result in retention of delta ferrite in the EB weld of the steel. • Presence of delta ferrite seems to affect the ductile brittle transition temperature of the weld metal. • There is improper mixing of the two base metals in the fusion zone dissimilar welds of RAFM steel and austenitic stainless steel made by EB welding. - Abstract: Effect of weld metal composition on microstructure and toughness of weld metal is studied in this paper. Weld joints of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel containing 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W were prepared using electron beam welding (EBW) process. Dissimilar weld joints between 1.0 wt.% W RAFM steel and AISI 316L (N) SS were also prepared using EBW process. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties was also studied. Microstructural observation reveals delta–ferrite in 1.4 wt.% W containing weld metal, which is absent in 1.0 wt.% W weld metal. In the case of the dissimilar weld metal, microstructure shows presence of lath martensite and retained austenite. Austenite was stable even after PWHT and its presence is attributed to high nickel (5–6 wt.%) content in the dissimilar weld metal. Hardness of RAFM steel weld metal was found to be 270–290 VHN after PWHT at 750 °C for 2 h. Impact toughness of both 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel is high (>250 J) at ambient temperature. However, after PWHT, variation of toughness with temperature is more drastic for 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel weld metal than the other. As a result, ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for the 1.4 wt.% steel weld metal is close to 0 °C while that of the 1.0 wt.% W steel is close to that of the base metal (∼−80 °C)

  8. Preparation of Slag Wool by Integrated Waste-Heat Recovery and Resource Recycling of Molten Blast Furnace Slags: From Fundamental to Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigated the process of the slag wool fabrication using high temperature blast furnace (BF slag modified by coal ash (CA. The liquidus temperature and viscosity of the slag system with different mass ratios of BF slag and CA were measured through an inner cylinder rotation method. The approximate mass ratio used to fabricate the slag wool was therefore determined and slag wool was then successfully prepared with a high-speed air injection method in the laboratory. The effect of mBF/m ratio, slag temperature for injection and air pressure on the preparation of slag wool was systematically investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties were also studied to confirm the long-term working conditions of the slag wool. An industry-scale slag wool production application was established. The energy consumption and the pollutant generation, were analyzed and compared with the traditional production method, which indicated a 70% reduction in energy consumption and a 90% pollution emission decrease.

  9. Preparation of a diphosphine with persistent phosphinyl radical character in solution: characterization, reactivity with O2, S8, Se, Te, and P4, and electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Nick A; Hendsbee, Arthur D; Roemmele, Tracey L; Lumsden, Michael D; Pye, Cory C; Masuda, Jason D

    2012-11-01

    A new, easily synthesized diphosphine based on a heterocyclic 1,3,2-diazaphospholidine framework has been prepared. Due to the large, sterically encumbering Dipp groups (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) on the heterocyclic ring, the diphosphine undergoes homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond in solution to form two phosphinyl radicals. The diphosphine has been reacted with O(2), S(8), Se, Te, and P(4), giving products that involve insertion of elements between the P-P bond to yield the related phosphinic acid anhydride, sulfide/disulfide, selenide, telluride, and a butterfly-type perphospha-bicyclobutadiene structure with a trans,trans-geometry. All molecules have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Variable-temperature EPR spectroscopy was utilized to study the nature of the phosphinyl radical in solution. Electronic structure calculations were performed on a number of systems from the parent diphosphine [H(2)P](2) to amino-substituted [(H(2)N)(2)P](2) and cyclic amino-substituted [(H(2)C)(2)(NH)(2)P](2); then, bulky substituents (Ph or Dipp) were attached to the cyclic amino systems. Calculations on the isolated diphosphine at the B3LYP/6-31+G* level show that the homolytic cleavage of the P-P bond to form two phosphinyl radicals is favored over the diphosphine by ~11 kJ/mol. Furthermore, there is a significant amount of relaxation energy stored in the ligands (52.3 kJ/mol), providing a major driving force behind the homolytic cleavage of the central P-P bond.

  10. Utility of a limited panel of calretinin and Ber-EP4 immunocytochemistry on cytospin preparation of serous effusions: A cost-effective measure in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differentiation between reactive, but morphologically atypical, mesothelial cells and adenocarcinoma in effusions can be problematic. Elaborate immunohistochemical panels have been devised. Techniques like DNA analysis, flow/image cytometry, and K-ras mutation analysis are research oriented and difficult to perform in routine, especially in resource-poor centers. We evaluated the efficacy of a limited two-antibody panel comprising calretinin and Ber-EP4 on cytospin and cell block preparations, in 100 effusion samples. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of reactive mesothelial hyperplasia and 50 cases of adenocarcinoma diagnosed by cytomorphology in ascitic/pleural fluid specimens over a 2-year period were assessed. The diagnoses were confirmed by clinical/histopathologic correlation. Cytospin smears were made in all. Cell blocks were prepared, wherever adequate fluid was available. Immunocytochemistry (ICC for calretinin and Ber-EP4 was performed. Results: Forty-five of the reactive effusion cases (90% were calretinin reactive and Ber-EP4 negative. Among the adenocarcinoma cases, 49 (98% were calretinin negative but Ber-EP4 positive. Thus, both calretinin and Ber-EP4 had a high sensitivity (90% and 98%, respectively, as well as a high specificity (100% and 86%, respectively. In the 21 reactive mesothelial cases, whose cell blocks were made, results were comparable to those on cytospin. However, of the 19 adenocarcinoma cases in which cell blocks were prepared, all were Ber-EP4 immunopositive except for three, which were positive on cytospin, implying false-negative results on cell blocks. Conclusions: A limited panel of two monoclonal antibodies, calretinin and Ber-EP4, may be useful in cytology, as a "primary antibody panel", for accurate diagnosis and patient management. Additionally, ICC can be performed easily on cytospin preparations, which gave results comparable to cell blocks in our study.

  11. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  12. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛玲; 杜坤

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  13. 高校图书馆电子资源购买过程中的委托-代理关系探究%Principal-agent Relationship During the Electronic Resources Purchase Process of University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂君; 吴冬曼

    2012-01-01

    The prineipal-agent relationship is throughout the whole process of the electronic resources purchase for university libraries. Based on the asymmetric informatiun theory the issues of information asymmetries in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are analyzed. The major prineipal-agent relationships between the university libraries, the group organizers and the database providers ate studied. The operational characteristics and existing problems in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are also discussed. Taking this opportunity to attention the principal-agent relationships existed in the electronic resources purchase of university libraries, the authors hope to solve some problems caused by the market information asymmetry.%委托-代理关系贯穿了高校图书馆电子资源的购买全过程,,基于信息不对称理论,分析高校图书馆电子资源购买中的信息不对称现象,并以高校图书馆、集团组织者、数据库提供者为主体,研究高校图书馆电子资源采购过程中存在的几种主要委托-代理关系、业务特点和存在的问题、通过对委托-代理关系的研究和分析,合理把握电子资源采购的规律,可以部分解决高校电子资源购买中由市场信息不平衡所带来的问题。

  14. Printed Resources and Electronic Resources Integrated Services in Small and Medium-sized Libraries%中小型图书馆印本资源与电子资源一体化服务实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing the integrated service system of library resources, this paper sums up three methods for the integration of printed resources and digital resources including the digital resources catalog, digital resources navigate and open link system, and suggests that the libraries should give priority to books and periodicals integrated retrieval in the integrated service, and carry out the system construction within their capabilities by adopting the methods of making second development, introducing new system, and conducting independent development, etc.%通过对图书馆馆藏一体化服务系统的分析,归纳总结出印本资源与电子资源整合的3种主要模式———电子资源编目、电子资源导航与开放链接,并建议图书馆在进行一体化服务时,优先考虑图书和期刊的整合检索,在系统建设上量力而行,采取二次开发、引进新系统、自主开发等方式。

