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Sample records for preoptic region tuber

  1. Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Andersson, Josefin; Nilsberth, Camilla

    2007-08-23

    Inflammatory-induced fever is dependent on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) binding to its EP(3) receptor in the thermoregulatory region of the hypothalamus, but it is not known which EP(3) receptor isoform(s) that is/are involved. We identified the EP(3) receptor expression in the mouse preoptic region by in situ hybridization and isolated the corresponding area by laser capture microdissection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected tissue revealed a predominant expression of the EP(3alpha) isoform, but there was also considerable expression of EP(3gamma), corresponding to approximately 15% of total EP(3) receptor expression, whereas EP(3beta) was sparsely expressed. This distribution was not changed by immune challenge induced by peripheral administration of LPS, indicating that EP(3) receptor splicing and distribution is not activity dependent. Considering that EP(3alpha) and EP(3gamma) are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE(2) response of the target neurons is intricately regulated.

  2. Topological and histological description of preoptic area and hypothalamus in cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón,Laura; Martha J Obando; Tovar,Mario O.; Pandolfi, Matías; Hurtado,Hernan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Topological and histological descriptions of the preoptic area and hypothalamus of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi were performed. Standard histological paraffin sections were used and stained with Nissl technique, and plastic sections for high-resolution optic microscopy (HROM). The preoptic area showed some differences related to the location of the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (PM) and the size of the neurons in this region, as they were the biggest in all the preoptic...

  3. Efferent connections from the lateral hypothalamic region and the lateral preoptic area to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, J D

    1994-01-01

    area within the lateral hypothalamic region that consistently innervated magnocellular perikarya of the PVN. Finally, all areas of the lateral hypothalamic region contributed substantially to fibres terminating in the perinuclear shell of the PVN. These results demonstrate that anatomically distinct...

  4. Analysis of genes differentially expressed during potato tuber life cycle and isolation of their promoter regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trindade, L.M.; Horvath, B.M.; Berloo, van R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    The potato tuber life cycle involves several developmental stages including tuberisation, tuber growth, dormancy and sprouting. Gene expression during the potato tuber life cycle has been monitored using a RNA fingerprinting technique termed cDNA-AFLP The expression profile of the nearly 2000 transc

  5. Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and other ... disabilities Kidney problems Some people have signs of tuberous sclerosis at birth. In others it can take time ...

  6. Managing tuberous sclerosis in the Asia-Pacific region: refining practice and the role of targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, John A; Chan, Chi-Fung; Chi, Ching-Shiang; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Ki Joong; Likasitwatanakul, Surachai; Ortiz, Marilyn; Riney, Kate; Tay, Stacey Kiat-Hong; Tham, Chee-Kian

    2014-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder, with heterogeneous manifestations that pose major diagnostic and management challenges and incur considerable chronic disease burden on patients, their caregivers and healthcare systems. This survey of clinical practice in the Asia-Pacific region highlights priorities for improving TSC management in the region. The prevalence of TSC in non-Caucasians is uncertain and more data are needed to assess its impact and health-economic burden. There are unmet needs for access to genetic testing and earlier diagnosis and intervention. TSC management is multidisciplinary and largely based on experience, backed by international guidelines; however, physicians in the Asia-Pacific region feel isolated and lack local or regional guidance and support structures to implement best-practice. Raising awareness of TSC and increasing trans-regional collaboration are particular priorities. Understanding of TSC pathophysiology has enabled the development of targeted therapies. Encouraging data indicate that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors can ameliorate TSC-related lesions and may potentially change the treatment paradigm. Ultimately, improving outcomes for TSC patients in the region requires greater collaboration and a holistic, patient-focused, continuum of care that is maintained through the transition from pediatric to adult care.

  7. Topographical Distribution of Epileptogenic Tubers in Patients With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

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    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Hirata, Yoko; Yogi, Akira; Karavaeva, Elena; Leu, Kevin; Woodworth, Davis C; Harris, Robert J; Enzmann, Dieter R; Wu, Joyce Y; Mathern, Gary W; Salamon, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem genetic syndrome often affecting the central nervous system. The purpose of the current study was to identify topographical patterns in the distribution specific to epileptogenic (n = 37) and nonepileptogenic (n = 544) tubers throughout the brain for a cohort of 23 tuberous sclerosis complex patients with a history of seizures. Tubers localized to the inferior parietal lobes, middle frontal lobes, middle temporal lobes, or central sulcus regions were associated with a high frequency of epileptogenic tubers. Epileptogenic tubers occurred statistically more frequently within the inferior parietal lobe and within the central sulcus region in children younger than 1 or between 1 and 3 years old, respectively. Results imply seizure activity in tuberous sclerosis complex patients can be associated with the location of cortical tubers.

  8. Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area in Eigenmannia: evoked interruptions in the electric organ discharge.

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    Wong, C J

    2000-01-01

    The functional role of the basal forebrain and preoptic regions in modulating the normally regular electric organ discharge was determined by focal brain stimulation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. The rostral preoptic area, which is connected with the diencephalic prepacemaker nucleus, was examined physiologically by electrical stimulation in a curarized fish. Electrical stimulation of the most rostral region of the preoptic area with trains of relatively low intensity current elicits discrete bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions in contrast to other forebrain loci. These responses were observed primarily as after-responses following the termination of the stimulus train and were relatively immune to variations in the stimulus parameters. As the duration and rate of these preoptic-evoked bursts of electric organ discharge interruptions (approximately 100 ms at 2 per s) are similar to duration and rate of natural interruptions, it is proposed that these bursts might be precursors to natural interruptions. These data suggest that the preoptic area, consistent with its role in controlling reproductive behaviors in vertebrates, may be influencing the occurrence of electric organ discharge courtship signals by either direct actions on the prepacemaker nucleus or through other regions that are connected with the diencephalic pre-pacemaker nucleus.

  9. Preoptic hypnogenic area and reticular activating system.

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    Bremer, F

    1973-06-01

    The stimulation, in the encéphale isolé cat, of the basal preoptic hypnogenic area be brief electrical pulses evokes bilaterally an extracellular positive (P) field potential of 20 to 60 msec duration in the brain stem and thalamic activating ascending reticular system. The properties of this P wave have led to consider it as the extracellular and abbreviated counterpart of an hyperpolarizing postsynaptic inhibitory process which, by the functional depression it exerts on the arousal system, would be instrumental in the induction and maintenance of synchronized sleep. The positive field potential response of the reticular system shows the same recruiting build-up and amplitude modulation, and the same sensibility to amphetamine and to barbiturates, as the cortical potential of diffuse distribution which is evoked simultaneously. It is strychnine--and picrotoxin--resistant. Preoptic stimulation exerts, within a 100 msec interval, a strong suppressive effect on the excitatory response evoked in the n. centromedian by a mesencephalic reticular testing shock. On the other hand, the application of the latter as a conditioning stimulus results in a marked increase of the amplitude of the P wave response of the CM to a testing preoptic shock. A negative feedback interpretation of this interaction is suggested. No clear evidence of a tonic functioning of the preoptic hypnogenic structure could be found in experiments involving the production of small bilateral lesions in the basal preoptic area in the encéphale isolé cat. Reasons limiting the interpretation of this negative result are given. The functional significance, on the basis of experimental data, of the diffuse cortical synchronization produced by the low frequency stimulation of the basal preoptic area and of other hypnogenic structures is discussed.

  10. The preoptic-suprachiasmatic nuclei though morphologically heterogeneous are equally affected by streptozotocin diabetes.

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    Bestetti, G; Hofer, R; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    Pituitary and gonadal disorders consistent with abnormal LHRH and LH secretion occur in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. A key role in the synthesis and regulation of LHRH and in the phasic LH release is played by the preoptic-suprachiasmatic region which is mainly formed by the medial preoptic area, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Therefore we have studied this region by morphology and morphometry in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal animals, the neurons of the above mentioned nuclei were morphologically and morphometrically dissimilar. Independent of their localization, reduced cytoplasmic and nuclear areas were observed in the neurons of diabetic animals. These lesions are consistent with hypotrophied neurons. Consequently, diabetes may impair both synthesis and regulation of LHRH and may therefore account for pituitary disorders, testicular atrophy, and lacking preovulatory LH peaks. The structural differences of the neurons of the three nuclei in normal animals underline their different physiological role. Yet, the similarity of the changes found in all three nuclei suggests a generalized hypofunction of the whole preoptic-suprachiasmatic region under diabetic condition.

  11. Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance

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    ... Your Journey with TSC: You Are Not Alone Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance Overview La Esclerosis Tuberosa (Spanish Intro to ... History Database Research Resources International Scientific Advisory Board Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance Support Community The information you obtain at ...

  12. Sonic hedgehog lineage in the mouse hypothalamus: from progenitor domains to hypothalamic regions

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    Alvarez-Bolado Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypothalamus is a brain region with essential functions for homeostasis and energy metabolism, and alterations of its development can contribute to pathological conditions in the adult, like hypertension, diabetes or obesity. However, due to the anatomical complexity of the hypothalamus, its development is not well understood. Sonic hedgehog (Shh is a key developmental regulator gene expressed in a dynamic pattern in hypothalamic progenitor cells. To obtain insight into hypothalamic organization, we used genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM to map the lineages derived from Shh-expressing progenitor domains onto the four rostrocaudally arranged hypothalamic regions: preoptic, anterior, tuberal and mammillary. Results Shh-expressing progenitors labeled at an early stage (before embryonic day (E9.5 contribute neurons and astrocytes to a large caudal area including the mammillary and posterior tuberal regions as well as tanycytes (specialized median eminence glia. Progenitors labeled at later stages (after E9.5 give rise to neurons and astrocytes of the entire tuberal region and in particular the ventromedial nucleus, but not to cells in the mammillary region and median eminence. At this stage, an additional Shh-expressing domain appears in the preoptic area and contributes mostly astrocytes to the hypothalamus. Shh-expressing progenitors do not contribute to the anterior region at any stage. Finally, we show a gradual shift from neurogenesis to gliogenesis, so that progenitors expressing Shh after E12.5 generate almost exclusively hypothalamic astrocytes. Conclusions We define a fate map of the hypothalamus, based on the dynamic expression of Shh in the hypothalamic progenitor zones. We provide evidence that the large neurogenic Shh-expressing progenitor domains of the ventral diencephalon are continuous with those of the midbrain. We demonstrate that the four classical transverse zones of the hypothalamus have clearly

  13. Sonic hedgehog lineage in the mouse hypothalamus: from progenitor domains to hypothalamic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The hypothalamus is a brain region with essential functions for homeostasis and energy metabolism, and alterations of its development can contribute to pathological conditions in the adult, like hypertension, diabetes or obesity. However, due to the anatomical complexity of the hypothalamus, its development is not well understood. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a key developmental regulator gene expressed in a dynamic pattern in hypothalamic progenitor cells. To obtain insight into hypothalamic organization, we used genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM) to map the lineages derived from Shh-expressing progenitor domains onto the four rostrocaudally arranged hypothalamic regions: preoptic, anterior, tuberal and mammillary. Results Shh-expressing progenitors labeled at an early stage (before embryonic day (E)9.5) contribute neurons and astrocytes to a large caudal area including the mammillary and posterior tuberal regions as well as tanycytes (specialized median eminence glia). Progenitors labeled at later stages (after E9.5) give rise to neurons and astrocytes of the entire tuberal region and in particular the ventromedial nucleus, but not to cells in the mammillary region and median eminence. At this stage, an additional Shh-expressing domain appears in the preoptic area and contributes mostly astrocytes to the hypothalamus. Shh-expressing progenitors do not contribute to the anterior region at any stage. Finally, we show a gradual shift from neurogenesis to gliogenesis, so that progenitors expressing Shh after E12.5 generate almost exclusively hypothalamic astrocytes. Conclusions We define a fate map of the hypothalamus, based on the dynamic expression of Shh in the hypothalamic progenitor zones. We provide evidence that the large neurogenic Shh-expressing progenitor domains of the ventral diencephalon are continuous with those of the midbrain. We demonstrate that the four classical transverse zones of the hypothalamus have clearly defined progenitor domains

  14. Identification of epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F.E.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with epilepsy and mental retardation. The principal aim of this thesis was to identify epileptogenic tuber(s) enabling the selection of patients for epilepsy surgery. In

  15. The control of preoptic aromatase activity by afferent inputs in Japanese quail.

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    Absil, P; Baillien, M; Ball, G F; Panzica, G C; Balthazart, J

    2001-11-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and aromatase mRNA synthesis in the preoptic area are enhanced by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors of the alpha subtype are not regularly colocalized with aromatase. Estradiol receptors of the beta subtype are present in the preoptic area but it is not yet known whether these receptors are colocalized with aromatase. The regulation by estrogen of aromatase activity may be, in part, trans-synaptically mediated, in a manner that is reminiscent of the ways in which steroids control the activity of gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone neurons. Aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are surrounded by dense networks of vasotocin-immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures. These inputs are in part steroid-sensitive and could therefore mediate the effects of steroids on aromatase activity. In vivo pharmacological experiments indicate that catecholaminergic depletions significantly affect aromatase activity presumably by modulating aromatase transcription. In addition, in vitro studies on brain homogenates or on preoptic-hypothalamic explants show that aromatase activity can be rapidly modulated by a variety of dopaminergic compounds. These effects do not appear to be mediated by the membrane dopamine receptors and could involve changes in the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. Together, these results provide converging evidence for a direct control of aromatase activity by catecholamines consistent with the anatomical data indicating the presence of a catecholaminergic innervation of aromatase cells. These dopamine-induced changes in aromatase activity are observed after several hours or days and presumably result from changes in aromatase transcription but rapid non-genomic controls have also been

  16. Identification of a region required for TSC1 stability by functional analysis of TSC1 missense mutations found in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex

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    den Dunnen Johan T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the development of hamartomas in a variety of organs and tissues. The disease is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 gene on chromosome 9q34, or the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products, TSC1 and TSC2, form a protein complex that inhibits signal transduction to the downstream effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Recently it has been shown that missense mutations to the TSC1 gene can cause TSC. Methods We have used in vitro biochemical assays to investigate the effects on TSC1 function of TSC1 missense variants submitted to the Leiden Open Variation Database. Results We identified specific substitutions between amino acids 50 and 190 in the N-terminal region of TSC1 that result in reduced steady state levels of the protein and lead to increased mTOR signalling. Conclusion Our results suggest that amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of TSC1 are important for TSC1 function and for maintaining the activity of the TSC1-TSC2 complex.

  17. Drainage isolation and climate change-driven population expansion shape the genetic structures of Tuber indicum complex in the Hengduan Mountains region.

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    Feng, Bang; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Qin, Jiao; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-02-24

    The orogenesis of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Quaternary climate changes have played key roles in driving the evolution of flora and fauna in Southwest China, but their effects on higher fungi are poorly addressed. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of the Tuber indicum species complex, an economically important fungal group distributed in the Hengduan Mountains region. Our data confirmed the existence of two distinct lineages, T. indicum and T. himalayense, within this species complex. Three geographic groups (Groups W, N and C) were revealed within T. indicum, with Group W found in the paleo-Lancang River region, while Groups N and C corresponded to the two banks along the contemporary Jinsha River, suggesting that rivers have acted as barriers for gene flow among populations from different drainages. Historical range expansion resulted from climate changes was inferred in Group C, contributing to the observed gene flow among geographic populations within this group. Although no significant geographic structure was identified in T. himalayense, evidence of drainage isolation for this species was also detected. Our findings demonstrate that both topographic changes and Quaternary climate oscillations have played important roles in driving the genetic structures of the T. indicum species complex.

  18. Tuberous Sclerosis: Multiple Presentations

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    M. Sanei Taheri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal do-minant genetic disorder that involves multiple or-gans. The predominant lesions are the hamartomas. Classically tuberous sclerosis has been characterized by a classic clinical triad of facial angiofibromas in 90%,retardation in 50-80%,seizure 80-90% and all three in 30%."nThe disease occurs in 1:100,000 persons in all races with nearly equal distribution between the sexes. "nCase Presentation: We had six patients who admitted with different presentations of tuberous sclerosis with a past history of convulsion from childhood, skin le-sions and mental retardation, also with new onset headache and changed pattern of convulsion. In physical examination facial angiofibromas and sub-ungual fibromas apparently detected. Brain CT scan study with contrast showed multiple calcified nod-ules associated with tubers and ventriculomegaly, also an enhancing enlarged nodule at foramen of mo-nro, which was suggestive of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA. In abdominal and pelvic CT scan and ultrasonography, massive bilateral angio-myolipomatosis diagnosed. Also Focal hypodense le-sions in liver which were hyperechoic in ultrasono-graphy were diagnosed. With MRI study tubers, white matter lesions and subependymal nodules asso-ciated with SGCA were detected better. After surgery SGCA was proved."nDiscussion: Our patients had different presentations and various findings of this spectrum discussed in this lecture.

  19. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, Francis J; Sahin, Mustafa; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13. The clinical phenotypes resulting from mutations in either of the 2 genes are variable in each individual. Herein, advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis complex are reviewed, and current guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and management are summarized.

  20. Activation of organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, and medial preoptic area in anticipation of nursing in rabbit pups.

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    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Rhythmic feeding in rabbit pups is a natural model to study food entrainment because, similar to rodents under a schedule of food restriction, these animals show food-anticipatory activity (FAA) prior to daily nursing. In rodents, several brain systems, including the orexinergic system, shift their activity to the restricted feeding schedule, and remain active when subjects are hungry. As the lamina terminalis and regions of the preoptic area participate in the control of behavioral arousal, it was hypothesized that these brain regions are also activated during FAA. Thus, the effects of daily milk ingestion on FOS protein expression in the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), and medial preoptic area (MPOA) were examined using immunohistochemistry before and after scheduled time of nursing in nursed and fasted subjects. Additionally, FOS expression was explored in orexin (ORX) cells in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) because of their involvement in arousal and fluid ingestion, respectively. Pups were entrained by daily nursing, as indicated by a significant increase in locomotor behavior before scheduled time of nursing in both nursed and fasted subjects. FOS was significantly higher in the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA at the time of nursing, and decreased 8 h later in nursed pups. In fasted subjects, this effect persisted in the OVLT, whereas in the MnPO and MPOA, values did not drop at 8 h later, but remained at the same level or higher than those at the time of scheduled nursing. In addition, FOS was significantly higher in ORX cells during FAA in nursed pups in comparison with 8 h later, but in fasted subjects it remained high during most fasting time points. Additionally, OVLT, SON, and ORX cells were activated 1.5 h after nursing. We conclude that the OVLT, MnPO, and MPOA, but not SON, may participate in FAA, as they show activation before suckling of periodic milk ingestion, and that

  1. The median preoptic nucleus exhibits circadian regulation and is involved in food anticipatory activity in rabbit pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María Luisa; Meza, Enrique; Ortega, Arturo; Caba, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Rabbit pups are a natural model to study food anticipatory activity (FAA). Recently, we reported that three areas in the forebrain - the organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and medial preoptic area - exhibit activation during FAA. Here, we examined the PER1 protein profile of these three forebrain regions in both nursed and fasted subjects. We found robust PER1 oscillations in the MnPO in nursed subjects, with high PER1 levels during FAA that persisted in fasted subjects. In conclusion, our data indicate that periodic nursing is a strong signal for PER1 oscillations in MnPO and future experiments are warranted to explore the specific role of this area in FAA.

  2. Autism and Tuberous Sclerosis.

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    Smalley, Susan L.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the research on the relationship of autism and pervasive developmental disorders to tuberous sclerosis (TSC). Notes that, among TSC cases, the frequency of autism is 25% and among autistic populations, the frequency of TSC is 1% to 4%. It is thought that an abnormal TSC gene may directly influence the development of autism. (DB)

  3. Preoptic neuronal nitric oxide synthase induction by testosterone is consistent with a role in gating male copulatory behavior

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    Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Le, Brandon; Zhou, Zifei; Crews, David

    2008-01-01

    Copulatory behaviors are generally dependent on testicular androgens in male vertebrates, being eliminated by castration and re-instated by testosterone administration. It is postulated that a critical factor in this hormonal gating is up-regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the preoptic area, and consequent enhanced nitric oxide synthesis in response to stimuli associated with a receptive female. Previous studies have suggested that nNOS protein is more abundant in behaviorally relevant preoptic regions of testosterone-exposed animals than in hormone-deprived controls. This study sought to elucidate the molecular events underlying this apparent up-regulation by examining preoptic nNOS mRNA abundance at several time points following testosterone administration in a castration and replacement paradigm. Castrated male whiptails (Cnemidophorus inornatus) were implanted with testosterone, and at four time points over the subsequent 18 days their sexual behavior was tested. A rostral periventricular area previously implicated in hormonal gating of male-typical copulatory behavior was then excised by laser microdissection, and nNOS transcript abundance was assessed by quantitative PCR. As neither this technique nor nNOS mRNA measurements have previously been performed in this area of the brain, expression was concommitantly assayed on adjacent sections by in situ hybridization or NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Results are consistent with transcriptional up-regulation of nNOS by testosterone and a central role for the enzyme in mediating hormonal gating of copulatory behavior. PMID:18184320

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex coexistent with hippocampal sclerosis.

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    Lang, Min; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis are both well-defined entities associated with medically intractable epilepsy. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior case of these two pathologies being co-existent. We report a 7-month-old boy who presented with intractable seizures at 2 months of age. MRI studies showed diffuse volume loss in the brain with bilateral, multiple cortical tubers and subcortical migration abnormalities. Subependymal nodules were noted without subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Genetic testing revealed TSC2 and PRD gene deletions. Histopathology of the hippocampus showed CA1 sclerosis marked by loss of neurons in the CA1 region. Sections from the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes showed multiple cortical tubers characterized by cortical architectural disorganization, gliosis, calcifications and increased number of large balloon cells. Focal white matter balloon cells and spongiform changes were also present. The patient underwent resection of the right fronto-parietal lobe and a subsequent resection of the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient is free of seizures on anti-epileptic medication 69 months after surgery. Although hippocampal sclerosis is well documented to be associated with coexistent focal cortical dysplasia, the specific co-existence of cortical tubers and hippocampal sclerosis appears to be rare.

  5. Significance of tuber size for complications of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Hernández-Moneo, J L; Pascual-Pascual, S I; Viaño, J; Gutiérrez-Molina, M; Velazquez-Fragua, R; Quiñones Tapia, D; Morales Bastos, C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one of the most frequent neurocutaneous disorders. Cortical tubers are the most common pathological changes in TSC and they are directly related to the disease's main clinical manifestations: seizures, mental retardation, and autistic behaviour. The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between tuber size and the severity of clinical features in TSC. We performed a retrospective study of the clinical and imaging findings from 45 TSC patients (22 females and 23 males) and compared the clinical features with the location, size, and number of the cortical tubers in each patient. Four patients had voluminous tubers located in 1 or both cerebral hemispheres. All of these patients had intractable seizures and severe mental retardation; 3 of these cases also presented with autistic behaviour, despite tubers having been resected in all 4 patients. Thirteen patients had tubers of large-to-average size, and all patients in this group showed intractable seizures and mental retardation. Nine patients who had experienced infantile spasms during the first year of life presented autistic behaviour. Multiple tubers of small to average size were found in 28 patients. In general, this group had seizures that responded well to antiepileptic drugs and a low prevalence of autism. In 3 patients who all presented good seizure control and normal intelligence, single cortical/subcortical tubers were located in the frontal or occipital lobes. Of the total of 45 patients, 13 had cerebellar as well as cerebral tubers; these were generally present in cases with more severe clinical features. Although large tubers are less common than small to medium-sized ones, they are much more likely to be accompanied by severe clinical symptoms (seizures, mental retardation and autistic behaviour), even when the smaller tubers are quite numerous. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  7. Sturge Weber-Like Gyral Calcification Seen in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1.

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    Chatterjee, Sayan; Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Aneja, Satinder

    2015-07-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with poorly controlled epilepsy. On evaluation, she had microcephaly, neuro-cutaneous stigmata of tuberous sclerosis complex, profound mental retardation, and spastic hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a calcified subependymal nodule and extensive left gyral calcification of the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions with unilateral cerebral atrophy, radiologic features usually seen in Sturge Weber syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed absence of tubers, enlarged choroid plexus, or leptomeningeal angiomas, thus excluding type 3 Sturge Weber syndrome. The genotype was a heterozygous mutation in exon 18 of the tuberous sclerosis type 1 gene (c.2293C>T p.Q765X). A comparison of previously reported 7 cases of Sturge Weber syndrome and tuberous sclerosis complex was made. This revealed 4 actual double phakomatoses (clinical, radiologic, or genetic phenotypes) and 3 cases with clinical phenotype of tuberous sclerosis and gyral calcifications within tubers simulating the radiologic picture of Sturge Weber syndrome.

  8. Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling.

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    Chung, Shinjae; Weber, Franz; Zhong, Peng; Tan, Chan Lek; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Beier, Kevin T; Hörmann, Nikolai; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Zhe; Do, Johnny Phong; Yao, Shenqin; Krashes, Michael J; Tasic, Bosiljka; Cetin, Ali; Zeng, Hongkui; Knight, Zachary A; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2017-05-25

    In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep. However, the sleep-active neurons are spatially intermingled with wake-active neurons, making it difficult to target the sleep neurons specifically for circuit analysis. Here we identify a population of preoptic area sleep neurons on the basis of their projection target and discover their molecular markers. Using a lentivirus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 or a light-activated chloride channel for retrograde labelling, bidirectional optogenetic manipulation, and optrode recording, we show that the preoptic area GABAergic neurons projecting to the tuberomammillary nucleus are both sleep active and sleep promoting. Furthermore, translating ribosome affinity purification and single-cell RNA sequencing identify candidate markers for these neurons, and optogenetic and pharmacogenetic manipulations demonstrate that several peptide markers (cholecystokinin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and tachykinin 1) label sleep-promoting neurons. Together, these findings provide easy genetic access to sleep-promoting preoptic area neurons and a valuable entry point for dissecting the sleep control circuit.

  9. Tuberous sclerosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Nicola Jayne; Fung, Diane E

    2010-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder that occurs in approximately 1 in 7,500 live births. It is characterized by benign neoplasms of the skin, heart, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system, and mucosa. Oral lesions are usually fibrous in nature and most commonly occur on the anterior gingivae. Patients may suffer with epilepsy and learning difficulties, which may complicate dental management. When a 10-year-old girl with a history of tuberous sclerosis was brought in for a routine dental check-up, a leafy growth on the anterior gingiva was detected. An excisional biopsy was carried out. Histologically, the appearance was described as nonspecific, but was consistent with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis is a rare condition that may exhibit oral manifestations. The patients may also exhibit epilepsy and learning difficulties. Dental management of affected patients may therefore be more complicated and complex.

  10. Early histone modifications in the ventromedial hypothalamus and preoptic area following oestradiol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnidze, K; Weil, Z M; Faustino, L C; Schaafsma, S M; Pfaff, D W

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the primary female sex behaviour, lordosis, in laboratory animals depends on oestrogen-induced expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) within a defined cell group in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). The minimal latency from oestradiol administration to lordosis is 18 h. During that time, ligand-bound oestrogen receptors (ER), members of a nuclear receptor superfamily, recruit transcriptional coregulators, which induce covalent modifications of histone proteins, thus leading to transcriptional activation or repression of target genes. The present study aimed to investigate the early molecular epigenetic events underlying oestrogen-regulated transcriptional activation of the Pgr gene in the VMH of female mice. Oestradiol (E₂) administration induced rapid and transient global histone modifications in the VMH of ovariectomised female mice. Histone H3 N-terminus phosphorylation (H3S10phK14Ac), acetylation (H3Ac) and methylation (H3K4me3) exhibited distinct temporal patterns facilitative to the induction of transcription. A transcriptional repressive (H3K9me3) modification showed a different temporal pattern. Collectively, this should create a permissive environment for the transcriptional activity necessary for lordosis, within 3-6 h after E₂ treatment. In the VMH, changes in the H3Ac and H3K4me3 levels of histone H3 were also detected at the promoter region of the Pgr gene within the same time window, although they were delayed in the preoptic area. Moreover, examination of histone modifications associated with the promoter of another ER-target gene, oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), revealed gene- and brain-region specific effects of E₂ treatment. In the VMH of female mice, E₂ treatment resulted in the recruitment of ERα to the oestrogen-response-elements-containing putative enhancer site of Pgr gene, approximately 200 kb upstream of the transcription start site, although it failed to increase ER

  11. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-26

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure.

  12. Biofuel production from Jerusalem artichoke tuber inulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke has high productivity of tubers that are rich in inulins, a fructan polymer. These inulins can be easily broken down into fructose and glucose for conversion into ethanol by fermentation. This review focuses on tuber and inulin yields, effect of cultivar and environment on tuber ...

  13. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivelan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons. Keywords: EEG, sleep, orexin-saporin, methamphetamine

  14. Armodafinil-induced wakefulness in animals with ventrolateral preoptic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Saper, Clifford B; Fuller, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Armodafinil is the pharmacologically active R-enantiomer of modafinil, a widely prescribed wake-promoting agent used to treat several sleep-related disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Remarkably, however, the neuronal circuitry through which modafinil exerts its wake-promoting effects remains unresolved. In the present study, we sought to determine if the wake-promoting effects of armodafinil are mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic (VLPO) nucleus. To do so, we measured changes in waking following intraperitoneal administration of armodafinil (200 mg/kg) or the psychostimulant methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) in rats with cell-body specific lesion of the VLPO. Rats with histologically confirmed lesions of the VLPO demonstrated a sustained increase in wakefulness at baseline, but the increase in wakefulness following administration of both armodafinil and methamphetamine was similar to that of intact animals. These data suggest that armodafinil increases wakefulness by mechanisms that extend beyond inhibition of VLPO neurons.

  15. Multiparametric characterization of neuronal subpopulations in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourget, Romain; Sangare, Aude; Geoffroy, Hélène; Gallopin, Thierry; Rancillac, Armelle

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of neuronal properties is a necessary first step toward understanding how the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) neuronal network regulates slow-wave sleep (SWS). Indeed, the electrophysiological heterogeneity of VLPO neurons suggests the existence of subtypes that could differently contribute in SWS induction and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to define cell classes in the VLPO using an unsupervised clustering classification method. Electrophysiological features extracted from 289 neurons recorded in whole-cell patch-clamp allowed the identification of three main classes of VLPO neurons subdivided into five distinct subpopulations (cluster 1, 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b). The high occurrence of a low-threshold calcium spike (LTS) was one of the most distinctive features of cluster 1 and 3. Since sleep-promoting neurons are generally identified by their ability to generate an LTS and by their inhibitory response to noradrenaline (NA), 189 neurons from our dataset were also tested for this neurotransmitter. Neurons from cluster 3 were the most frequently inhibited by NA. Biocytin labeling and Neurolucida reconstructions of 112 neurons furthermore revealed a small dendritic arbor of cluster 3b neurons compared, in particular, to cluster 2b neurons. Altogether, we performed an exhaustive characterization of VLPO neuronal subtypes that is a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neuronal network within the VLPO and thereby sleep physiology.

  16. Heat stress during development alters post-harvest sugar contents and chip processing quality of potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses that increase tuber contents of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose decrease the value of chipping potatoes because such tubers produce dark-colored chips that are unacceptable to processors and consumers. Stem-end chip defect (SECD), which causes regions of dark color al...

  17. GELASTIC SEIZURES IN TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the historical description, nosological entity, clinical and electroencephalographic manifestations of gelastic seizures, a rare type of epileptic seizures manifesting as sudden attacks of spasmodic laughter. They describe their case of gelastic seizures in a child with tuberous sclerosis.

  18. Autism in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Griselda C.; Smalley, Susan L.; Tanguay, Peter E.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency and clinical presentation of autism in 28 probands with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tissue growths and a high frequency of seizure disorders and mental retardation, was examined. Eight probands met criteria for autism. Implications for understanding the association of…

  19. Regulation of progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the rat medial preoptic nucleus by estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds: an in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, P J; Lane, M V; Merchenthaler, I

    1997-12-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) is concentrated in neurons of the preoptic area and other regions of the rat hypothalamus where it is colocalized with the estrogen receptor and regulated by changes in the steroid hormonal milieu. To date, little is known about the regulation of PR mRNA by estrogens and whether antiestrogenic compounds are capable of modulating its expression. The present studies used in situ hybridization to ascertain the time course of PR mRNA regulation in the medial preoptic nucleus by 17beta-estradiol, determine the effective dose required to elicit a response, and compare the efficacy of 17beta-estradiol with a variety of estrogenic or antiestrogenic compounds. The first series of studies revealed that the treatment of ovariectomized rats with 17beta-estradiol resulted in an increase in PR expression within 2 h, after which it remained elevated until 10 h postinjection and then returned to baseline levels. When ovariectomized rats were injected with 25-1000 ng/kg of 17beta-estradiol and euthanized 6 h later, a dose-dependent increase in the level of PR mRNA was observed, with a maximal response at 1000 ng/kg and an EC50 of 93.5 ng/kg. Subsequent studies evaluated the efficacy of a variety of estrogenic and antiestrogenic compounds in the rat preoptic nucleus. 17Beta-estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and 17alpha-estradiol all significantly increased the level of PR mRNA, although the degree of induction varied with each compound. The injection of tamoxifen, raloxifene, toremifene, droloxifene, clomiphene, GW 5638, or ICI 182,780 had no significant estrogenic effect on PR gene expression at the dose evaluated. In contrast, when tamoxifen or raloxifene, but not ICI 182,780, was administered in the antagonist mode, a significant dose-related decrease in the estradiol-induced level of PR mRNA was seen in the preoptic area. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that PR mRNA expression in the rat preoptic area is rapidly

  20. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor.

  1. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Godwin, John

    2011-01-01

    The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP) males and territorial, terminal phase (TP) males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  2. Sexual phenotype differences in zic2 mRNA abundance in the preoptic area of a protogynous teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McCaffrey

    Full Text Available The highly conserved members of the zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors are primarily known for their roles in embryonic signaling pathways and regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This study describes sexual phenotype differences in abundances of zic2 mRNA in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, a region strongly implicated in sexual behavior and function, in an adult teleost, Thalassoma bifasciatum. The bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum is a valuable model for studying neuroendocrine processes because it displays two discrete male phenotypes, initial phase (IP males and territorial, terminal phase (TP males, and undergoes socially-controlled protogynous sex change. Previously generated microarray-based comparisons suggested that zic2 was upregulated in the brains of terminal phase males relative to initial phase males. To further explore this difference, we cloned a 727 bp sequence for neural zic2 from field-collected animals. Riboprobe-based in situ hybridization was employed to localize zic2 signal in adult bluehead brains and assess the relative abundance of brain zic2 mRNA across sexual phenotypes. We found zic2 mRNA expression was extremely abundant in the granular cells of the cerebellum and widespread in other brain regions including in the thalamus, hypothalamus, habenula, torus semicircularis, torus longitudinalis, medial longitudinal fascicle and telencephalic areas. Quantitative autoradiography and phosphorimaging showed zic2 mRNA hybridization signal in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus was significantly higher in terminal phase males relative to both initial phase males and females, and silver grain analysis confirmed this relationship between phenotypes. No significant difference in abundance was found in zic2 signal across phenotypes in the habenula, a brain region not implicated in the control of sexual behavior, or cerebellum.