  15. 基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价方法与系统分析%Methods and Systems of Library Electronic Resources Evaluation Analysis Based on Usage Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹

    2014-01-01

    The origin and methods of library electronic resources evaluation were summarized;the statistical standards of library users' us-age data were reviewed. Then four library electronic resources evaluation systems based on library users' usage data which are ScholarlyS-tats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter and Ustat were compared and contrasted. The related work which librarians need to do and the con-sidering factors about the selection of electronic resources evaluation system was also analyzed.%总结了图书馆馆藏电子资源评价的缘起与方法,梳理了图书馆用户使用数据的统计规范。以此为基础对比了四个基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价系统---ScholarlyStats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter,UStat,分析了图书馆选择电子资源评价系统的考虑因素和需要预先做好的相关工作。

  16. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  17. Technology of Mg(OH)2 Preparation Using Magnesium Resource from the Byproduct of Potassium Fertilizer Production%钾肥副产镁资源制备氢氧化镁的生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴礼定; 曾波

    2012-01-01

    氢氧化镁是一种重要的无机化工原料,其用途广泛,市场广阔.青海盐湖蕴藏着十分丰富的镁资源,盐湖集团钾肥生产中每吨产品氯化钾排放母液(俗称老卤)30t,可副产10t氯化镁.文章介绍了目前中国利用盐湖镁资源制备氢氧化镁的方法,包括物理粉碎法、氢氧化钙法、氨法、氢氧化钠法、组合法等,简要分析了这些方法的优缺点.提出了开发利用钾盐伴生的镁资源,扩大镁的来源,提升中国氢氧化镁的市场竞争能力.%Magnesium hydroxide is a kind of important inorganic chemical with versatile application and wide market. There are plenty of magnesium resources in Qinghai Salt Lake. When 1 ton potassium chloride is produced in production, 30 tons mother liquor (old halogm) discharge, which can produce 10 tons magnesium chloride. Preparation methods of magnesium hydroxide in China including physical mill, calcium chloride, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, combination method ect. Are introduced in magnesium resources utilization. And the advantage and the disadvantage of the methods are also analyzed. The magnesium resource from the byproduct of potassium production can be developed and utilized to increase the source of magnesium. The market competitive force of magnesium hydroxide will be improved.

  18. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  19. Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe film. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

  20. On the development and the utilization of library holding in electronic resources Taking the Library of Shandong University of Science and Technology%试论电子资源的馆藏发展与利用——以山东科技大学图书馆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明华; 马圣芹

    2012-01-01

    通过分析电子资源馆藏发展的意义及模式,对电子资源发展的目标及有效管理进行了探讨,并提出一些提高电子资源利用率的措施。%This paper analyses the mode and the importance of library holding development in electronic resources. It also ex- plores the aim and the affective management in electronic resource development and put forwards some measures to improve the utilization ratio of electronic resources.

  1. Evaluation of Fostering Students' Creativity in Preparing Aided Recalls for Revision Courses Using Electronic Revision and Recapitulation Tools 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Weber, Christoph; Sato, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the electronic revision and recapitulation tools 2.0 (EREP 2.0) were used to foster creative moments while creating aided recalls (ARs) (pictures electronic notes etc.). Creative and critical thinking is associated with vital skills which enable students to deal with often complex knowledge domains through an informal way of…

  2. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  3. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  4. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  5. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  6. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  7. Using High-Technology Simulators to Prepare Anesthesia Providers Before Implementation of a New Electronic Health Record Module: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Ari Y; Deutsch, Ellen S; Hales, Roberta L; Buchanan, Newton A; Rock, Whitney L; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2017-06-01

    Learning to use a new electronic anesthesia information management system can be challenging. Documenting anesthetic events, medication administration, and airway management in an unfamiliar system while simultaneously caring for a patient with the vigilance required for safe anesthesia can be distracting and risky. This technical report describes a vendor-agnostic approach to training using a high-technology manikin in a simulated clinical scenario. Training was feasible and valued by participants but required a combination of electronic and manual components. Further exploration may reveal simulated patient care training that provides the greatest benefit to participants as well as feedback to inform electronic health record improvements.

  8. 电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式解析%The analytic model of human resource management in electronic commerce system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

      企业人力资源管理工作在现代电子商务环境下呈现出多方面的电子化新特征,且较之于传统的人力资源管理工作有非常多显著的优势可言,基本上已经成为了企业获取更大成功的基本导向。电子商务系统内的人力资源管理新模式E-HR就是在这样一种背景下应运而生的,E-HR管理模式不仅已经成为了众多企业发展的趋势,而且在实际应用的过程当中也已经给企业带来了非常多的利益。本文正是在此背景之下对电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式E-HR进行解析,希望能够对其有更深入的理解并更好的应用到实践当中去。%The enterprise human resources management in modern electronic commerce environment presents many new characteristics of the electron,and compared with the traditional human resource management has many significant advantages,basically has become a basic guide for more successful enterprises.E-HR is a new mode of human resource management system emerge as the times require electronic commerce is in such a background,the E-HR management model not only has become the trend of development of many enterprises, but also in the process of practical application also has to the enterprise has brought a lot of benefits. This paper is analyzed under this background to the electronic commerce system within the human resources management mode of E-HR,the application wishes to have a deeper understanding and better on it into practice.

  9. Effect of electron irradiation exposure on phase formation, microstructure and mechanical strength of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} superconductor prepared via co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiju, Zaahidah ' Atiqah; Hamid, Nasri A., E-mail: Nasri@uniten.edu.my; Kannan, V. [Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Yusof [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    In this work the effect of electron irradiation on the mechanical properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) superconductor was studied by exposing the Bi-2212 superconductor with different doses of electron irradiation. Bi-2212 samples were prepared by using co-precipitation method. Irradiation was performed with irradiation dose of 100 kGray and 200 kGray, respectively. Characterization of the samples was performed by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Instron Universal Testing machine was used to measure the strength of the samples. The XRD patterns for the non-irradiated and irradiated samples show well-defined peaks of which could be indexed on the basis of a Bi-2212 phase structure. XRD patterns also indicate that electron irradiation did not affect the Bi-2212 superconducting phase. SEM micrographs show disorientation in the texture of the microstructure for irradiated samples. Sample exposed to 200 kGray electron irradiation dose shows enhancement of grain size. Their grain growth and texture improved slightly compared to other sample. The results also show that enlargement of grain size resulted in higher mechanical strength.

  10. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  11. Substrate Temperature Effect on Charge Transport Performance of ZnO Electron Transport Layer Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for high-quality ZnO films based on zinc-ammonia solution was achieved in air. To investigate the structural and optical properties as well as the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs, ZnO films at different substrate temperatures and thicknesses were prepared. The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM based PSC was found to be improved due to the ZnO films. The crystal structure and roughness of the ZnO films fabricated at different temperatures were found to affect the performance of PSCs. The optimized power conversion efficiency was found to be maximum for PSCs with ZnO films prepared at 200°C. The growth process of these ZnO films is very simple, cost-effective, and compatible for larger-scale PSC preparation. The precursor used for spray pyrolysis is environmentally friendly and helps to achieve ZnO film preparation at a relative low temperature.

  12. Toward Lower Overpotential through Improved Electron Transport Property: Hierarchically Porous CoN Nanorods Prepared by Nitridation for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Mao; Zhu, Qian-Cheng; Harris, Michelle; Chen, Tong-Heng; Ma, Chao; Wei, Xiao; Xu, Hua-Sheng; Zhou, Yong-Xian; Cao, Yu-Cai; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2016-09-14

    To lower the overpotential of a lithium-oxygen battery, electron transport at the solid-to-solid interface between the discharge product Li2O2 and the cathode catalyst is of great significance. Here we propose a strategy to enhance electron transport property of the cathode catalyst by the replace of oxygen atoms in the generally used metal oxide-based catalysts with nitrogen atoms to improve electron density at Fermi energy after nitridation. Hierarchically porous CoN nanorods were obtained by thermal treatment of Co3O4 nanorods under ammonia atmosphere at 350 °C. Compared with that of the pristine Co3O4 precursor before nitridation, the overpotential of the obtained CoN cathode was significantly decreased. Moreover, specific capacity and cycling stability of the CoN nanorods were enhanced. It is assumed that the discharged products with different morphologies for Co3O4 and CoN cathodes might be closely associated with the variation in the electronic density induced by occupancy of nitrogen atoms into interstitial sites of metal lattice after nitridation. The nitridation strategy for improved electron density proposed in this work is proved to be a simple but efficient way to improve the electrochemical performance of metal oxide based cathodes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  13. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  14. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  15. Carbon supported nanoparticles Pt Ru (Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts) prepared using electron beam irradiation; Preparacao de nanoparticulas de PtRu suportadas em carbono (eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C) utilizando feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Celulas a Combustivel], e-mail: espinace@ipen.br, e-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    Carbon-supported Pt Ru (electrocatalysts PtRu/C nanoparticles) were prepared submitting a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C ETEK electrocatalyst at ambient temperature. (author)

  16. Carbon supported nanoparticles Pt Ru (Pt Ru/C electrocatalysts) prepared using electron beam irradiation; Preparacao de nanoparticulas de PtRu suportadas em carbono (eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C) utilizando feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F. da; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Celulas a Combustivel], e-mail: espinace@ipen.br, e-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    Carbon-supported Pt Ru (electrocatalysts PtRu/C nanoparticles) were prepared submitting a water/ethylene glycol mixture containing Pt(IV) and Ru(III) ions and the carbon support to electron beam irradiation. The PtRu/C electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry and tested for methanol electro-oxidation aiming fuel cell application. The obtained PtRu/C electrocatalysts were more active for methanol electro-oxidation than the commercial PtRu/C ETEK electrocatalyst at ambient temperature. (author)

  17. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  18. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  19. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes.

  20. Technique for preparation of transmission electron microscope specimens from wire samples of Al and Al-Al2O3 alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbo, Jørgen

    1966-01-01

    A technique for thinning 1 mm wire samples of aluminium and aluminium-alumina alloys for transmission electron microscopy is described. The essential feature of the technique, which involves spark machining and electropolishing in a polytetrafluoroethylene holder followed by chemical polishing...

  1. 浅谈高职院校图书馆电子资源的管理和服务%On the Management and Service of the Electronic Resources of Higher Vocational College Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓正芳

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of rapid development of social economy, the computer technology, computer network technology, communication technology, database technology and other information technology, China has entered the information age ahead of time. In higher vocational colleges, the library electronic resources have become an important way for teachers and students to get teaching knowledge and scientific research information, providing reliable, timely and accurate books resources information service for teachers and students. In order to ensure the effective utilization of library electronic resources in higher vocational colleges, scientific and reasonable management is necessary, so as to promote the construction of digital libraries in higher vocational colleges, to achieve better and faster development.%在社会经济的快速发展背景下,我国计算机技术、计算机网络技术、通讯技术以及数据库技术等信息技术的产生,使我国提前进入信息化时代。在高职院校中,图书馆电子资源已经成为老师和学生获取教学知识、科研信息等方面的重要途径,为学校老师和学生提供了可靠、及时、准确的图书资源信息化服务。为了确保高职院校图书馆电子资源的有效利用,需要对其进行科学合理的管理,促进高职院校图书馆数字化建设,使其更好更快地发展。

  2. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  3. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  4. 基于高校图书馆电子资源的采访调查与分析——以海南大学图书馆为例%Survey and Analysis Based on the Electronic Resource of University Libraries Taking Hainan University library as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹

    2011-01-01

    随着信息化时代的到来,高校图书馆的馆藏资源建设模式已经发生了变化,形成了纸质资源与电子资源并存的局面,电子资源以其方便快捷深受读者喜爱,电子资源的采购比例越来越重,如何协调电子资源的采购比例,是图书馆界丞待解决的问题.文章通过对海南大学2006-2010年间的电子资源经费使用情况进行统计、对比和分析,对此问题进行了初步的探讨.%With the arrival of information age, college library collection resources construction mode has changed, and the paper-based resources and electroic resources coexist.With the convenience of electronic resources, the acquisition proportion of electronic resources grows.How to coordinate the acquisition of electronic resource proportion is a problem faced by the libraries.Through the funds statistics, contrast and analysis of electronic resources in hainan university 2006-2010 this article provides a preliminary discussion.

  5. Preparation of tetrazine-containing [2 + 1] complexes of (99m)Tc and in vivo targeting using bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Abdolreza; Janzen, Nancy; Czorny, Shannon; Ungard, Robert G; Miladinovic, Tanya; Singh, Gurmit; Valliant, John F

    2017-06-22

    The aim of this work was to synthesize and evaluate [2 + 1] (99m)Tc(i) polypyridine complexes containing tetrazines, which along with the corresponding Re(i) complexes, represent a new class of isostructural nuclear and turn-on luminescent probes that can be derivatized and targeted using bioorthogonal chemistry. To this end, [2 + 1] complexes of (99m)Tc(i) of the type [(99m)Tc(CO)3(N^N)(L)] (N^N = bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy)), where the monodentate ligand (L) was a tetrazine linked to the metal through an imidazole derivative, were prepared. The desired products were obtained in nearly quantitative radiochemical yield by adding [(99m)Tc(CO)3(N^N)(OH2)](n) to the imidazole-tetrazine ligand and heating at 60 °C for 30 min. Measurement of the reaction kinetics between the tetrazine and (E)-cyclooct-4-enol revealed a second-order rate constant of 8.6 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) at 37 °C, which is suitable for in vivo applications that require rapid coupling. Stability studies showed that the metal complexes were resistant to ligand challenge and exhibited reasonable protein binding in vitro. Biodistribution studies of the more water-soluble BPS derivative in normal mice, one hour after administration of a bisphosphonate derivative of trans-cyclooctene (TCO-BP), revealed high activity concentrations in the knee (9.3 ± 0.3 %ID g(-1)) and shoulder (5.3 ± 0.7 %ID g(-1)). Using the same pretargeting approach, SPECT/CT imaging showed that the [2 + 1] tetrazine complex localized to implanted skeletal tumors. This is the first report of the preparation of (99m)Tc complexes of BPS and demonstration that their tetrazine derivatives can be used to prepare targeted imaging probes by employing bioorthogonal chemistry.