  3. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eHerget

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in mammals coordinates neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses pivotal for homeostasis and the stress response. A large amount of studies in rodents has documented that the PVN contains diverse neuronal cell types which can be identified by the expression of distinct secretory neuropeptides. Interestingly, PVN cell types often coexpress multiple neuropeptides whose relative coexpression level are subject to environment-induced plasticity.Due to their small size and transparency, zebrafish larvae offer the possibility to comprehensively study the development and plasticity of the PVN in large groups of intact animals, yet important anatomical information about the larval zebrafish PVN-homologous region has been missing. Therefore we recently defined the location and borders of the larval neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO as the PVN-homologous region in larval zebrafish based on transcription factor expression and cell type clustering. To identify distinct cell types present in the larval NPO, we also generated a comprehensive 3D map of 9 zebrafish homologs of typical neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, proenkephalin a/b, neurotensin, oxytocin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin. Here we extend this chemoarchitectural map to include the degrees of coexpression of two neuropeptides in the same cell by performing systematic pairwise comparisons. Our results allowed the subclassification of NPO cell types, and differences in variability of coexpression profiles suggest potential targets of biochemical plasticity. Thus, this work provides an important basis for the analysis of the development, function, and plasticity of the primary neuroendocrine brain region in larval zebrafish.

  4. Intracranial arteriopathy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Susana; Shaaya, Elias A; Auladell, Maria; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Caruso, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Arterial aneurysms, mostly aortic and intracranial, have been occasionally reported in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Brain magnetic resonance imaging reports of 404 patients with definite and 16 patients with either probable or possible tuberous sclerosis complex were revised for intracranial aneurysms. Among these patients, brain images of 220 patients with definite and 16 with probable or possible tuberous sclerosis complex were reviewed. Intracranial aneurysms were reported in 3 of 404 patients with a definite diagnosis (0.74%) (general population: 0.35%), including 2 children. A fourth intracranial aneurysm was found in a patient with probable tuberous sclerosis complex, who did not have tubers or subependymal nodules but had clinical manifestations related to neural crest derivatives, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis and extrarenal angiomyolipomas. The authors hypothesize that neural crest dysfunction can have a major role in intracranial arteriopathy in tuberous sclerosis complex, as smooth muscle cells in the forebrain vessels are of neural crest origin.

  5. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  6. Hamartomas of the tuber cinereum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebler, C.; Ponsot, G.

    1983-05-01

    The hamartoma of the tuber cinereum, a midline dysraphic syndrome, corresponds to a mass of normal neuronal tissue implanted in the area of the mamillary bodies. It has no evolutionary potential, but association to other cerebral malformations has been observed. On the basis of 18 personal cases and a review of the literature, the authors evaluate the actual diagnostic criteria and the incidence of different clinical signs such as precocious isosexual puberty, seizures, and mental impairment.

  7. TSC1 R509X Mutation in a Chinese Family with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gan, Jing; Pu, Zheng; Xu, Ming ming; Wang, Li feng; Li, Yu hua; Liu, Zhen guo

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either of TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Tuberous sclerosis complex presents diverse clinical characteristics, and either of TSC1 and TSC2 genes shows a wide range of mutations in their coding regions. However, the correlation between genotype and phenotype is yet unknown. We describe the clinical characteristics of a Chinese family with TSC1 gene mutation and present a literature review of Chinese patients with tuberous sclerosis complex gene mutation reported since 2004. This is the first report of TSC1 R509X mutation in a Chinese family, which might deepen our insight into the clinical and molecular pathogenesis of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  8. Development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and the influence of estrogen-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Ferguson, Sherry Ann; Cui, Li; Greenfield, Lazar John; Paule, Merle Gale

    2013-10-15

    One of the well-defined sexually dimorphic structures in the brain is the sexually dimorphic nucleus, a cluster of cells located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The rodent sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area can be delineated histologically using conventional Nissl staining or immunohistochemically using calbindin D28K immunoreactivity. There is increasing use of the bindin D28K-delineated neural cluster to define the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in rodents. Several mechanisms are proposed to underlie the processes that contribute to the sexual dimorphism (size difference) of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Recent evidence indicates that stem cell activity, including proliferation and migration presumably from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche, may play a critical role in the postnatal development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area and its distinguishing sexually dimorphic feature: a signifi-cantly larger volume in males. Sex hormones and estrogen-like compounds can affect the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Despite considerable research, it remains un-clear whether estrogen-like compounds and/or sex hormones increase size of the sexually dimor-phic nucleus of the preoptic area via an increase in stem cell activity originating from the 3(rd) ventricle stem cell niche.

  9. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDominguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture, supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: 1 The supraoptoparaventricular region is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. 2 The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2 and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1 portions. 3 Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. 4 Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote, and the alar supraoptoparaventricular region is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  10. Tuberous Sclerosis: An uncommon cause of hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis is a multi system genetic disorder affecting skin, central nervous system,kidney,heart and lungs. We present a case report of a 26 year old female with tuberous sclerosis who presented with galactorrhea and menstrual irregularities due to hyperprolactinemia.

  11. Comparing potato tuberization and sprouting: opposite phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of tuber formation and tuber sprouting are compared. As a starting point it is hypothesized that these two phenomena are opposite to each other. This idea is tested from three points of view: hormonal regulation, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is concluded that there

  12. Tuberous sclerosis complex: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Poolakundan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis. This neurocutaneous disorder usually presents with seizures, facial angiofibroma and mental retardation (Vogt's triad. Here we report a case where a 25 year old gentleman presented with recurrent seizures, and was diagnosed to have tuberous sclerosis complex. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2844-2846

  13. The potato tuber mitochondrial proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper

    We are testing the hypothesis that oxidized peptides are released from stressed mitochondria and contribute to retrograde signalling (Møller IM & Sweetlove LJ 2010 Trends Plant Sci 15, 370-374). However, there is a large gap between the number of experimentally verified mitochondrial proteins (~450......) and in silico-predicted mitochondrial proteins (2000-3000). Thus, before starting to look for oxidized peptides, we wanted to expand the current compendium of plant mitochondrial proteins while obtaining what could be termed the "baseline proteome" from our model organelle, the potato tuber mitochondrion. Its...

  14. The Potato Tuber Mitochondrial Proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more “extreme” proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...... that more than 50% of the identified proteins harbor at least one modification. The most prominently observed class of posttranslational modifications was oxidative modifications. This study reveals approximately 500 new or previously unconfirmed plant mitochondrial proteins and outlines a facile strategy...... for unbiased, near-comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteins and their modified forms....

  15. Patterns of hypothalamic regionalization in amphibians and reptiles: common traits revealed by a genoarchitectonic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Most studies in mammals and birds have demonstrated common patterns of hypothalamic development highlighted by the combination of developmental regulatory genes (genoarchitecture), supporting the notion of the hypothalamus as a component of the secondary prosencephalon, topologically rostral to the diencephalon. In our comparative analysis we have summarized the data on the expression patterns of different transcription factors and neuroactive substances, used as anatomical markers, in the developing hypothalamus of the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the juvenile turtle Pseudemys scripta. This analysis served to highlight the organization of the hypothalamus in the anamniote/amniotic transition. We have identified supraoptoparaventricular and the suprachiasmatic regions (SCs) in the alar part of the hypothalamus, and tuberal and mammillary regions in the basal hypothalamus. Shared features in the two species are: (1) The supraoptoparaventricular region (SPV) is defined by the expression of Otp and the lack of Nkx2.1/Isl1. It is subdivided into rostral, rich in Otp and Nkx2.2, and caudal, only Otp-positive, portions. (2) The suprachiasmatic area contains catecholaminergic cell groups and lacks Otp, and can be further divided into rostral (rich in Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2) and a caudal (rich in Isl1 and devoid of Nkx2.1) portions. (3) Expression of Nkx2.1 and Isl1 define the tuberal hypothalamus and only the rostral portion expresses Otp. (4) Its caudal boundary is evident by the lack of Isl1 in the adjacent mammillary region, which expresses Nkx2.1 and Otp. Differences in the anamnio-amniote transition were noted since in the turtle, like in other amniotes, the boundary between the alar hypothalamus and the telencephalic preoptic area shows distinct Nkx2.2 and Otp expressions but not in the amphibian (anamniote), and the alar SPV is defined by the expression of Otp/Pax6, whereas in Xenopus only Otp is expressed.

  16. Survival or productivity? Global synthesis of root and tuber production during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, S.; Wang, L.; Jacinthe, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    According to FAO, there are six major root and tuber crops: potato, cassava, sweet potato, yam, taro, and yautia. Some root and tuber crops (e.g., sweet potato and cassava) are considered to be `drought-resistant', although quantitative evidence that support the premise was still lacking. Greater uncertainties exist on how drought effects co-vary with: 1) soil texture, 2) agro-ecological region, and 3) drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2015 that reported monoculture root and tuber yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this large data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with root or tuber species and the phenological phase during which drought occurred. In contrast to common assumptions regarding drought resistance of certain root and tuber crops, we found that yield reduction was similar between potato and species thought to be `drought-resistant' such as cassava and sweet potato. Here we suggest that drought-resistance in cassava and sweet potato could be more related to survival rather than yield. All roots or tubers crops, however, experienced greater yield reduction when drought occurred during the tuberization period compared to during their vegetative phase. The effect of soil texture as well as region (and related climatic factors) on yield reduction and crop sensitivity were less obvious. Our study provides useful information that could inform agricultural planning, and influence the direction of research for improving the productivity and the resilience of these under-utilized crops in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  17. [Diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, E D; Dorofeeva, M Yu; Pivovarova, A M; Katusheva, O V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a autosomal dominant instantly progressing disease, causing the development of benign tumors in all organs and tissues of human body. According to International Consensus Conference (2012), definite or possible TSC diagnosis can be made. For the definite diagnosis of TSC, two major criteria or one major criterion and ≥2 minor criteria have to be present. For a possible diagnosis, 1 major criterion or ≥2 minor criteria should be found. A pathogenic mutation in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene is by itself sufficient for a definite diagnosis. There are following major diagnostic criteria: angiofibromas (≥3) or forehead plaque; hypomelanotic macules (≥3); ungual fibromas (≥2); chagrin patch; multiple retinal hamartomas; cortical dysplasias (≥3, include tubers and cerebral white matter radial migration lines; subependymal nodules; subependymal giant cell astrocytoma; cardiac rhabdomyoma; lymphagioleiomatosis and renal angiomyolipomas (≥2). The minor criteria are the following ones: dental enamel pits (≥3); intraoral fibromas (≥2); non-renal hamartomas; retinal achromatic patch; confetti skin lesions; multiple renal cysts. Diagnosis of TSC is not difficult if a physician is familiar with clinical presentation of the disease.

  18. Lymphedema in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffrey, Alexandra L; Shinnick, Julianna E; Staley, Brigid A; Boronat, Susana; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    Congenital lymphedema has been described as a possible rare association of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), with only six previous cases reported in the literature. TSC is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder connected to aberrant regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The aim of this study is to review cases of lymphedema in a large cohort of TSC patients. The medical records of 268 patients seen at The Herscot Center for Children and Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2002 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed for reports of lymphedema or edema of unknown etiology. Genotypic and phenotypic data were collected in accordance with institutional review board (IRB) approval. This cohort presents two new cases of congenital lymphedema in TSC patients and acquired lymphedema was found in eight additional cases. Thus, we report 10 new cases of lymphedema in TSC (4%). The two patients with congenital lymphedema were female, as were the previous six reported cases. The frequency of lymphedema reported here (4%) is higher than the estimated prevalence in the general population (0.133-0.144%), suggesting a higher frequency of lymphedema in TSC. This study shows that patients with TSC and lymphedema are more likely to be females with renal AMLs and suggests that congenital lymphedema is a gender-specific (female) manifestation of TSC. Exploration of the potential role of mTOR antagonists may be important in treatment of lymphedema in TSC patients.

  19. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Neuronal activity in the preoptic hypothalamus during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Aftab; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n = 11) and VLPO (n = 13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8 ± 29.5% and 59.4 ± 17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6 ± 15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in non-REM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5 ± 7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n = 16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in non-REM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO, are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.

  1. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef Mohamadi; Seyed Behnam-edin Jameie; Mohammad Akbari; Masumeh Staji; Fatemeh Moradi; Tahmineh Mokhtari; Maryam Khanehzad; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we...

  2. Kv4.2 mediates histamine modulation of preoptic neuron activity and body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sethi

    Full Text Available Histamine regulates arousal, circadian rhythms, and thermoregulation. Activation of H3 histamine receptors expressed by preoptic GABAergic neurons results in a decrease of their firing rate and hyperthermia. Here we report that an increase in the A-type K⁺ current in preoptic GABAergic neurons in response to activation of H3 histamine receptors results in decreased firing rate and hyperthermia in mice. The Kv4.2 subunit is required for these actions in spite of the fact that Kv4.2⁻/⁻ preoptic GABAergic neurons display A-type currents and firing characteristics similar to those of wild-type neurons. This electrical remodeling is achieved by robust upregulation of the expression of the Kv4.1 subunit and of a delayed rectifier current. Dynamic clamp experiments indicate that enhancement of the A-type current by a similar amount to that induced by histamine is sufficient to mimic its robust effect on firing rates. These data indicate a central role played by the Kv4.2 subunit in histamine regulation of body temperature and its interaction with pERK1/2 downstream of the H3 receptor. We also reveal that this pathway provides a mechanism for selective modulation of body temperature at the beginning of the active phase of the circadian cycle.

  3. Morphological changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the rat preoptic area across puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Xiaodong Gai; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Quan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area may undergo mor-phological changes during the pubertal period when their activities are upregulated. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of puberty onset, this study aimed to investigate the morphological changes of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area of GnRH-enhanced green lfuorescent protein transgenic rats. Under confocal laser microscopy, pubertal GnRH neurons exhibited an inverted Y distribution pattern. Prepubertal GnRH neurons were generally unipolar and bipolar, and were distinguished as smooth type cells with few small processes or irregular type cells with many spine-like processes in the proximal dendrites. The number of GnRH neurons in the preoptic area and spine-like processes were increased during the course of reproductive matu-ration. There was no signiifcant difference between male and female rats. Immunolfuorescence staining revealed synaptophysin punctae close to the distal end of GnRH neurons, indicating that some presynaptic terminals may form a synaptic linkage with these neurons.

  4. Atypical face processing in children with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Hirsch, Suzanna; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Norona, Amanda; Navalta, Mary-Clare; Gregas, Matt C; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Sahin, Mustafa; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-12-01

    There is a high incidence of autism in tuberous sclerosis complex. Given the evidence of impaired face processing in autism, the authors sought to investigate electrophysiological markers of face processing in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. The authors studied 19 children with tuberous sclerosis complex under age 4, and 20 age-matched controls, using a familiar-unfamiliar faces paradigm. Of the children, 6 with tuberous sclerosis complex (32%) had autism. Children with tuberous sclerosis complex showed a longer N290 latency than controls (276 ms vs 259 ms, P = .05) and also failed to show the expected hemispheric differences in face processing. The longest N290 latency was seen in (1) children with autism and tuberous sclerosis complex and (2) children with temporal lobe tubers. This study is the first to quantify atypical face processing in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This functional impairment may provide insight into a mechanism underlying a pathway to autism in tuberous sclerosis complex.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for School Success (GEMSS) Massachusetts General Hospital Merck Manual Consumer Version My46 Trait Profile Orphanet: Tuberous sclerosis complex Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Resource List from the ...

  6. Varied manifestations of tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a rare autosomal dominant disease. The prevalence of TSC is estimated to be 1 in 95,136 in general population and in those <6 years of age, it is 1 in 14,608. It is an autosomal dominant neurocutaenous disease and in about 80% of cases it is caused by a de novo mutation. The relationship between cardiac rhabdomyomas and TSC is well established. The cardiac rhabdomyomas may arise anywhere in the myocardium but are more commonly seen in the left ventricle. However, in our case an interventricular septal rhabdomyoma was seen. Angiomyolipomas (AMLs occur in up to 80% of patients with TSC. Bilateral renal AMLs were seen in our case. There was evidence of systemic involvement in form of lymphangiomyomatosis and subependymal hamartomas.

  7. Chemical Topography of Efferent Projections from the Median Preoptic Nucleus to Pontine Monoaminergic Cell Groups in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardetto-Smith, Andrea M.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1995-01-01

    This study examined efferent output from the median preoptic nucleus (MNPO) to pontine noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups using an anterograde tracing technique (Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin, PHA-L) combined with glucose oxidase immunocytochemistry to serotonin (5-HT) or to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH). Injections of PHA-L into the ventral MNPO resulted in moderate axonal labeling within the region of the B7 and B8 serotonergic groups in the dorsal raphe. PHA-L labeled fibers and punctate processes were observed in close apposition to many of the 5-HT immunoreactive neurons in these regions. In contrast, sparse terminal labeling was found within the B5 group in the raphe pontis nucleus, and only trace fiber labeling observed in the B3 and B6 groups. Efferents from the MNPO also provided moderate innervation to the A6 and A7 noradrenergic groups. PHA-L labeled punctate processes were found most frequently in close apposition to DBH-immunoreactive neurons at mid- to caudal levels of the locus coeruleus. Some labeled axons were also present within the A7 and A5 groups. Additionally, a close apposition between labeled MNPO efferents and 5-HT fibers within the lateral parabrachial nucleus was observed. The results indicate the MNPO provides a topographic innervation of monoaminergic groups in the upper brainstem.

  8. Understanding the Etiology of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Jensen FE (2009) Introduction--epileptogenic cortical dysplasia : emerging trends in diagnosis, treatment, and pathogenesis. Epilepsia 50 Suppl 9:1-2...the cerebral lesions of tuberous sclerosis complex. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 47:2-8. Mizuguchi M, Takashima S (2001) Neuropathology of tuberous sclerosis...epileptogenic cortical  dysplasia : emerging trends in diagnosis, treatment,  and pathogenesis. Epilepsia. 2009;50 suppl 9:1–2.   11. Kobayashi T, Hirayama

  9. GFAP expression in astrocytes of suprachiasmatic nucleus and medial preoptic area are differentially affected by malnutrition during rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, João Esmeraldo Frota; Vilela, Maria Cristina Ramos; Bittencourt, Heitor; Lapa, Raíssa Maria; Oliveira, Francisco Gilberto; Alessio, Maria Luíza Martins; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; De Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Da Costa, Belmira Lara da Silveira Andrade

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was investigate, in young rats, the effects of malnutrition on astrocyte distribution of two hypothalamic regions, the circadian pacemaker suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the medial preoptic area (MPA). Control rats were born from mothers fed on commercial diet since gestation and malnourished rats from mothers fed on multideficient diet, from the beginning of gestation (GLA group) or from the onset of lactation (LA group). After weaning, pups received ad libitum the same diet as their mothers, and were maintained under a 12/12 h light/dark cycle. The animals were analyzed either at 30-33, or 60-63 days of life. Brain coronal sections (50 microm) were processed to visualize glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Compared to control rats, both malnourished groups of 30 and 60 days exhibited a reduced number of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the SCN. The total GFAP-immunoreactive area in the SCN of the GLA group differed from the control group at both age ranges analyzed. The GFAP expression as measured by the relative optical density (ROD) exhibited a 50-60% reduction in the MPA in both malnourished groups, compared to controls. The results suggest that malnutrition early in life leads to alterations in gliogenesis or glial cell proliferation in both nuclei, being these alterations greater in the MPA. Compensatory plasticity mechanisms in the GFAP-expression seem to be developed in the astrocyte differentiation process in the SCN, especially when the malnutrition is installed from the lactation.

  10. Expression of auxin synthesis gene tms1 under control of tuber-specific promoter enhances potato tuberization in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oksana O Kolachevskaya; Valeriya V Alekseeva; Lidiya I Sergeeva; Elena B Rukavtsova; Irina A Getman; Dick Vreugdenhil; Yaroslav I Buryanov; Georgy A Romanov

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones, auxins in particular, play an important role in plant development and productivity. Earlier data showed positive impact of exogenous auxin on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization. The aim of this study was to generate potato plants with increased auxin level predominantly in tubers. To this end, a pBinB33-tms1 vector was constructed harboring the Agrobacterium auxin biosynthesis gene tms1 fused to tuber-specific promoter of the class I patatin gene (B33-promoter) of potato. Among numerous independently generated B33:tms1 lines, those without visible differences from control were selected for detailed studies. In the majority of transgenic lines, tms1 gene transcription was detected, mostly in tubers rather than in shoots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) content in tubers and the auxin tuber-to-shoot ratio were increased in tms1-expressing transformants. The organ-specific increase in auxin synthesis in B33:tms1-transformants accelerated and intensified the process of tuber formation, reduced the dose of carbohydrate supply required for in vitro tuber-ization, and decreased the photoperiodic dependence of tuber initiation. Overall, a positive correlation was observed between tms1 expression, IAA content in tubers, and stimulation of tuber formation. The revealed proper-ties of B33:tms1 transformants imply an important role for auxin in potato tuberization and offer prospects to magnify potato productivity by a moderate organ-specific enhance-ment of auxin content.

  11. [Angiomyolipomas, tuberous sclerosis and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas Molina, Tamara; Montalvo Montes, Joaquín; Contreras Cecilia, Esther; Muñoz Muñiz, María del Mar; González González, Antonio; Herraiz Martínez, Miguel Angel

    2009-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipomas are uncommon tumours during pregnancy, but it's important to consider them in the differential diagnosis, for the increased risk of complications such as bleeding, specially during pregnancy. Their characteristics are different depending on if the tumour is associated or not with facomatosis. To show both possibilities, we describe two cases of pregnant women with angiomyolipomas: the first one presented with bleeding of the tumour (Wünderlich's syndrome), but surveillance without treatment was possible until 37th week of gestation, and embolization of the tumour was performed afterwards. The second patient had multiple well known angiomyolipomas, associated to tuberous sclerosis; even though she had required two previous embolizations, she had an uneventful pregnancy, without any episodes of bleeding. Both pregnancies ended successfully by means of a cesarean section. Since there are few papers available in the literature, there is not an agreement about therapeutic management when pregnant women present with bleeding angiomyolipomas (Wünderlich's syndrome). Treatment options include partial or total nephrectomy (with cesarean section simultaneously in patients at 28 weeks of gestation or later), transcateter selective arterial embolization (which can also be preventive), and sometimes, conservative management. If this last option is possible, there's still discussion about the risk of vaginal delivery compared with that of cesarean section, in terms of bleeding of the tumour.

  12. Occult White Matter Damage Contributes to Intellectual Disability in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunshui; Lin, Fuchun; Zhao, Li; Ye, Jing; Qin, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Whether patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) damage and whether such damage contributes to their intellectual disability were examined in 15 TSC patients and 15 gender- and age-matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Histogram and region of interest (ROI) analyses of…

  13. Memristors: Memory elements in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Blockmon, Avery L; Volkova, Maya I

    2015-01-01

    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. This element was postulated recently and researchers are looking for it in different biosystems. We investigated electrical circuitry of red Irish potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.). The goal was to discover if potato tubers might have a new electrical component - a resistor with memory. The analysis was based on a cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the potato tubers with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in potato tubers. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of potato tubers has properties of a memristor. Uncoupler carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decreases the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the understanding of electrical phenomena in plants.

  14. Validation of a tuber blight (Phytophthora infestans) prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage. There is limited published quantitative data on predicting tuber blight. We validated a tuber blight prediction model developed in New York with cultivars Allegany, NY 101, and Katahdin using independent...

  15. Carbohydrate metabolism during potato tuber dormancy and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassens, M.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Potato tuber dormancy is part of the vegetative life cycle of potato. It refers to a period, in which no growth is occurring, although the tuber is stored under conditions that are favourable for growth. Factors in the tuber are responsible for this growth arrest; soon

  16. Characterization and development mechanism of Apios americana tuber starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apios americana is a wild legume-bearing plant with edible tubers. Domestication of Apios is in progress because of the superior nutritional value and health benefits of the tuber. Objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize physicochemical properties of Apios-tuber starch; and 2) understand d...

  17. Autism and the Cerebellum: Evidence from Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Anna M.; Egelhoff, John C.; McKellop, J. Mark; Franz, David Neal

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between neuroimaging findings and the behavioral characteristics of 29 patients with tuberous sclerosis. Findings indicate a positive linear relationship between a patient's total number of tubers and degree of intellectual impairment. The number of tubers in the cerebellum was associated with more autistic…

  18. Tuber formation in the wild potato species Solanum demissum Lindl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. How does a potato plant form tubers?Potato plants produce sexual multiplication and survival structures, true seeds, and asexual multiplication and survival bodies, tubers. Berries of the potato plant contain a large number of minute seeds. Relatively large tubers are formed in t

  19. Novel Histopathological Patterns in Cortical Tubers of Epilepsy Surgery Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hanna M.; Scholl, Theresa; Iyer, Anand M.; Anink, Jasper J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Nellist, Mark D.; Jansen, Floor E.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Krsek, Pavel; Benova, Barbora; Zamecnik, Josef; Crino, Peter B.; Prayer, Daniela; Czech, Thomas; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Rahimi, Jasmin; Höftberger, Romana; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Feucht, Martha; Aronica, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic hamartoma syndrome frequently associated with severe intractable epilepsy. In some TSC patients epilepsy surgery is a promising treatment option provided that the epileptogenic zone can be precisely delineated. TSC brain lesions (cortical tubers) contain dysmorphic neurons, brightly eosinophilic giant cells and white matter alterations in various proportions. However, a histological classification system has not been established for tubers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define distinct histological patterns within tubers based on semi-automated histological quantification and to find clinically significant correlations. In total, we studied 28 cortical tubers and seven samples of perituberal cortex from 28 TSC patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We assessed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, the numbers of giant cells, dysmorphic neurons, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, and calcification, gliosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and myelin content. Three distinct histological profiles emerged based on the proportion of calcifications, dysmorphic neurons and giant cells designated types A, B, and C. In the latter two types we were able to subsequently associate them with specific features on presurgical MRI. Therefore, these histopathological patterns provide consistent criteria for improved definition of the clinico-pathological features of cortical tubers identified by MRI and provide a basis for further exploration of the functional and molecular features of cortical tubers in TSC. PMID:27295297

  20. Novel Histopathological Patterns in Cortical Tubers of Epilepsy Surgery Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Mühlebner

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC is a genetic hamartoma syndrome frequently associated with severe intractable epilepsy. In some TSC patients epilepsy surgery is a promising treatment option provided that the epileptogenic zone can be precisely delineated. TSC brain lesions (cortical tubers contain dysmorphic neurons, brightly eosinophilic giant cells and white matter alterations in various proportions. However, a histological classification system has not been established for tubers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define distinct histological patterns within tubers based on semi-automated histological quantification and to find clinically significant correlations. In total, we studied 28 cortical tubers and seven samples of perituberal cortex from 28 TSC patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We assessed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 activation, the numbers of giant cells, dysmorphic neurons, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, and calcification, gliosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and myelin content. Three distinct histological profiles emerged based on the proportion of calcifications, dysmorphic neurons and giant cells designated types A, B, and C. In the latter two types we were able to subsequently associate them with specific features on presurgical MRI. Therefore, these histopathological patterns provide consistent criteria for improved definition of the clinico-pathological features of cortical tubers identified by MRI and provide a basis for further exploration of the functional and molecular features of cortical tubers in TSC.

  1. Disrupted Sleep in Narcolepsy: Exploring the Integrity of Galanin Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Yury V; Ellison, Brian A; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Reddy, Hasini; Haybaeck, Johannes; Mignot, Emmanuel; Baumann, Christian R; Scammell, Thomas E; Valko, Philipp O

    2016-05-01

    To examine the integrity of sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in postmortem brains of narcolepsy type 1 patients. Postmortem examination of five narcolepsy and eight control brains. VLPO galanin neuron count did not differ between narcolepsy patients (11,151 ± 3,656) and controls (13,526 ± 9,544). A normal number of galanin-immunoreactive VLPO neurons in narcolepsy type 1 brains at autopsy suggests that VLPO cell loss is an unlikely explanation for the sleep fragmentation that often accompanies the disease. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Computed tomography in diagnosis of intracranial tumors versus tubers in tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiological Sciences)

    1982-01-01

    Intraventricular gliomas producing obstruction of the foramen of Monro were observed by computed tomography in 4 of 8 patients with tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral tumors arising from the caudate nuclei were present in one patient. Characteristic subependymal calcified tubers were also seen, but contrast enhancement occurred only in the tumors and not in the tubers. The location of the tumor prevented communication between the 2 lateral ventricles so that surgical placement of a single ventricular shunt resulted in only unilateral relief of hydrocephalus. Shunting in one case was ineffective because of high cerebrospinal fluid viscosity due to elevated protein concentration.

  3. Parental Understanding of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Pauline; Donald, Kirsten A; Schlegel, Birgit; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2015-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement that poses significant challenges to the affected child and family. Caregiver knowledge in the South African population has not previously been reported. A prospective study of the parents of 21 children with tuberous sclerosis complex was undertaken. Median parental age was 38 (interquartile range 34.5-45) years. Parents were randomly allocated to receive written information about the condition, or to receive verbal counseling already established in clinic. A significant difference (P = .001) was observed in the change in the mean knowledge scores for the parent group that received written information (34.2 at baseline, 51.7 at the second visit. This impact was higher in parents with an education level of at least grade 8 (P = .003). Parental understanding of tuberous sclerosis complex can be improved by provision of written information and should be routinely available in a readily understandable format.

  4. Expression of auxin synthesis gene tms1 under control of tuber-specific promoter enhances potato tuberization in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolachevskaya, Oksana O; Alekseeva, Valeriya V; Sergeeva, Lidiya I; Rukavtsova, Elena B; Getman, Irina A; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Buryanov, Yaroslav I; Romanov, Georgy A

    2015-09-01

    Phytohormones, auxins in particular, play an important role in plant development and productivity. Earlier data showed positive impact of exogenous auxin on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization. The aim of this study was to generate potato plants with increased auxin level predominantly in tubers. To this end, a pBinB33-tms1 vector was constructed harboring the Agrobacterium auxin biosynthesis gene tms1 fused to tuber-specific promoter of the class I patatin gene (B33-promoter) of potato. Among numerous independently generated B33:tms1 lines, those without visible differences from control were selected for detailed studies. In the majority of transgenic lines, tms1 gene transcription was detected, mostly in tubers rather than in shoots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) content in tubers and the auxin tuber-to-shoot ratio were increased in tms1-expressing transformants. The organ-specific increase in auxin synthesis in B33:tms1-transformants accelerated and intensified the process of tuber formation, reduced the dose of carbohydrate supply required for in vitro tuberization, and decreased the photoperiodic dependence of tuber initiation. Overall, a positive correlation was observed between tms1 expression, IAA content in tubers, and stimulation of tuber formation. The revealed properties of B33:tms1 transformants imply an important role for auxin in potato tuberization and offer prospects to magnify potato productivity by a moderate organ-specific enhancement of auxin content.

  5. Tubers from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are characterized by changes in microtubule biology through ROCK2 signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Ferrer (Isidro); P. Mohan (Pooja); H. Chen (Helen); J. Castellsagué (Joan); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); M. Carmona (Marga); N. García (Nadia); H. Aguilar (Helena); J. Jiang (John); M. Skowron (Margaretha); M.D. Nellist (Mark); I. Ampuero (Israel); A. Russi (Antonio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); C.A. Maxwell (Christopher); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMost patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop cortical tubers that cause severe neurological disabilities. It has been suggested that defects in neuronal differentiation and/or migration underlie the appearance of tubers. However, the precise molecular alterations remain la

  6. Tubers from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are characterized by changes in microtubule biology through ROCK2 signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Ferrer (Isidro); P. Mohan (Pooja); H. Chen (Helen); J. Castellsagué (Joan); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); M. Carmona (Marga); N. García (Nadia); H. Aguilar (Helena); J. Jiang (John); M. Skowron (Margaretha); M.D. Nellist (Mark); I. Ampuero (Israel); A. Russi (Antonio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); C.A. Maxwell (Christopher); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMost patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop cortical tubers that cause severe neurological disabilities. It has been suggested that defects in neuronal differentiation and/or migration underlie the appearance of tubers. However, the precise molecular alterations remain

  7. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Growth Regulator Impacts on Tuber Deformity, Rot, and Yield for Russet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Reiter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum are an important high-value commodity for producers in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Current production recommendations were based on white potatoes, and practices for Russet potatoes have not been researched in this region. The objective of this study was to test impacts of N rate (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha−1, N application timing (100% applied with planter, 2-way split (30% with planter and 70% band applied approximately 30 days after planting at dragoff, and three-way split (30% with planter, 50% band applied prior to drag-off, and 20% band applied at first sight of bloom, and additions of the growth regulator maleic hydrazide (MH-30. We tested “Goldrush” and “Norkotah” Russet potato varieties on marketability, total yield, tuber deformity, and tuber soft rot incidence for sandy loam soils in the Mid-Atlantic. Overall, year variations were significant with substantial rots (up to 86.5% occurring in year 3. Maleic hydrazide and N application timing had little consistent effect on any tested parameter. Nitrogen rate and variety factors had the greatest impacts on deformity, tuber rots, and yields for Russet potatoes in the Mid-Atlantic Region with 134 kg N ha−1 producing the highest total yields in 2009 and 2010. If tuber rots can be controlled, both “Goldrush” and “Norkotah” are acceptable varieties under the Mid-Atlantic production practices.

  8. MRT in neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higer, H.P.; Just, M.; Vahldiek, G.; Gutjahr, P.; Pfannenstiel, P.

    1987-07-01

    The relatively rare neurocutaneous syndromes may produce neurological symptoms during childhood. After closure of the fontanelle, the radiological methods of choice are CT and MRT. The value of these two methods is demonstrated by twelve examples (eight neurofibromatoses, four tuberous scleroses). CT is superior to MRT in being able to show calcification; it is therefore the method of choice for tuberous sclerosis. On the other hand, MRT may show foci of neurofibromatosis; these can hardly be seen on CT. In order to show cerebral lesions in these two conditions, T/sub 2/-weighted sequences are necessary.

  9. Review on tropical root and tuber crops. II. Physiological disorders in freshly stored roots and tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, V; Aked, J

    1996-10-01

    Tropical root and tubers, including cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids, have been reported to show an increase in respiratory activity after harvest and injury and subsequent storage in association with their deterioration. This leads to loss of water and carbohydrate. Cassava roots often show discoloration of the tissue with development of pigments in the xylem vessels (vascular streaking or primary/physiological deterioration). This has been established to be enzymatic in nature. Pruning the cassava stem, leaving about a 20- to 30-cm stub prior to harvest, could delay the onset of primary deterioration. Sweet potato roots and yam tubers show a peak respiratory activity immediately or 1 d after harvest. The respiratory rate, however, declines during the subsequent storage period. Yam tubers show a further increase in respiratory activity at the breakage of dormancy occurring at the time of sprouting. Dormancy in yam tubers has been studied in some detail. Different species of yams vary in their dormancy period, a major factor that accounts for the variation in their storage life. Little information is available on the dormancy of sweet potato and aroids. Tropical roots and tubers exhibit "chilling injury" when stored at temperatures below a critical level. The critical cold-storage temperatures range between 10 and 15 degrees C for different tropical root and tuber crops.

  10. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papacchioli Velia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e, by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold. Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified.

  11. Evaluation of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) resistance in tubers of Bt-cry5 transgenic potato lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A; Douches, D S; Pett, W; Grafius, E; Coombs, J; Liswidowati; Li, W; Madkour, M A

    2000-04-01

    The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in tropical and subtropical countries, is the most destructive pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. The larvae attack foliage and tubers in the field and in storage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth in tuber tissues. Tuber bioassays using stored (11-12 mo old) and newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Lemhi Russet and Bt-cry5-Atlantic potato lines showed up to 100% mortality of 1st instars. Mortality was lowest in the newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Atlantic lines (47.1-67.6%). Potato tuber moth mortality was 100% in the Bt-cry5-Spunta lines that were transformed with Bt-cry5 gene controlled by the CaMV 35S promoter (pBIML5 vector) and in 2 of 3 lines transformed with Bt-cry5 gene controlled by the Gelvin super promoter (pBIML1 vector). The transgenic Spunta lines expressing Bt-cry5 controlled by the patatin promoter (pBMIL2 vector) showed the lowest tuber moth mortality (25.6 and 31.1%). The Bt-cry5 transgenic lines with high tuber expression of B. thuringiensis have value in an integrated pest management system to control potato tuber moth.

  12. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie;

    2014-01-01

    the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where...

  13. Tuberous sclerosis : A three-generation pedigree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Srilekha

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of tuberous sclerosis in members of three generations originating from parents, both suffering from the disease. Out of 12 family members only two were exempted and clinical expression varied from minimum lesion like adenoma sebaceum only to severe mental retardation and epilepsy

  14. Glioblastoma in the setting of tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Dennys; Prayson, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant condition commonly manifesting with seizures, mental retardation, cortical tubers and hamartomas. Neoplasms may occasionally arise in this setting with the majority of these tumors being subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grade I). Reports of high grade astrocytic neoplasms arising in patients with tuberous sclerosis are rare. We report a left fronto-parietal mass presenting in a 33-year-old woman with altered mental status and slurred speech. The tumor demonstrated areas of enhancement and was associated with mass effect on CT imaging. The tumor was marked by prominent cellularity, easily identifiable mitotic figures, vascular proliferative changes, necrosis and multinucleated giant cells. A Ki-67 labeling index of greater than 30% was noted. The findings were interpreted as being consistent with a glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). The limited literature on similar cases of malignant gliomas arising in the setting of tuberous sclerosis are reviewed. Few reports of similar tumors have been described in the literature. Presentation appears to depend on where the tumor is situated; locations have been variable in previous reports. For those cases in which survival data were included, the prognosis is poor.

  15. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

  16. Antisense mRNA for NPY-Y1 receptor in the medial preoptic area increases prolactin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Silveira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the participation of neuropeptide Y-Y1 receptors within the medial preoptic area in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin release. Four bilateral microinjections of sense (control or antisense 18-base oligonucleotides of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA (250 ng corresponding to the NH2-terminus of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor were performed at 12-h intervals for two days into the medial preoptic area of ovariectomized Wistar rats (N = 16, weighing 180 to 200 g, treated with estrogen (50 µg and progesterone (25 mg two days before the experiments between 8.00 and 10:00 a.m. Blockade of Y1 receptor synthesis in the medial preoptic area by the antisense mRNA did not change plasma luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone but did increase prolactin from 19.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml in the sense group to 52.9 ± 9.6 ng/ml in the antisense group. The plasma hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay and the values are reported as mean ± SEM. These data suggest that endogenous neuropeptide Y in the medial preoptic area has an inhibitory action on prolactin secretion through Y1 receptors.

  17. Total antioxidant activity of yacon tubers cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciane Abreu Ribeiro Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius is a tuberous root from the Andean region in the South America rich em water, fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds, some of which are natural antioxidants and may help prevent the deleterious action of free radicals in the body. The yacon has attracted much attention due to their potential health benefits to humans. In this study the levels of total phenolics, tannins, phenolic acids, and total antioxidant activity were measured in the peel and pulp of yacon tubers both in the fresh and flour forms. The flours of yacon presented higher concentrations of total phenolics and tannins, especially peel flour. The yacon pulp flour stood out as the main source of phenolic acids, mainly caffeic and chlorogenic acid. The total antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assays was higher in the yacon peel flour. The total antioxidant activity was correlated with the total phenolic content and tannins by the DPPH and ABTS assays. These results suggest that yacon can be used as an alternative food source of phenolic compounds that help prevent degenerative processes caused by oxidative stress, especially in the flours form.

  18. Changes in biochemical constituents and induction of early sprouting by triadimefon treatment in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JALEEL Cheruth Abdul; GOPI Ragupathi; MANIVANNAN Paramasivam; KISHOREKUMAR Ashok; GOMATHINAYAGAM Muthiah; PANNEERSELVAM Rajaram

    2007-01-01

    The ability of triadimefon (TDM), a triazolic fungicide, to alter the biochemical constituents and thereby minimizing the days required for sprouting in white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) tubers during storage under (30±2) ℃ in the dark, was studied. TDM at 20 mg/L was given to tubers by dipping the tubers in treatment solution containing 20 mg/L TDM on 10, 25 and40 d after storage (DAS). Starch, sugars, protein, amino acid contents as well as protease and α-amylase activities were estimated on 15, 30 and 45 DAS from two physiological regions viz., apical and basal regions of the tubers. In normal conditions (control)sprouting occurred on 70 to 80 DAS. The starch content decreased, while protein, amino acid, sugar contents and protease and α-amylase activities were increased due to TDM treatment and led to early sprouting.

  19. Cyperus esculentus - differences in growth and tuber production between cultivated and wild forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holec, Josef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge belongs to the world most important weeds on arable land. This species is classified as an invasive one in Central and North-western Europe. It is not yet present as a weed in the Czech Republic, but its occurrence in neighbouring countries and its ability to survive winters in this region must be taken into account. A cultivated form of C. esculentus, known as Chufa or Tiger nuts, is occasionally grown in home gardens as a crop for its edible tubers. In pot experiments we tested the growth of both forms, weedy and cultivated one. Weight of both fresh and dry biomass of plant parts (leaves, roots, rhizomes, tubers, inflorescences was measured in monthly intervals from May till September 2012. Results show that there were no significant differences in leaf and root biomass. The weight of rhizomes was approximately 50-80 times higher in the wild form. Number of tubers was also higher in the wild form (max. 1118 pcs; crop max. 342 pcs in single pot, but the total weight of tubers was not significantly different. The cultivated form did not produce inflorescences at all, the wild form produced in average 13 inflorescences per plot. Based on our results we can state that growing of the cultivated form does not pose any risk – plants do not show intensive vegetative spread and do not produce inflorescences so crossing with the weedy form is not possible. The wild form can produce high amounts of rhizomes and tubers and is able to produce flowers under our conditions. That makes it a potentially dangerous weed in warmer regions of the Czech Republic.

  20. Testing Taxonomic Predictivity of Foliar and Tuber Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Wild Relatives of Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiutti, A; Spooner, D M; Jansky, S H; Halterman, D A

    2015-09-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease found in potato-growing regions worldwide. Long-term management strategies to control late blight include the incorporation of host resistance to predominant strains. However, due to rapid genetic changes within pathogen populations, rapid and recurring identification and integration of novel host resistance traits is necessary. Wild relatives of potato offer a rich source of desirable traits, including late blight resistance, but screening methods can be time intensive. We tested the ability of taxonomy, ploidy, crossing group, breeding system, and geography to predict the presence of foliar and tuber late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp. Significant variation for resistance to both tuber and foliar late blight was found within and among species but there was no discernable predictive power based on taxonomic series, clade, ploidy, breeding system, elevation, or geographic location. We observed a moderate but significant correlation between tuber and foliar resistance within species. Although previously uncharacterized sources of both foliar and tuber resistance were identified, our study does not support an assumption that taxonomic or geographic data can be used to predict sources of late blight resistance in wild Solanum spp.

  1. Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin V Tabarean

    Full Text Available The electrogenic machinery of an excitable cell can adapt in response to changes in input, genetic deficit or in pathological conditions, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. In cases of genetic deletion it is commonly observed that a channel subunit from the same family replaces the missing one. We have previously reported that Kv4.2-/- preoptic GABAergic neurons display identical firing characteristics to those of wild-type neurons despite having reduced A-type currents, and that, surprisingly, they present a robust upregulation of a delayed rectifier current, the nature of which is unknown. Here, using pharmacology, qPCR and Western blots we report that, although the wild-type neurons express several Kv subunits, the upregulated current is conducted by the Kv1.5 subunit exclusively. Thus, this study reveals the molecular nature of a novel mechanism of electrical remodeling in central neurons.

  2. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  3. Synaptic contact between median preoptic neurons and subfornical organ neurons projecting to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    It is known that the median preoptic nucleus (POMe) sends dense projections to the subfornical organ (SFO). However, the functional significance of these projections have not been well discussed. In this electron microscopic study, we investigated the presence of synapses between POMe-derived axon terminals and SFO neurons that project to the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). After injection of a retrograde tracer, wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase-colloidal gold complex, into the PVN, many labeled neurons were found in the SFO. In contrast, after injection of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine, in the POMe, abundant labeled axon varicosities were observed in the SFO. Using electron microscopy, synapses were identified between retrogradely labeled dendrites and cell bodies, and anterogradely labeled axon terminals, indicating that POMe neurons innervate SFO neurons projecting to the PVN. The possibility that POMe neurons play multiple roles in the neuronal circuit responsible for vasopressin release and/or cardiovascular regulation is also discussed.

  4. Role of CTGF in White Matter Development in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    specimens from TSC patients taken at the time of epilepsy surgery . We stained paraffin sections of tubers from TSC patients and detected that CTGF is...Ebrahimi-Fakhari D. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Jun;62(3):633-648 Davis PE, Peters JM, Krueger DA and Sahin M. Tuberous...Neural Circuitry of Autism / Seminar Hope Center for Neurological Disorders Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, MO 2015 Targeted

  5. Dormancy regulation by morphactin in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y

    1972-09-01

    The sprouting of aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana was promoted by treatment with morphactin. As with cytokinins, the promotion of sprouting occurred in both the immature and mature tubers. Unlike cytokinins, however, morphactin did not stimulate tuber enlargement. The sprout-inhibiting action of applied gibberellin (GA) was overcome by morphactin. The possible mechanism of the inhibitory action of GA is diseussed in relation to apical dominance.

  6. Cardiac rhabdomyomas and tuberous sclerosis: two case reports in neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Posada, César Augusto; Docente pediatría, programa de medicina, universidad de manizales

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyomas are the most common cardiac tumours in children. They are strongly associated with tuberous sclerosis disease. They usually regress spontaneously but sometimes they need surgical intervention because the children symptoms due to tumour location. We described here two neonates with tuberous sclerosis diagnosisand big cardiac rhabdomyomas in unusual situation. Los rabdomiomas son el tipo de tumor cardíaco más común de la infancia. Su presencia obliga a descartar esclerosis tuber...

  7. Clinically Relevant Imaging in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa Radhakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis (TS, also known as Bourneville disease or Bourneville-Pringle disease, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder classically characterized by the presence of hamartomatous growths in multiple organs. TS and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC are different terms for the same genetic condition. Both terms describe clinical changes due to mutations involving either of the two genes named TSC1 and TSC2, which regulate cell growth. The diagnosis of TSC is established using diagnostic criteria based on clinical and imaging findings. Routine screening and surveillance of patients with TSC is needed to determine the presence and extent of organ involvement, especially the brain, kidneys, and lungs, and identify the development of associated complications. As the treatment is organ specific, imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with TSC.

  8. Production of oxalic acid by some fungi infected tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faboya, O; Ikotun, T; Fatoki, O S

    1983-01-01

    Oxalic acid (as oxalate) was detected in four tubers commonly used for food in Nigeria-Dioscorea rotundata (White yam), Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato), Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato), and Manihot esculenta (cassava). Whereas healthy I. batata had the highest oxalic acid content, healthy M. esculenta contained the lowest. When all tubers were artifically inoculated with four fungi-Penicillium oxalicum CURIE and THOM, Aspergillus niger VAN TIEGH, A. flavus and A. tamarii KITA, there was an increase in oxalate content/g of tuber tissue. The greatest amount of oxalate was produced by P. oxalicum in D. rotundata tuber. Consistently higher amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in infected sweet potato tuber than in any other tuber and consistently lower amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in Irish potato tuber. Differences in the carbohydrate type present in the tubers and in the biosynthesis pathway are thought to be responsible for variation in the production of oxalate in the different tubers by the four fungi used.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of potato tuber development and tuber quality traits using microarray technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kloosterman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The potato crop is one of the most important food crops in the world and in order to understand how in potato plants the formation of potato tubers and the determination of different tuber quality traits are regulated, we need to identify and characterize the genes that are involved in regulating these processes. The aim of the research described in this PhD thesis was to implement a relatively new genomic tool (i.e. microarray technology) in an ongoing study to understand the process of pota...

  10. Rhinophyma in tuberous sclerosis complex: case report with brief review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by the triad epilepsy, hamartomas (angiofibroma and reduced intellectual capacity. Phenotype can vary considerably. Almost all patients with TSC have at least one characteristic dermatologic feature. Facial angiofibroma can cause severe disfigurement. It may involve the cheeks, perioral region and nose, resulting in thick layers of nodular and pustular skin. Aesthetic surgery of the face comprises an individually adapted ablation of the affected skin regions in order to improve physical appearance. Reports on the subject of surgery for nasal angiofibroma confirm the homogenous transformation of the connective tissues by this hamartoma. Hitherto there is only one report in the literature describing the typical epithelial alterations of the nasal skin compatible with a rhinophyma and adjacent angiofibroma. Here we report the successful electrosurgical treatment of a patient with TSC and extensive sebaceous glands giving rise to a rhinophyma in close association with angiofibroma.

  11. The two classes of genes for the major potato tuber protein, patatin, are differentially expressed in tubers and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaard, C S; Brusca, J S; Hannapel, D J; Park, W D

    1987-01-01

    The major potato tuber protein, patatin, is a family of 40kd glycoproteins that constitutes forty per cent of the soluble protein in tubers but is generally undetectable in other tissues. Fused rocket immunoelectro-phoresis was used to detect in roots patatin that is immunologically different from tuber patatin. Western blots of SDS-polyacrylamide gels show root patatin to have a different molecular weight distribution than tuber patatin isoforms, but immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products shows the patatin precursors to be of similar molecular weight in both tissues. This suggests that post-translational processing may differ in tubers and roots. Northern blots show that tuber and root patatin mRNAs are of similar size, but tuber transcripts are about 100-fold more abundant. 5' S1 nuclease and primer extension mapping suggests the class of patatin transcripts expressed in roots (class II transcripts) to be a subset of patatin transcripts expressed in tubers (classes I and II). Class II patatin mRNAs differ from class I transcripts by the presence of a 22 nucleotide insertion just upstream of the initiation codon. These data demonstrate that expression of the patatin multigene family is differentially regulated in tubers and roots. Images PMID:3031583

  12. Yield-enhancing and tuber-downsizing effects of transplantation cultivation method of case-held tuber seedlings in the sweet potato cultivar Beniharuka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuki Adachi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed transplantation cultivation method of case-held tuber seedlings (CTS, which was derived from direct planting method of seed tubers, and applied this method to the sweet potato cultivar Beniharuka. A plastic case made of polypropylene was designed for cultivation of CTS. Seed tubers of cultivar Beniharuka in the range of 30–80 g were cut in half. The half-cut tubers were placed inside the plastic cases, and the cases were filled with a commercial soil mix. The case-held tubers were incubated under natural sunlight in a glass house. After 3–4 wk, the CTS were transplanted into a field. Mother tuber (seed tuber enlargement was suppressed by the plastic confinement of the cases, and daughter tubers were formed above the case as vine-root-originated tubers. In the field experiments in 2012 and 2013, daughter tuber yields were increased 19% and 21% by case-held tuber seedling transplanting (CTST over conventional vine-planting (VP, the number of daughter tubers per plant in CTST were 36 and 68% higher than in VP, and the mother tuber yields were limited to 2.1 and 4.3% of the total fresh yield of mother and daughter tubers, respectively in 2012 and 2013. Application of CTST method to cultivar Beniharuka enhanced tuber yield, increased the number of daughter tubers per plant, downsized daughter tubers compared to VP, and mother tuber enlargement was suppressed by case-holding. The CTST method is expected to produce more and smaller good in shape tubers of cultivar Beniharuka compared to VP.

  13. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  14. Tuberous sclerosis complex neuropathology requires glutamate-cysteine ligase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, A.R.; Liszewska, E.; Skalecka, A.; Urbanska, M.; Iyer, A.M.; Swiech, L.J.; Perycz, M.; Parobczak, K.; Pietruszka, P.; Zarebska, M.M.; Macias, M.; Kotulska, K.; Borkowska, J.; Grajkowska, W.; Tyburczy, M.E.; Jozwiak, S.; Kwiatkowski, D.J.; Aronica, E.; Jaworski, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease resulting from mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 and subsequent hyperactivation of mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Common TSC features include brain lesions, such as cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs). How

  15. A Prevalence Study of Autism in Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ann; Shepherd, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence of autism in tuberous sclerosis was estimated by interviewing parents of 21 children (ages 3-11). The estimated prevalence of autism was found to be one in four children in general, and one in two of those with mental retardation. Tuberous sclerosis could be a significant cause of autism and pervasive developmental disorders,…

  16. Challenges in the management of a case of tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multi-system disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, which can affect the brain, heart, skin, kidneys, lungs, and retina. We hereby report therapeutic challenges faced in a case of an adolescent male suffering from tuberous sclerosis.

  17. Echocardiographic screening results in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, M.E.; Cramer, M.J.; Brouha, M.E.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.; Prokop, M.; Doevendans, P.A.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Feringa, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    We sought to examine the frequency of abnormal echocardiographic findings in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In a retrospective cohort study, we included all patients with known tuberous sclerosis complex who had been sent to our cardiology department for echocardiographic screening from 1

  18. Neuroepileptic Correlates of Autistic Symptomatology in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Patrick F.

    2004-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic condition that is strongly associated with the development of an autism spectrum disorder. However, there is marked variability in expression, and only a subset of children with tuberous sclerosis develop autism spectrum disorder. Clarification of the mechanisms that underlie the association and variability in…

  19. Regulation of sprout growth in potato tubers during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial storage of potato tubers is largely dependent on the natural process of meristem dormancy and the application of growth suppressants or sprout inhibitors. Currently there are a limited number of compounds that can be applied to potato tubers to prevent sprouting. One of the most commo...

  20. Examining the role of tuber biochemistry in the development of zebra chip in stored potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease (ZC), associated with infection by the bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), is an emerging problem for potato growers in the United States, Mexico, and New Zealand. Although potato tubers exhibiting ZC symptoms will be rejected by processors, it remains possible...

  1. Effects of electrical lesions of the medial preoptic area and the ventral pallidum on mate-dependent paternal behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-06-06

    In laboratory animals, less is known about the neural circuits that mediate paternal behavior than those that influence maternal behavior. In mice, we recently reported that when sires are separated with their mate dams from their pups, ultrasound and pheromonal signals from the dams can evoke and initiate maternal-like retrieval behavior in the sires upon reunion with the offspring; this is termed mate-dependent paternal care. We used electrolytic brain lesion (EBL) methods to identify the potential roles of the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and ventral pallidum (VP) regions in regulating paternal care, areas known to be critical for the expression of maternal behavior. Electrolytic lesions of the mPOA or VP disrupted mate-dependent paternal care; latencies to initiate pup retrieval, grooming and crouching were longer in the EBL-treated sires relative to the sham-operated mice. The number of grooming episodes and duration of crouching were also lower in sires with the EBL in both areas. These results indicate that the mPOA and VP regions are essential for mate-dependent paternal care in mice.

  2. The potato developer (D) locus encodes an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates expression of multiple anthocyanin structural genes in tuber skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chun Suk; Griffiths, Helen M; De Jong, Darlene M; Cheng, Shuping; Bodis, Mary; Kim, Tae Sung; De Jong, Walter S

    2009-12-01

    A dominant allele at the D locus (also known as I in diploid potato) is required for the synthesis of red and purple anthocyanin pigments in tuber skin. It has previously been reported that D maps to a region of chromosome 10 that harbors one or more homologs of Petunia an2, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that coordinately regulates the expression of multiple anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in the floral limb. To test whether D acts similarly in tuber skin, RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (f3h), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (dfr) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (f3'5'h). All three genes were expressed in the periderm of red- and purple-skinned clones, while dfr and f3'5'h were not expressed, and f3h was only weakly expressed, in white-skinned clones. A potato cDNA clone with similarity to an2 was isolated from an expression library prepared from red tuber skin, and an assay developed to distinguish the two alleles of this gene in a diploid potato clone known to be heterozygous Dd. One allele was observed to cosegregate with pigmented skin in an F(1) population of 136 individuals. This allele was expressed in tuber skin of red- and purple-colored progeny, but not in white tubers, while other parental alleles were not expressed in white or colored tubers. The allele was placed under the control of a doubled 35S promoter and transformed into the light red-colored cultivar Désirée, the white-skinned cultivar Bintje, and two white diploid clones known to lack the functional allele of D. Transformants accumulated pigment in tuber skin, as well as in other tissues, including young foliage, flower petals, and tuber flesh.

  3. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral preoptic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2012-12-13

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O(2)-90% N(2), 5 min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50 pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4 nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10 nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

  4. Muscarinic M1 receptors regulate propofol modulation of GABAergic transmission in rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Tian; Liu, Yang; Qian, Kun; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    GABAergic neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) play an important role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Propofol, a widely used systemic anesthetic, has lately been reported to excite noradrenaline (NA)-inhibited type of VLPO neurons. Present study tested if acetylcholine system takes part in the propofol modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat VLPO neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude, indicating that propofol acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of spontaneous GABA release. The propofol action on GABAergic mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist, and pirenzepine, a selective M1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that propofol acts on M1 receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals projecting to VLPO neurons to inhibit spontaneous GABA release. The M1 receptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission onto VLPO neurons may contribute to the regulation of loss of consciousness induced by propofol.

  5. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  6. Activation of Strychnine-Sensitive Glycine Receptors by Shilajit on Preoptic Hypothalamic Neurons of Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-02-29

    Shilajit, a mineral pitch, has been used in Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicine to treat many human ailments, and is reported to contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form. This study examined the possible mechanism of Shilajit action on preoptic hypothalamic neurons using juvenile mice. The hypothalamic neurons are the key regulator of many hormonal systems. In voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -60 mV, and under a high chloride pipette solution, Shilajit induced dose-dependent inward current. Shilajit-induced inward currents were reproducible and persisted in the presence of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting a postsynaptic action of Shilajit on hypothalamic neurons. The currents induced by Shilajit were almost completely blocked by 2 μM strychnine (Stry), a glycine receptor antagonist. In addition, Shilajit-induced inward currents were partially blocked by bicuculline. Under a gramicidin-perforated patch clamp mode, Shilajit induced membrane depolarization on juvenile neurons. These results show that Shilajit affects hypothalamic neuronal activities by activating the Stry-sensitive glycine receptor with α₂/α₂β subunit. Taken together, these results suggest that Shilajit contains some ingredients with possible glycine mimetic activities and might influence hypothalamic neurophysiology through activation of Stry-sensitive glycine receptor-mediated responses on hypothalamic neurons postsynaptically.

  7. Tri-filial presentation of familial tuberous sclerosis with renal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoshal Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is a rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome with autosomal dominant penetrance. Only some organs are involved, e.g., skin (earthy skin thickenings, ash leaf patches, cerebral cortex (hamartomatous nodules and kidneys, (angiolipoma, adenocarcinoma. These hamar-tomatous swellings resemble potatoes and hence, referred to as tubers. We herein report on three patients (all familial, father, son and granddaughter, with this rare involvement, from the eastern part of India. The father and son had involvement of only the skin (i.e. nose and kidneys while the disease penetrated further in the subsequent filial generations with son and granddaughter having skin, brain and bilateral kidney involvement. This kind of tri-filial progression has not till date, been reported from this region, making it an interesting case presentation.

  8. Changes in potato phenylpropanoid metabolism during tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarre, Duroy A; Payyavula, Raja S; Shakya, Roshani; Knowles, N Richard; Pillai, Syamkumar S

    2013-04-01

    Phenylpropanoid metabolite and transcript expression during different developmental stages were examined in field grown potatoes. Carbohydrate and shikimic acid metabolism was assessed to determine how tuber primary metabolism influences phenylpropanoid metabolism. Phenylpropanoid concentrations were highest in immature tubers, as were some transcript levels and enzyme activities including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Phenylpropanoid concentration differences between mature and immature tubers varied by genotype, but in some cases were approximately three-fold. The most abundant phenylpropanoid was chlorogenic acid (5CGA), which decreased during tuber maturation. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) transcripts were highly expressed relative to other phenylpropanoid genes, but were not well correlated with 5CGA concentrations (r = -0.16), whereas HQT enzyme activity was. In contrast to 5CGA, less abundant chlorogenic isomers increased during development. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid amides were higher in immature tubers, as was expression of arginine- and ornithine decarboxylases. Expression of several genes involved in carbohydrate or shikimate metabolism, including sucrose synthase and DAHP, showed similar developmental patterns to phenylpropanoid pools, as did shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. Sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were highest in immature tubers. Exogenous treatment of potatoes with sugars stimulated phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, suggesting sugars contribute to the higher phenylpropanoid concentrations in immature tubers. These changes in phenylpropanoid expression suggest the nutritional value of potatoes varies during development.

  9. Multimodality imaging of intramyocardial fat in tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Tyler; Kirkpatrick, Iain D C; Jassal, Davinder S

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report about a 34-year-old man with tuberous sclerosis. During routine surveillance, a CT scan of the chest incidentally showed a low-attenuation streak within the left ventricle. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed intramyocardial lipid deposition within the left ventricle. Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by tumor-like malformations that involve many organ systems, including the heart. In patients with intramyocardial fat deposition detected on CT or cardiac magnetic resonance, other signs of tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Mulberry Tumors in Retina and Nasal Hamartoma in a Patient With Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reshadat

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberous Sclerosis (TS is an autosomal dominant disease that affects the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney even bones. The commonest presentation is seizures in infancy or early childhood (in 80% of cases, mental retardation (in 44%of cases. Characteristic skin lesion includes facial angiofibromas, adenoma sebaceum, hypopigmented macules, shagreen patches ungual ungual fibromas, ash leaf spots, cafe'-au-lait spots.Case Report: A nine years old male was admitted in a pediatric hospital because of the status myoclonic seizures. Seizures had been started since infancy. In physical exam he had some hypopigmented macules, cafe'-au-lait spots and ash leaf lesions, frontal fibrosis and also shagreen patches. Patient was a case of mild mentally retardation with no any focal neurological deficit. Computed tomography scan of brain and MRI imaging revealed sub ependymal tubers with multiple calcification in both sides of parietal region. Electroencephal-ogram recording suggested abnormal spike, sharp wave discharges and lennox-Gastaut pattern. The diagnosis based on the history and physical exam and MRI were tuberous sclerosis. His foundoscopic exam revealed two prominent calcified mass around right optic disc in supratemporal arch, left eye was normal. Retinal angiography revealed the mulberry tumors and right phakoma of retina. Conclusion: Computed tomography also revaled the nasal hamartoma. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of angiomyolipoma because the lesion was composed of smooth muscle bundles, mature adipose tissue and blood vessels of different sizes. He remained seizures free after treatment.

  11. Cold-induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    Bilateral microinjections of GABA (300 mM, 100 nl) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (100 microM, 100 nl) into the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus increased the rate of whole body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and the body core (colonic) temperature of urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The most sensitive site was the dorsomedial POA at the level of the anterior commissure. The GABA-induced thermogenesis was accompanied by a tachycardic response and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the femoral or neck muscles. Pretreatment with muscle relaxants (1 mg/kg pancuronium bromide + 4 mg/kg vecuronium bromide i.v.) prevented GABA-induced EMG activity but had no significant effect on GABA-induced thermogenesis. However, pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor propranolol (5 mg/kg i.v.) greatly attenuated the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) and tachycardic responses. Accordingly, the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) reflected mainly nonshivering thermogenesis. On the other hand, cooling of the shaved back of the rat by contact with a plastic bag containing 28 degrees C water also elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, and EMG responses. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (500 microM, 100 nl), but not the vehicle saline, into the POA blocked these skin cooling-induced responses. These results suggest that GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the POA mediate cold information arising from the skin for eliciting cold-induced thermogenesis.

  12. Neonatal handling reduces the number of cells in the medial preoptic area of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzato, Tatiane S C; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa C; Padilha, Camila B; Miguel, Sandro P R; Bonzanini, Laisa; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Fernandes, Marilda C; Lucion, Aldo B

    2009-01-09

    Early-life events may induce alterations in neuronal function in adulthood. A crucial aspect in studying long-lasting effects induced by environmental interventions imposed to the animal several weeks before is finding a stable change that could be causally related to the phenotype observed in adulthood. In order to explain an adult trait, it seems necessary to look back to early life and establish a temporal line between events. The neonatal handling procedure is an experimental tool to analyze the long-lasting impact of early-life events. Aside from the neuroendocrine response to stress, neonatal handling also alters the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. Reductions in ovulation and surge of the luteinizing hormone (LH) on the proestrous day were shown in female rats. Considering the importance of the medial preoptic area (MPA) for the control of ovulation, the present study aimed to verify the effects of neonatal handling on the numerical density and cell size in the MPA in 11-day-old and 90-day-old female rats. Cellular proliferation was also assessed using BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in 11-day-old pups. Results showed that neonatal handling induces a stable reduction in the number of cells and in the size of the cell soma, which were lower in handled females than in nonhandled ones at both ages. Cellular proliferation in the MPA was also reduced 24 h after the last manipulation. The repeated mother-infant disruption imposed by the handling procedure "lesioned" the MPA. The dysfunction in the ovulation mechanisms induced by the handling procedure could be related to that neuronal loss. The study also illustrates the impact of an environmental intervention on the development of the brain.

  13. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E.; Soriano, Renato N.; Fernandez, Rodrigo A. R.; Francescato, Heloísa D. C.; Saia, Rafael S.; Coimbra, Terezila M.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G. S.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release. PMID:28118407

  14. Effect of Physical Exercise on the Febrigenic Signaling is Modulated by Preoptic Hydrogen Sulfide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Soriano, Renato N; Fernandez, Rodrigo A R; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Saia, Rafael S; Coimbra, Terezila M; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Branco, Luiz G S

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuromodulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus modulates the febrigenic signaling differently in sedentary and trained rats. Besides H2S production rate and protein expressions of H2S-related synthases cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in the POA, we also measured deep body temperature (Tb), circulating plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in an animal model of systemic inflammation. Rats run on a treadmill before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg) or saline. The magnitude of changes of Tb during the LPS-induced fever was found to be similar between sedentary and trained rats. In sedentary rats, H2S production was not affected by LPS. Conversely, in trained rats LPS caused a sharp increase in H2S production rate that was accompanied by an increased CBS expression profile, whereas 3-MPST and CSE expressions were kept relatively constant. Sedentary rats showed a significant LPS-induced release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) which was virtually abolished in the trained animals. Correlation between POA H2S and IL-6 as well as TNF-α was observed. Corticosterone levels were augmented after LPS injection in both groups. We found correlations between H2S and corticosterone, and corticosterone and IL-1β. These data are consistent with the notion that the responses to systemic inflammation are tightly regulated through adjustments in POA H2S production which may play an anti-inflammatory role downmodulating plasma cytokines levels and upregulating corticosterone release.

  15. Distinctive MRI features of the epileptogenic zone in children with tuberous sclerosis

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    Jahodova, A., E-mail: a.jagoda@email.cz [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Charles University, Second Medical School, Motol University Hospital, V Uvalu 84, Prague 5 150 06 (Czech Republic); Krsek, P., E-mail: pavel.krsek@post.cz [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Charles University, Second Medical School, Motol University Hospital, V Uvalu 84, Prague 5 150 06 (Czech Republic); Kyncl, M., E-mail: martinkyn@seznam.cz [Department of Radiology, Charles University, Second Medical School, Motol University Hospital, V Uvalu 84, Prague 5 150 06 (Czech Republic); Jezdik, P., E-mail: jezdip1@feld.cvut.cz [Department of Measurement, Faculty of Electric, Czech Technical University Prague, Technicka 2, CZ 166 27 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kudr, M., E-mail: mat.kudr@gmail.com [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Charles University, Second Medical School, Motol University Hospital, V Uvalu 84, Prague 5 150 06 (Czech Republic); Komarek, V., E-mail: vladimir.komarek@fnmotol.cz [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Charles University, Second Medical School, Motol University Hospital, V Uvalu 84, Prague 5 150 06 (Czech Republic); Jayakar, P., E-mail: Prasanna.Jayakar@mch.com [Department of Neurology and Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Brain Institute, Miami Children' s Hospital, 3200 S.W. 60th Court, Miami, FL (United States); Miller, I., E-mail: ian.miller@mchdocs.com [Department of Neurology and Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Brain Institute, Miami Children' s Hospital, 3200 S.W. 60th Court, Miami, FL (United States); Resnick, T., E-mail: trevor.resnick@mch.com [Department of Neurology and Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Brain Institute, Miami Children' s Hospital, 3200 S.W. 60th Court, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is challenging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We sought to ascertain whether brain MRI could identify the EZ in TSC patients independent of the clinical and diagnostic data. Methods: Presurgical MRI's of 34 children with TSC who underwent epilepsy surgery at Miami Children's Hospital were retrospectively reevaluated by experts blinded to all other data. Changes typical of TSC (tubers, calcifications, cystic changes) and abnormalities of the perituberal cortex typical of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) (increased cortical thickness, abnormal gyration, transmantle change, gray/white matter junction blurring) were identified and their localization was compared with the resection site. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of individual MRI features to localize the EZ were determined and statistically compared between postoperatively seizure-free and non-seizure-free patients as well as clusters of features typical of FCD and TSC. Results: MRI alone correctly localized the resection cavity in all 19 postoperatively seizure-free patients and 12 of 15 non-seizure-free subjects. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI features typical of FCD to localize EZ (90%, 96% and 96%, respectively) were superior to those typical of TCS (79%, 75% and 75%, p < 0.0001). Increased cortical thickness and abnormal gyral formation outside tubers occurred only in the resection site. Resection sites were better predicted by MRI in seizure-free than in non-seizure-free patients. Conclusion: Thorough MRI evaluation identifies the EZ in a significant proportion of TSC patients. Epileptogenic regions were mostly characterized by “FCD-like” changes outside cortical tubers. The findings may have important practical consequences for surgical planning in TSC.