  6. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  7. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  8. Polar energy resources potential. Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The study covers both Antarctic and Arctic energy resources including oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, oil shale, uranium, solar energy, and wind power. The environment, geology, topography, climate, and weather are also treated. Consideration is given to the international relations involved in energy resource exploitation in both polar regions, and the technologies necessary to develop polar resources are discussed. The potential resources in each area are described. Resource potentials south of 60 degrees in Antartica and north of 60 degrees in the Arctic are summarized. (MCW)

  9. Impact tests of the tungsten coated stainless steels prepared by using magnetron sputtering with ion beam mixing or electron beam alloying treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Zhan, Chang-Yong; Yang, Bin; Wu, Jian-Chun

    2013-05-01

    Tungsten films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) with ion beam mixing (IBM) or electron beam alloying (EBA) treatment. The ductile-brittle transition behaviors of the specimens were investigated by means of instrumented Charpy impact test at a series of temperature, and SEM was used to observe the morphology of the cross section. Impact tests show that different treatment methods with W films do not have much influence on crack initiation, while EBA treatment with W films can more effectively prevent crack propagation, namely improve the impact toughness of SS than using IBM treatment. The reason that caused this difference was discussed.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and photoactivity of InTaO{sub 4} and In{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}TaO{sub 4} thin films prepared by electron evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, V. J.; Frutos, F.; Yubero, F.; Espinos, J. P.; Gonzales-Elipe, A. R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    InTaO{sub 4} and In{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}TaO{sub 4} thin films have been prepared by electron evaporation of successive layers of the single oxide components and posterior annealing at T>800 deg. C. The annealed thin films presented the monoclinic crystallographic structure typical of these mixed oxides. The electrical and optical behaviors of the films, assessed by C-V measurements, surface conductivity as a function of temperature, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, indicate that these oxides are wide band gap semiconductors with a variable dielectric constant depending on the annealing conditions. By reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy some electronic states have been found in the gap at an energy that is compatible with the activation energy deduced from the conductivity versus 1/T plots for these oxides. The photoactivity of these materials has been assessed by looking to the evolution of the wetting contact angle as a function of the irradiation time. All the films became superhydrophilic when irradiated with UV light, while the In{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}TaO{sub 4} thin films also presented a small partial decrease in wetting angle when irradiated with visible photons.

  11. AlN thin films prepared by ArF plasma assisted PLD. Role of process conditions on electronic and chemical-morphological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, E.; Trucchi, D. M.; Orlando, S.; Valentini, V.; Mezzi, A.; Kaciulis, S.

    2014-02-01

    Aluminium nitride thin films were deposited on n-Si substrates by RF plasma activated reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD). An ArF excimer pulsed laser, 10 Hz and 2.5 J/cm2 energy fluence, has been used to ablate a pure Al target in a reactive atmosphere of N2 plasma (generated by a RF source), at varying processing parameters (substrate temperature, time, and N2 plasma configuration). We studied the dependence and correlation of structural and electronic properties with the experimental conditions. The chemical composition of deposited material has been determined by both Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrical resistivity has been evaluated by the sheet resistance method. Both spectroscopic characterizations (Raman and XPS) show a strong dependence in the formation of AlN on the deposition temperature. At low temperatures, there is little formation of nitride, with a prevalence of aluminium oxide, while at higher temperatures the N uptake increases, with AlN formation. Raman analysis also highlights the formation of nano-structures, for temperatures ≥400∘C. These material characteristics have a fundamental influence on the electronic properties. Indeed, electrical resistivity properties have been found to be strongly dependent on the film structure, nitrogen incorporation, and presence of mixed oxide compounds, closely related to deposition temperature.

  12. 30 CFR 57.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation preparation. 57.6303 Section 57.6303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6303 Initiation preparation. (a) Primers shall be made up only at the...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6303 - Initiation preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation preparation. 56.6303 Section 56.6303 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation preparation. (a) Primers shall be made up only at the time of use and as close to the blast site...

  14. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  15. General surgery career resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsee, Ana M; Ross, Sharona B; Gantt, Nancy L; Kichler, Kandace; Hollands, Celeste

    2013-11-01

    General surgery residency training can lead to a rewarding career in general surgery and serve as the foundation for careers in several surgical subspecialties. It offers broad-based training with exposure to the cognitive and technical aspects of several surgical specialties and prepares graduating residents for a wide range of career paths. This career development resource discusses the training aspects of general surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of time-lapse processing for dynamic hydrologic conditions. [electronic satellite image analysis console for Earth Resources Technology Satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebreny, S. M.; Evans, W. E.; Wiegman, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic display techniques in exploiting the repetitive nature of ERTS imagery was investigated. A specially designed Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) was developed and employed to process data for seven ERTS principal investigators studying dynamic hydrological conditions for diverse applications. These applications include measurement of snowfield extent and sediment plumes from estuary discharge, Playa Lake inventory, and monitoring of phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The most unique feature of the system is the capability to time lapse the imagery and analytic displays of the imagery. Data products included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, binary thematic maps based on monospectral or multispectral decisions, radiance profiles, and movie loops. Applications of animation for uses other than creating time-lapse sequences are identified. Input to the ESIAC can be either digital or via photographic transparencies.

  17. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu, Tamilnadu -603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Pure and Fe (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were grown onto the glass substrates by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the pure and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been studied. The undoped and Fe doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films shown ferromagnetic property at room temperature. A magnetization of 24 emu/cm{sup 3} was observed for pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. The magnetization of 38.23 emu/cm{sup 3} was observed for the Fe (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films.

  18. Experimental and theoretical investigation of electronic structure of SrFeO3-xFx epitaxial thin films prepared via topotactic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tsukasa; Chikamatsu, Akira; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the electronic structure of perovskite SrFeO3-xFx (0.6 ≤ x ≤ 1) films by optical absorption, photoemission, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, as well as density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations. The optical bandgap expanded with x, yielding a wider direct bandgap for the SrFeO2F film than for the LaFeO3 film. The DFT calculations suggested that the majority of FeO4F2 octahedra in the SrFeO2F film had cis configurations and that the enlarged bandgap mainly originated from bond bending in the O-Fe-O chains. We experimentally observed the valence and conduction bands of the SrFeO2F film, and found them to be qualitatively consistent with the results of DFT-based calculations.

  19. Influence of LiBaO5 Structure on Microstructure and Optical Properties of ZrO2 Thin Films Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Tian-Ya; ZHANG Da-Wei; ZHAN Mei-Qiong; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ ZrO2 thin films were deposited by using an electron beam evaporation technique on three kinds of lithium triborate (LiB3O5 or LBO) substrates with the surfaces at specified crystalline orientations. The influences of the LBO structure on the structural and optical properties of ZrO2 thin films are studied by spectrophotometerand x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the substrate structure has obvious effects on the structural and optical properties of the film: namely, the ZrO2 thin film deposited on the X-LBO, Y-LBO and Z-LBO orients to m(-212), m(021) and o(130) directions. It is also found that the ZrO2 thin film with m(021) has the highest refractive index and theleast lattice misfit.

  20. Initial deposition and electron paramagnetic resonance defects characterization of TiO{sub 2} films prepared using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yiyong, E-mail: wuyiyong2001@yahoo.com.cn [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China); Shi Yaping [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China); Harbin University of Commerce, P.O. 493, Song bei District, Harbin, 150028 (China); Xu Xianbin; Sun Chengyue [National Key Laboratory of Materials Behaviors and Evaluation Technology in Space Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. 432, Nan gang District, Harbin, 150080 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique was considered promisingly to deposit ultra thin titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films under ambient condition. In this paper, the growth process, structures and paramagnetic defects of the films were characterized by complementary techniques of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that on glass substrate the SILAR TiO{sub 2} film nucleates in an island mode within the initial five deposition cycles but grows in a layer-by-layer mode afterwards. The growth rate was measured as 4.6 A/cycle. In the as-deposited films, a kind of paramagnetic defects is detected at g (2.0029) and it can be attributed to oxygen vacancies. These as-received oxygen vacancies could be annealed out at 473 K. Ultraviolet irradiation on the as-deposited films can also decrease the density of the defects. The relative mechanisms on the phenomenon were discussed in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} films are deposited on glass at 25 Degree-Sign C by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method with a rate of 4.6 A/cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films nucleate in an island mode initially but grow in a layer mode afterwards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SILAR TiO{sub 2} films nucleation period is five cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that TiO{sub 2} films paramagnetic defects are attributed to oxygen vacancies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They will decrease by anneal or ultraviolet radiation and form hydroxyl or superoxide radicals.