  16. Estradiol Valerate and Remifemin ameliorate ovariectomy-induced decrease in a serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangxia; Jin, Biao; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xing; Sun, Yu; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2016-11-01

    Perimenopausal syndromes begin as ovarian function ceases and the most common symptoms are hot flushes. Data indicate that the projections of serotonin to hypothalamus may be involved in the mechanism of hot flushes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of the serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway for hot flushes in an animal model of menopause. We determined the changes in serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe (DR) and preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) in ovariectomized rats. We also explored the therapeutical effects of estradiol valerate and Remifemin in this model. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated (SHAM) group, ovariectomy (OVX) group with vehicle, ovariectomy with estradiol valerate treatment (OVX+E) group and ovariectomy with Remifemin (OVX+ICR) group. Serotonin expression was evaluated in the DR and POAH using immunofluorescence and quantified in the DR using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was analyzed in the DR by TUNEL assay. The number of serotonin immunoreactive neurons and the level of serotonin expression in the DR decreased significantly following OVX compared to the SHAM group. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the DR in any group. In addition, following OVX, the number of serotonin-positive fibers decreased significantly in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), especially in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Treatment with either estradiol or Remifemin for 4 weeks countered the OVX-induced decreases in serotonin levels in both the DR and the hypothalamus, with levels in the treated rats similar to those in the SHAM group. A fluorescently labeled retrograde tracer was injected into the VLPO at the 4-week time point. A significantly lower percentage of serotonin with CTB double-labeled neurons in CTB-labeled neurons was demonstrated after ovariectomy, and both estradiol and Remifemin countered this OVX

  17. Clinically silent seizures in a neonate with tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Mitsuru; Okumura, Akihisa; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Hisata, Ken; Shoji, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Although seizures during infancy in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are common, seizures in neonates are infrequent. Here, we report the clinical course and electroencephalography (EEG) findings of a neonate with tuberous sclerosis complex associated with clinically silent seizures. The patient was a girl in whom cardiac tumors were detected on fetal ultrasonography. Brain magnetic resonance imaging during the neonatal period showed subependymal and cortical tubers. Routine EEG indicated unexpected ictal changes with no noticeable clinical symptoms. Ictal EEG was associated with a subtle increase in heart rate and a brief increase in chin electromyogram. These changes were difficult to identify clinically. The patient later developed focal seizures and epileptic spasms and had severe psychomotor delay. The present case suggests the occurrence of clinically silent seizures before the appearance of epileptic spasms in infants with tuberous sclerosis, and that EEG is an option for neonates with a prenatal diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Adoption of Root and Tuber Technologies Disseminated by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    called “the. Adoption process” postulated by the North Central Rural Sociology ..... farming culture of people and the types of root and tuber crops involved. This result .... CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) Mexico.

  19. Autism Phenotypes in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Diagnostic and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Poretti, Andrea; Thomas, Emily A; Jenkins, Kosunique T; Desai, Sonal; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem, chronic genetic condition characterized by systemic growth of benign tumors and often accompanied by epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disability. Nonetheless, the neurodevelopmental phenotype of these patients is not often detailed. The authors describe 3 individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex who share common characteristics that can help to identify a distinct profile of autism spectrum disorder. These findings include typical cognitive development, expressive and pragmatic language deficits, and anxiety. The authors also describe features specific to tuberous sclerosis complex that require consideration before diagnosing an autism spectrum disorder. Identifying distinct profiles of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex can help optimize treatment across the life span.

  20. Effect of Tuber Crop Wastes/Byproducts on Nutritional and Microbial Composition of Vermicomposts and Duration of the Vermicomposting Process

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    M. Nedunchezhiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot culture experiment on vermicomposting of cassava and sweet potato wastes/byproducts was conducted for March–May (season I and June–August (season II during 2010 at the Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The study revealed that the vermicompost prepared from biomass and byproducts of tuber crops had fairly higher levels of nitrogen (1.12–2.23%, phosphorus (0.26–0.88%, and potassium (0.33–1.29% compared to initial status. The vermicompost prepared from sweet potato dry leaves had the highest nitrogen (2.23% and 2.03%, phosphorus (0.88% and 0.69%, and potassium (1.29% and 0.84% content during both the years of study. Cassava thippi (tuber residue required 40–43 days for the complete conversion into vermicompost, whereas all other biomass and byproducts needed more time (43–65 days. The rate of increase of earthworm weight and population was higher in vermicompost made from cassava and sweet potato thippi. Microbial counts indicated that populations of bacteria and fungi were higher in season I, whereas actinomycetes were higher in season II. The study indicated that all the biomass and byproducts of tuber crops can be effectively converted into high-value vermicompost.

  1. Isolation of Mitochondria from Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Salvato, Fernanda; Chen, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    the in vivo properties of the organelle inside the plant cell. Here, we describe a method to isolate mitochondria from a relatively homogeneous plant tissue, the dormant potato tuber. The homogenization is done using a juice extractor, which is a relatively gentle homogenization procedure where......One way to study the function of plant mitochondria is to extract them from plant tissues in an uncontaminated, intact and functional form. The reductionist assumption is that the components present in such a preparation and the in vitro measurable functions or activities reliably reflect...... the mitochondria are only exposed to strong shearing forces once. After removal of starch and large tissue pieces by filtration, differential centrifugation is used to remove residual starch as well as larger organelles. The crude mitochondria are then first purified by using a step Percoll gradient...

  2. A subtle case of tuberous sclerosis complex

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    Hitoshi Nakano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is known to cause severe intractable epilepsy and mental retardation; however, diagnosis can be delayed in milder cases. We report a 26-year-old right-handed female patient who started having convulsions at age 7 days. She had several focal seizures per year that were intractable to treatment with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Her two sisters had several episodes of suspected epileptic seizures but had no symptoms related to TSC. Seizure semiology of the patient comprised of visual hallucination, loss of consciousness, and convulsive movements predominantly on the right. Physical examination revealed several small scattered angiofibromas over the nose that were histologically determined by skin biopsy. Hypomelanotic macules, shagreen patches, or periungual fibromas were not seen. Neurological examination showed mental retardation (MMSE: 23/30, WAIS-III: VIQ63, PIQ59, FIQ58 and decreased vibration sensation in both legs. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges broadly over the anterior quadrants bilaterally. Brain imaging showed multiple cortical tubers and malformation of cortical development but no subependymal nodules. Interictal IMP-SPECT showed hypoperfusion in the left frontal lobe. Cardiac rhabdomyoma was not noticed by cardiac echography. Truncal CT showed sclerosis of the bilateral lumbosacral joints. There was no abnormality in the lung, major arteries, liver, or kidneys. No hamartomas or retinal achromic patches were noticed by ophthalmologic evaluation. Administration of lamotrigine was effective for her seizures. This patient fulfilled two major features of diagnostic criteria for TSC and was diagnosed as definite TSC. Patients with mental retardation and epilepsy should be carefully evaluated for the possible diagnosis of TSC.

  3. Production of Tuber-Inducing Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Yorio, Neil C.

    2006-01-01

    A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.

  4. [FTIR and classification study on trueborn tuber dioscoreae samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-qin; Tang, Jun-ming; Yuan, Zi-min; Bai, Yan

    2003-04-01

    To identify the origin of tuber dioscoreae, 45 samples were studied by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) in this paper. The combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with mathematic method was used to classify the trueborn and non-trueborn samples. The samples were chosen randomly as modeling group and predicting group. The correctness of classification was 70%. This approach was proved to be a reliable and practicable method for trueborn quality analysis of tuber dioscoreae.

  5. Role of CTGF in White Matter Development in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    neurological symptoms including epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (Crino et al., 2006; Kwiatkowski et al., 2010; Tsai and Sahin, 2011). Past research...maturation. ASN Neuro 3, e00061. Kwiatkowski , D.J., Whittemore, V.H., and Thiele, E.A. (2010). Tuberous sclerosis complex : genes, clinical features...Lane, H., Sahin, M., and Kwiatkowski , D.J. (2008). Response of a neuronal model of tuberous sclerosis to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR

  6. The Bibilographic studies on Aconiti Ciliare Tuber and Radix Aconiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Kil Yoo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Through the literature on the effect of Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti, we are finding out the clinical posibility and revealing the more effective to intractable disease. Methods : We inverstigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti. Results : 1. The taste of Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti is hot, sweet, bitter, warm and hot, and the effect is dehumidification, warm up and relieve the pain, so it can be used for arthritis, hemiplegia, carpopedal spasm, sciatica, cancer, numbness. 2. A toxic constituent of Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconitiis is induced by aconitine alkaloid, develope toxic symptoms and result in death. So it needs suitabe treatment for safety. 3. It is known that the toxicopathy due to Radix Aconiti was 3-30g(dosage for adult and Aconiti Ciliare Tuber was 1-9g. But only using aconitine alkaloid to oral feeding, the toxicopathy due to 0.2mg/kg and lethal dose is 3-4mg. So we using this for treating, we must be careful and need more varialble study about toxicopathy, lethal dose. 4. On clinical treatment, we thought Aconiti Cliare Tuber, Radix Aconiti is so effective to intractable disease after control the toxicity, it may be need variable study on toxicity and clinical effects.

  7. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  8. Neurological and neuropsychiatric aspects of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, Paolo; Moavero, Romina; de Vries, Petrus J

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (also known as tuberous sclerosis complex [TSC]) is a multisystem genetic disorder that affects almost every organ in the body. Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes lead to disruption of the TSC1-TSC2 intracellular protein complex, causing overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein complex. The surveillance and management guidelines and clinical criteria for tuberous sclerosis were revised in 2012, and mTOR inhibitors are now recommended as treatment options for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas-two common features of the disease. However, most morbidity and mortality caused by tuberous sclerosis is associated with neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Treatment of epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis remains a major challenge, with more than 60% of patients having ongoing seizures. Tuberous-sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) are multilevel and occur in most individuals with the disorder, but are rarely assessed and treated. Clinical trials of mTOR inhibitors to treat seizures and TAND are underway. Management of the neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of the disorder should be coordinated with treatment of other organ systems. In view of the age-related expression of manifestations from infancy to adulthood, continuity of clinical care and ongoing monitoring is paramount, and particular attention is needed to plan transition of patient care from childhood to adult services.

  9. Vagal nerve stimulation in tuberous sclerosis complex patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Penniello, M J; Berquen, P; Delangre, T; Billard, C; Murphy, J V

    2001-09-01

    This is an open-label, retrospective, multicenter study to determine the outcome of intermittent stimulation of the left vagal nerve in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and medically refractory epilepsy. The records of all children treated with vagal nerve stimulation were reviewed in five pediatric epilepsy centers to locate those with tuberous sclerosis complex who had been treated with vagal nerve stimulation for at least 6 months. These patients were compared with (1) a series of patients obtained from the literature, (2) 10 similar control patients with epilepsy obtained from a registry of patients receiving vagal nerve stimulation, and (3) four published series of tuberous sclerosis complex patients whose epilepsy was surgically managed. Ten tuberous sclerosis complex patients with medically refractory epilepsy treated with vagal nerve stimulation were found. Nine experienced at least a 50% reduction in seizure frequency, and half had a 90% or greater reduction in seizure frequency. No adverse events were encountered. Comparison with published and registry patients revealed improved seizure control in the tuberous sclerosis complex patients. Comparison with the group undergoing seizure surgery demonstrated improved outcomes after surgery. Vagal nerve stimulation appears to be an effective and well-tolerated adjunctive therapy in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and seizures refractory to medical therapy. Resective surgery has a better prospect for improved seizure control.

  10. Clinical Usefulness of Aripiprazole and Lamotrigine in Schizoaffective Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, In Goo; Kim, Jung Jin

    2016-08-31

    Tuberous sclerosis is not as rare as once thought and has high psychiatric comorbidities. However, bipolar or psychotic features associated with tuberous sclerosis have been rarely reported. This report first presents a tuberous sclerosis patient, resembling a schizoaffective disorder of bipolar type. A patient with known tuberous sclerosis displayed mood fluctuation and psychotic features. Her symptoms did not remit along with several psychiatric medications. After hospitalization, the patient responded well with lamotrigine and aripiprazole without exacerbation. As demonstrated in this case, tuberous sclerosis may also encompass bipolar affective or psychotic features. We would like to point out the necessity to consider bipolarity in evaluating and treating tuberous sclerosis.

  11. Tubers from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are characterized by changes in microtubule biology through ROCK2 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidre; Mohan, Pooja; Chen, Helen; Castellsague, Joan; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Carmona, Marga; García, Nadia; Aguilar, Helena; Jiang, Jihong; Skowron, Margaretha; Nellist, Mark; Ampuero, Israel; Russi, Antonio; Lázaro, Conxi; Maxwell, Christopher A; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2014-07-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) develop cortical tubers that cause severe neurological disabilities. It has been suggested that defects in neuronal differentiation and/or migration underlie the appearance of tubers. However, the precise molecular alterations remain largely unknown. Here, by combining cytological and immunohistochemical analyses of tubers from nine TSC patients (four of them diagnosed with TSC2 germline mutations), we show that alteration of microtubule biology through ROCK2 signalling contributes to TSC neuropathology. All tubers showed a larger number of binucleated neurons than expected relative to control cortex. An excess of normal and altered cytokinetic figures was also commonly observed. Analysis of centrosomal markers suggested increased microtubule nucleation capacity, which was supported by the analysis of an expression dataset from cortical tubers and control cortex, and subsequently linked to under-expression of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase 2 (ROCK2). Thus, augmented microtubule nucleation capacity was observed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human fibroblasts deficient in the Tsc2/TSC2 gene product, tuberin. Consistent with ROCK2 under-expression, microtubule acetylation was found to be increased with tuberin deficiency; this alteration was abrogated by rapamycin treatment and mimicked by HDAC6 inhibition. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis that loss of TSC2 expression can alter microtubule organization and dynamics, which, in turn, deregulate cell division and potentially impair neuronal differentiation.

  12. Reward associated with singing behavior correlates with opioid-related gene expression in the medial preoptic nucleus in male European starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren V Riters

    Full Text Available Birdsong consists of species-specific learned vocal sequences that are used primarily to attract mates and to repel competitors during the breeding season. However, many birds continue to sing at times when vocal production has no immediate or obvious impact on conspecific behavior. The mechanisms that ensure that animals produce important behaviors in contexts in which the function of these behaviors is not immediate or obvious are not known. One possibility is that animals engage in such behaviors because they are associated with pleasure. Here we examined the hypothesis that male European starlings sing outside of the breeding season in part because the act of singing in this context is facilitated and/or maintained by opioid-mediated reward. We measured song-associated reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP test in male starlings producing fall, non-breeding season-typical song. We used quantitative real time PCR to measure expression of the enkephalin opioid precursor preproenkephalin (PENK and mu opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM; a region in which opioids are implicated in both reward and starling fall song and additionally the song control region HVC as a control. Starlings developed a strong preference for a place that had been paired previously with the act of producing fall-typical song, indicating that fall song production was associated with a positive affective state. Both PENK and MOR mRNA expression in the POM, but not HVC, correlated positively with both individual reward state (as reflected in CPP and undirected singing behavior. These results suggest that singing induces opioid receptor and enkephalin expression in the POM and consequent reward, and/or that opioid release in the POM induced by individual or environmental factors (e.g., the presence of food, safety of a flock or the absence of predators induces a positive affective state which then facilitates singing behavior.

  13. Gibberellin-induced inhibition and promotion of sprouting in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana Andr. in relation to photoperiodic treatment and tuber stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1977-01-01

    Gibberellic-acid (GA3) treatment, when applied within a period ranging from the start of short-day (SD) treatment until about 10 SD, GA3 strongly inhibited formation of aerial tubers in response to SD and brought about sprouting of developing aerial tubers. In contrast, when applied after about 10 SD or more, GA3 hastened the completion of the dormant state in the tubers and prolonged their dormancy. The dormancy-promoting effect of GA3 on detached tubers increased with their degree of maturation. Application of growth retardants N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-9), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride (AMO-1618) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC) to the cuttings delayed the onset of dormancy in the aerial tuber. When the retardants were applied to detached aerial tubers, however, such a delay of dormancy was not observed, and GA3 application did not inhibit sprouting in aerial tubers detached from CCC-treated cuttings.

  14. The GAP-related domain of tuberin, the product of the TSC2 gene, is a target for missense mutations in tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwar, M M; Cheadle, J P; Jones, A C; Myring, J; Fryer, A E; Harris, P C; Sampson, J R

    1997-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant trait in which the dysregulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation results in the development of hamartomatous growths in many organs. The TSC2 gene is one of two genes determining tuberous sclerosis. Inactivating germline mutations of TSC2 in patients with tuberous sclerosis and somatic loss of heterozygosity at the TSC2 locus in the associated hamartomas indicate that TSC2 functions as a tumour suppressor gene and that loss of function is critical to expression of the tuberous sclerosis phenotype. The TSC2 product, tuberin, has a region of homology with the GTPase activating protein rap1GAP and stimulates the GTPase activity of rap1a and rab5a in vitro. Here we show that the region of homology between tuberin and human rap1GAP and the murine GAP mSpa1 is more extensive than previously reported and spans approximately 160 amino acid residues encoded within exons 34-38 of the TSC2 gene. Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of these exons in 173 unrelated patients with tuberous sclerosis and direct sequencing of variant conformers together with study of additional family members enabled characterisation of disease associated mutations in 14 cases. Missense mutations, which occurred in exons 36, 37 and 38 were identified in eight cases, four of whom shared the same recurrent change P1675L. Each of the five different missense mutations identified was shown to occur de novo in at least one sporadic case of tuberous sclerosis. The high proportion of missense mutations detected in the region of the TSC2 gene encoding the GAP-related domain supports its key role in the regulation of cellular growth.

  15. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the herbaceous tuber crop, Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C; You, Y N; Diao, Y; Hu, Z L; Chen, J M

    2012-12-19

    Amorphophallus konjac is an herbaceous tuber crop with tremendous potential for commercial development. We report the development of microsatellite primers for this important crop species. Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and tested in two populations of A. konjac from the Wuling Mountain Region (WL population) and the Yunnan Province (YN population) in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 7; the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 1 and from 0 to 0.844, respectively, in the two populations. These microsatellite markers will facilitate further studies in population genetics and utilization of A. konjac.

  16. Site characteristics of Tuber magnatum in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Christopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Day after day it is being demonstrated that Greece hides a buried treasure in its forests. The wild black truffles Tuber aestivum, T. uncinatum, T. brumale and T. melanosporum and the white truffle T. borchii and recently T. magnatum are picked in a variety of forest ecosystems all over the country. The information which has been collected has initiated a national programme on truffle cultivation which, so far, has immense appeal, especially among young farmers. The discovery of carpophores of T. magnatum, the most valued white truffle in the market, triggered the interest in studying the site characteristics, botanical and pedological, in order to help farmers to cultivate the species in similar sites. All carpophores were found under hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis along the banks of a creek on alluvial sediment. Soil analyses of four soil samples from truffle nests showed a narrow range of values of pH in water (7.57–7.78 and 1N KCL (6.94–7.07 and a similar granulometric soil texture.

  17. Tuberous sclerosis complex diagnosed from oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Jesus Araujo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a genetic disease in the group known as neurocutaneous syndromes, with dominant autosomal inheritance. It is characterized by skin and adnexal lesions and central and peripheral nervous system tumors, with neurological and psychiatric findings. It may affect the heart, kidneys, eyes, face, bones, lungs, stomach and dentition. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 66-year-old man with dermatological signs that included hypopigmented maculae, confetti-like lesions, shagreen plaque, angiofibromas on nasolabial folds, neck and back, nail dystrophy and periungual fibromas on fingers and toes. An electroencephalogram produced normal results, but magnetic resonance imaging showed a nodular image measuring 1.2 x 1.0 cm close to the Monro foramen, which was similar to cerebral parenchyma and compatible with a subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma. A conservative approach was taken, through control imaging examinations on the lesion for seven years, with absence of any expansive process or neurological symptoms. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a solid, heterogenic and echogenic mass with a calcified focus, measuring 4.6 x 3.4 cm, in the rightkidney, compatible with angiomyolipoma. The patient was treated by means of complete nephrectomy because of malignant areas seen on histopathological examination and died one month after the procedure. This case report illustrates the importance of oral clinical findings such as dental enamel pits and angiofibromas in making an early diagnosis of TSC, with subsequent screening examinations, treatment and genetic counseling.

  18. de tuberías enterradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Calderón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La corrosión de tuberías enterradas es un fenómeno que depende más de la corrosividad del suelo que de la naturaleza del metal. La evaluación de la corrosividad del suelo es una actividad compleja debido a la cantidad de variables que interactúan entre sí. En este trabajo se hace un análisis multivariado de los principales factores que intervienen en la corrosión de estructuras enterradas. El análisis permite clasificar factorialmente y transformar un conjunto de variables correlacionadas en un nuevo conjunto de menor dimensión de nuevas variables no correlacionadas, permitiendo mejor comprensión de los datos de las unidades experimentales y la detección de las variables de mayor peso en la variable respuesta, lo que permite disminuir el número de variables por medir. En este artículo se describen las técnicas experimentales empleadas y el análisis estadístico realizado sobre 6 variables medidas en las unidades experimentales. A partir del análisis multivariado y la clasificación por grupos pudo obtenerse un conjunto de 3 variables, las cuales permiten realizar una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de suelo según su corrosividad, con confiabilidad del 90% y error del 20%.

  19. Tuberous sclerosis. Diagnostic problems in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, D B; Kwee, M L

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes a family in which the first child, a girl born in 1988, has tuberous sclerosis (TS). The 28-year-old mother had no symptoms of TS but at ocular examination she presented with progressively increasing prominence of the optic nerve heads with a few glistening spots due to deep and superficial drusen, and tilted disks. Visual fields showed enlarged blind spots. Fluorescein angiography showed lobular drusen of the optic nerve heads. The ERG showed an absent B-wave. The family history was negative for TS. The question arises whether these ocular findings have to be interpreted as part of the syndrome of TS. In that case the recurrence risk for the disease is 50% for each next child. Assuming a spontaneous mutation in the first child, however, the risk can be nearly neglected. Until the genetic defect in TS is found, these problems in genetic counselling of parents with a child with TS will remain unsolved. Prenatal diagnosis by DNA-analysis is not yet possible; however a few cases of TS have been diagnosed prenatally by fetal ultrasonography of the heart, as was the case in the affected child.

  20. Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle

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    Yadira L. López-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR and 2 (m2AChR in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1 an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2 analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.

  1. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  2. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  3. Intracranial Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Pictorial Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Kharrazi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that involves multiple organs. Hamartomas are the predominant lesions. Classically, tuberous sclerosis has been characterized by a classical clinical triad of facial angiofibromas (90%, mental retardation (50-80%, seizure (80-90% and all three in 30% of the patients. Two major features or one major feature plus two minor features are necessary for the definite diagnosis of this disease. We had some patients admitted with different presentations of tuberous sclerosis and a past history of convulsion from childhood, skin lesions and also mental retardation with a new onset headache and a changed pattern of convulsion. In physical examination, facial angiofibromas and subungual fibromas were apparently detected. Brain CT scan study with contrast showed multiple calcified nodules associated with tubers, ventriculomegaly and also enhancing enlarged nodules at the foramen of Monro, which were suggestive of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA. MRI showed the same brain findings (tubers, white matter lesions and subependymal nodules associated with SGCA, which were detected better. After surgery, SGCA was proved. In abdominal and pelvic CT scan and ultrasonography, massive bilateral angiomyolipomatosis and focal hypodense hyperechoic liver lesions were detected.

  4. Supplemental calcium nutrition improves tuber yield and quality of native potatoes in the Peruvian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tubers are known to be calcium deficient. This is because calcium moves with water and most water is transported to leaves and tubers being in soil do not have the draw for water and calcium. Calcium fertilizers are now routinely used to improve tuber quality and production in the US. Potatoe...

  5. Intractable epilepsy in hemimegalencephaly and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria P; Cavalleri, Francesca; Migone, Nicola; Lugli, Licia; Delalande, Olivier; Cavazzuti, Giovanni B; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare brain malformation consisting of the enlargement of 1 hemisphere, often associated with abnormal cortical gyration, thick cortex, large neurons, and increased astrocytes. Cranial asymmetry is the first clinical sign usually present at birth; in the most severe cases, hemimegalencephaly may be evident during pregnancy. Hemiparesis, intractable epilepsy, and developmental delay are the typical clinical manifestations. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting about 1 in 6000 live births; the number of spontaneous mutations is remarkable. It is characterized by the development of hamartias, or nongrowing lesions, and hamartomas, which grow as benign tumors and rarely progress to malignancy. These lesions most frequently involve the brain, skin, kidneys, eyes, and heart. The rare association of hemimegalencephaly and tuberous sclerosis complex has been reported in a few cases. The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy with left hemimegalencephaly, tuberous sclerosis complex genetically confirmed, and intractable epilepsy originating from the nonhemimegalencephalic hemisphere.

  6. New Feature of Tuberous Sclerosis or Acute Periventricular Leukomalacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vossough

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We read with interest the article by Langer et al., describing the MRI findings in a neonatal patient with tuberous sclerosis. They describe the presence of periventricular white matter lesions in the centrum semiovale, with linear, circular, and semicircular shapes, with hyperintense margins, and isointense centers, and better seen on T1-weighted and T1 FLAIR sequences than on T2-weighted sequences. They propose that these "target"-like lesions have not been previously reported in patients with tuberous sclerosis."nWe believe that what Langer et al. are showing is unrelated to tuberous sclerosis itself, and represents additional classical MRI findings of acute periventricular leukomalacia and acute white matter injury.

  7. Cerebellar Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Maria; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with the genetic disease tuberous sclerosis complex present with autism spectrum disorder. Although a number of studies have investigated the link between autism and tuberous sclerosis complex, the etiology of autism spectrum disorder in these patients remains unclear. Abnormal cerebellar function during critical phases of development could disrupt functional processes in the brain, leading to development of autistic features. Accordingly, the authors review the potential role of cerebellar dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex. The authors also introduce conditional knockout mouse models of Tsc1 and Tsc2 that link cerebellar circuitry to the development of autistic-like features. Taken together, these preclinical and clinical investigations indicate the cerebellum has a profound regulatory role during development of social communication and repetitive behaviors.

  8. Onychogryphosis in tuberous sclerosis complex: an unusual feature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiang-chun; Zheng, Li-qiang; Zheng, Tie-gang

    2016-01-01

    Onychogryphosis is an acquired nail plate change. It often affects the toenail and is characterized by an opaque, yellow-brownish nail plate that is distorted, grossly thickened, elongated, and partly curved resembling a ram's horn. Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem disorder associated with high rates of mental retardation, autism, cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, or seizures. Nail disease can also be associated, which is a concern to patients due to pain and nail distortion. We reported a typical tuberous sclerosis complex patient with distinctive clinical features of a ram's horn nails, which presented a great challenge to surgical treatment and nail restoration.

  9. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M.; Sadow, Peter M.; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Feldman, Adam S.; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Jane J.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Young, Robert H.; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2-4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathological and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into three groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphological, immunological and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient SDHB expression prompting the novel term “TSC-associated papillary RCC.” The second group (n=15) was morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) while the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated papillary RCCs (PRCC) had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCC showed strong, diffuse labeling for CA-IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), CD10 (83%), and were uniformly negative for succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), TFE3 and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166

  10. A large infiltrating fibrous hamartoma of infancy in the abdominal wall with rare associated tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Gye-Yeon [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); You, Chang-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-07-15

    Tuberous sclerosis is a complex autosomal-dominant neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by hamartomatous malformations of fibrous and connective tissues in various organs. Although various histologic types of soft-tissue masses can occur with tuberous sclerosis, we present a unique case of fibrous hamartoma of infancy presenting as large infiltrating cutaneous and subcutaneous masses in the abdominal wall in a 4-year-old boy with tuberous sclerosis. Although the co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis and fibrous hamartoma of infancy is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous soft-tissue masses found in children with tuberous sclerosis. (orig.)

  11. Diversity of ectomycorrhizal Thelephoraceae in Tuber melanosporum-cultivated orchards of Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Ana María; Águeda, Beatriz; Sáez, Raimundo; Sánchez, Sergio; Parladé, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Truffles are edible hypogeous ascomycetes highly appreciated worldwide, especially the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.). In recent decades, the cultivation of the black truffle has expanded across the Mediterranean climate regions in and outside its native range. Members of the Thelephoraceae (Thelephorales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) are commonly found in truffle plantations, but their co-occurrence with Tuber species and other members of the fungal community has been scarcely reported. Thelephoraceae is one of the most represented families of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community in boreal and Mediterranean forests. To reveal the diversity of these fungi in T. melanosporum-cultivated plantations, ten orchards located in the Navarra region (Northern Spain) were surveyed for 2 years. Morphological and molecular approaches were used to detect and identify the Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas present in those plantations. Ten different mycorrhizal types were detected and described. Four of them were morphologically identified as Tomentella galzinii, Quercirhiza cumulosa, Q. squamosa, and T39 Thelephoraceae type. Molecular analyses revealed 4-6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), depending on the nucleotide database used, but similarities remained under 95 % and no clear species assignments could be done. The results confirm the diversity and abundance of this fungal family in the ectomycorrhizal community of black truffle plantations, generally established in Mediterranean areas. The occurrence and relative abundance of Thelephoraceae ectomycorrhizas is discussed in relation to their possible influence on truffle production.

  12. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. RESULTS: Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled...... Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour......, green nut flavour, sweetness and colour intensity, whereas the appropriateness of boiled tubers was related to celeriac aroma, sweet aroma, sweetness and colour intensity. In both preparations the variety Dwarf stood out from the others by being the least appropriate tuber. CONCLUSION: A few sensory...

  13. PHAKOMATOSIS : INTRESTING CASES OF TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS WITH RETINAL ASTROCYTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC or Morbus Bourneville - Pringle disease is an autosomal dominant phakomatosis, first described by Desiree - Magloire Bourneville in 1880. Tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous benign tumours in many parts of the body caused by mutations on either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. This rare genetic disorder is usually associated with a triad of seizures, mental retardation and cutaneous lesions. Approximately one half of all patients affected by TS develop at least one retinal astrocytoma in one eye. PRESENTATION OF CASES: In the department of ophthalmology, G.S.L M edical C ollege, Rajahmundry, we came across 3 cases of tuberous sclerosis involving multi organ systems. Out of 3 cases, 2 cases were reported to be familial and 1case is sporadic, with a history of epilepsy with angiofibromatosis lesions over the face, multiple ash - leaf lesions over the abdomen, renal angiomyolipomas, multiple subependymal nodules in brain and retinal astrocytic hamartomas in the retina. CONCLUSION: It is important to be cognizant of the likely presence of systemic and ocular pathology in a child with mental retardation and skin lesions. Identification of retinal phakomatosis during ocular evaluation in any suspected case of Tuberous sclerosis can aid in the establishment of the diagnosis of the disease

  14. Role of CTGF in White Matter Development in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    both in vitro and in vivo. KEYWORDS Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, myelination , CTGF ACCOMPLISHMENTS: We will review the accomplishments to date in...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments

  15. Phosphorylation of formate dehydrogenase in potato tuber mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykova, N.V.; Stensballe, A.; Egsgaard, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two highly phosphorylated proteins were detected after two-dimensional (blue native/SDS-PAGE) gel electrophoretic separation of the matrix fraction isolated from potato tuber mitochondria. These two phosphoproteins were identified by mass spectrometry as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and the E1alpha...

  16. Epilepsy surgery in tuberous sclerosis : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Floor E.; van Huffelen, Atexander. C.; Algra, Ale; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno

    Purpose: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with intractable epilepsy. Although epilepsy surgery has gained interest in recent years uncertainties exist about which patients are good surgical candidates. A systematic review of the available literature has been undertaken to assess

  17. New source of bacterial soft rot resistance in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species can cause major losses to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) industry, mostly due to tuber rot in storage. There are few germplasm resources for soft rot resistance breeding. Here, we introduce a resistant diploid wild potato relative, M...

  18. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  19. High rate of mosaicism in tuberous sclerosis complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, S; Bakker, L; Tempelaars, AMP; Hesseling-Janssen, ALW; Mazurczak, T; Jozwiak, S; Fois, A; Bartalini, G; Zonnenberg, BA; van Essen, AJ; Lindhout, D; Halley, DJJ; van den Ouweland, AMW

    1999-01-01

    Six families with mosaicism are identified in a series of 62 unrelated families with a mutation in one of the two tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, TSC1 or TSC2. In five families, somatic mosaicism was present in a mildly affected parent of an index patient. In one family with clinically unaff

  20. Identifying Determinants for Neurobehavioral Morbidity in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Eeghen (Agnies)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystem disorder characterized by the growth of hamartomas in multiple organ systems. The syndrome was described as early as 1835 by Rayer, and later by von Recklinghousen. In 1880, Bourneville described the syndrome in three pa

  1. Autism and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Prevalence and Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Peggy; Piven, Joseph; Sato, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the incidence of autism in 20 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The prevalence of autistic disorder was conservatively estimated at 20%. Data suggest a possible association between both hypsarrythmia and TSC-related cardiac abnormalities with autism in this subgroup of individuals with TSC. (Author/CR)

  2. Epilepsy in Tuberous Sclerosis: Phenotypes, Mechanisms, and Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Sampson, Julian R

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy affects 75% to 90% of people with tuberous sclerosis, a multisystem genetic disorder. Although seizures can occur for the first time at any age, onset in infancy or childhood is usual. Around 30% of patients present with infantile spasms that often respond well to treatment with vigabatrin. Later seizures may occur as specific patterns, such as in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or with combinations of seizures including focal and multifocal seizures, and drop attacks. Most patients have two or more seizure types. Seizure control using current antiepileptic drugs is often unsatisfactory, leading to frequent polypharmacy. Epilepsy surgery has a place in the management of some patients. Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes that cause tuberous sclerosis lead to hyperactivation of signaling via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Inhibitors of mTORC1 have recently been shown to be effective treatments for some manifestations of tuberous sclerosis; they are now being assessed as potential novel antiepileptic drugs in tuberous sclerosis and related disorders.

  3. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Presenting in a Premenopausal Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J. S.; Chambers, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Endometrial adenocarcinoma is very uncommon in women under 40 years of age. Case: A 39-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis and severe intellectual disability presented with irregular bleeding unresponsive to oral contraceptive therapy. She was subsequently found to have a deeply invasive endometrial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:…

  4. Epilepsy surgery in tuberous sclerosis : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Floor E.; van Huffelen, Atexander. C.; Algra, Ale; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with intractable epilepsy. Although epilepsy surgery has gained interest in recent years uncertainties exist about which patients are good surgical candidates. A systematic review of the available literature has been undertaken to assess

  5. Diversity of (dihydro) hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in Colombian potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Zheng, Chaoya; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    In potato tuber, caffeic acid (the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA)), its conjugates (HCAcs; i.e. chlorogenic acid (ChA), crypto-ChA, and neo-ChA), and anthocyanin-linked HCAs have been extensively described in the literature. In contrast, only little information is available on the occurrence

  6. A New Cyclic Bisdesmoside from Tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Feng TANG; Yang Hua YI; Shu Yu ZHANG; Peng SUN; Ling LI; Da Zheng ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    The structure of tubeimoside V (1), a new cyclic bisdesmoside, isolated from tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Tu Bei Mu), was established by means of 2D NMR spectral and chemical methods. Compound 1 has inter-saccharide chain bridging by a dicrotalic acid to form a unique macrocyclic structure.

  7. Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex traits in Uganda ... Silk and Sowola which showed high flowering ability failed to fertilise and set ... Up to five genes may be involved in â-carotene synthesis and probably in ...

  8. Anti-ulcer activity of Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Panda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcers occur in that part of the gastrointestinal tract which is exposed to gastric acid and pepsin, i.e., the stomach and duodenum. Gastric and duodenal ulcers are common pathologies that may be induced by a variety of factors such as stress, smoking and noxious agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ipomoea batatas tubers (sweet potato contain ample amounts of antioxidants. It has been proven already by many scientific studies that antioxidants have ulcer healing properties. In reference to this, we tried assessing the ulcer healing effect of Ipomoea batatas tubers. Methods: The anti-ulcer activity of the tubers of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato was studied in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Methanolic extracts of Ipomoea batatas tubers (TE at two doses, viz., 400 and 800 mg /kg were evaluated in cold stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models using cimetidine and omeprazole respectively as standards. The standard drugs and the test drugs were administered orally for 7 days in the cold stressmodel and for 1 day in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model. Gastroprotective potential, status of the antioxidant enzymes {superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase(GR} along with GSH, and lipid peroxidation were studied in both models. Results: The results of the present study showed that TE possessed gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index and a marked increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner.Conclusion: The present experimental findings suggest that tubers of Ipomoea batatas may be useful for treating peptic ulcers.

  9. Polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins of potato mediate tuberization through an interaction with StBEL5 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Sharma, Pooja; Butler, Nathaniel M; Kang, Il-Ho; Shah, Shweta; Rao, A Gururaj; Hannapel, David J

    2015-11-01

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) proteins are a family of RNA-binding proteins that function in a wide range of RNA metabolic processes by binding to motifs rich in uracils and cytosines. A PTB protein of pumpkin was identified as the core protein of an RNA-protein complex that trafficks RNA. The biological function of the PTB-RNA complex, however, has not been demonstrated. In potato, six PTB proteins have been identified, and two, designated StPTB1 and StPTB6, are similar to the phloem-mobile pumpkin type. RNA binding assays confirmed the interaction of StPTB1 and StPTB6 with discrete pyrimidine-rich sequences of the 3'-untranslated regions of the phloem-mobile mRNA, StBEL5. The promoter of StPTB1 was active in companion cells of phloem in both stem and petioles. Expression of both types was evident in phloem cells of roots and in stolons during tuber formation. RNA accumulation of both PTB proteins was induced by short days in leaves in correlation with enhanced accumulation of StBEL5 RNA. StPTB suppression lines exhibited reduced tuber yields and decreased StBEL5 RNA accumulation, whereas StPTB overexpression lines displayed an increase in tuber production correlated with the enhanced production in stolons of steady-state levels of StBEL5 transcripts and RNA of key tuber identity genes. In StPTB overexpression lines, both the stability and long-distance transport of StBEL5 transcripts were enhanced, whereas in suppression lines stability and transport decreased. Using a transgenic approach, it is shown that the StPTB family of RNA-binding proteins regulate specific stages of development through an interaction with phloem-mobile transcripts of StBEL5.

  10. Bacteria of the genus Rhodopseudomonas (Bradyrhizobiaceae): obligate symbionts in mycelial cultures of the black truffles Tuber melanosporum and Tuber brumale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Christine; Tournier, Estelle; Lies, Adrien; Sanguin, Hervé; Chevalier, Gérard; Duponnois, Robin; Mousain, Daniel; Prin, Yves

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed at characterizing 12 isolates of the genus Tuber including Tuber melanosporum (11 isolates) and Tuber brumale (one isolate). This was done using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, confirming their origin. Analysis of their mating type revealed that both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 exist within these isolates (with 3 and 8 of each, respectively). We observed that each of these cultures was consistently associated with one bacterium that was intimately linked to fungal growth. These bacterial associates failed to grow in the absence of fungus. We extracted DNA from bacterial colonies in the margin of mycelium and sequenced a nearly complete 16S rDNA gene and a partial ITS fragment. We found they all belonged to the genus Rhodopseudomonas, fitting within different phylogenetic clusters. No relationships were evidenced between bacterial and fungal strains or mating types. Rhodopseudomonas being a sister genus to Bradyrhizobium, we tested the nodulation ability of these bacteria on a promiscuously nodulating legume (Acacia mangium), without success. We failed to identify any nifH genes among these isolates, using two different sets of primers. While the mechanisms of interaction between Tuber and Rhodopseudomonas remain to be elucidated, their interdependency for in vitro growth seems a novel feature of this fungus.

  11. Psychopathology in Tuberous Sclerosis: An Overview and Findings in a Population-Based Sample of Adults with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznahan, A.; Joinson, C.; O'Callaghan, F.; Osborne, J. P.; Bolton, P. F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a multi- system disorder with complex genetics. The neurodevelopmental manifestations of TS are responsible for considerable morbidity. The prevalence of epilepsy and intellectual disabilities among individuals with TS have been well described. Ours is the first study that explores the prevalence and pattern…

  12. Tuberous sclerosis: Analysis of 24 cases with emphasis on atypical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Suh, Jung Ho; Joo, Suk Hyun; Chung, Tae Sub [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    We retrospectively analysed the clinical and CT findings of 24 cases with tuberous sclerosis with special emphasis upon the atypical presentation. The cases with classic clinical triad were accounted for in 21%, while 33% presented with atypical clinical features. The most common and characteristic CT finding is that of the subependymal calcified nodules of the lateral ventricle, which was seen in 85% of our cases. Cortical tuber and white matter lesions were demonstrated in 65% and 55%, respectively. Three cases showed cortical tuber and white matter lesion without subependymal tuber. The cortical tuber usually exhibited low density or calcified lesion, but showed high density in 2 cases. Other findings of tuberous sclerosis included intraventricular tumor, ventriculomegaly, and cortical atrophy. One case clearly demonstrated parenchymal tuber on MR imaging. In conclusion, diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis is usually made on the clinical bases initially. However, CT and MR are also diagnostic even in unusual clinical presentation such as unexplained retardation or epilepsy or when the classic clinical triad is incomplete. If only cortical tuber or white matter lesion is present, it is difficult to diagnose tuberous sclerosis and to differentiate from other cortical mass lesion. Therefore, careful evaluation is required with familiarity with the atypical appearance of the disease.

  13. Occurrence of common scab in potato tubers after foliar treatment with glycinebetaine under glasshouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. TUOMOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A single foliar spray with 2.5 mM glycinebetaine (GB was applied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Matilda, Sabina and Saturna grown in a sand bed infested with Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter Waksman & Henrici at tuber initiation. A period of drought was maintained after GB treatment to enhance scab infection. Logit models were used to compare scab incidence in all harvested tubers (n = 622 and the type of scab in the symptomatic tubers (n = 382, whereas the tuber surface areas covered with scab lesions were compared using ANOVA. A 10 g increase in tuber weight increased the odds of scab incidence by 11.3%. Scab incidence was lowest in Sabina and highest in Matilda. Raised scab and superficial scab were common in all cultivars, but pitted scab developed only in a few tubers of Sabina and Matilda. Among the scabby tubers, the incidence of raised scab was highest in Sabina and lowest in Saturna. The mean surface area covered with scab was 32.8% in Matilda, 11.7% in Saturna and 7.5% in Sabina. Treatment with GB slightly reduced the severity of scab symptoms, as shown by the reduction in the proportion of tubers with raised scab among the scabby tubers (odds 0.60. No effect on the incidence of scab or the tuber area covered with scab lesions was detected following GB treatment.;

  14. Partial Study of Yam Tuber (Dioscorea spp. Parts during the Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouadio Claver Degbeu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing gradient into longitudinal axis of yam tuber was study through starch properties and nutritional composition of tuber parts (proximal, median and distal during the tuberization. Two varieties of the complex D. cayenensis-rotundata (kangba and kponan were used. Clarity, swelling and solubility, flow behavior and syneresis of starch and protein content, alcohol-soluble sugars of the flour were studies. The ash assessed by microanalysis. Starch clarity of tuber parts increased during the growth period. The proximal (56±2.06% and median (54.5±1.09% parts exhibited high clarity than the distal (48.2±2.56% one. At earlier stage of tuberization, the viscosity ratio of tuber parts (var. Kponan was weak. This indicates the possibility to use it as thickening agent in shearing sauce. Water loss decreased during the growth period for the three tuber parts. It was the same behavior for the swelling power. Concerning the nutritional composition of the flour, amount of protein did not influenced by the degree of tuber maturity. Alcohol-soluble sugars were higher at earlier stage of tuberization than at maturity of the tuber. Mineral content was appreciable at maturity than at beginning of the tuberization. The extent mineral according to their amount was: K, P, Mg and S. Starch properties such as clarity, syneresis and swelling were improved at maturity of the tuber. It was more for the proximal and median parts than the distal one. Yam tuber content a appreciable amount of protein and mineral at maturity.

  15. Histaminergic H1 and H2 Receptors Mediate the Effects of Propofol on the Noradrenalin-Inhibited Neurons in Rat Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2017-02-09

    The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. We found that the firing rate of noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were significantly augmented by propofol; the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents of noradrenalin-inhibited neuron were evidently attenuated by propofol; such inhibition effect was suppressed by histamine; and both triprolidine (antagonist for H1 histamine receptor) and ranitidine (antagonist for H2 histamine receptor) were able to increase the inhibition rate of propofol in presence of histamine. Present study demonstrated that propofol-induced inhibition of inhibitory postsynaptic currents on noradrenalin-inhibited neurons were mediated by histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors.

  16. Potential aromatic compounds as markers to differentiate between Tuber melanosporum and Tuber indicum truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Venturini, María E; Marco, Pedro; Blanco, Domingo

    2013-11-01

    The Tuber indicum (Chinese truffle) and Tuber melanosporum (Black truffle) species are morphologically very similar but their aromas are very different. The black truffle aroma is much more intense and complex, and it is consequently appreciated more gastronomically. This work tries to determine whether the differences between the aromatic compounds of both species are sufficiently significant so as to apply them to fraud detection. An olfactometric evaluation (GC-O) of T. indicum was carried out for the first time. Eight important odorants were identified. In order of aromatic significance, these were: 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol, followed by two ethyl esters (ethyl isobutyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate), 3-methyl-1-butanol, isopropyl acetate, and finally the two sulfides dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) and dimethylsulfide (DMS). A comparison of this aromatic profile with that of T. melanosporum revealed the following differences: T. indicum stood out for the significant aromatic contribution of 1-octen-3-one and 1-octen-3-ol (with modified frequencies (MF%) of 82% and 69%, respectively), while in the case of T. melanosporum both had modified frequencies of less than 30%. Ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate and isopropyl acetate were also significantly higher, while DMS and DMDS had low MF (30-40%) compared to T. melanosporum (>70%). The volatile profiles of both species were also studied by means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS). This showed that the family of C8 compounds (3-octanone, octanal, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol and 1-octen-3-ol) is present in T. indicum at much higher levels. The presence of 1-octen-3-ol was higher by a factor of about 100, while 1-octen-3-one was detected in T. indicum only (there was no chromatographic signal in T. melanosporum). As well as showing the greatest chromatographic differences, these two compounds were also the most powerful from the aromatic viewpoint in the T. indicum olfactometry. Therefore

  17. The Sucrose Transporter StSUT1 Localizes to Sieve Elements in Potato Tuber Phloem and Influences Tuber Physiology and Development1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Christina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Roessner-Tunali, Ute; Czechowski, Tomasz; Hirner, Brigitte; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2003-01-01

    The sucrose (Suc) H+-cotransporter StSUT1 from potato (Solanum tuberosum), which is essential for long-distance transport of Suc and assumed to play a role in phloem loading in mature leaves, was found to be expressed in sink tubers. To answer the question of whether SUT1 serves a function in phloem unloading in tubers, the promoter was fused to gusA and expression was analyzed in transgenic potato. SUT1 expression was unexpectedly detected not in tuber parenchyma but in the phloem of sink tubers. Immunolocalization demonstrated that StSUT1 protein was present only in sieve elements of sink tubers, cells normally involved in export of Suc from the phloem to supply developing tubers, raising the question of the role of SUT1 in tubers. SUT1 expression was inhibited by antisense in transgenic potato plants using a class I patatin promoter B33, which is primarily expressed in the phloem of developing tubers. Reduced SUT1 expression in tubers did not affect aboveground organs but led to reduced fresh weight accumulation during early stages of tuber development, indicating that in this phase SUT1 plays an important role for sugar transport. Changes in Suc- and starch-modifying enzyme activities and metabolite profiles are consistent with the developmental switch in unloading mechanisms. Altogether, the findings may suggest a role of SUT1 in retrieval of Suc from the apoplasm, thereby regulating the osmotic potential in the extracellular space, or a direct role in phloem unloading acting as a phloem exporter transferring Suc from the sieve elements into the apoplasm. PMID:12529519

  18. Nutritional Composition, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Ophiopogon japonicus Tubers

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    Yancui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophiopogon japonicus tubers have been widely used as food and traditional Chinese medicine in China. However, their nutritional composition has not been fully reported yet. This study aimed to analyze the nutritional composition of O. japonicus tubers. The α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained from O. japonicus tubers were also evaluated by in vitro assays. The results indicated that O. japonicus tubers are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and amino acids. Among four extracts, the n-butanol fraction (nBF and chloroform/methanol extract (CME of O. japonicus tubers had high amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibition of nBF was higher than acarbose. Overall, O. japonicus tubers are full of nutritional compounds and have good α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  19. Both olfactory epithelial and vomeronasal inputs are essential for activation of the medial amygdala and preoptic neurons of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S; Masaoka, M; Rai, D; Kondo, Y; Sakuma, Y

    2011-12-29

    Chemosensory inputs signaling volatile and nonvolatile molecules play a pivotal role in sexual and social behavior in rodents. We have demonstrated that olfactory preference in male rats, that is, attraction to receptive female odors, is regulated by the medial amygdala (MeA), the cortical amygdala (CoA), and the preoptic area (POA). In this paper, we investigated the involvement of two chemosensory organs, the olfactory epithelium (OE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO), in olfactory preference and copulatory behavior in male rats. We found that olfactory preferences were impaired by zinc sulfate lesion of the OE but not surgical removal of the VNO. Copulatory behaviors, especially intromission frequency and ejaculation, were also suppressed by zinc sulfate treatment. Neuronal activation in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the MeA, the CoA, and the POA was analyzed after stimulation by airborne odors or soiled bedding of estrous females using cFos immunohistochemistry. Although the OE and VNO belong to different neural systems, the main and accessory olfactory systems, respectively, both OE lesion and VNO removal almost equally suppressed the number of cFos-immunoreactive cells in those areas that regulate olfactory preference. These results suggest that signals received by the OE and VNO interact and converge in the early stage of olfactory processing, in the AOB and its targets, although they have distinct roles in the regulation of social behaviors.

  20. Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus induces a diuretic and natriuretic response in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Gao; Lei Luo; Hong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of activation of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (ATI) receptors in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of rats on renal sodium excretion. Methods: After anesthesia, the rats were injected into the MnPO via an implanted cannula. Urine samples were collected via a bladder cannula, and the urine sodium concentration was assayed with flame spectrophotometry. The serum level of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex tissue were assayed respectively with a radioimmunoassay and with an ammonium molybdophosphate-based kit. Results: Both the urinary volume and the sodium excretion peaked 60 min after Angll was administered into the MnPO. The responses were accompanied by an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex. The responses of diuresis and natriuresis, as well as an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex induced by MnPO adminstration with AngII were inhibited by pior treatment with the AngII receptor blocking agent losartan into the MnPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of ATI receptors in the MnPO of rat induces diuretic and natriuretic responses. The responses are associated with an increase release of EDLF and with the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex tissue.

  1. Species recognition and cryptic species in the Tuber indicum complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available Morphological delimitation of Asian black truffles, including Tuber himalayense, T. indicum, T. sinense, T. pseudohimalayense, T. formosanum and T. pseudoexcavatum, has remained problematic and even phylogenetic analyses have been controversial. In this study, we combined five years of field investigation in China with morphological study and DNA sequences analyses (ITS, LSU and β-tubulin of 131 Tuber specimens to show that T. pseudohimalayense and T. pseudoexcavatum are the same species. T. formosanum is a separate species based on its host plants and geographic distribution, combined with minor morphological difference from T. indicum. T. sinense should be treated as a synonym of T. indicum. Our results demonstrate that the present T. indicum, a single described morphological species, should include at least two separate phylogenetic species. These findings are of high importance for truffle taxonomy and reveal and preserve the richness of truffle diversity.

  2. Gastrokinetic Activity of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Tuber in Rats

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    Yadu Nandan Dey

    2016-03-01

    Results: The pretreatment of extracts significantly increased the number of feces, wet and dry weight of feces, moisture content, gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Results were comparable to metoclopramide. Further APME and APAE showed contraction of fundus and ileum in isolated preparations. APME and APAE were also found to have fair amount of glucomannan, total phenolics and flavonoids. The results indicate the gastrokinetic potential of the tuber extracts. This may be attributed to presence of glucomannan and betulinic acid present in the extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, the tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius exhibits gastrokinetic activity and substantiates its traditional use in gastrointestinal motor disturbances. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 36-42

  3. Glycemic index of cereals and tubers produced in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Hong-Wei Wang; Hong-Mei Cui; Yan Wang; Lian-Da Yu; Shi-Xue Xiang; Shui-Ying Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food.METHODS: Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored for 2 h.Glucose was used as reference food. GI of food was calculated according to a standard method.RESULTS: GI of 9 types of sugar and 60 kinds of food were determined.CONCLUSION: Food GI is mainly determined by nature of carbohydrate and procession. Most of cereals and tubers produced in China have similar GI with their counterparts produced in other countries.

  4. Glioblastoma multiforme in a child with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Aglaia; Lesma, Elena; Alfano, Rosa Maria; Peron, Angela; Scornavacca, Giulia Federica; Massimino, Maura; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Ancona, Silvia; Cerati, Michele; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Gorio, Alfredo; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2015-10-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is characterized by the presence of benign tumors in the brain, kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. The typical brain lesions are cortical tubers, subependimal nodules and subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas. The occurrence of malignant astrocytomas such as glioblastoma is rare. We report on a child with a clinical diagnosis of TSC and a rapidly evolving glioblastoma multiforme. Genetic analysis identified a de novo mutation in TSC2. Molecular characterization of the tumor was performed and discussed, as well as a review of the literature where cases of TSC and glioblastoma multiforme are described. Although the co-occurrence of TSC and glioblastoma multiforme seems to be rare, this possible association should be kept in mind, and proper clinical and radiological follow up should be recommended in these patients.

  5. Tuberous sclerosis with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Krishna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis, a tropical infectious disease, is a major public health problem in India. Tuberous sclerosis, a congenital neuro-ectodermosis, is an uncommon disease which requires life long treatment. Case presentation A 15-year-old Indian patient, presented to the outpatient department of our institute with a high-grade fever for two months, splenomegaly and a history of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions since childhood. The clinical and laboratory findings suggested visceral leishmaniasis with tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with miltefosine and antiepileptics. Conclusion The patient responded well and in a follow up six months after presentation, she was found free of visceral leishmaniasis and seizures. Diagnosis and treatment of this rare combination of diseases is difficult.

  6. Epitheloid Variant of Angiomyolipoma in a Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis.

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    Vasu Reddy Challa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid angiomyolipoma of kidney is a type of Perivascular endothelial cell derived tumor with an aggressive behaviour with specific pathological, immunohistochemistrical and genetic characteristics. They can occur in a pure form or in assosciation with classical angiomyolipoma. It can be assosciated with tuberous sclerosis in 50% of cases. Our case is a possible case of tuberous sclerosis with epitheloid angiomyolipoma, hepatic angiomyolipoma and lymphangioleiomyomatosis with normal MRI brain and no cutaneous features. Radical nephrectomy with biopsy of hepatic lesion was performed. Histopathological examination revealed epitheloid variant with features of angiomyolipoma. It is six months post surgery and patient is doing well with no evidence of recurrence. Epitheloid angiomyolipoma is a rare malignancy with only 120 cases reported in literature.

  7. Nematicides induced changes in the chemical constituents of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, R S

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the chemical constitutents of potato tubers grown under different concentrations of 3 synthetic organic nematicides (carbofuran, aldicarb and phorate) and a natural plant product (sawdust) were investigated. There were no significant differences in the specific gravity, dry matter and starch content of tubers from different treatments. A significant increase in the content of non-reducing and total sugars was observed in all the treatments. Nematicidal treatments had significant effects on reducing sugars, true protein, free amino acids, orthodihydroxy phenols, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid. Application of nematicides reduced the content of total phenolic compounds which is a desirable change from a processing viewpoint. Potatoes grown under different nematicidal treatments can be processed into chips and French fries as they contain permissible levels of reducing sugars required for these forms of processing.

  8. The effects of auxin and strigolactones on tuber initiation and stolon architecture in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kloosterman, Bjorn; Oortwijn, Marian; Kohlen, Wouter; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2012-07-01

    Various transcriptional networks and plant hormones have been implicated in controlling different aspects of potato tuber formation. Due to its broad impact on many plant developmental processes, a role for auxin in tuber initiation has been suggested but never fully resolved. Here, auxin concentrations were measured throughout the plant prior to and during the process of tuber formation. Auxin levels increase dramatically in the stolon prior to tuberization and remain relatively high during subsequent tuber growth, suggesting a promoting role for auxin in tuber formation. Furthermore, in vitro tuberization experiments showed higher levels of tuber formation from axillary buds of explants where the auxin source (stolon tip) had been removed. This phenotype could be rescued by application of auxin on the ablated stolon tips. In addition, a synthetic strigolactone analogue applied on the basal part of the stolon resulted in fewer tubers. The experiments indicate that a system for the production and directional transport of auxin exists in stolons and acts synergistically with strigolactones to control the outgrowth of the axillary stolon buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching.

  9. Short Communication: Effect of mulching materials on mini tuber production of potato from in vitro plantlets

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    D.A.N. MAJUMDER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Majumder DAN, Nath SC, Kabir MA, Majumder S. 2016. Effect of mulching materials on mini tuber production of potato from in vitro plantlets. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 123-127. This paper describes the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato mini tuber production in Bangladesh. The field experiment was carried out during the Rabi season of 2013-2014 to 2014-2015 with virus free in vitro cultured plantlets of var. Diamant. The mulching materials of water hyacinth mulch (WHM, rice straw mulch (RSM and black polythene mulch (BPM were compared to no-mulching (control to find out suitable mulching material (s for obtaining higher tuber yield. During the whole production period morphological characters, yield characters as well as of soil temperature and soil moisture were assessed. The results showed that WHM (5.28 t/ac and RSM (4.59 t/ac had a positive effect on increased the proportion of tuber size above 28 mm and on increasing of tuber yields by 54.0% to 77.2% compared with control (2.98 t/ac. Higher soil temperatures were recorded with plastic mulch caused lower potato tuber yield (3.04 t/ac while WHM and RSM decreased soil temperatures and increased the moisture percentage. The mulching of mini tubers had negative effect on tubers quality in regards of scab, green tuber and weed biomass.

  10. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette K; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour, green nut flavour, sweetness and colour intensity, whereas the appropriateness of boiled tubers was related to celeriac aroma, sweet aroma, sweetness and colour intensity. In both preparations the variety Dwarf stood out from the others by being the least appropriate tuber. A few sensory attributes can be used as predictors of the appropriateness of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for raw and boiled consumption. Knowledge on the quality of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to inform consumers on the right choice of raw material and thereby increase the consumption of the vegetable. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Coarctation of the aorta and renal artery stenosis in tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, P.M.; Robinson, M.B.; Stapleton, F.B.; Roy, S. III; Koh, G.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Among neurocutaneous disorders, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and renal artery stenosis have traditionally been associated with neurofibromatosis. We report a 5-year-old girl who was discovered to have bilateral renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta, renal cysts and typical skin lesions of tuberous clerosis during the evaluation of asymptomatic hypertension. Renal vascular hypertension has not been reported previously in tuberous sclerosis. We conclude that the tuberous sclerosis complex should be expanded to include vascular malformations and the hypertension should not be assumed to be secondary to renal hamartomata or cysts in patients with tuberous sclerosis.

  12. The natural history of epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Catherine Jean; Major, Philippe; Camposano, Susana; Muzykewicz, David; Thiele, Elizabeth Anne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although epilepsy affects most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), little is known about the natural history of epilepsy in this genetic disease. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients with TSC seen between January 2002 and October 2008. Charts were reviewed for a history of infantile spasms (IS), seizure other than IS, refractory epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), anticonvulsant medication use, ages of seizure onset, last seizure, last clinic ...

  13. Do we have a cure for tuberous sclerosis complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Peter B

    2008-01-01

    The recent development of several mouse models for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) provides in vivo systems to test new therapies for the neurological manifestations of TSC. Rapamycin is known to antagonize the effects of loss of TSC protein function in vitro and in mouse TSC models, rapamycin can prevent seizures and improve learning task performance. These findings provide new hope for TSC patients suffering from intractable seizures and possibly, for those with autism and cognitive disabilities.

  14. Tuberous sclerosis complex: Diagnostic role of magnetic resonance imaging

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    Virendra N Sehgal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a well-known clinical entity, characterized by facial angio-fibroma, shagreen patch, and hypo-melanotic, and confetti-like skin lesions. An exquisite fresh case is being narrated, emphasizing its microscopic pathology. The role of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, in particular, is highlighted to define the large variety of neurological abrasions for determining its future progression.

  15. Tuberous sclerosis complex: genetic basis and management strategies

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    Tsai V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Tsai, Peter B CrinoPENN Epilepsy Center, PENN Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, Department of Neurology and Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC is a multisystem hamartoma syndrome with manifestations in the brain, heart, lungs, kidney, skin, and eyes. Neurologically, TSC patients may exhibit severe epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Many TSC patients also present with renal angiomyolipomas, polycystic kidney disease, skin lesions, and lymphangiomyomatosis. TSC1 and TSC2 proteins form a heterodimeric complex that serves to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway through Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb. TSC1 and TSC2 receive activating or inhibitory signals from multiple inputs including growth factors, insulin signaling, energy and amino acid levels, and proinflammatory pathways, which are then integrated to regulate the activity of the mTOR pathway. mTOR signaling plays a critical role in regulating cell growth, transcription, translation, and autophagy. Animal models have shed light on certain features of TSC, but failed to recapitulate the disease completely and currently further research is under way to better understand this devastating disorder. Clinical trials with mTOR inhibitors have shown promising results for some features of TSC, but further research needs to be conducted to establish full indications for therapeutic treatment.Keywords: tuberous sclerosis complex, TSC, TSC1, TSC2

  16. Topical sirolimus for the treatment of angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis

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    Salih Levent Cinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The skin is one of the most affected organs in tuberous sclerosis complex and angiofibromas are seen in almost 80% of such patients. These benign tumors impose a great psycho-social burden on patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of topical sirolimus for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Methods: This was a prospective, single-blinded, cross-over study which involved twelve patients. We investigated the effect and safety of topical 0.1% sirolimus, which was obtained by crushing sirolimus tablets and mixing it with petrolatum. The patients were asked to apply the cream to one side of their face, and vaseline to the other side. The effect of topical sirolimus was evaluated using the “facial angiofibroma severity index.” Results: There was a significant improvement in the redness and extension of the tumors on the sides to which the active ingredient was applied. Some side effects such as itching and irritation occurred in three patients, which were treated with topical hydrocortisone cream. Conclusion: Topical sirolimus appears to be a promising, fairly well tolerated treatment for facial angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although its efficacy diminishes with time, repetitive usage is effective.

  17. Phenolic profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of black (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beara, Ivana N; Lesjak, Marija M; Cetojević-Simin, Dragana D; Marjanović, Zaklina S; Ristić, Jelena D; Mrkonjić, Zorica O; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was a comprehensive investigation on phenolic profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of the still insufficiently explored black summer truffles (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) and white (Tuber magnatum Pico) truffles. Methanol and water extracts, obtained by maceration and Soxhlet extraction, were examined. Forty-five phenolics was studied using LC-MS/MS: presence of 14 compounds was confirmed, with the most dominant being p-hydroxybenzoic acid, baicalein and kaempferol (T. aestivum), epicatechin and catechin (T. magnatum). Moderate antioxidant activity of both species was determined through several assays. Only T. magnatum showed anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting COX-1 and 12-LOX pathway products synthesis. Methanol extracts exerted cytotoxicity against some tumour cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29), besides the prominent activity of water extracts towards breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7). To conclude, these results support further investigations of phytochemicals and biological activity towards verification of nutraceutical use of both species.

  18. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  19. Combining ability of highland tropic adapted potato for tuber yield and yield components under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirut, Betaw; Shimelis, Hussein; Fentahun, Mengistu; Bonierbale, Merideth; Gastelo, Manuel; Asfaw, Asrat

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent drought and late blight disease are the major factors limiting potato productivity in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. Incorporating drought tolerance and late blight resistance in the same genotypes will enable the development of cultivars with high and stable yield potential under erratic rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to assess combining ability effects and gene action for tuber yield and traits related to drought tolerance in the International Potato Centre's (CIP's) advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population B group 'B3C2' and to identify promising parents and families for cultivar development. Sixteen advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population were crossed in two sets using the North Carolina Design II. The resulting 32 families were evaluated together with five checks and 12 parental clones in a 7 x 7 lattice design with two water regimes and two replications. The experiment was carried out at Adet, in northwest Ethiopia under well-watered and water stressed conditions with terminal drought imposed from the tuber bulking stage. The results showed highly significant differences between families, checks, and parents for growth, physiological, and tuber yield related traits. Traits including marketable tuber yield, marketable tuber number, average tuber weight and groundcover were positively correlated with total tuber yield under both drought stressed and well-watered conditions. Plant height was correlated with yield only under drought stressed condition. GCA was more important than SCA for total tuber yield, marketable tuber yield, average tuber weight, plant height, groundcover, and chlorophyll content under stress. This study identified the parents with best GCA and the combinations with best SCA effects, for both tuber yield and drought tolerance related traits. The new population is shown to be a valuable genetic resource for variety selection and improvement of potato

  20. Release of norepinephrine in the preoptic area activates anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons and stimulates the surge of luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawka, Raphael E; Poletini, Maristela O; Leite, Cristiane M; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Kalil, Bruna; Mendonça, Leonardo B D; Carolino, Ruither O G; Helena, Cleyde V V; Bertram, Richard; Franci, Celso R; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2013-01-01

    The role of norepinephrine (NE) in regulation of LH is still controversial. We investigated the role played by NE in the positive feedback of estradiol and progesterone. Ovarian-steroid control over NE release in the preoptic area (POA) was determined using microdialysis. Compared with ovariectomized (OVX) rats, estradiol-treated OVX (OVX+E) rats displayed lower release of NE in the morning but increased release coincident with the afternoon surge of LH. OVX rats treated with estradiol and progesterone (OVX+EP) exhibited markedly greater NE release than OVX+E rats, and amplification of the LH surge. The effect of NE on LH secretion was confirmed using reverse microdialysis. The LH surge and c-Fos expression in anteroventral periventricular nucleus neurons were significantly increased in OVX+E rats dialyzed with 100 nm NE in the POA. After Fluoro-Gold injection in the POA, c-Fos expression in Fluoro-Gold/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons increased during the afternoon in the A2 of both OVX+E and OVX+EP rats, in the locus coeruleus (LC) of OVX+EP rats, but was unchanged in the A1. The selective lesion of LC terminals, by intracerebroventricular N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, reduced the surge of LH in OVX+EP but not in OVX+E rats. Thus, estradiol and progesterone activate A2 and LC neurons, respectively, and this is associated with the increased release of NE in the POA and the magnitude of the LH surge. NE stimulates LH secretion, at least in part, through activation of anteroventral periventricular neurons. These findings contribute to elucidation of the role played by NE during the positive feedback of ovarian steroids.

  1. The medial preoptic nucleus as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of melanotan II in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Roffarello, Boris; Labbe, Sebastien M; Lenglos, Christophe; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Samson, Pierre; Richard, Denis

    2014-07-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic effects of the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog melanotan II (MTII). We also assessed the involvement of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) by investigating the effects of the MPO infusion of MTII in rats with DMH lesions produced by kainic acid. Infusion of MTII in the MPO led to increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) temperature and iBAT uptake of 14C-bromopalmitate. Both increases were blocked by DMH lesions. iBAT temperature increase (area under curve) and 14C-bromopalmitate uptake emerged as two correlated variables (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). DMH lesions also blocked MTII-induced expression of mRNAs coding for proteins involved in 1) thermogenesis [type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Pgc1α)], 2) lipolysis [hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl)], and 3) lipogenesis [diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2), fatty acid synthase (Fas)], in iBAT of rats killed 1 h after MPO infusion of MTII. MTII also stimulated expression of genes in iWAT but only in rats with DMH lesions. These genes included glucose transporter member 4 (Glut4), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (Gpat3), Dgat1, Dgat2, triglyceride lipase (Atgl), Hsl, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β (Cpt1β). Altogether, the present results reveal the MPO as a site of the thermogenic and metabolic actions of MTII. They also contribute to establish the MPO-DMH duet as a significant target for melanocortins to modulate energy homeostasis.