  1. Improved electron transportation of dye-sensitized solar cells using uniform mixed CNTs-TiO{sub 2} photoanode prepared by a new polymeric gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshayesh, A. M.; Mohammadi, M. R., E-mail: mrm41@cam.ac.uk; Masihi, N.; Akhlaghi, M. H. [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A new facile strategy for fabrication of high surface area electrode in the form of mixtures of coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with various weight ratios is reported. The so-called polymeric gel process was used to deposit thick film containing uniform distribution of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and coated CNTs with high porosity by dip coating for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. Based on simultaneous differential thermal analysis, the minimum annealing temperature to obtain inorganic- and organic-free films was determined at 500 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that deposited films were composed of primary nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range 21-45 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope images showed that deposited films had porous morphology containing uniform spherical particles with diameter around 2.5 {mu}m and coated CNTs with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TNTs). The spherical particles were composed of small nanoparticles ({approx}60 nm), improving light scattering and dye loading of the DSSC. Moreover, TNTs were uniformly incorporated into the electrodes, improving electron transportation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was presented as an obvious proof for the inclusion of CNTs into the TiO{sub 2} matrix. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that CNT introduction enhanced the visible light absorption of photoanode by shifting the absorption onset to visible light region. An enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 6.53 % for pure TiO{sub 2} to 7.38 % for CNT-TiO{sub 2} electrode containing 0.025 wt% CNTs was achieved. This well-incorporated study would present an intellectual development in the fabrication of low-cost CNT consolidated DSSCs with high PCE.

  2. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  3. Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  4. Rethinking Resourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  5. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and ... electronics Library resources such as electronic journals, e-books, scholarly databases, ... researchers to have access to a wide range of high quality electronic information resources.

  6. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  7. 地方高校的电子文献资源建设——以南京晓庄学院为例%Construction of Electronic Literature Resources of Local University Library —— A Case Study ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯

    2012-01-01

    以南京晓庄学院图书馆为蓝本,从电子资源的文献价值入手,阐明了编制电子资源的采访标准和评价指标的意义,指出在当前网络环境下,地方高校加强电子文献资源建设的重要性和发展方向。%This paper is on the original version ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University library, from the literature value of electron- ic resource, expounds the meaning of compiling electronic resources acquisition standard and evaluation index, points out under current network environment, the importance of local university library strengthen electronic litera-ture resources construction and development direction.

  8. The Strategies for the Construction of the Electronic Journal Resources in Higher Vocational College Library in the Network Environment%网络环境下高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妙琼

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds some main principles of the construction of the network electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library in the network environment, introduces several types of the network electronic journal resources, and probes into some strategies for the construction of electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library.%阐述了高职院校图书馆网络电子期刊资源建设的主要原则,介绍了网络电子期刊资源的几种类型, 探讨了高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设的策略.

  9. 区域性高校数字图书馆联盟电子资源建设研究--以湖南省高校数字图书馆为例%Study on the Electronic Resources Construction of Regional University Digital Library Alliance---Taking Hunan Academic Digital Library (HNADL)as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐婷

    2015-01-01

    介绍了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设情况,阐述了各联盟成员馆电子资源建设现状,探讨了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策及建议。%ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the situation of the electronic resources construction of HNADL, expounds the current status of the electronic resources construction of each number library, probes into the problems existing in the electronic resources construction of HNADL,and puts forward some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  10. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of nanostructures in SnO 2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow nanocrystalline SnO 2 thin films onto glass substrates. The nanocrystallites and microstructures in SnO 2 thin films grown by PLD techniques have been investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The PLD process was carried out at room temperature under a working pressure of about 2×10 -6 mbar. Experimental results indicate that thin films are composed of a polycrystalline SnO 2 and an amorphous SnO phase. In particular, the presence of such an amorphous SnO phase in the thin films greatly limits their practical use as gas-sensing devices. HRTEM observations revealed that SnO 2 nanocrystallites with tetragonal rutile structure embed in an amorphous SnO matrix, which are approximatively equiaxed. These approximatively equiaxed SnO 2 nanocrystallites contain a high density of defects, such as twin boundaries and edge dislocations. The grain growth of SnO 2 thin films may be discussed in terms of the coalescent particle growth mechanism.

  11. Correlations between the Optical Properties and the Microstructure of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Electron-beam Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-hua; XUE Yi-yu; ZHANG You-ling; CAO Hong

    2004-01-01

    High refractive index TiO2 thin films were deposited on BK7 glass by reactive electron - beam(REB) evaporation at pressure of 2 × 10- 2 Pa, deposition rate of 0.2nm/s and at various substrate temperaturesfrom 120℃ to 300℃ . The refractive index and the thickness of the films were measured by visible spectroscopic el-lipsometry (SE) and determined from transmission spectra. Optical properties and structure features were charac-terized by UV - VIS, SEM and XRD, respectively. The measurement and analysis on transmission spectra of allsamples shaw that with the substrate temperature increasing from 120℃ to 300℃ , the refractive indices of thinfilms increase from 1.7 to 2.1 and the films after heat treatment have higher refractive indices due to its crystalliz-ing. The XRD analysis results indicate that the structure of TiO2 thin films deposited on BK7 glass at substratetemperatures of 120℃ ,200℃ and 300℃ is amorphous, after post-annealing under air condition at 400℃ for 1hour, the amorphous structure is crystallized, the crystal phase is of 100% anatase with strong preferred orientation(004) and the grain size of crystalline is within 3.6-8.1 nm, which is consistent with results from SEM observation.

  12. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  13. Testing the Limits of the BOPHY Platform: Preparation, Characterization, and Theoretical Modeling of BOPHYs and Organometallic BOPHYs with Electron-Withdrawing Groups at β-Pyrrolic and Bridging Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsikha, Yuriy V; Nemez, Dion B; Davis, Rebecca L; Singh, Simarpreet; Herbert, David E; King, Alex J; Ziegler, Christopher J; Nemykin, Victor N

    2017-07-19

    Several BOPHY derivatives with and without ferrocene fragments, and with electron-withdrawing ester groups appended to the β-pyrrolic positions have been prepared and characterized by NMR, UV/Vis near-infrared (NIR), high-resolution mass spectrometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as X-ray crystallography. The redox properties of new BOPHYs were probed by electrochemical (cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry) and spectroelectrochemical methods. In an attempt to prepare BOPHY derivatives with a cyano group at the bridging position using a similar approach for BODIPY cyanation, adducts from the nucleophilic attack of the cyanide anion on the bridging position in BOPHY have been isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Oxidation of such adducts, however, resulted in formation of either the starting BOPHYs, or partial extrusion of the BF2 fragment from the BOPHY core, which was confirmed by spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. DFT and TDDFT calculations on all target materials correlate well with the experimental data, and suggest the dramatic reduction of the nitrogen atom basicity at the hydrazine bridge of the BOPHY upon introduction of the cyano group at the bridging-carbon atom. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rethinking resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  15. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  16. Library use and information-seeking behavior of veterinary medical students revisited in the electronic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, N L; Wiese, W H; Leysen, J M

    1998-07-01

    Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were surveyed in January of 1997 to determine their general use of the Veterinary Medical Library and how they sought information in an electronic environment. Comparisons were made between this study and one conducted a decade ago to determine the effect of the growth in electronic resources on student library use and information-seeking behavior. The basic patterns of student activities in the library, resources used to find current information, and resources anticipated for future education needs remained unchanged. The 1997 students used the library most frequently for photocopying, office supplies, and studying coursework; they preferred textbooks and handouts as sources of current information. However, when these students went beyond textbooks and handouts to seek current information, a major shift was seen from the use of print indexes and abstracts in 1987 towards the use of computerized indexes and other electronic resources in 1997. Almost 60% of the students reported using the Internet for locating current information. Overall use of electronic materials was highest among a group of students receiving the problem-based learning method of instruction. Most of the students surveyed in 1997 indicated that electronic resources would have some degree of importance to them for future education needs. The electronic environment has provided new opportunities for information professionals to help prepare future veterinarians, some of whom will be practicing in remote geographical locations, to access the wealth of information and services available on the Internet and Web.