  2. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in rat medial preoptic area neurones during the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, A E; Augood, S J; McGowan, E M

    1992-08-01

    Evidence suggests that medial preoptic area (MPOA) neurones containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are modulated directly by oestrogen. We have used an alkaline phosphatase-labelled antisense oligonucleotide probe to examine glutamic acid decarboxylase67 (GAD) mRNA expression within individual cells of the MPOA, diagonal band of Broca (DBB) and parietal cortex in rats killed at noon on each day of the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy (n = 4-5). As a fall in extracellular GABA concentrations occurs in the MPOA on the afternoon of proestrus, the GAD67 mRNA content of cells was also examined in proestrous rats at 15:00h immediately prior to the preovulatory luteinising hormone (LH) surge. The MPOA was found to have an intermediate number of GAD67 mRNA-containing cells compared with the DBB and cortex (P less than 0.01) but expressed the lowest mean hybridisation signal (P less than 0.01). The parietal cortex had significantly fewer (P less than 0.01) GAD mRNA-containing cells than either the MPOA or DBB but these contained higher mean density of signal (P less than 0.01). The hybridisation signal for GAD mRNA was abolished by either ribonuclease pre-treatment or the use of excess non-labelled probe. No significant (P greater than 0.05) differences in GAD67 mRNA were detected in animals killed at noon throughout the oestrous cycle or after ovariectomy. On the afternoon of proestrus (15:00h) there was a significant 40% reduction in mean GAD67 mRNA content within cells of only the MPOA compared with noon (P less than 0.05). The numbers of cells in the MPOA expressing GAD67 mRNA were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Serotonin promotes feminization of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area, but not the calbindin cell group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Amanda M K; Paul, Alexandria T; Pritchard, Rory A; Michel, Rebecca; Zup, Susan L

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone and its metabolites masculinize the brain during a critical perinatal window, including the relative volume of sexually dimorphic brain areas such as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN), which is larger in males than females. Serotonin (5HT) may mediate this hormone action, since 5HT given during the second week of life decreases (i.e., feminizes) SDN volume in males and testosterone-treated females. Although previous work indicates that the 5HT2A/2C receptor is sufficient to induce feminization, it is unclear whether other serotonin receptors are required and which subpopulation(s) of SDN cells are specifically organized by 5HT. Therefore, we injected male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups with saline, a nonselective 5HTR agonist, a 5HT2A/2C agonist, or a 5HT2A/2C antagonist over several timecourses in early life, and measured the Nissl-SDN as well as a calbindin+ subdivision of the SDN, the CALB-SDN. When examined on postnatal day 18 or early adulthood, the size of the Nissl-SDN was feminized in males treated with any of the serotonergic drugs, eliminating the typical sex difference. In contrast, the sex difference in CALB-SDN size was maintained regardless of serotoninergic drug treatment. This pattern suggests that although gonadal hormones shape the whole SDN, individual cellular phenotypes respond to different intermediary signals to become sexually dimorphic. Specifically, 5HT mediates sexual differentiation of non-calbindin population(s) within the SDN. The results also caution against using measurement of the CALB-SDN in isolation, as the absence of an effect on the CALB-SDN does not preclude an effect on the overall nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1241-1253, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comp...

  5. A potato tuber-expressed mNRA with homology to steroid dehydrogenases affects gibberellin levels and plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachem, C.W.B.; Horvath, B.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Davelaar, E.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP RNA fingerprinting throughout potato tuber development, we have isolated a transcript-derived fragment (TDF511) with strong homology to plant steroid dehydrogenases. During in vitro tuberization, the abundance profile of the TDF shows close correlation to the process of tuber formati

  6. A potato tuber-expressed mNRA with homology to steroid dehydrogenases affects gibberellin levels and plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachem, C.W.B.; Horvath, B.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Davelaar, E.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP RNA fingerprinting throughout potato tuber development, we have isolated a transcript-derived fragment (TDF511) with strong homology to plant steroid dehydrogenases. During in vitro tuberization, the abundance profile of the TDF shows close correlation to the process of tuber

  7. Caloric restriction reduces cell loss and maintains estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of female B6D2F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, Farzin; Saeed, Omar; Garan, Steven A; Freitag, Warren; Timiras, Paola S; Sternberg, Hal

    2005-06-01

    Life-long calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reliable means of extending life span in mammals. Among the several theories to explain CR actions, one variant of the neuroendocrine theories of aging postulates that changing hypothalamic sensitivity to endocrine feedback is the clock that times phenotypic change over the life span. If the feedback sensitivity hypothesis is correct, CR animals should display a significantly different pattern of hormone-sensitive cell density and distribution in the hypothalamus. Of the many endocrine signal receptors that may be involved in maintaining hypothalamic feedback sensitivity, our study has selected to begin mapping those for estrogen (E). Altered hypothalamic sensitivity to E is known to schedule reproductive maturation and influence reproductive senescence. Taking estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to E, we counted ERalpha immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the pre-optic hypothalamus of young (6 weeks), ad-libitum (Old-AL) fed old (22 months), and calorie restricted (Old-CR) old (22 months) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each sampled section of pre-optic hypothalamus. Results show a 38% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and an 18% reduction in total cell numbers in AL-old mice in comparison to young mice. However, CR mice only show a 19% reduction in ERalpha immunoreactive cells and a 13% reduction in total cell numbers in comparison to young mice. This indicates CR prevents age-related cell loss and maintains estrogen sensitivity in the pre-optic hypothalamus of old female B6D2F1 mice.

  8. Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andrew S P; Ellison, Brian A; Wang, Joshua L; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A; Saper, Clifford B

    2014-10-01

    Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons is accompanied by sleep fragmentation in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Suckling induces a daily rhythm in the preoptic area and lateral septum but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in lactating rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Enrique; Aguirre, Juan; Waliszewski, Stefan; Caba, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behavior in the rabbit is restricted to a brief nursing period every day. Previously, we demonstrated that this event induces daily rhythms of Period1 (PER1) protein, the product of the clock gene Per1, in oxytocinergic and dopaminergic populations in the hypothalamus of lactating rabbit does. This is significant for the periodic production and ejection of milk, but the activation of other areas of the brain has not been explored. Here, we hypothesised that daily suckling would induce a rhythm in the preoptic area, lateral septum, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which are important areas for the expression of maternal behavior in mammals, including the rabbit. To this end, we analysed PER1 expression in those areas through a complete 24-h cycle at lactation day 7. Does were scheduled to nurse during either the day at 10:00 h [zeitgeber time (ZT)03] or the night at 02:00 h (ZT19). Non-pregnant, non-lactating females were used as controls. In contrast to control females, lactating does showed a clear, significant rhythm of PER1 that shifted in parallel with the timing of nursing in the preoptic area and lateral septum. We determined that the maximal expression of PER1 at 8 h after scheduled nursing decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after the absence of suckling. This effect was more pronounced in the lateral septum than in the preoptic area. We conclude that daily suckling is a powerful stimulus inducing rhythmic activity in brain structures in the rabbit that appear to form part of a maternal entrainable circuit. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on central nervous system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system activity of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber was examined in mice, fed normal as well as healthy conditions. The petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg showed significant central nervous system activity in mice.

  11. Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

    2007-08-01

    To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation.

  12. Advances and Future Directions for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research: Recommendations From the 2015 Strategic Planning Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Henske, Elizabeth P; Manning, Brendan D; Ess, Kevin C; Bissler, John J; Klann, Eric; Kwiatkowski, David J; Roberds, Steven L; Silva, Alcino J; Hillaire-Clarke, Coryse St; Young, Lisa R; Zervas, Mark; Mamounas, Laura A

    2016-07-01

    On March 10 to March 12, 2015, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, to assess progress and new opportunities for research in tuberous sclerosis complex with the goal of updating the 2003 Research Plan for Tuberous Sclerosis (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/about_ninds/plans/tscler_research_plan.htm). In addition to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance, participants in the strategic planning effort and workshop included representatives from six other Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program, and a broad cross-section of basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex along with representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. Here we summarize the outcomes from the extensive premeeting deliberations and final workshop recommendations, including (1) progress in the field since publication of the initial 2003 research plan for tuberous sclerosis complex, (2) the key gaps, needs, and challenges that hinder progress in tuberous sclerosis complex research, and (3) a new set of research priorities along with specific recommendations for addressing the major challenges in each priority area. The new research plan is organized around both short-term and long-term goals with the expectation that progress toward specific objectives can be achieved within a five to ten year time frame.

  13. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy.

  14. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging markers of neurological outcome in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic, multisystem disorder, characterized by hamartoma formation in various organs, including the brain, where they are referred to as tubers. The neurologic presentation may include epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (AS

  15. Regulatory control of high levels of carotenoid accumulation in potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.; McQuinn, R.; Fei, Z.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Eck, van J.; Brown, C.; Giovannoni, J.J.; Li, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers contain a wide range of carotenoid contents. To decipher the key factors controlling carotenoid levels in tubers, four potato lines (Atlantic, Désirée, 91E22 and POR03) were examined by a combination of biochemical, molecular and genomics approaches. These lines

  16. Monitoring and predicting shrink potential and future processing quality of potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term storage of potato tubers increases risks, which are often attributed to shrink and quality loss. To minimize shrink and ensure high quality tubers, producers must closely monitor the condition of the crop during storage and make necessary adjustments to management plans. Evaluation procedu...

  17. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  18. CHARACTERISTIC OF EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES AND WAYS OF STORING OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovoy V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing technologies and methods of storage of tubers of topinambur. We have analyzed the traditional methods of storage of tubers of topinambur - in containers, boxes or bags in storage or in the ground clamps. Russian and foreign topinambur tubers storage technologies in modified atmosphere, with use of easily removable wax coating, with plant extracts treatment, at different storage temperatures are studied. We have also carried out analysis of scientific and patent sources led to the conclusion that existing technologies and methods of storing topinambur tubers, which do not allow reducing to the maximum extent the weight loss and the inulin hydrolysis during storage. A reasonable conclusion was made about the advisability of further studies in the field of innovative technologies and methods of preparation for storage and storage of topinambur tubers, ensuring minimal weight loss, as well as maximum preservation in their structure of inulin, vitamin C and other biologically active substances during storage

  19. Covalent structures of potato tuber lipases (patatins) and implications for vacuolar import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Jørgensen, Malene

    Proteome data of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber juice and of purified potato tuber vacuoles indicated that mature patatins may perhaps lack a C-terminal (ct) propeptide. We have confirmed this by complete mass spectrometric sequencing of a number of patatin variants as well as their N-linked co......Proteome data of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber juice and of purified potato tuber vacuoles indicated that mature patatins may perhaps lack a C-terminal (ct) propeptide. We have confirmed this by complete mass spectrometric sequencing of a number of patatin variants as well as their N......-linked complex-type glycans from the starch-rich cultivar Kuras. For this cultivar full length patatin cDNAs have also been sequenced, as the patatin locus is highly polymorphous. It is well-known that patatins are located in the vacuoles of potato tubers. Furthermore, the complex glycan structures show...

  20. Potential for treatment of severe autism in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Tanjala T; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Wilson, Mary Ann; Blue, Mary E; Johnston, Michael V

    2013-08-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two mechanism-based treatments for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-everolimus and vigabatrin. However, these treatments have not been systematically studied in individuals with TSC and severe autism. The aim of this review is to identify the clinical features of severe autism in TSC, applicable preclinical models, and potential barriers that may warrant strategic planning in the design phase of clinical trial development. A comprehensive search strategy was formed and searched across PubMed, Embase and SCOPUS from their inception to 2/21/12, 3/16/12, and 3/12/12 respectively. After the final search date, relevant, updated articles were selected from PubMed abstracts generated electronically and emailed daily from PubMed. The references of selected articles were searched, and relevant articles were selected. A search of clinicaltrials.gov was completed using the search term "TSC" and "tuberous sclerosis complex". Autism has been reported in as many as 60% of individuals with TSC; however, review of the literature revealed few data to support clear classification of the severity of autism in TSC. Variability was identified in the diagnostic approach, assessment of cognition, and functional outcome among the reviewed studies and case reports. Objective outcome measures were not used in many early studies; however, diffusion tensor imaging of white matter, neurophysiologic variability in infantile spasms, and cortical tuber subcategories were examined in recent studies and may be useful for objective classification of TSC in future studies. Mechanism-based treatments for TSC are currently available. However, this literature review revealed two potential barriers to successful design and implementation of clinical trials in individuals with severe autism-an unclear definition of the population and lack of validated outcome measures. Recent studies of objective outcome measures in TSC and further study of applicable

  1. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Typhonium Flagelliforme (Lodd. Blume Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Multiple drug resistance in human pathogenic micro organisms has developed due to indiscriminate use of modern antimicrobial drugs generally used in the management of infectious diseases. This increases the importance of exploiting the natural sources instead modern drugs. Approach: The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of different extracts from of Typhonium flagelliforme (L. Blume tuber (family: Araceae commonly called ‘Rodent Tuber’ was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. The antibacterial screening was carried out by disc diffusion method. Two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and total phenolic compounds, were used for the antioxidant analysis. Results: Except hexane extract none of the other exacts shown anti bacterial activity against the selected strains. The hexane extract from Typhonium flagelliforme tuber had interesting activity against both the gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11±1.0 mm diameter and Salmonella choleraesuis (12±1.1 mm diameter. The positive control, Streptomycin had shown zone of inhibition of 20±1.5 mm, 20±1.3 mm, 23±1.5 mm and 23±1.0 mm in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Bacillus subtilis respectively. All the extracts were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity. The DPPH assay showed that the inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate (77.6±0.9 % and dichloromethane (70.5±1.7 % extracts were having comparatively admirable inhibition capacity when compared to the positive control BHT (95.3±1.3 %. Total phenolic content of all extracts was also evaluated, and dichloromethane extracts (5.21±0.82 GAE mg/g extract was superior to all other extracts, followed by hexane and ethyl acetate. Conclusion: Considering all the results collectively T. flagelliforme appears to

  2. Scalp fibroma: a rare cutaneous manifestation of tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhawna; Prakash, Swayam; Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki; Panagariya, Ashok

    2014-04-19

    We report a case of a 23-year-old woman with a history of generalised tonic-clonic seizures, reddish brown maculopapular swelling over the face and an enlarging swelling over the scalp. Physical examinations revealed angiofibroma of the face and other typical cutaneous lesions of tuberous sclerosis, for example, shagreen patch and periungual fibroma. Scalp swelling was labelled as fibroma by dermatologists, which was further supported by the histopathological findings. Fibroma of the face is one of the commonest lesions, however, fibroma of the scalp is a rarely described entity.

  3. Cross-sectional Imaging Review of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anant; Kaza, Ravi K; Vummidi, Dharshan R

    2016-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem, genetic disorder characterized by development of hamartomas in the brain, abdomen, and thorax. It results from a mutation in one of 2 tumor suppressor genes that activates the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. This article discusses the origins of the disorder, the recently updated criteria for the diagnosis of TSC, and the cross-sectional imaging findings and recommendations for surveillance. Familiarity with the diverse radiological features facilitates diagnosis and helps in treatment planning and monitoring response to treatment of this multisystem disorder.

  4. Tuberous sclerosis complex in a child: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multisystem, autosomal dominant disorder affecting children and adults, resulted from mutations in one of two genes, TSC1 (encoding hamartin or TSC2 (encoding tuberin genes located on chromosomes 9 and 16 respectively.1,2 Synonyms of TSC are Bourneville Pringle syndrome, epiloia, or tuberosclerosis. This disorder is characterized by seizures, mental disability, and small noncancerous tumors on the skin and other body tissues, such as brain, eye, lung, and kidney. The classic triad are seizures, mental retardation, and cutaneous angiofibromas.3

  5. Ecological characteristics of a Hungarian summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. producing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorbai A. Gógán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has outstanding environment for natural truffle production in some regions including plain and hilly areas. The most famous of all the natural summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. habitats is the commonly called Jászság region. This area is situated in the middle of Hungary, between river Danube and Tisza. The flatland area is basically covered by river alluviums with main soils of chernozems, fluvisols, solonchaks and arenosols. Climate of the region is typically continental: warm and dry summers and cold winters vary. The area is traditionally of agricultural use, although strong afforestation was made in the late 1950’s. The English oak (Quercus robur L. populations planted at that time gave a basis for current excellent truffle production. Nowadays the region has proved to be the best natural summer truffle (T. aestivum producing area of Hungary with early season opening (June and high quality truffles as early as August. In the research the best truffle producing forest blocks were selected for ecological investigation. Results of the detailed site description showed uniform climate characteristics and dominance of English oak (Q. robur or mixed English oak-Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. forests. Soil types revealed differences from earlier findings: dominance of gleysols and water affected chernozems was declared. Soil chemical parameters are in accordance with literature data: pH, organic matter and active carbonate content of the examined soils fall within the range indicated as the requirement of T. aestivum.

  6. Soil nutrient loss due to tuber crop harvesting and its environmental impact in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Han-qing; LI Yong; ZHOU Na; Adrian Chappell; LI Xiao-yu; Jean Poesen

    2016-01-01

    Soil loss due to crop harvesting (SLCH) is a soil erosion process that signiifcantly contributes to soil degradation in crop-lands. However, little is known about soil nutrient losses caused by SLCH and its environmental impacts. In the North China Plain area, we measured the losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen as wel as phosphorus due to SLCH and assessed their relationship with soil particle size composition, agronomic practices and soil moisture content. Our results show that the losses by harvesting potato of SOC, total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and total phosphorus (TP) were 1.7, 1.8, 1.8, 15.9 and 14.1 times compared by harvesting sweet potato, respectively. The variation of SOC, N and P loss by SLCH are mainly explained by the variation of plant density (PD) (17–50%), net mass of an individual tuber (Mcrop/p) (16–74%), soil clay content (34–70%) and water content (19–46%). Taking into account the current sewage treatment system and the ratio of the nutrients adhering to the tubers during transportation from the ifeld (NTRP/SP), the loss of TN and TP by harvesting of potato and sweet potato in the North China Plain area amounts to 3% N and 20% P loads in the water bodies of this region. The fate of the exported N and P in the sewage treatment system ultimately controls the contribution of N and P to the polution of lakes and rivers. Our results suggest that a large amount of SLCH-induced soil nutrient export during transportation from the ifeld is a potential polutant source for agricultural water for vast planting areas of tuber crops in China, and should not be overlooked.

  7. Chemical variations observed in irradiated, treated with IPC and control potato tubers; Variaciones quimica observadas en tuberculos de patata irradiados, tratados con IPC y testigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-07-01

    The content in soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and phenolic acids of potato tubers preserved by irradiation and IPC, during storage period of five months are studied. In the irradiated tubers, soluble sugars increased immediately after the irradiation, in relation to the control tubers reaching inferior values to those reached by the control tubers, at the end of the storage period. The content in ascorbic acid is generally kept higher in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers than in the control tubers and the content in phenolic acids increased in the irradiated and IPC treated tubers by immediate effect of this treatment. (Author) 39 refs.

  8. Effects of Prolactin and Lactation on A15 Dopamine Neurones in the Rostral Preoptic Area of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R S E; Herbison, A E; Grattan, D R

    2015-09-01

    There are several distinct populations of dopamine neurones in the hypothalamus. Some of these, such as the A12 tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones and the A14 periventricular dopamine neurones, are known to be regulated by the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, whereas others, such as the A13 zona incerta dopaminergic neurones, are not. The present study aimed to investigate the role of prolactin in the regulation of a fourth population of hypothalamic dopamine neurones: the A15 dopamine population in the rostral hypothalamus. These neurones may play a role in the regulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and we hypothesised that they might contribute to the suppression of GnRH release and infertility caused by hyperprolactinaemia. Under basal (low prolactin) conditions, only 8% of A15 dopamine neurones in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of vehicle-treated dioestrous mice expressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), as labelled by immunohistochemistry. We have previously shown that this transcription factor can be used as an index of prolactin-receptor activation. Following acute prolactin administration, 35% of AVPV dopamine neurones co-expressed pSTAT5, whereas, during lactation, when endogenous prolactin levels are chronically elevated, 55% of AVPV dopamine neurones expressed pSTAT5. There was also a significant increase in dopamine turnover in the rostral hypothalamus, both in the diagonal band of Broca at the level of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the rostral preoptic area during lactation, with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increasing from 0.28 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.01 in dioestrous mice to 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.38 ± 0.03, respectively, in day 7 lactating mice. It is not yet known whether this change is driven by the hyperprolactinaemia of lactation, or another lactation-specific signal. These data demonstrate that the A15

  9. Acid Phosphatase Activity May Affect the Tuber Swelling by Partially Regulating Sucrose-mediated Sugar Resorption in Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Yong Lian; De-Wei Zhu

    2008-01-01

    APase activity is involved in regulating many physiological and developmental events by affecting the resorption process.In this study, we investigate the role of APase activity in tuber development in potato. APase activities were mainly localized in cytoplasm, gaps among cells and stroma of amyloplasts of parenchyma cells at the stage of tuber swelling. AP1, encoding a putative APase, was also highly expressed in swelling tubers and a low level of expression was observed in elongated stolons and matured tubers. Inhibition of APase activity by applying Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of APase production and secretion, significantly suppressed the tuber swelling and moderately affected the stolon elongation and the tuberization frequency. During tuber development, sucrose serves as the main soluble sugar for long-distance transportation and resorption. Moreover, Inhibition of APase activity by Brefeldin A markedly reduced the sucrose content in tubers and further decreased the starch accumulation, suggesting that the function of APase in regulating the tuber swelling might be at least artially mediated by the sugar resorption. Exogenous sucrose treatments further indicate the important role of sucrose-mediated sugar resorption in tuber swelling. These results suggest that the APase activity might affect the tuber swelling by partially regulating the sucrose-mediated sugar resorption.

  10. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  11. A dual role of EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling on migrating striatal and cortical neurons originating in the preoptic area: should I stay or go away ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eRudolph

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development the preoptic area (POA gives rise to two populations of neurons which are generated at the same time, cortical interneurons and striatal cells. POA-derived cortical interneurons take a superficial path and avoid the developing striatum when they migrate to their target region. We found that EphB1, which is expressed in the striatal anlage, prevents cortical interneurons from entering the striatum via ephrin-B3 reverse signaling. In contrast, for striatal neurons which also express ephrin-B3, EphB1 acts as a stop signal. This dual role of EphB1 is due to differences in ephrin-B3 reverse signaling cascades. For striatal neurons, binding of EphB1 to ephrin-B3 reduces endogenously high levels of pSrc and pFAK, which then causes the cells to stop migration. In contrast, in cortical interneurons EphB1-ephrin-B3 reverse signaling leads to phosphorylation of Src and FAK which then mediates repulsion. Consistent with these in vitro findings, in an ephrin-B3 knockout mouse line, we discovered misrouted cortical interneurons in the striatum and an over-migration of striatal neurons in their target region. Thus, EphB1/ephrin-B3 reverse signaling has a different impact on two sets of neurons which are generated at the same time and place: it can act as a repulsive cue for migrating neurons or it can terminate neuronal migration, a novel role of the Eph/ephrin system.

  12. A climatic potentiality model for black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) in Teruel (Spain); Un modelo de potencialidad climatica para la trufa negra (Tuber melanosporum) en Teruel (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Ponce, R.; Agueda, B.; Agreda, T.; Modrego, M. P.; Aldea, J.; Martinez-Pena

    2010-07-01

    Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is an edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom whose cultivation is an economicallyviable alternative in rural areas affected by depopulation. In the province of Teruel (Spain), truffle plantations occupy nowadays more than 4,500 ha, but no land use planning guidelines have been available. Species distribution models are tools that allow managers, farmers and foresters to plan ahead and make decisions with a scientific basis. The territory climatically suitable for T. melanosporum in Teruel has been predicted using a method based on the ecology field theory, previously tested in the development of distribution models for forest species. A dataset of 924 locations where black truffle has been collected in the Catalano-Aragonesa ecoregion and eight climatic parameters deeply influencing the presence and fructification of the black truffle have been considered and their corresponding habitats have been built. The distribution model, corrected under lithological criteria, has identified more than 8,000 km2 as suitable for black truffle fructification in Teruel, almost 55% of the province, belonging 3,000 of them to the optimal class. This land is mainly distributed over the regions of Gudar-Javalambre, Comunidad de Teruel and Maestrazgo. A further correction based on land-use criteria has identified more than 4,000 km{sup 2} as suitable for truffle plantations, being 1,150 of them optimal. The model here presented will help to a proper planning for truffle cultivation in the province of Teruel. (Author) 67 refs.

  13. Neuroimaging in tuberous sclerosis: a clinicoradiological evaluation in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menor, F. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Infantil La Fe, Valencia (Spain)); Marti-Bonmati, L. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Dr. Peset, Valencia (Spain)); Mulas, F. (Dept. of Neuropediatrics, Hospital Infantil La Fe, Valencia (Spain)); Poyatos, C. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Dr. Peset, Valencia (Spain)); Cortina, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital Infantil La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    CT, MRI and neurological features of 27 children with tuberous sclerosis were prospectively compared. Imaging studies were positive in 92.5% of cases. CT was more useful in detecting subpendymal nodules, while MRI showed the number and location of cerebral cortical and subcortical lesions more accurately. Gadolinium-DTPA used in 10 patients showed slight enhancement of the subependymal lesions in 80% of cases, probably representing active lesions with alteration of the blood-brain barrier. Giant-cell astrocytomas were detected in 5 patients, the postcontrast CT and MRI studies improving their assessment. Unlike subependymal nodules, all tumors showed marked enhancement regardless of their size. Seizures were present in 96% of patients, mostly beginning before 1 year of age. MRI is the procedure of choice in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. When pre and postcontrast MRI are negative, CT is used to exclude small calcified subependymal nodules. MRI follow-up is required only when tumoral development is clinically suspected. (orig./DG)

  14. Imaging of tuberous sclerosis complex: a pictorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Faria, Igor Murad; Zanetti, Gláucia; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Marchiori, Edson

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically determined hamartomatous neurocutaneous disease with high phenotypic variability. TSC is characterized by widespread hamartomas and benign, or rarely malignant, neoplasms distributed in several organs throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lung. Common manifestations include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, white matter abnormalities, retinal abnormalities, cardiac rhabdomyoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, renal angiomyolipoma, and skin lesions. The wide range of organs affected by the disease implies that TSC1 and TSC2 genes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Although recent advances in treatment have improved morbidity, the prognosis remains quite poor and nearly 40% of patients die by the age of 35 years. Imaging is important in the evaluation of TSC because of its role not only in presumptive diagnosis, but also in defining the full extent of involvement. This information allows a better understanding of the behavioural phenotype, as related to lesion location. Imaging also contributes to treatment planning. This pictorial review describes common and uncommon imaging manifestations of TSC. PMID:28298732

  15. Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Venkata; Pujar, Basavaraj; Nimbal, S K; Shantakumar, S M; Satyanarayana, S

    2008-08-01

    Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

  16. Imaging of tuberous sclerosis complex: a pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, Felipe Mussi von; Faria, Igor Murad; Zanetti, Glaucia; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP) , SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically determined hamartomatous neurocutaneous disease with high phenotypic variability. TSC is characterized by widespread hamartomas and benign, or rarely malignant, neoplasms distributed in several organs throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lung. Common manifestations include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, white matter abnormalities, retinal abnormalities, cardiac rhabdomyoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, renal angiomyolipoma, and skin lesions. The wide range of organs affected by the disease implies that TSC1 and TSC2 genes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Although recent advances in treatment have improved morbidity, the prognosis remains quite poor and nearly 40% of patients die by the age of 35 years. Imaging is important in the evaluation of TSC because of its role not only in presumptive diagnosis, but also in defining the full extent of involvement. This information allows a better understanding of the behavioural phenotype, as related to lesion location. Imaging also contributes to treatment planning. This pictorial review describes common and uncommon imaging manifestations of TSC. (author)

  17. Clobazam therapy of refractory epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennesson, Melanie; van Eeghen, Agnies M; Caruso, Paul A; Paolini, Jan L; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-01

    Clobazam (CLB) was recently approved by the FDA, but has not been evaluated in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of patients with TSC and refractory epilepsy who started CLB over a 5-year period. Clinical characteristics and number of tubers on MRI were assessed. Duration of therapy, therapeutic response and adverse events were recorded. CLB was prescribed in 29 adults and children of whom 72% were cognitively impaired, with a median age at seizure onset of 5 months. Mean duration of CLB therapy was 17.3 months with a 12 and 24-month estimated retention rate of 82% and 68%, respectively. Twenty patients (69%) reported a good response (>50% seizure reduction) at the end of the titration, and six patients (21%) remained good responders after 12 months of CLB therapy. Adverse events occurred in 13 patients, predominantly somnolence and behavioral disorders. One quarter of the responders reported improvement in behavior. No predictive factor for a good response could be identified. CLB appears to be a well-tolerated and valuable option for treatment of refractory epilepsy in TSC.

  18. Visual Evoked Potentials as a Readout of Cortical Function in Infants With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcin, Kandice J; Nelson, Charles A; Ko, Jordan; Sahin, Mustafa; Wu, Joyce Y; Jeste, Shafali Spurling

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that confers a high risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Studies have demonstrated specific delays in visual reception skills that may predict the development of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Based on evidence for alterations in the retinogeniculate pathway in animal models of tuberous sclerosis complex, we asked whether children with tuberous sclerosis complex demonstrate alterations in early visual processing that may undermine the development of higher-level visual behaviors. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials were recorded in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (n = 16) and typically developing infants (n = 18) at 12 months of age. Infants with tuberous sclerosis complex demonstrated remarkably intact visual evoked potentials even within the context of intellectual disability and epilepsy. Infants with tuberous sclerosis complex show intact visual cortical processing, suggesting that delays in visually mediated behaviors in tuberous sclerosis complex may not be rooted in early visual processing deficits.

  19. A critical appraisal of phloem-mobile signals involved in tuber induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eSuárez-López

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and several FT homologs as phloem-mobile proteins that regulate flowering has sparked the search for additional homologs involved in the long-distance regulation of other developmental processes. Given that flowering and tuber induction share regulatory pathways, the quest for long-distance tuberization signals has been further stimulated. Several tuberization regulators have been proposed as mobile molecules, including the FT family protein StSP6A, the plant growth regulators gibberellins and the microRNA miR172. Although some of these hypotheses are attractive and plausible, evidence that these molecules are transmissible in potato has yet to be obtained. Two mRNAs encoding transcription factors, StBEL5 and POTH1, are mobile and correlate with tuber induction. However, evidence that StBEL5 or POTH1 are required for tuberization is not available yet. Therefore, there are several good candidates for long-distance molecules in the tuberization process. Further research should test their role as systemic tuberization signals.

  20. Toughing It Out--Disease-Resistant Potato Mutants Have Enhanced Tuber Skin Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Tamilarasan; Tegg, Robert S; Wilson, Calum R

    2016-05-01

    Common scab, a globally important potato disease, is caused by infection of tubers with pathogenic Streptomyces spp. Previously, disease-resistant potato somaclones were obtained through cell selections against the pathogen's toxin, known to be essential for disease. Further testing revealed that these clones had broad-spectrum resistance to diverse tuber-invading pathogens, and that resistance was restricted to tuber tissues. The mechanism of enhanced disease resistance was not known. Tuber periderm tissues from disease-resistant clones and their susceptible parent were examined histologically following challenge with the pathogen and its purified toxin. Relative expression of genes associated with tuber suberin biosynthesis and innate defense pathways within these tissues were also examined. The disease-resistant somaclones reacted to both pathogen and toxin by producing more phellem cell layers in the tuber periderm, and accumulating greater suberin polyphenols in these tissues. Furthermore, they had greater expression of genes associated with suberin biosynthesis. In contrast, signaling genes associated with innate defense responses were not differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible clones. The resistance phenotype is due to induction of increased periderm cell layers and suberization of the tuber periderm preventing infection. The somaclones provide a valuable resource for further examination of suberization responses and its genetic control.

  1. DIVERSITY OF TUBER CROPS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE FUNGI (AMF UNDER COMMUNITY FOREST STAND IN SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of agroforestry system in community forest that incorporate local species Vitex cofassus (bitti, Toona sinensis (suren, Tectona grandis (teak and Aleurites moluccana (candlenut with seasonal crops such as tuber crops would create opportunities for local  people to improve the economic and food security. Tuber crops as the understory could be expected to reduce the rate of soil erosion and expand habitat of beneficia soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The research aims to determine the diversity of tuber crops and AMF in the rhizosphere of tuber crops grown under community forest stands of bitti, suren, teak and candlelnut in South Sulawesi. Results showed that (1 there are 12 kinds of tuber crops that grow under community forest stands in which the 7 types are as alternative food sources, (2 Amorphophallus campanulatus (iles-iles/suweg and Xanthosoma violaceum (kimpul are species of tuber crops that is found growing under all of the commnunity forest stands, (3 all kinds of tuber crops that grow under the community forest stand associated with AMF, in which there are 3 AMF genus i.e Glomus sp. Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp.with low spore density.

  2. Volumetric localization of epileptic activities in tuberous sclerosis using synthetic aperture magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zheng [Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Toronto (Canada); Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Xiang, Jing [Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Toronto (Canada); Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Holowka, Stephanie; Chuang, Sylvester [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Hunjan, Amrita; Sharma, Rohit; Otsubo, Hiroshi [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neurology, Toronto (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a novel noninvasive technique for localizing epileptic zones. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with medically refractory epilepsy with multiple epileptic zones. Surgical treatment of TSC requires accurate localization of epileptogenic tubers. The objective of this study was to introduce a new MEG technique, synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM), to volumetrically localize irritable zones and clarify the correlations between SAM, dipole modeling and anatomical tubers. Eight pediatric patients with TSC confirmed by clinical and neuroimaging findings were retrospectively studied. MEG data were recorded using a whole-cortex CTF OMEGA system. Sleep deprivation was employed to provoke epileptiform activity. Irritable zones were localized using both dipole modeling and SAM. MRI detected 42 tubers in the eight patients. Dipole modeling localized 28 irritable zones, and 19 out of the 28 zones were near tubers (19/42, 45%). SAM found 51 irritable zones, and 31 out of the 51 zones were near tubers (31/42, 74%). Among the 51 irritable zones determined by SAM, thirty-five zones were in 1-35 Hz, nine zones were in 35-60 Hz, and seven zones were in 60-120 Hz. The new method, SAM, yielded very plausible equivalent sources for patients who showed anatomical tubers on MRI. Compared to conventional dipole modeling, SAM appeared to offer increased detection of irritable zones and beneficial volumetric and frequency descriptions. (orig.)

  3. A magnetic resonance imaging study of cerebellar volume in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenfeld, Neil I; Peters, Jurriaan M; Tsai, Peter T; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Dies, Kira A; Sahin, Mustafa; Warfield, Simon K

    2013-02-01

    The cerebellum plays an important role in motor learning and cognition, and structural cerebellar abnormalities have been associated with cognitive impairment. In tuberous sclerosis complex, neurologic outcome is highly variable, and no consistent imaging or pathologic determinant of cognition has been firmly established. The cerebellum calls for specific attention because mouse models of tuberous sclerosis complex have demonstrated a loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells, and cases of human histologic data have demonstrated a similar loss in patients. We hypothesized that there might be a common cerebellar finding in tuberous sclerosis complex that could be measured as morphometric changes with magnetic resonance imaging. Using a robust, automated image analysis procedure, we studied 36 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and age-matched control subjects and observed significant volume loss among patients in the cerebellar cortices and vermis. Furthermore, this effect was strongest in a subgroup of 19 patients with a known, pathogenic mutation of the tuberous sclerosis 2 gene and impacted all cerebellar structures. We conclude that patients with tuberous sclerosis complex exhibit volume loss in the cerebellum, and this loss is larger and more widespread in patients with a tuberous sclerosis 2 mutation.

  4. Corrosión de tuberías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Olmo, C.

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with thé corrosion of pipes used in construction. General aspects of pipe corrosion are dealt with, without discussing either the kinetics or detailed phenomena of corrosion. General advise is given on practical measures to avoid as far as possible the development of corrosion, a problem which is both widespread and extremely expensive. The second part of the publication includes a questionnaire containing a number of points, whose ellaboration may serve as starting point for a systematic study on the most likely causes of pipe corrosion. A number of notes or comments are also added to each of the above points. Finally there is an appendix with tables, giving construction specifications data on permissible maxima for harmful ions applicable to mass or reinforced concrete for pipe construction (Law 2 987/1968, of 20-IX-68. This refers to sulphate and chlorate ions which normally may be present in Portland cement and concrete. It is emphasized that these contents should be kept low if the cement or concrete is going to be in contact with iron pipes.El presente trabajo aborda el tema de la corrosión de las tuberías empleadas en construcción. En él se enuncian unas consideraciones de carácter general sobre corrosión de tuberías, sin entrar ni en la cinética ni en los mecanismos propios de la corrosión, dándose a continuación unas recomendaciones de carácter práctico para evitar en lo posible este fenómeno tan generalizado y que tantas pérdidas ocasiona. En la segunda parte del trabajo se incluye un cuestionario que consta de una serie de puntos cuyo conocimiento puede servir de base para el comienzo de ima investigación sistemática sobre la causa o causas más probablemente determinantes de la corrosión de las tuberías. Complementan el cuestionario unas notas o comentarios a cada uno de los puntos tratados en el mismo. Por último se facilitan en un apéndice final unos cuadros orientativos del contenido m

  5. Rare association of turner syndrome with neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttur Malini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare association of Turner syndrome with both Neurofibromatosis type I and Tuberous Sclerosis. The patient had XO karyotype with Turners stigmata and also had features of Neurofibromatosis 1 in the form of significant cafe-au-lait spots and Plexiform neurofibroma along with typical features of Tuberous Sclerosis complex. Pedigree analysis revealed that the elder brother of the proband in the family also suffered from Tuberous Sclerosis without the manifestation of Neurofibromatosis or any other genetic disorders. We hypothesize that these associations could be due to new independent mutations and also increased maternal and paternal age in a pre-disposition of Turner syndrome.

  6. Decreased sucrose content triggers starch breakdown and respiration in stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Börnke, Frederik; Peisker, Martin; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Lerchl, Jens; Kirakosyan, Ara; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    To change the hexose-to-sucrose ratio within phloem cells, yeast-derived cytosolic invertase was expressed in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée) plants under control of the rolC promoter. Vascular tissue specific expression of the transgene was verified by histochemical detection of invertase activity in tuber cross-sections. Vegetative growth and tuber yield of transgenic plants was unaltered as compared to wild-type plants. However, the sprout growth of stored tubers was much delayed, indicating impaired phloem-transport of sucrose towards the developing bud. Biochemical analysis of growing tubers revealed that, in contrast to sucrose levels, which rapidly declined in growing invertase-expressing tubers, hexose and starch levels remained unchanged as compared to wild-type controls. During storage, sucrose and starch content declined in wild-type tubers, whereas glucose and fructose levels remained unchanged. A similar response was found in transgenic tubers with the exception that starch degradation was accelerated and fructose levels increased slightly. Furthermore, changes in carbohydrate metabolism were accompanied by an elevated level of phosphorylated intermediates, and a stimulated rate of respiration. Considering that sucrose breakdown was restricted to phloem cells it is concluded that, in response to phloem-associated sucrose depletion or hexose elevation, starch degradation and respiration is triggered in parenchyma cells. To study further whether elevated hexose and/or hexose-phosphates or decreased sucrose levels are responsible for the metabolic changes observed, sucrose content was decreased by tuber-specific expression of a bacterial sucrose isomerase. Sucrose isomerase catalyses the reversible conversion of sucrose into palatinose, which is not further metabolizable by plant cells. Tubers harvested from these plants were found to accumulate high levels of palatinose at the expense of sucrose. In addition, starch content decreased

  7. NUTRIENT AND ANTINUTRIENT CONTENT OF AN UNDEREXPLOITED MALAWIAN WATER TUBER NYMPHAEA PETERSIANA (NYIKA)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nymphaea petersiana Klotzsch (Nyika) is an important wild tuber eaten in some districts of Malawi. The tubers were processed by boiling/freeze-drying(BFD) and sun-drying(USD). The tuber's nutrient and antinutrient composition was determined to produce a preliminary nutrient data base for use in sub-Saharan Africa.There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in protein content of BFDand USD samples. Sun-dried samples were significantly (P < .05) higher in ash than boiled samples while boiled...

  8. Covalent structures of potato tuber lipases (patatins) and implications for vacuolar import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Jørgensen, Malene

    2009-01-01

    Proteome data of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber juice and of purified potato tuber vacuoles indicated that mature patatins may perhaps lack a C-terminal propeptide. We have confirmed this by complete mass spectrometric sequencing of a number of patatin variants as well as their N-linked complex......-type glycans from the starch-rich cultivar Kuras. For this cultivar full-length patatin cDNAs have also been sequenced, as the patatin locus is highly polymorphous. It is well known that patatins are located in the vacuoles of potato tubers. Furthermore, the complex glycan structures show that the path is via...

  9. Tuberous sclerosis and cardiac tumors: new electrocardiographic finding in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Eyup; Sap, Fatih; Sert, Ahmet; Odabas, Dursun

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac rhabdomyoma, the primary cardiac tumor most often diagnosed in children, is frequently present in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Most pediatric patients with rhabdomyoma are asymptomatic; however, various electrocardiographic abnormalities can be detected, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, ectopic atrial tachycardia, and atrioventricular node dysfunction. We describe the case of a 10-month-old infant girl who had tuberous sclerosis and multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Her electrocardiographic presentation was notable for dome-shaped T waves and no ST segment in some leads. To our knowledge, this electrocardiographic finding has not been described in patients with tuberous sclerosis and cardiac masses.

  10. [Chemical characterization and quantification of fructooligosaccharides, phenolic compounds and antiradical activity of Andean roots and tubers grown in Northwest of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, María Eugenia; Sammán, Norma

    2014-06-01

    There is great interest in consuming foods that can provide the nutrients for a good nutrition and other health beneficial compounds. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of native foods of the Andean region and to quantify some functional com-ponents. Proximal composition, vitamin C, total phenolic compounds, antiradical activity (DPPH) in peel and pulp, dietary fiber soluble and insoluble, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), total and resistant starch (in tubers and raw roots, boiled and boiled and stored) of 6 varieties of Oca (Oxalis tuberosa), 4 clones of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius were determined. The results showed greater amount of bioactive compounds and antiradical activity in the skin of these products. The highest content was found in the oca peel. In all cases, the content of insoluble fiber was greater than the soluble. The manioc had higher total starch than Andean roots and tubers. The boiling process decreased the resistant starch content of ocas and maniocs, but when these are stored for 48 h at 5 ° C, the resistant starch content increased. The FOS content of the ocas was similar for all varieties (7%). The main component of yacon carbohydrates were FOS (8.89%). The maniocs did not contain FOS. It can be concluded that the roots and tubers studied, in addition to provide nutrients, contain functional compounds that confer additional helpful value for preventing no communicable diseases.

  11. Modulation of the cellulose content of tuber cell walls by antisense expression of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) CesA clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Ronald J F J; Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Bakx, Edwin J; Straatman-Engelen, Irma; Bush, Maxwell S; McCann, Maureen C; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2004-03-01

    Four potato cellulose synthase (CesA) homologs (StCesA1, 2, 3 and 4) were isolated by screening a cDNA library made from developing tubers. Based on sequence comparisons and the fact that all four potato cDNAs were isolated from this single cDNA-library, all four StCesA clones are likely to play a role in primary cell wall biosynthesis. Several constructs were generated to modulate cellulose levels in potato plants in which the granule-bound starch synthase promoter was used to target the modification to the tubers. The StCesA3 was used for up- and down-regulation of the cellulose levels by sense (SE-StCesA3) and antisense (AS-StCesA3) expression of the complete cDNA. Additionally, the class-specific regions (CSR) of all four potato cellulose synthase genes were used for specific down-regulation (antisense) of the corresponding CesA genes (csr1, 2, 3 and 4). None of the transformants showed an overt developmental phenotype. Sections of tubers were screened for altered cell wall structure by Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) and exploratory Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and those plants discriminating from WT plants were analysed for cellulose content and monosaccharide composition. Several transgenic lines were obtained with mainly decreased levels of cellulose. These results show that the cellulose content in potato tubers can be reduced down to 40% of the WT level without affecting normal plant development, and that constructs based on the CSR alone are specific and sufficient to down-regulate cellulose biosynthesis.

  12. Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Dan G; Kane, Nolan C; Ebert, Daniel P; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-02-01

    The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance of this tuber crop species, its origin is debated. Competing hypotheses implicate the occurrence of polyploidization with or without hybridization, and list the annual sunflower H. annuus and five distantly related perennial sunflower species as potential parents. Here, we test these scenarios by skimming the genomes of diverse populations of Jerusalem Artichoke and its putative progenitors. We identify relationships among Helianthus taxa using complete plastomes (151 551 bp), partial mitochondrial genomes (196 853 bp) and 35S (8196 bp) and 5S (514 bp) ribosomal DNA. Our results refute the possibility that Jerusalem Artichoke is of H. annuus ancestry. We provide the first genetic evidence that this species originated recursively from perennial sunflowers of central-eastern North America via hybridization between tetraploid Hairy Sunflower and diploid Sawtooth Sunflower. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Ventromedial and medial preoptic hypothalamic ibotenic acid lesions potentiate systemic morphine analgesia in female, but not male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Lovric, Jelena; Chen, Chia-Chien; Pytte, Carolyn L; Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-25

    Sex differences in systemic morphine analgesia occur with male rodents displaying significantly greater analgesic magnitudes and potencies than females. Neonatal androgenization, and to a lesser degree, adult ovariectomy enhance systemic morphine analgesia in female rats, implicating both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. The neuroanatomical circuits sensitive to sex-related hormones by which females display a smaller opiate analgesic effect is not clear, but the ventromedial (VMH) and medial preoptic (MPOA) hypothalamic nuclei are critical in the monitoring of estradiol and other sex hormone levels. To assess the contribution of these nuclei to sex and adult gonadectomy differences in systemic morphine analgesia, intact male, intact female and adult ovariectomized (OVEX) female rats received bilateral saline (SAL) or ibotenic acid (IBO) microinjections into either the VMH or MPOA. Following surgeries, baseline tail-flick latencies over 120 minutes (min) were assessed over 4 days in all nine groups with intact females tested in the estrus phase of their cycle. All animals then received an ascending series of morphine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0mg/kg) injections 30min prior to the tail-flick test time course with 8-12 day inter-injection intervals between doses. Baseline latencies failed to differ between SAL-treated intact males and females, but were significantly higher in SAL-treated OVEX females. Both VMH IBO and MPOA IBO lesions increased baseline latencies in intact male and female rats, but not in OVEX females. SAL-treated intact males (ED(50)=4.0mg/kg) and SAL-treated OVEX females (ED(50)=3.5mg/kg) displayed significantly greater potencies of systemic morphine analgesia than SAL-treated intact females (ED(50)=6.3mg/kg), confirming previous gender and gonadectomy differences. Neither VMH IBO (ED(50)=3.7 mg/kg) nor MPOA IBO (ED(50)=4.1mg/kg) males differed from SAL-treated males in the potency of systemic morphine analgesia. In

  14. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement; Linfangioleiomiomatosis y esclerosis tuberosa afectacion pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, I.; Saiz, A.; Bustos, A.; Hernando, F. [Hospital cinico. San Carlos. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We present two cases of pulmonary lumphangioleiomyomatosis and one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement describing the most characteristic features according to plain chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  16. The Key Factors Affecting Tuber Development of Potato in vitro and the Relation with Protein Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Da-yong; LIAN Yong; ZHU De-wei

    2002-01-01

    According to previous analysis, some properties bounding up with tuber yield were investigated.The results showed that tuber average weight, plastid Mg2+ -ATPase activity, plastid Ca2+ -ATPase activity,mitochondria Mg2+-ATPase activity, total soluble protein content, tuber average diameter, and Q-enzyme activity were important factors determining the tuber yield. The linear regression equation was:Y = 0.5211 +0.0595X(1) + 0.8389X(2) + 0.0882X(3) - 0. 0073X(4) + 0. 1449X(5) + 0. 3510X(6) + 0. 0031X(7) -0.00003X(8) + 0.3412X(9)+ 0.0127X(10) + 0.2904X(11) + 0.0570X(12) + 0.0159X(13) + 0.3585X(14)+ 0.0134X(15) -0.1012X(16). At the same time, the relation between several important properties and soluble protein fractions were analyzed.

  17. The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Steve

    2010-03-24

    Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  18. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conjunctival lymphangioma in a 4-year-old girl revealed tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiberg, Florentina Joyce

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To present a case of conjunctival lymphangioma in a girl with tuberous sclerosis complex.Methods/results: A 4-year-old girl presented with a relapsing cystic lesion of the bulbar conjunctiva in the right eye with string-of-pearl-like dilation of lymphatic vessels and right-sided facial swelling with mild pain. Best-corrected vision was not impaired. Examination of the skin revealed three hypomelanotic macules and a lumbal Shagreen patch. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings displayed minimal enhancement of buccal fat on the right side. Cranial and orbital MRI showed signal enhancement in the right cortical and subcortical areas. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous deletion encompassing exon 1 and 2 of the gene (tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene, confirming the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex.Conclusion: In conjunctival lymphangioma, tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered as the primary disease.

  20. Quick genetic screening using targeted next-generation sequencing in patients with tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Mingrong; Wang, Lian Qing; Guo, Xia Nan; Si, Nuo; Qi, Zhan; Zhou, Xiang Qin; Cui, Li-ying

    2015-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas in multiple organ systems. Mutations in the 2 large genes TSC1 and TSC2 have been demonstrated to be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex by various mutation screening methods. Targeted next-generation sequencing for genetic analysis is performed in the current study and is proved to be less cost, labor, and time consuming compared with Sanger sequencing. Two de novo and 1 recurrent TSC2 mutation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex were revealed. Clinical details of patients were described and the underlying mechanism of the 2 novel TSC2 mutations, c.245G>A(p.W82X) and c.5405_5408dupACTT(p.P1803Lfs*25), were discussed. These results added to variability of TSC mutation spectrum and suggest that targeted next-generation sequencing could be the primary choice over Sanger sequencing in future tuberous sclerosis complex genetic counseling.

  1. Rapid colorimetric microplate assay for determining glucose and sucrose content in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate quantification of tuber glucose and sucrose content is important for scientific as well as commercial purposes. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme coupled assays are accepted methods for determining sugar concentrations. HPLC assays require expensive equipment and length...

  2. Isolation of bacteria from ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum Vittad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Gryndler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen different cultivation media were used to isolate bacteria with the idea to obtain taxa specifically associated with ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum. Ectomycorrhizae were collected at the sampling points previously analyzed for bacterial molecular diversity. We isolated 183 bacterial strains and identified them on the basis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Out of these isolates, only 4 corresponded to operational taxonomic units significantly associated with T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae in previous molecular study. Preliminary study of the effect of 12 selected isolates on growth of T. aestivum mycelium showed no stimulation and one isolate induced the damage of hyphae. Different isolation strategy has to be developed to increase the probability of cultivation of potentially important components of T. aestivum mycorrhizosphere.

  3. Treatment of renal angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakemeier, S; Bachmann, F; Budde, K

    2017-07-01

    In adult tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients, renal complications are the leading cause of death. Beginning in childhood, up to 80 % of patients develop renal angiomyolipoma characterized by a size-dependent risk of life-threatening bleeding. After discovery of the two causative genes, TSC1 and TSC2, and the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulation in the pathogenesis of TSC, an increasing number of clinical studies evaluating mTOR inhibition in TSC patients have shown impressive results in many organ manifestations, such as brain, lung, and kidney. For renal angiomyolipoma, mTOR inhibitor treatment fundamentally changed the approach from preventive embolization or even partial nephrectomy to everolimus treatment in order to preserve kidney function.

  4. Characterization of Tuber borchii and Arbutus unedo mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Enrico; Iotti, Mirco; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Franceschini, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    For the first time, arbutoid mycorrhizas established between Tuber borchii and Arbutus unedo were described. Analyzed mycorrhizas were from one T. borchii natural truffle ground, dominated by Pinus pinea, as well as synthesized in greenhouse conditions. A. unedo mycorrhizas presented some typical characteristics of ectomycorrhizas of T. borchii. However, as in arbutoid mycorrhizas, ramification was cruciform and intracellular colonization in epidermal cells was present. The ability of T. borchii to form ectomycorrhizas with A. unedo opens up the possibility to also use this fruit plant for truffle cultivation. This represents an important economic opportunity in Mediterranean areas by combining both the cultivation of precious truffles and the production of edible fruits which are used fresh or in food delicacies.

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER COLOCASIA ESCULENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the nutritional profile, successive value, thin layer chromatography and phytochemical screening of Colocasia esculenta. It is an important medicinal plant in India which is used in traditional medicine. Colocasia esculenta tubers contain nutrients such as ash value (total ash 4.80%, moisture 56.52%, crude fat 0.80% and crude fiber 7.5%, including minerals and vitamins such as calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Its edible corns and leaves are traditionally used for hepatic ailments. Leaf juice of this plant is applied over scorpion sting or in snake bite as well as it is used in food poisoning of plant origin. Ayurveda identified ailments viz. vata and pitta are supposed to be pacified by the leaf juice and so also the constipation, stomatitis, alopecia, hemorrhoids as well as general weakness.

  6. 结节性硬化症%Tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建湘; 陈黎; 李冰; 黄铁栓; 胡雁

    2002-01-01

    结节性硬化症(tuberous sclerosis,TS)是一种常见的神经皮肤综合征。是少数通过临床表现就能诊断的遗传性疾病之一。本病的发生率约为1/6000-10000。近年来,有关本病的各方面研究均有较多的进展,临床特征为癫痫、智力低下、皮肤色素脱失斑和面部血管纤维瘤。现简述如下。

  7. IMPACT OF HERBICIDES ON CONSUMPTION CHARACTERS OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gugała

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the undertaken studies was to determine the effect of the herbicides used in the experiment on important features of the consumption values of three varieties of edible potato. Test results come from a field experiment conducted in 2007–2010. The experiment was established as two-factor in the split-plot system in three repetitions. Two factors were tested in the experiment: factor I - potato varieties: Satina, Tajfun, Cekin; factor II – five methods of weed control. Darkening of the pulp of cooked tubers after 10 min, 2 and 24 hours shape the ways of weed control of the plantation and the genotype of the grown varieties. The use of herbicides in 2–5 variants has significantly increased the darkening of the pulp. The Tajfun variation darkened to the lowest degree, and Cekin to the largest degree.

  8. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner Brink Nielsen, Glenn; Kjær, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... based model systems with known dry matter content. Dielectric spectra were measured with a large custom-made open-ended coaxial probe in the frequency interval from 0.01 GHz to 3 GHz. Both univariate linear models motivated by a two phase mixture model and cross-validated multivariate partial least...... squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to predict the dry matter content. Results showed that the PLSR models gave markedly better prediction of the dry matter content from the dielectric response in most of the investigated systems compared to the univariate linear models. The highest precision...

  9. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Apios Tuber Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Kenmochi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apios tuber lectin, named ATL, was isolated from Apios americana Medikus by two chromatography steps, hydrophobic chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The minimum concentration required for the hemagglutination activity toward rabbit erythrocytes of ATL was 4 μg/mL. ATL was composed of a homodimer of 28.4 kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of ATL was similar to those of other legume lectins. The lectin showed moderate stability toward heating and acidic pH, and the binding affinity against several monosaccharides, such as D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine. ATL also bound to desialylated or agalactosylated glycoproteins such as asialo and agalacto transferrin. ATL decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers, suggesting the effect on the tight junction-mediated paracellular transport.

  10. Pathogens of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tuber (Phytophtora infestans occurring in treatments with foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact plot experiment (2008-2010 established in Bałcyny (NE Poland. Three potato cultivars were grown: medium-early ‘Adam’, medium-late ‘Pasja Pomorska’, and late ‘Ślęza’. The experimental factors were foliar fertilizers applied alone or in combination (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn, Solubor DF and two levels of soil mineral fertilization (N1P1K1-80 kg N × ha-1, 80 kg P × ha-1, 120 K × ha-1; N2P2K2-120 kg N × ha-1, 144 kg P × ha-1, 156 K × ha-1. The experimental materials comprised potato tubers. The symptoms of soft rot (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, late blight (Phytophthora infestans and dry rot (Fusarium spp. were evaluated in 5 kg potato samples, and were expressed as the percentage mass of infected tubers. The rates of common scab (Streptomyces scabies and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani infection were estimated on 100 tubers collected randomly after harvest, according to a nine-point scale, and were presented as a percentage infection index. In the laboratory, fungi were isolated on PDA medium from potato tubers immediately after harvest and after five-month storage. The incidence of tuber diseases depended on potato cultivars affected. The severity of tuber diseases varied between treatments with two levels of NPK fertilization and foliar fertilization. The lowest number of Fusarium-infected tubers was obtained from treatments where three foliar fertilizers were applied in combination, which was confirmed by the lowest abundance of fungal isolates. More fungi were isolated from potato tubers after harvest than after storage, but pathogens were more frequently isolated from stored tubers. After harvest, the lowest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated from the tubers of cv. ‘Adam’ in the non-fertilized treatment, and after storage – from the tubers of the late cultivars in the treatment with three foliar fertilizers applied in combination.

  11. Enzymatic production of DFA III from fresh dahlia tubers as raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiwati, Thelma A.; Ratnaningrum, D.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dahlia is an annual ornamental plants and tubers that have not been widely used in Indonesia. Dahlia tubers contain nearly 70 per cent of the starch in the form of inulin. Inulin addition can be used as a food ingredient can also be used as a raw material for making DFA III (ie functional oligosaccharides), using inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) Nonomuraea sp. In this study conducted production of DFA III through enzymatic reactions and yeast fermentation, using inulin from fresh dahlia tubers and fresh dahlia tuber extract. Dahlia tubers which is one source of inulin, do blanching before extracted. Most dahlia tuber extract used directly for enzymatic reactions in the production of DFA III and some extracts are processed to produce inulin by precipitation using ethanol and then inulin is used for the enzymatic reaction. Syrup DFA III was measured volume and viscosity, and then do decolorization and then crystallization. The analysis was done of Thin Layer Chromatography (to see DFA III formed) and HPLC to see the purity of the product. The results showed that the average of inulin from precipitation with ethanol in the two batch of 113,5 g with an average water content of 7.41%, average whiteness degree 62.29% and an average yield 7.345% (w/w, wb dahlia tuber). From the average of DFA III liquid of 480 mL with density of 14.15%, the result of the average of DFA III crystal from enzyme reaction in the two reactor using inulin dahlia tubers as a substrate, was obtained of 55.4 g with an average whiteness degree of 93.8%, and the average of yield 3.56% w/w (wb dahlia tuber) or 48.89% w/w (db inulin). And then from the average of 475 mL with density of 16.85% was obtained an average DFA III crystals of 29 g from the enzyme reaction in the two reactor using fresh dahlia tuber extract as a substrate, with an average whiteness degree o 80.75% and the average of the yield of 1.86% w/w (wb dahlia tuber).

  12. Correction of tuberous breasts using the unfolded subareolar gland flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroz-Torres, Javier; Pelay-Ruata, María-Josefa; Escolán-Gonzalvo, Nieves; Jordán-Palomar, Elena

    2014-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the authors present 12 years of experience using a modified Puckett's technique with a double unfolded strictly subareolar glandular flap for surgical correction of the deformity known as "tuberous breast." In 1976, Rees and Aston documented this congenital malformation of the mammary glands in women. Its cause is unknown, and it affects adolescent girls with varying severity uni- or bilaterally. The condition is characterized by a lack of development, primarily in the lower quadrants of the breast plus a rising of the inframammary fold, together with herniation and increased diameter of the areola. Many varied surgical techniques for correction of this malformation in its different degrees of severity have been documented in the available literature. This study examined the treatment of 42 breasts in 26 patients with a high percentage of full correction of the deformity. The advantages and achievements of the double unfolded strictly subareolar glandular flap include restructuring of the breast's lower pole in volume, length, and shape; reduction and even removal of the double-bubble effect as the flap covers the implant fitted; lowering of inframammary fold height; and correction of areola size and herniation. The procedure is performed through a hemi- or periareolar incision. The technique is versatile for managing the different variations of tuberous breasts, making it another interesting option for correction of the deformity. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Lyophilized Cyclamen europaeum tuber extract in the treatment of rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Hassmann-Poznańska, Elżbieta; Kaźmierczak, Henryk; Składzień, Jacek; Pietruszewska, Wioleta; Burduk, Paweł; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2016-02-29

    Nasal and sinus mucositis is a significant health problem associated with significant organizational and financial burden for the health care system. In recent years, several important guidelines and positions of expert groups and scientific associations have been published with regard to the diagnostics and treatment of rhinosinusitis, including European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS 2012) [1] and Polish Standards for the Treatment of Rhinitis (PoSLeNN 2013) [2]. The management of viral and postviral rhinosinusitis involves systemic treatment including administration of plant origin products. The goal of this article is to present the current knowledge on the use of intranasal preparations containing natural saponin fractions from the rhizomes of Alpine cyclamen (Cyclamen europaeum). Saponins contained in the extract of Alpine cyclamen (Cyclamen europaeum) rhizomes are surface-active compounds that reduce the surface tension on the nasal mucosal cells while simultaneously stimulating the trigeminal nerve receptors leading to increased production of seromucous secretion and extensive drainage of the nasal and sinus cavities. The analysis of published studies on the efficacy and safety of intranasal products containing lyophilized extracts from Cyclamen europaeum tuber warrants the conclusion that these products are useful in the management of nasal and sinus mucositis due to their beneficial impact on the course of the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. When used in patients with acute rhinosinusitis, an intranasal preparation containing lyophilized extracts from Cyclamen europaeum tuber efficiently reduces the symptoms, particularly the feeling of pressure and pain in the face. According to the authors of PROSINUS study, single-agent treatment using Cyclamen europaeum extracts is more efficient (in terms of the percentage of success) than other monotherapy or combination regimens.

  14. Imaging Manifestations of a Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disorder resulting in benign tumor growth in various organs including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, and lung as well as systemic manifestations including seizures, cognitive impairment, and dermatologic abnormalities. This report shows the radiological findings and differentiation between a subependymal nodule and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in a patient with tuberous sclerosis presenting with new onset seizures.

  15. Tuberous sclerosis with bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a child: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Choudhuri; Jeevanjyoti Mishra; Gyan Prakash Singh; Datteswar Hota

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disease which comes under a group of diseases known as neurocutaneous syndrome. Incidence of TCS is around 1 in 6000. The clinical triad of papular facial nevus, seizures and mental retardation is found in less than 50% of the patients. Renal lesions in TCS commonly consist of simple renal cyst and angiomyolipomas. Renal cell carcinoma though rarely associated with tuberous sclerosis may be its significant manifestations. We report a c...

  16. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    OpenAIRE

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL; Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy; Yasser Mahmoud MOSTAFA

    2012-01-01

    During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances f...

  17. Tylosema esculentum (Marama) Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Chingwaru; Runner T. Majinda; Sam O. Yeboah; Jackson, Jose C.; Petrina T. Kapewangolo; Martha Kandawa-Schulz; Avrelija Cencic

    2011-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethan...

  18. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [tubers and shoot dry weight were determined at approximately 28 DAT. Imazapyr, sulfometuron, and tribenuron caused significant reductions in tuber fresh weight, with the effective concentrations producing a 25% potato tuber fresh weight (EC25) of 0.00038, 0.0016, and 0.0021 x f.a.r. of 1,124, 52, and 9 g active ingredient hectare(-1) (g a.i. HA(-1)), respectively. Primisulfuron, dicamba, and cloransulam also significantly reduced tuber fresh weight, but with higher EC25 values of 0.011, 0.07, and 0.010 to 0.2 x f.a.r. of 40, 558, and 18 g a.i. HA(-1), respectively. Glyphosate had little effect on tuber fresh weight, with a significant reduction in only one experiment. Sulfometuron reduced tuber fresh weight at an EC25 value lower than the EC25 values for shoot dry weight or plant height. For other herbicides, the reduction in tuber fresh weight occurred within the range of EC25 values for other responses. Although additional experiments are required to develop further a phytotoxicity test, these results indicated that tuber production in young potato plants (harvested approximately 42 DAE) may be an effective assay for below-ground asexual reproductive responses to herbicides, especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors.

  19. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker compounds for potato tuber stored by gamma radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Amina A Aly; Abeer E El-Ansary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the capability of gamma irradiation for inhibiting sprouting of potato tubers.Methods:S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in addition to lipid peroxidation level were tested in potato tubers stored for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Gamma irradiation with five treatments (0, 30, 50, 100 and 200 Gy) was used to control germination process of potato tubers. Results: Gamma radiation was able to maintain potato tuber for 6 weeks. The main biomarkers for validity of potato tuber during storage were studying antioxidant enzyme activitiesi.e. The enzymes activities i.e. peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), glutathione-POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation during storage time. Conclusions: The optimum dose was 50 Gy which prevented the sprouting initiation all over the storage period without casting undesirable rotting for potato tubers. At this dose all antioxidant enzyme activities i.e. POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation level during storage time recorded the best rates.

  20. Dynamic transcriptional profiling provides insights into tuberous root development in Rehmannia glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng eSun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia glutinosa, a herb of the Scrophulariaceae family, is widely cultivated in the Northern part of China. The tuberous root has well known medicinal properties; however, yield and quality are threatened by abiotic and biotic stresses. Understanding the molecular process of tuberous root development may help identify novel targets for its control. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly strategies to obtain a reference transcriptome that is relevant to tuberous root development. We then conducted RNA-seq quantification analysis to determine gene expression profiles of the adventitious root (AR, thickening adventitious root (TAR, and the developing tuberous root (DTR. Expression profiling identified a total of 6,974 differentially expressed unigenes during root developmental. Bioinformatics analysis and gene expression profiling revealed changes in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone biosynthesis during root development. Moreover, we identified and allocated putative functions to the genes involved in tuberous root development, including genes related to major carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transcription regulation. The present study provides the initial description of gene expression profiles of AR, TAR, and DTR, which facilitates identification of genes of interest. Moreover, our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root development and may assist in the design and development of improved breeding schemes for different R. glutinosa varieties through genetic manipulation.

  1. Potato Tuber Induction is Regulated by Interactions Between Components of a Tuberigen Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Chin-Jit; Takahashi, Kenta; Shimizu, Kanae; Shimamoto, Ko; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-12-27

    Photoperiod-regulated flowering and potato tuber formation involve leaf-produced mobile signals, florigen and tuberigen, respectively. The major protein component of florigen has been identified as the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein. In rice, an FT-like protein, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), induces flowering by making the florigen activation complex (FAC) through interactions with 14-3-3 and OsFD1, a rice FD-like protein. In potato, StSP6A, an FT-like protein, was identified as a major component of tuberigen. However, the molecular mechanism of how StSP6A triggers tuber formation remains elusive. Here we analyzed the significance of the formation of a complex including StSP6A, 14-3-3 and FD-like proteins in tuberization. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro pull-down assays showed that StSP6A and StFDL1, a potato FD-like protein, interact with St14-3-3s. StSP6A overexpression induced early tuberization in a 14-3-3-dependent manner, and suppression of StFDL1 delayed tuberization. These results strongly suggest that an FAC-like complex, the tuberigen activation complex (TAC), comprised of StSP6A, St14-3-3s and StFDL1, regulates potato tuber formation.

  2. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness. PMID:27127779

  3. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar.

  4. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Josheph Kumar, Thamilini

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness.

  5. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoma Chandrasekara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, glycoalkaloids, and phytic acids are responsible for the observed effects. Many starchy tuber crops, except the common potatoes, sweet potatoes, and cassava, are not yet fully explored for their nutritional and health benefits. In Asian countries, some edible tubers are also used as traditional medicinal. A variety of foods can be prepared using tubers and they may also be used in industrial applications. Processing may affect the bioactivities of constituent compounds. Tubers have an immense potential as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients to be explored in disease risk reduction and wellness.

  6. The effect of nitrogen rate on vine kill, tuber skinning injury, tuber yield and size distribution, and tuber nutrients and phytonutrients in two potato cultivars grown for early potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early potatoes are typically produced using less nitrogen than a full season potato crop as high rates of nitrogen may delay tuber set and lead to excessive vine growth that is difficult to terminate prior to harvest. Bintje and Ciklamen potato cultivars were grown with preplant soil nitrogen levels...