  17. Digital History: Problem of Creation of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlír, Zdenêk

    This paper is based on the reference background of historical librarianship, so that it does not address astronomical problems per se. In this respect we can see the historical astronomical material at three different levels: first, as factual data preserved from the past or as that we can take today as factual data; second, as evidence of the acquisition and explication of this factual material, i.e. history of astronomy as science; and third, as the inclusion of astronomical progress into historical material in general, and, in another sense, into the development of intellectual thought. At present we are witnessing a transition from an environment of predominantly printed material into an electronic-digital environment. In connection with this important change in communication there is also a new conceptualization of information and knowledge. This must be responded to by a conversion of existing sources and the creation of new ones. This wider horizon will require fundamental changes in the domain of the historical librarian. Creation of historical resources in the electronic-digital environment has three aspects: first, it is a permanent creation of digital image copies; second, building a catalogue as an access point common for both original and subsidiary documents; third, production of full-text databases of bibliographic and factual databases as well as comments-monographs. Owing to the fact that there does not exist in the electronic-digital environment any document in the strict sense of the word, it increases the importance of the context of data and the information itself becomes an interpretation. Also, due to the fact that the subject itself appears as a theme at more than one level, the knowledge becomes an interpretation at each next level. Thus the resources in the electronic-digital environment have the potential for an indirect, indefinite utilization. So it is not enough to just represent data in an objective way, but it is also necessary to

  18. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  19. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  20. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  1. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  2. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  3. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  4. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  5. Preparation, crystal structures, experimental and theoretical electronic band structures of cobalt tellurides in the composition range CoTe{sub 1.3}-CoTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhler, M. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Bensch, W.; Schur, M. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    1998-04-06

    Cobalt tellurides in the composition range CoTe{sub 1.3}-CoTe{sub 2} crystallize in a CdI{sub 2}-type structure with short intra- and interslab Te-Te contacts indicating a polymeric network with multiple Te-Te bonds explaining the very low c/a values of 1.38 to 1.41 of the hexagonal cells. Single-crystal x-ray investigations performed on CoTe{sub 2} confirm the marcasite-type structure in the centrosymmetric space group Pnnm. Experimental valence band spectra (UPS) confirm that the Co tellurides in the composition range CoTe{sub x} (1.3 < x < 2) are metals. The emission at the Fermi level E{sub F} decreases with the Te content and is due to Co 3d and Te 5p states. This assignment is supported by the results of the calculated density of states curve (DOS) which demonstrates that Te p states contribute about 50% in the CdI{sub 2}-type and about 35% in the marcasite-type structure. The Te d states contribute about 15% to the total Te contributions. This behaviour cannot be understood on the basis of a simple tight-binding description, ignoring d-valence states of Te. Core level spectra (XPS) suggest that all CoTe{sub x} samples are best described as intermetallic compounds. Small chemical shifts between the different samples are mainly due to the different Madelung contributions rather than to changes of the electron density located on the Co atoms. An oxidation number for Te <-1 in all CoTe{sub x} samples is deduced, in good agreement with the value of about -1.3 for the Te in CoTe{sub 2} that would be deduced from the relation between the Te-Te distances versus oxidation states of the anion in (Te{sub 2}){sup -11}, Te{sup -11}. The three-dimensional character of the Co tellurides deduced from the crystal structure is further confirmed by the calculated energy dispersion E(k). (author)

  6. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  7. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Peter [RWTH Aachen U.; Hufnagel, Dirk [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Tadel, M. [UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I. [UC, San Diego; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego; Wuerthwein, F. [UC, San Diego; McCrea, A. [UC, San Diego; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Merida; Linares, L. [Andes U., Merida; Wagner, R. [TI, San Diego; Konstantinov, P. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Blumenfeld, B. [Johns Hopkins U.; Bradley, D. [Wisconsin U., Madison

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  8. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  9. Transmission electron microscopy studies of YBCO coated conductors prepared by pulsed-laser deposition and multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takeharu [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: tkato@jfcc.or.jp; Sasaki, Hirokazu [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Iwai, Hiroyuki [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Ibi, Akira [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Kashima, Naoji [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Niwa, Toshiharu [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Muroga, Takemi [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Miyata, Seiki [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Tomonori; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Kazuomi; Sutoh, Yasunori [Material Technology Lab, Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Nagaya, Shigeo [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Saitoh, Takashi [Material Technology Lab, Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Sasaki, Yukichi; Hirayama, Tsukasa [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Shiohara, Yuh [SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center, ISTEC, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)]|[SRL-Division of Superconducting Tapes and Wires, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Ikuhara, Yuichi [Materials R and D Lab, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-1 Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Three types of YBCO films were deposited on metal tapes with biaxially textured CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} multilayer. One YBCO film 4 {mu}m in thickness was formed by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on the stationary substrate and another film 3 {mu}m in thickness by PLD using a reel-to-reel substrate tape transferring system. I {sub c} values of the films were 173 A and 293 A, respectively A further film 1 {mu}m in thickness was fabricated by multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition (MSCVD). The I {sub c} value of the MSCVD-YBCO film was 100 A. The microstructures of these YBCO films were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the PLD-YBCO films, the films less than 1 {mu}m thick were predominantly composed of c-axis oriented grains which were considered to grow spirally, however, irregular instances of a-axis oriented grains were also found. The a-axis oriented grains size increased with increasing thickness of the YBCO films. In the 4 {mu}m-thick PLD-YBCO film with an I {sub c} value of 173 A, a-axis oriented grains were considered to nucleate on the CeO{sub 2}. We found many Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and cupper oxides at the boundaries between a- and c-axes oriented grains and the orientation relationships between YBCO and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were determined to be as follows: (0 0 1)YBCO//(0 0 1)Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (1 0 0)YBCO//(1 1 0)Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We also found many gaps and pores between YBCO grains. Nucleation of a-axis oriented grains was completely suppressed on the CeO{sub 2} in the 3 {mu}m-thick PLD-YBCO film with an I {sub c} value of 293 A. In the MSCVD-YBCO film, the YBCO film mostly consisted of c-axis oriented grains, however a-axis oriented grains and polycrystal also formed in the film. As the MSCVD-YBCO film became thicker, the a-axis oriented grains grew large, as same as in the PLD-YBCO films. The growth rate of a-axis oriented grain along the substrate normal was much higher than that of c-axis oriented grains in

  10. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  11. Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language The paper presents in brief Bulgarian language resources as a part of multilingual digital resources developed in the frame of some international projects, among them parallel annotated and aligned corpora, comparable corpora, morpho-syntactic specifications for corpora annotation and dictionaries encoding, lexicons, lexical databases, and electronic dictionaries.

  12. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  13. 高校图书馆外文电子资源的建设与利用研究——以安徽建筑大学图书馆为例%Study on the Construction and Utilization of Foreign Electronic Resources in University Library ——A Case Study of the Library of AUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes an investigation and statistical analysis on the current construction ans utilization of foreign electronic resources of the library of AUA from the aspects of the quantities, funds as well as utilization rate of foreign database, discusses some factors influencing the construction and utilization of foreign electronic resources, and probes into the countermeasures for strengthening the construction of foreign electronic resources and improving the utilization rate of foreign electronic resources.%从外文数据库的数量、经费和利用率等方面,对安徽建筑大学图书馆外文电子资源建设与利用现状进行了调查研究与统计分析,论述了影响外文电子资源建设与利用的因素,探讨了加强外文电子资源建设、提高外文数据库利用率的对策.

  14. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  15. Interactive Technologies in Electronic Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana Ivanovna; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    Modern professional education in the transition to a tiered system of specialists training is focused not on the transfer of ready knowledge but on teaching to find this knowledge and to apply them in situations close to the professional conditions. The educational process, relying on use of interactive methods of teaching, which is organized with…

  16. Preparing Today's Nursing Students for Tomorrow's Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Federal directives, nursing and nursing education associations, as well as accrediting bodies emphasize the importance of integrating health information technology and EHRs into nursing practice. Additionally, informatics is a required competency of baccalaureate nursing graduates. Nursing education's efforts to enhance students' learning in the area of electronic documentation is at its peak. The goal of enabling nurses to make healthcare safer, more effective, efficient, patient-centered, timely and equitable can only be achieved if a variety of technologies are clearly integrated into nursing education. Therefore, some schools have developed educational innovations to incorporate academic EHRs. As the mental health setting is unique, extraordinary attention has to be provided during the education of electronic documentation. Nursing education efforts must focus on interventions that provide resources that enhance the participant's knowledge and skills related to electronic documentation in a variety of clinical settings. Additionally, implementing academic EHRs in clinical settings offers nursing educators an opportunity to note the benefits. The state of nursing education depends on the accessibility to utilize academic EHRs in the nursing curriculum within the clinical setting to effectively prepare students for real-word practice.

  17. Inorganic alkali lead iodide semiconducting APbI3 (A = Li, Na, K, Cs and NH4PbI3 films prepared from solution: Structure, morphology, and electronic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mankel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available APbI3 alkali lead iodides were prepared from aqueous (A= Na, Cs, ammonium NH4+, and methyl­ammonium CH3NH3+ and acetone (A= Li, K solutions by a self-organization low temperature process. Diffraction analysis revealed that the methylammonium-containing system (MAPbI3 crystallizes into a tetragonal perovskite structure, whereas the alkali and NH4+ systems adopt orthorhombic structures. Morphological inspection confirmed the influence of the cation on the growth mechanism: for A = Cs and NH4+, needle-like crystallites with lengths up to 3–4 mm; for A = K, thin stripes with lengths up to 5–6 mm; and for A = MA+, dodecahedral crystallites were observed. For A = Li and Na, the APbI3 systems typically resulted in polycrystalline aggregates. Optical absorption measurements demonstrated large energy band gaps for the alkali and ammonium systems with values between 2.19 and 2.40 eV. For electronic and chemical characterization by photoelectron spectroscopy, the as-prepared powders were dissolved in di-methylformamide and re-crystallized as thin films on F:SnO2 substrates by spin-coating. The binding energy differences between Pb4f and I3d core levels are highly similar in the investigated systems and close to the value measured for PbI2, indicating similar relative partial charges and formal oxidation states. The binding energies of the alkali ions are in accordance with oxidation state +1. The X-ray excited valence band spectra of the investigated APbI3 systems exhibited similar line shapes in the region between the valence band maximum and 4.5 eV higher binding energy due to common PbI6 octahedra which dominate the electronic structure. While the ionization energy values are quite similar (6.15 ± 0.25 eV, the Fermi-level positions of the unintentionally doped materials vary for different cations and different batches of the same material, which indicates that the position of the Fermi level can be influenced by changing the process parameters.

  18. 电子束辐射制备木塑复合材料的研究%Study on Preparation of Wood-plastic Composite Based on Electron Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涛; 李春光; 曾自强; 韩广文

    2016-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites have become an important approach to modify the low-grade and fast-growing wood to the high-grade wood with the excellent perform-ance .The wood-plastic composites were prepared by electron beam irradiation in this paper .The mechanical properties and water absorption of the modified wood were test-ed .The results show that the poplar and China fir can be modified to enhanced wood after impregnated with the modified liquid which contains methyl methacrylate as the main body and irradiated by the electron beam for the total irradiation dose of 50 kGy . The density and the compressive strength parallel to grain of the enhanced wood are improved by 70%-160% compared with the original .The flexural strength and bending elastic modulus increase by 14%-70% ,and water absorption in 24 h decreases from 67%-85% to 11%-25% .The above results indicate that the basic mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites prepared from fast-growing wood such as poplar are close to the level of high-quality mahogany .%木塑复合材料是将低档速生木材改性成为性能优良的中高档木材的重要途径.本研究初步探索了用电子束辐射制备木塑复合材料的工艺,并对改性后木材的力学性能及吸水性进行了测试.结果表明:采用甲基丙烯酸甲酯为主体的改性液浸渍后的杨木和杉木,在总剂量为50 kGy的电子束辐照工艺条件下,可制备出增强改性木材,其密度和顺纹抗压强度较原木材分别提高了70%~160%,抗弯强度和抗弯弹性模量提高了14%~70%,24 h吸水率从67%~85%下降到11%~25%.可见,以杨木等速生木为基材的木塑复合材料的基本力学性能已接近优质红木的水平.

  19. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  20. Resources for Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Hill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers and researchers have for many years advocated disparate approaches to ensuring teachers deliver high-quality instruction, including requiring that teachers complete specific training requirements, possess a minimum level of content knowledge, and use curriculum materials and professional development resources available from schools and districts. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which these factors, which we conceptualize as resources for teaching, predict instructional quality in upper elementary mathematics classrooms. Results show that teachers’ mathematical knowledge and their district context explained a moderate share of the variation in mathematics-specific teaching dimensions; other factors, such as teacher experience, preparation, non-instructional work hours, and measures of the school environment, explained very little variation in any dimension.

  1. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Methods, forms and facilities of professional preparation of teachers-tutors in the conditions of the controlled from distance form of teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadchiy V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of professional preparation of teachers-tutors are studied. The features of application of methods are considered, forms and facilities of professional preparation of teachers-tutors in the conditions of the controlled from distance form of teaching. As expedient methods are selected: method of lecture, video trainings, interactive methods (role-playing, case studies, brainstorming, methods of reflection, control methods, exercises, laboratory method. By the forms of organization are electronic seminars, web-seminars, videos-seminars. By teaching facilities are electronic educational resources and services of network the Internet.

  3. Resource Letter EPGA-1: The Education of Physics Graduate Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossem, E. Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Provides nearly 200 resources for programs for the preparation of physics graduate students for their responsibilities as teachers. Resources are listed under the following categories: (1) General Resources; (2) Resources Focused on Particular Aspects of Instruction; (3) National Conference Proceedings; (4) International TAs; (5) Institutional…

  4. Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge: Resource Interpretation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major goal of this planning exercise is to prepare the following integrated plan for resource interpretation to be sited at designated locations in Tetlin National...

  5. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  6. Characteristics of Nd:Y3Al5O12 thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation deposition%电子束蒸发制备掺钕钇铝石榴石薄膜特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任豪; 曾群; 庞振华; 周应恒; 梁锡辉

    2012-01-01

    硅基光电集成技术是当代高速信息化的重要发展方向之一.为了研究制备在硅衬底上的新型发光材料,突破Nd∶YAG固体激光工作物质主要是晶体、透明陶瓷等固体形态的限制,采用电子束蒸发沉积工艺,在硅(100)衬底上制备了Nd∶ YAG薄膜,并对Nd∶YAG薄膜的表面形貌、晶体结构、光学特性进行了测试.X射线和扫描电子显微镜测试结果显示,Nd∶YAG薄膜经1100℃真空高温退火处理1h后有效结晶,采用钛蓝宝石激光器输出808nm激光激发,液氮冷却的InGaAs阵列探测器室温下得到Nd∶YAG薄膜的1064nm主荧光峰的荧光光谱.结果表明,采用电子束蒸发沉积和后续高温退火工艺可以在硅衬底上制备Nd∶YAG晶体薄膜.%Si-based optoelectronic integration technology is one of the main study topics and development directions for the high-speed information. New Si-based luminescent materials were developed to break the limits of Nd: YAG solid laser material, which was confined by two main solid states: single crystal and transparent ceramics. Nd: YAG thin film was prepared on Si (100) substrates by electron beam evaporation deposition. The surface morphology, crystalline phase and optical properties of Nd:YAG thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometer. The crystallization of Nd:YAG thin film was improved after annealing at ll00'C for lh in the vacuum, photoluminescent spectra of Nd:YAG thin film were measured at room temperature, with 808nm radiation from a Ti: sapphire laser, and photoluminescent spectrum in the region of 1064nm peak was detected by a liquid nitrogen cooled InGaAs detector array. The results showed thai Nd: YAG crystalline thin film was grown on Si substrates for the first time by means of electron beam evaporation deposition and subsequent high temperature annealing process.

  7. Ultrafast laser control of vibrational dynamics for a two-dimensional model of HONO 2 in the ground electronic state: separation of conformers, control of the bond length, selective preparation of the discrete and the continuum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, M.; Paramonov, G. K.

    1998-06-01

    Selective excitation of the vibrational bound and the continuum states, controlled by subpicosecond infrared (IR) laser pulses, is simulated within the Schrödinger wave function formalism for a two-dimensional model of the HONO 2 molecule in the ground electronic state. State-selective excitation of the OH bond is achieved by single optimal laser pulses, with the probability being 97% for the bound states and more than 91% for the resonances. Stable, long-living continuum states are prepared with more than 96% probability by two optimal laser pulses, with the expectation energy of the molecule being well above the dissociation threshold of the ON single bond, and its life-time being at least 100 ps. The length of the ON single bond can be controlled selectively: stretching and contraction by about 45% of its equilibrium length are demonstrated. Laser separation of spatial conformers of HONO 2 in inhomogeneous conditions occurring on an anisotropic surface or created by a direct current (DC) electric field is analysed. The relative yields of target conformers may be very high, ranging from 10 to 10 8, and the absolute yields of up to 40% and more are calculated.

  8. 聚羟基脂肪酸酯多孔微球的制备及扫描电镜观察%Preparation of porous polyhydroxyalkanoates microsphere and determination by scanning electron microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林月娟; 魏岱旭; 孙立志; 方国

    2011-01-01

    聚羟基脂肪酸酯材料是一种具有良好生物相容性和生物可降解性的生物材料,可用于制备成各种不同形式的多孔支架运用于组织工程.本文用碳酸氢铵为气体致孔剂,采用双乳液溶剂挥发法,制备出多孔的聚羟基脂肪酸酯膜和微球,并通过扫描电子显微镜对这两种多孔材料的表面和剖面结构进行观察,探讨不同的制备条件对多孔材料的影响.%Objective Polyhydroxyalkanoates ( PHA) is a biomaterial with good biodegradability and bio-compatibility , and is prepared into different forms of scaffold and applied in tissue engineering. To fabricate porous PHA microspheres through a modified water-in-oil-in-water (W1/0/W2) double emulsion solvent evaporation method with ammonium bicarbonate, and to analyze the influence of different factors through detecting their surface and section structure by scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  10. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  12. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  14. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  16. Electronic Books for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

  17. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  18. Preparation of electronic grade manganese sulfate from leaching solution of ferromanganese slag%锰铁合金渣浸出液制备电子级硫酸锰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫升; 邱运仁

    2014-01-01

    以锰铁合金渣为原料,经研磨、硫酸浸出后,采用中和−水解、氟化沉淀、硫化沉淀和重结晶法去除浸出液中的铁、铝、钙、镁和重金属以及钠、钾等离子以制备电子级硫酸锰。研究反应 pH、反应温度和不同添加剂的用量对硫酸锰产品中杂质含量的影响,并得到了较优的温度、pH、沉淀剂的用量等工艺条件。结果表明:在较优工艺条件下,所制备的碳酸锰中,Ca2+、Mg2+、Na+、K+杂质离子的含量小于0.005%,Fe3+、Al3+和重金属离子的含量小于0.001%,Mn2+的含量大于32%,硫酸锰产品的质量满足锂离子电池正极材料的要求。%Preparation of electronic grade manganese sulfate from ferromanganese slag, including grinding, leaching and purification, was studied. The impurities, such as Fe3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, heavy metal ions and Na+, K+, were removed from leaching solution by neutralized-hydrolysis, fluorination precipitation, sulfuration precipitation and re-crystallization. Effects of pH of reaction, temperature and dosage of the different additives on removal rates of the metallic ions in leaching solution were investigated, and the suitable temperature, pH and the added amount of precipitating agent were obtained. The prepared manganese sulfate product, of which the mass fractions of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ are all smaller than 0.005%, the mass fractions of Fe3+, Al3+ and heavy metal ions are smaller than 0.001%, and the mass fraction of Mn2+ is greater than 32%, can meet the demand of anode materials of lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Challenges in preparing human resources for the production sector involving fields with marginal accumulations; Desafios na capacitacao de recursos humanos para o setor de producao em campos com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo Cezar Paim de

    2009-07-01

    Among the main obstacles that operating companies in the exploration and production (E and P) sector of oil and natural gas worldwide currently face to develop their activities is the scarcity of qualified staff. The fast growth of investments in E and P during the recent years (higher than 10% per year), as a function of the increase in oil prices, has created a gap between the demand and the supply of skilled human resources. In Brazil, the demand-supply relation of the aforementioned human resources is even more critical because, beyond the increasing investments, the recent opening of the sector for the participation of private initiative, after more than 50 years of state monopoly, still encounters a natural concentration os specialized knowledge within PETROBRAS. For small operators, especially those in oil fields with marginal accumulations, such scarcity also causes an increase in costs. Given this scenery, educational institutions together with companies of the sector face the great challenge of developing the needed human resources with the pace and quality demanded. The appropriate equation and the adequate solution to this challenge will contribute to the success of the growing sector of small size independent E and P operators in the country. (author)

  20. Remote preparation of quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, C H; Leung, D W; Shor, P W; Winter, A; Bennett, Charles H; Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie W.; Shor, Peter W.; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical communication but also gives rise to a trade-off between these two resources in the appropriate setting. We discuss this problem from first principles, including the various choices one may follow in the definitions of the actual resources. Our main result is a general method of remote state preparation for arbitrary states of many qubits, at a cost of 1 bit of classical communication and 1 bit of entanglement per qubit sent. In this "universal" formulation, these ebit and cbit requirements are shown to be simultaneously optimal by exhibiting a dichotomy. This then yields the exact trade-off c...