  7. Transciptome analysis reveals flavonoid biosynthesis regulation and simple sequence repeats in yam (Dioscorea alata L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Wu; Mantri, Nitin; Bao, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Song-Lin; Tao, Zheng-Ming

    2015-04-30

    Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) is an important tuber crop and purple pigmented elite cultivar has recently become popular because of associated health benefits. Identifying candidate genes responsible for flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (FBP) will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanism of controlling pigment formation in yam tubers. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of tubers from elite purple-flesh cultivar (DP) and conventional white-flesh cultivar (DW) of yam. In this process, we also designed high quality molecular markers to assist molecular breeding for tuber trait improvement. A total of 125,123 unigenes were identified from the DP and DW cDNA libraries, of which about 49.5% (60,020 unigenes) were annotated by BLASTX analysis using the publicly available protein database. These unigenes were further annotated functionally and subject to biochemical pathway analysis. 511 genes were identified to be more than 2-fold (FDR yam cultivars, of which 288 genes were up-regulated and 223 genes were down-regulated in the DP tubers. Transcriptome analysis detected 61 unigenes encoding multiple well-known enzymes in the FBP. Furthermore, the unigenes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UF3GT) were found to be significantly up-regulated in the DP, implying that these genes were potentially associated with tuber color formation in this elite cultivar. The expression of these genes was further confirmed by qRT-PCR. Finally, 11,793 SSRs were successfully identified with these unigenes and 6,082 SSR markers were developed using Primer 3. This study provides the first comprehensive transcriptomic dataset for yam tubers, which will significantly contribute to genomic research of this and other related species. Some key genes associated with purple-flesh trait were

  8. A Rare Occurrence of Shagreen Patch on the Face of a Pediatric Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambey RAVI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ravi A, Veerabhadra D, Richa G, Ngangbam S. A Rare Occurrence of Shagreen Patch on the Face of aPediatric Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1:39-42.Tuberous sclerosis is a neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by a clinical spectrum varying from severe mental retardation and incapacitating seizures to normal intelligence and lack of seizures, often within the same family(1. The younger the patients present with symptoms and signs of TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex, the greater are the likelihood of mental retardation (2. Skin features are very characteristic of the disease and help in the early diagnosis of the disease. Shagreen patch is one of the major diagnostic features of the disease. It is a less common skin lesion consisting of an excess amount of fibrous tissue similar to that found in scar tissues (3. It is a section of thickened, elevated pebbly skin like an orange peel. The name is derived from the French phrase “peau chagrinee”. It is usually found on the lower back, buttock, thigh and the nape of the neck commonly. In this case report we report a characteristic skin lesion, the shagreen patch in a six-year-old child with TSC at an unusual site (the cheek never reported before with the best of our knowledge.References: 1. Datta AK, Mandal S, Bhattacharya S. Autism and mentalretardation with convulsion in tuberous sclerosis: a casereport. Cases J 2009;2:7061.2. Haslam RHA. Neurocutaneous syndrome. In KliegmanRM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF (editors.Nelson Text book of Pediatrics,18th Edition. NewDelhi: Elsevier. 2008.P. 2485-6.3. Mallory SB (editor. Illustrated manual of pediatricdermatology, diagnosis and management, 1st Edition.UK:Taylor & Francis. 2005.P. 369-89.4. Roach ES, DiMario FJ, Kandt RS, Northrup H. TuberousSclerosis Consensus Conference: recommendationsfor diagnostic evaluation. National Tuberous SclerosisAssociation. J Child Neurol 1999 Jun;14

  9. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánfalvi Zsófia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90, which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level

  10. Spatio-temporal dynamic of Tuber magnatum mycelium in natural truffle grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Iotti

    Full Text Available Tuber magnatum produces the world's most expensive truffle. This fungus produces very rare ectomycorrhizas which are difficult or even impossible to detect in the field. A "real-time" PCR assay was recently developed to quantify and to track T. magnatum mycelium in soil. Here, this technique was used to investigate the spatial distribution of T. magnatum extra-radical mycelium in soil productive patches and its dynamic across seasons. This study was carried out in four different natural T. magnatum truffle grounds located in different Italian regions. During the fruiting seasons, the amount of T. magnatum mycelium was significantly higher around the fruiting points and decreased going farther away from them. Moreover, T. magnatum mycelium inside the productive patches underwent seasonal fluctuations. In early spring, the amount of T. magnatum mycelium was significantly higher than in summer. In summer, probably due to the hot and dry season, T. magnatum mycelium significantly decreased, whereas in autumn it increased again and was concentrated at the putative fruiting points. These results give new insights on T. magnatum ecology and are useful to plan the most appropriate sampling strategy for evaluating the management of a truffle ground.

  11. Molecular and clinical analyses of 84 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Chia-Jung

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas in many internal organs. Mutations in either one of 2 genes, TSC1 and TSC2, have been attributed to the development of TSC. More than two-thirds of TSC patients are sporadic cases, and a wide variety of mutations in the coding region of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes have been reported. Methods Mutational analysis of TSC1 and TSC2 genes was performed in 84 Taiwanese TSC families using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC and direct sequencing. Results Mutations were identified in a total of 64 (76 % cases, including 9 TSC1 mutations (7 sporadic and 2 familial cases and 55 TSC2 mutations (47 sporadic and 8 familial cases. Thirty-one of the 64 mutations found have not been described previously. The phenotype association is consistent with findings from other large studies, showing that disease resulting from mutations to TSC1 is less severe than disease due to TSC2 mutation. Conclusion This study provides a representative picture of the distribution of mutations of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes in clinically ascertained TSC cases in the Taiwanese population. Although nearly half of the mutations identified were novel, the kinds and distribution of mutation were not different in this population compared to that seen in larger European and American studies.

  12. Relation between the tritium in continuous atmospheric release and the tritium contents of fruits and tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolevych, V Y; Kim, S B

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tissue-free water tritium (TFWT, also referred to as HTO) in fruits and tubers were measured at a garden plot in the vicinity of the source of chronic airborne tritium emissions during the 2008, 2010, and 2011 growing seasons. A continuous record of HTO concentration in the air moisture was reconstructed from the continuous record of Ar-41 ambient gamma radiation, as well as from frequent measurements of air HTO by active samplers at the garden plot and Ar-41 and air HTO monitoring data from the same sector. Performed measurements were used for testing the modified Specific Activity (SA) model based on the assumption that the average air HTO during the pod-filling period provides an appropriate basis for estimating the levels of OBT present in pods, fruits and tubers. It is established that the relationship between the OBT of fruits and tubers and the average air HTO from a 15-20 day wide window centred at the peak of the pod-filling period is consistent throughout the three analysed years, and could be expressed by the fruit or tuber's OBT to air-HTO ratio of 0.93 ± 0.21. For all three years, the concentration of HTO in fruits and tubers was found to be related to levels of HTO in the air, as averaged within a 3-day pre-harvest window. The variability in the ratio of plant HTO to air HTO appears to be three times greater than that for the OBT of the fruits and tubers. It is concluded that the OBT of fruits and tubers adequately follows an empirical relationship based on the average level of air HTO from the pod-filling window, and therefore is clearly in line with the modified SA approach. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Severity and outcome of cystic lung disease in women with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M; Jones, Amanda M; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Yao, Jianhua; Stylianou, Mario; Moss, Joel

    2015-01-01

    What are the clinical features, severity, and rate of progression of lung disease in women with tuberous sclerosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and how do they differ from patients with sporadic LAM? Data from 94 tuberous sclerosis/LAM and 460 sporadic LAM women were compared. 40 tuberous sclerosis/LAM and 40 sporadic LAM patients were age- and lung function-matched, and changes in volume occupied by cysts (cyst score) and pulmonary function occurring over 6.5 years were evaluated. Tuberous sclerosis/LAM patients had better lung function than sporadic LAM patients, but no difference was observed from sporadic LAM patients in yearly rates of change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-1.9±2.7 versus -1.9±1.9% predicted; p=0.302), diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (-2.1±2.8 versus -1.9±2.7% predicted; p=0.282) or cyst scores (+1.0±1.3 versus +1.4±1.7%, p=0.213). However, the proportion of patients with abnormal lung function and higher rates of FEV1 decline was greater in sporadic LAM. Some young tuberous sclerosis/LAM patients (mean age 25.7±3 years) progressed rapidly from minimal to severe lung disease. Tuberous sclerosis/LAM patients may experience abrupt declines in lung function. Consequently, women with tuberous sclerosis found to have lung cysts should undergo periodic functional and radiological testing to follow disease progression and determine need for therapy.

  14. HRE-Type Genes are Regulated by Growth-Related Changes in Internal Oxygen Concentrations During the Normal Development of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tubers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ... in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow...

  15. A Case of Infantile Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Complicated by Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Takehiro; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Takakuwa, Koichi; Usuda, Tohei; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    We experienced a case with fetal cardiac tumor, which was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonographic examination, and the diagnosis was confirmed after birth. A pregnancy woman of the 26th week of gestation was referred to our hospital for close examinations of fetal cardiac tumor. Ultrasonographic examinations revealed single homogeneous tumor with the diameter of 14 mm intracardiac space. The tumor was considered to emerge from the ventricular septum and to be occupied in left ventricle. Other cardiac abnormalities were not detected. The fetus was diagnosed to be complicated with the intracardiac tumor, and with the possible rhabdomyoma of heart. The serial ultrasonographic examinations revealed that the fetal cardiac function was normal. The size of the tumor gradually increased, although the fetal cardiac function revealed within normal range. The patient delivered a female infant weighing 2716g with the Apgar score of 9 and 10 at one and 5 minutes after delivery. The infant was confirmed to have cardiac tumors after examination by pediatric cardiologist, and the cardiac function of the infant was diagnosed as normal condition. The computed tomography of the head revealed the intracranial multiple calcification lesions, which indicated the symptoms of tuberous sclerosis.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal communities in a Tuber aestivum Vittad. orchard in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilszczańska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum Vittad., has become a new agricultural alternative in Poland. For rural economies, the concept of landscaping is often considerably more beneficial than conventional agriculture and promotes reforestation, as well as land-use stability. Considering examples from France, Italy, Hungary and Spain, truffle cultivation stimulates economic and social development of small, rural communities. Because there is no long tradition of truffle orchards in Poland, knowledge regarding the environmental factors regulating the formation of fruiting bodies of T. aestivum is limited. Thus, knowledge concerning ectomycorrhizal communities of T. aestivum host species is crucial to ensuring successful Burgundy truffle production. We investigated the persistence of T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae on roots of hazel (Corylus avellana L. and oak (Quercus robur L. and checked the host-species influence on community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The study was conducted in an experimental plantation located in eastern Poland and established in 2008. We demonstrated that the number of fungal taxa was not significantly different between oak and hazel. However, the species composition differed between these two host trees. During the three-year study, we observed that species richness did not increase with the age of the plantation.

  17. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for treatment in tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seop Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a genetic multisystem disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, and is associated with hamartomas in several organs, including subependymal giant cell tumors. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. The TSC1- and TSC2-encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling cascade, and are key factors in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. The mTOR pathway provides an intersection for an intricate network of protein cascades that respond to cellular nutrition, energy levels, and growth factor stimulation. In the brain, TSC1 and TSC2 have been implicated in cell body size, dendritic arborization, axonal outgrowth and targeting, neuronal migration, cortical lamination, and spine formation. The mTOR pathway represents a logical candidate for drug targeting, because mTOR regulates multiple cellular functions that may contribute to epileptogenesis, including protein synthesis, cell growth and proliferation, and synaptic plasticity. Antagonism of the mTOR pathway with rapamycin and related compounds may provide new therapeutic options for TSC patients.

  18. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TUBERS FROM ORGANIC SWEET POTATO ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA DE OLIVEIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to determine instead at determining chemical composition, nutritional aspects and morphological characteristic of tubers from sweet potato roots (Ipomoea batatas L. of cultivars Rosinha de Verdan, Capivara and orange-fleshed produced under the organic system. The chemical composition of flours from sweet potato (SP roots was different among cultivars. The starch content for SP cultivar ranged from 26-33 % (d. b., and the orange-fleshed roots presented 3182 μg of β-carotene/100 g. The flour yield ob-tained for SPF processing was higher in Rosinha de Verdan (25.40%, and the starch content of roots ranged from 12.48-27.63 % (d.b.. The processing condition modified the starch granular characteristics of the flours and reduced 31% the carotene content and vitamin A value of the orange-fleshed flour. The orange-fleshed flour presented higher levels of carbohydrate, starch and total energy value (TEV than others white fleshed flour. The consumption of serving size of orange-fleshed roots and flour provided higher provitamin A require-ments for children.

  19. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamanian, Ali; Sangpour, Parvanh; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Abdollahi, Yadollah; Zargar, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  20. The pathogenesis and imaging of the tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by the formation of hamartomatous lesions in multiple organ systems. It is the second most common neurocutaneous syndrome after neurofibromatosis type 1 and has been recognized since the late 1800s. Although the disease has complete penetrance, there is also high phenotypic variability: some patients have obvious signs at birth, while others remain undiagnosed for many years. In addition to skin lesions, TSC patients develop numerous brain lesions, angiomyolipoma (AMLs), lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) in the lungs, cardiac rhabdomyomas, skeletal lesions, and vascular anomalies, all of which are well seen with medical imaging. Our knowledge of TSC genetics and pathophysiology has expanded dramatically in recent years: two genetic loci were discovered in the 1990s and recent elucidation of TSC's interaction with the mTOR pathway has changed how we manage the disease. Meanwhile, medical imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of TSC. We provide an update on the genetics and pathophysiology of TSC, review its clinical manifestations, and explore the breadth of imaging features in each organ system, from prenatal detection of cardiac rhabdomyomas to monitoring rapamycin therapy to treatment of AMLs by interventional radiology. (orig.)

  1. Cutaneous lesions and visceral involvement of tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-fen; YAN Chun-lin; FANG Li; SHEN Fu-min; LIAO Kang-huang

    2005-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with a significant range of clinical expressions. The involvement of vital organs, such as the brain, kidney, heart and lung is the main cause of death in patients with TS. The aim of this study is to summarize the charateristic cutaneous features and common extracutaneous involvement of TS, which are helpful to the early detection of visceral involvement.Methods The analyzed clinical data from 78 patients with TS included those from detailed history, physical and dermatological examination, cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), abdominal ultrasonography, chest roentgenography, hand and foot X-ray and ophthalmologic examination. Results The skin, brain and kidney were involved frequently in TS patients. Hypomelanotic macules were the most common and earliest cutaneous lesions. Their number was more than 3 in 81.5% of the patients. They were followed by facial angiofibromas and Shangreen's patch in a decreasing frequency. Forehead plaque, facial angiofibromas and Shagreen's patch appeared in patients at mean age of 2.6, 6.0 and 8.1 years respectively. Cranial CT showed a high positive rate in TS patients.Conclusions Cutaneous features of TS are helpful in the early diagnosis of the disease. Hypomelanotic macules are especially important for patients with epilepsy or babies whose number of hypomelanotic malues is more than 3. Cranial CT is of great value in the diagnosis of TS. The involvement of visceral organs such as the brain and kidney should be examined in TS patients

  2. Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi Sharlina, M S; Yaacob, W A; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Lim, Seng Joe; Abdullah, Sapina; Noordin, Akram; Kumaran, Malina

    2017-04-01

    Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers was characterized for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties and toxicity. This starch contains 44.47±1.86% amylose, 4.84±0.29% moisture, 0.88±0.21% ash, 1.34±0.11% proteins and 92.73±0.48% carbohydrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a type-C starch with a relative crystallinity of 23.31±2.41%. The starch granules are polyhedral, with a diameter of 2.8 to 5.6μm and average size of 3.93±1.47μm. Initial, peak and finishing gelatinization temperatures for the starch were 71.51±0.07, 75.05±0.15, and 78.25±0.18°C, respectively; the gelatinization enthalpy was 3.86±0.02J/g, and the peak height index was 1.09±0.05. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a weight loss of 85.81±0.52% and a decomposition temperature of 320.16±0.35°C, which indicated that there was good thermal stability of the starch. Fish embryo toxicity (FET) showed that the starch was not toxic and that it was suitable for food and non-food industries.

  3. Tuberous Sclerosis: A New Frontier in Targeted Treatment of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter E; Peters, Jurriaan M; Krueger, Darcy A; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with a high prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Tremendous progress in understanding the pathogenesis of TSC has been made in recent years, along with initial trials of medical treatment aimed specifically at the underlying mechanism of the disorder. At the cellular level, loss of TSC1 or TSC2 results in upregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. At the circuitry level, TSC and mTOR play crucial roles in axonal, dendritic, and synaptic development and function. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism underlying TSC, and how this disease results in aberrant neural connectivity at multiple levels in the central nervous system, leading to ASD symptoms. We then review recent advances in mechanism-based treatments of TSC, and the promise that these treatments provide for future mechanism-based treatment of ASD. Because of these recent advances, TSC represents an ideal model for how to make progress in understanding and treating the mechanisms that underlie ASD in general.

  4. Analysis of a Mouse Skin Model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanan; Dreier, John R.; Cao, Juxiang; Du, Heng; Granter, Scott R.; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome in which patients develop several types of tumors, including facial angiofibroma, subungual fibroma, Shagreen patch, angiomyolipomas, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It is due to inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. We sought to generate a mouse model of one or more of these tumor types by targeting deletion of the Tsc1 gene to fibroblasts using the Fsp-Cre allele. Mutant, Tsc1ccFsp-Cre+ mice survived a median of nearly a year, and developed tumors in multiple sites but did not develop angiomyolipoma or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. They did develop a prominent skin phenotype with marked thickening of the dermis with accumulation of mast cells, that was minimally responsive to systemic rapamycin therapy, and was quite different from the pathology seen in human TSC skin lesions. Recombination and loss of Tsc1 was demonstrated in skin fibroblasts in vivo and in cultured skin fibroblasts. Loss of Tsc1 in fibroblasts in mice does not lead to a model of angiomyolipoma or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. PMID:27907099

  5. Genetics of tuberous sclerosis complex: implications for clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, Carolina; Khan, Nubaira; Hasbani, Daphne M; Crino, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem disorder that results from heterozygous mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. The primary organ systems that are affected include the brain, skin, lung, kidney, and heart, all with variable frequency, penetrance, and severity. Neurological features include epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disability. There are more than 1,500 known pathogenic variants for TSC1 and TSC2, including deletion, nonsense, and missense mutations, and all pathogenic mutations are inactivating, leading to loss of function effects on the encoded proteins TSC1 and TSC2. These proteins form a complex to constitutively inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, and as a consequence, mTOR signaling is constitutively active within all TSC-associated lesions. The mTOR inhibitors rapamycin (sirolimus) and everolimus have been shown to reduce the size of renal and brain lesions and improve pulmonary function in TSC, and these compounds may also decrease seizure frequency. The clinical application of mTOR inhibitors in TSC has provided one of the first examples of precision medicine in a neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:28053551

  6. Tuberous sclerosis--A model for tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Kayleigh M; Dunlop, Elaine A

    2016-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder where patients develop benign tumours in several organ systems. Central to TSC pathology is hyper-activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling pathway, which is a key controller of cell growth. As a result, TSC model systems are a valuable tool for examining mTORC1-driven cellular processes. The immunosuppressant, rapamycin, is a specific inhibitor of mTORC1 and has shown promise as a therapeutic agent in TSC as well as in malignancy. This review will focus on the cellular processes controlled by mTORC1 and how TSC-deficient cell lines and mouse models have broadened our understanding of the mTORC1 signalling network. It will also discuss how our knowledge of TSC signalling can help us understand sporadic conditions where mTORC1 activity is implicated in disease onset or progression, and the possibility of using rapamycin to treat sporadic disease.

  7. Homologous inhibitors from potato tubers of serine endopeptidases and metallocarboxypeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, C M; Venkatakrishnan, R; Ryan, C A

    1976-06-01

    A potent polypeptide inhibitor of chymotrypsin has been purified from Russett Burbank potatoes. The inhibitor has no effect on bovine carboxypeptidases A or B but exhibits homology with a carboxypeptidase inhibitor that is also present in potato tubers. The chymotrypsin inhibitor has a molecular weight of approximately 5400 as estimated by gel filtration, amino acid analysis, and titration with chymotrypsin. The polypeptide chain consists of 49 amino acid residues, of which six are half-cystine, forming three disulfide bonds. Its size is similar to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor, which contains 39 amino acid residues and also has three disulfide bridges. In immunological double diffusion assays, the chymotrypsin inhibitor and the carboxypeptidase inhibitor do not crossreact; however, automatic Edman degradation of reduced and alkylated derivatives of the chymotrypsin inhibitor, yielding a partial sequence of 18 amino acid residues at the NH2-terminus, reveals a similarity in sequence to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor. Thus, inhibitors directed toward two distinct classes of proteases, the serine endopeptidases and the metallocarboxypeptidases, appear to have evolved from a common ancestor.

  8. Genetics of tuberous sclerosis complex: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caban C

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Caban,1,2 Nubaira Khan,1,2 Daphne M Hasbani,3 Peter B Crino1,2 1Department of Neurology, 2Shriners Hospitals Pediatric Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multisystem disorder that results from heterozygous mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. The primary organ systems that are affected include the brain, skin, lung, kidney, and heart, all with variable frequency, penetrance, and severity. Neurological features include epilepsy, autism, and intellectual disability. There are more than 1,500 known pathogenic variants for TSC1 and TSC2, including deletion, nonsense, and missense mutations, and all pathogenic mutations are inactivating, leading to loss of function effects on the encoded proteins TSC1 and TSC2. These proteins form a complex to constitutively inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling cascade, and as a consequence, mTOR signaling is constitutively active within all TSC-associated lesions. The mTOR inhibitors rapamycin (sirolimus and everolimus have been shown to reduce the size of renal and brain lesions and improve pulmonary function in TSC, and these compounds may also decrease seizure frequency. The clinical application of mTOR inhibitors in TSC has provided one of the first examples of precision medicine in a neurodevelopmental disorder. Keywords: TSC, epilepsy, genetics, mTOR, rapamycin

  9. Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance.

  10. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  11. Changes in main nutrients and medicinal composition of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) tubers during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Renfang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-10-01

    The changes in the main nutrient and medicinal components during the storage of the Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) tubers were studied. The harvested tubers were stored under ambient conditions (10 °C to 18 °C, 60 % to 80 % Relative Humidity) and cold temperature and packaged conditions (4 °C, 60 % to 65 % Relative Humidity) for 45 day. The allantoin, starch, total alcohol-soluble sugar, reducing sugar, protein, and moisture contents of the samples were evaluated. Their amylase activities were also investigated. Results of ambient conditions indicated that, during storage, moisture decreased by 67.96 % to 56.51 %, and total sugars, reducing sugars, and protein increased by 6.49 % to 9.81 %, 1.7 % to 2.27 %, and 13.02 % to 14.55 %, respectively. Starch and enzyme activities increased during the early days of storage and progressively decreased, and the content of allantoin changed in volatility. The changes were more significant at cold temperatures and packaged conditions than at ambient conditions. This result suggests that after-ripening occurred in the early stages of Chinese yam tubers, which positively affected the nutritional potential of the tubers by a marked increase in nutrients. Low-temperature sweetening greatly affects the nutritional potential of tubers by a series of complicated interactions between starch and sugars at 4 °C.

  12. Sclerotic bone lesions at abdominal magnetic resonance imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, Susana [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Barber, Ignasi [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Barcelona (Spain); Pargaonkar, Vivek [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Chang, Joshua; Thiele, Elizabeth A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sclerotic bone lesions are often seen on chest CT in adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. To characterize bone lesions at abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. This retrospective review included 70 children with tuberous sclerosis complex who had undergone abdominal MRI for renal imaging. An additional longitudinal study was performed in 50 children who had had two or more MRI scans. Abdominal CT (eight children) and radiographs (three children) were reviewed and compared with MRI. A total of 173 sclerotic bone lesions were detected in 51/70 children (73%; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.82) chiefly affecting vertebral pedicles. New lesions appeared in 20 children and growth of previous sclerotic bone lesions was documented in 14 children. Sclerotic bone lesions were more frequent in girls and in children with more extensive renal involvement. Sclerotic bone lesions are commonly detected by abdominal MRI in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. They usually affect posterior vertebral elements and their number and size increase with age. As current recommendations for tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance include renal MR performed in childhood, recognition of these lesions is useful. (orig.)

  13. THE EFFECT OF AGROTECHNICAL FACTORS ON THE POTASSIUM CONTENT AND ITS REMOVAL BY POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Zarzecka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment covered two methods of soil tillage, conventional and simplified, as well as the following herbicide options: Plateen 41,5 WG, Plateen 41,5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC, Plateen 41,5 WG + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC, Barox 460 SL, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC, Barox 460 SL + Fusilade Forte 150 EC + adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC and control object – mechanical weeding. Potassium content and its removal by potato tubers significantly depended on soil tillage methods, weed control methods and research years. More potassium was contained in tubers harvested from conventional tillage compared with the reduced tillage. Herbicides applied in the potato field significantly decreased potassium content in tubers compared with the control object. Simplifications of soil tillage decreased potassium accumulation in potato tubers compared with the conventional tillage. Significant changes were also observed in content of potassium and its removal by 1 tonne tubers between the experimental years.

  14. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. Balady, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  15. Applying the Lessons of Tuberous Sclerosis: The 2015 Hower Award Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, E Steve

    2016-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a dominantly inherited disorder that variably affects the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Its neurological manifestations include epilepsy, autism, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and giant cell tumors. A mutation of either TSC1 or TSC2 can cause tuberous sclerosis complex. Their two gene products, hamartin and tuberin, form a physical complex which normally inhibits protein synthesis mediated through the mechanistic target of rapamycin, so a TSC1 or TSC2 mutation results in overactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin cascade. In addition to their tumor suppressor roles, TSC1 and TSC2 help to regulate cell size, neuronal migration, axon formation, and synaptic plasticity. Clinical trials of two different the mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors have demonstrated substantial improvement of tuberous sclerosis complex-related tumors, and a recent trial also showed a benefit from the mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus in the treatment of refractory epilepsy due to tuberous sclerosis complex. Effective mechanism-based therapy is now available for some manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  16. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  17. Jasmonate effect on in vitro tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars under light and dark conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Duplessis, P.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of jasmonic acid (JA) on in vitro tuberization of six potato cultivars were examined. Tuberization was carried out in the dark, or with 8 h photoperiod on MS media with vitamins, 8% sucrose, 0.6% agar and either 2.5 muM JA (JAMed) or no JA using explants either preconditioned with 2.5 muM JA

  18. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber ageing

  19. Wounding induces changes in cytokinin and auxin content in potato tuber, but does not induce formation of gibberellins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytokinin, auxin and gibberellin content in resting and wound-responding potato tuber are not clearly defined. Consequently, the coordination and possible networking of these classical hormones in the regulation of wound-healing processes are poorly understood. Using a well-defined tuber wound-hea...

  20. Potato tuber pectin structure is influenced by pectin methyl esterase activity and impacts on cooked potato texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather A; Wright, Kathryn M; McDougall, Gordon J; Roberts, Alison G; Chapman, Sean N; Morris, Wayne L; Hancock, Robert D; Stewart, Derek; Tucker, Gregory A; James, Euan K; Taylor, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Although cooked potato tuber texture is an important trait that influences consumer preference, a detailed understanding of tuber textural properties at the molecular level is lacking. Previous work has identified tuber pectin methyl esterase activity (PME) as a potential factor impacting on textural properties. In this study, tuber PME isoform and gene expression profiles have been determined in potato germplasm with differing textural properties as assessed using an amended wedge fracture method and a sloughing assay, revealing major differences between the potato types. Differences in pectin structure between potato types with different textural properties were revealed using monoclonal antibodies specific for different pectic epitopes. Chemical analysis of tuber pectin clearly demonstrated that, in tubers containing a higher level of total PME activity, there was a reduced degree of methylation of cell wall pectin and consistently higher peak force and work done values during the fracture of cooked tuber samples, demonstrating the link between PME activity, the degree of methylation of cell wall pectin, and cooked tuber textural properties.

  1. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    measurements. The inulin content was not correlated to sweetness in any culinary preparation, but total sugars and sweetness were positively correlated in raw tubers. The mass loss during baking was higher in tubers harvested in spring than in autumn, indicating that the water binding capacity and cell...

  2. Jasmonate effect on in vitro tuberization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars under light and dark conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Duplessis, P.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of jasmonic acid (JA) on in vitro tuberization of six potato cultivars were examined. Tuberization was carried out in the dark, or with 8 h photoperiod on MS media with vitamins, 8% sucrose, 0.6% agar and either 2.5 muM JA (JAMed) or no JA using explants either preconditioned with 2.5 muM JA

  3. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  4. Effects of Oxygen and Respiratory Inhibitors on Induction and Release of Dormancy in Aerial Tubers of Begonia evansiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1973-03-01

    Effects of O(2) and some respiratory inhibitors on the induction and release of bud dormancy were examined with the aerial tubers of different ages of Begonia evansiana Andr. Oxygen was needed not only for tuber sprouting but also during the chilling process at 2 to 5 C to break tuber dormancy. If the mature tubers were exposed to blue light during the chilling period, their dormancy was strikingly released even by the chilling given under an O(2) concentration as low as 3%. Blue light pretreatment promoted photo-sprouting of immature tubers only when given under lower O(2) concentrations. On the other hand, red light became effective in inducing dormancy in the immature tubers and in prolonging dormancy in the mature tubers as O(2) tension was increased. This was also the case with the induction of dormancy in the immature tubers by exposing them to a lower temperature (17 C) in the dark. The development of dormancy was suppressed by 2,4-dinitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, and sodium azide.

  5. Developmental changes in enzymes involved in the conversion of hexose phosphate and its subsequent metabolites during early tuberization of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, N.J.G.; Bruijn, de S.M.; Koot-Gronsveld, E.A.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Plas, van der L.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    A highly synchronized in vitro tuberization system, based on single-node cuttings containing an axillary bud, was used to investigate the activity patterns of enzymes involved in the conversion of hexose phosphates and related products during stolon-to-tuber transition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L

  6. Effect of genetic modification of potato starch on decomposition of leaves and tubers and on fungal decomposer communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannula, S.E.; De Boer, W.; Baldrian, P.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a risk evaluation of growing genetically modified crops, we investigated the effects of a genetic modification of starch quality (increased level of amylopectin) in potato tubers (Solanum Tuberosum L.) on the decomposition of tissues (tubers and leaves) as well as on the associated fungal

  7. Breaking tuber dormancy in Helianthus tuberosus L. and interspecific hybrids of Helianthus annuus L. x Helianthus tuberosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers are dormant from the late fall to the following spring. In the wild, tuber dormancy is broken after exposure to winter cold, resulting in sprouting and shoot development in the spring when environmental conditions are favorable. The dormancy period typically limits H. ...

  8. 腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响%Effects of Microinjection of Histamine in Ventrolateral Preoptic Area on Rat Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇炜; 若剑; 陈晓青; 易卉玲; 黄丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of histamine in rat ventrolateral preoptic area on sleep-wakeful⁃ness cycle. Methods Histamine was microinjected into ventrolateral preoptic area through stereotaxic technique,sleeping and waking time phases were recorded and analyzed by electroencephalograph. Results Microinjection of 50 μmol/L histamine had no significant effect ,but 100 μmol/L histamine de⁃creased sleeping time and increased waking time significantly. Conclusion Histamine is involved in reg⁃ulation of sleep-waking cycle and promotes wakefulness significantly in the ventrolateral preoptic area.%目的:研究组胺作用于腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期的影响。方法通过脑立体定位、腹外侧视前区微量注射组胺,脑电图仪记录及分析睡眠、觉醒时相。结果微量注射50μmol/L组胺无明显影响,而100μmol/L组胺显著减少大鼠睡眠,增加觉醒。结论组胺在腹外侧视前区对大鼠睡眠-觉醒周期发挥重要的调节作用,具有明显的促觉醒作用。

  9. Structure of the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2) N Terminus Provides Insight into Complex Assembly and Tuberous Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Reinhard; Kiontke, Stephan; Mueller, Uwe; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Kümmel, Daniel

    2016-09-16

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes. The gene products hamartin and tuberin form the TSC complex that acts as GTPase-activating protein for Rheb and negatively regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Tuberin contains a RapGAP homology domain responsible for inactivation of Rheb, but functions of other protein domains remain elusive. Here we show that the TSC2 N terminus interacts with the TSC1 C terminus to mediate complex formation. The structure of the TSC2 N-terminal domain from Chaetomium thermophilum and a homology model of the human tuberin N terminus are presented. We characterize the molecular requirements for TSC1-TSC2 interactions and analyze pathological point mutations in tuberin. Many mutations are structural and produce improperly folded protein, explaining their effect in pathology, but we identify one point mutant that abrogates complex formation without affecting protein structure. We provide the first structural information on TSC2/tuberin with novel insight into the molecular function.

  10. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of seven accessions of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott tubers growing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewu, Muinat N; Adebola, Patrick O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (cocoyam) is cultivated mainly for its edible tubers. The effect of cooking the tubers on the proximate composition of seven accessions (UFCe1-UFCe7) of the crop growing in South Africa was investigated. When compared with the uncooked, the ash and crude fibre contents of the accessions significantly decreased after cooking. The moisture content, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate and caloric contents increased with cooking in all the accessions, except UFCe1 and UFCe5 where the crude lipid content reduced. The results indicate that cooking enhanced the carbohydrate, energy and protein contents of the tubers. They further showed that the tubers could be used for allergic infants, old people and invalids since the fibre contents were still appreciably high despite the slight reduction after cooking the tubers.

  11. Feasibility of bioethanol production from tubers of Dioscorea sansibarensis and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Nyandele, Jane P; Ndossi, Humphrey P; Eva, Sosovele M; Hosea, Ken M

    2015-11-01

    Inedible tubers from Dioscorea sansibarensis (DS) and Pyrenacantha kaurabassana (PK) were found to be suitable feedstock for bioethanol production. Important composition parameters for bioethanol production for DS and PK are dry matter (% fresh tubers) ca. 20 and 6, total carbohydrates % dry weight base (db) ca. 68 and 47 and total protein (% db) ca. 16 and 10, respectively. DS and PK were found to contain inulin and galactomannan as principal polysaccharides (% of total carbohydrate) ca. 90 and 70, respectively. Diluted acid hydrolysis yielded ca. 100% of total reducing sugars. Ethanol yield ca. 56 and 35g/L was obtained at high efficiency through batch fermentation of acid hydrolysate (25% w/v) of DS and PK, respectively. A simple technique of recording and monitoring ethanol through CO2 generated during fermentation correlated strongly with HPLC measurement R(2)=0.99. Thus, tubers from these plants are potential feedstocks for bioethanol production with no competing uses.

  12. Physicochemical properties of native and γ-irradiated wild arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) tuber starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Arif Ali; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Hussain, Peerzada Rashid; Gani, Adil; Wani, Touseef Ahmad; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from wild arrowhead tuber was treated by γ-irradiation at 0, 5, 10 and 15kGy doses. Arrowhead tubers yielded 40.33% starch and its chemical composition revealed moisture, protein, ash and fat were 8.34±0.09%, 0.26±0.04%, 0.58±0.02% and 0%, respectively. Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of native and irradiated tuber starches were investigated. The results showed that peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly (p≤0.05) reduced, whereas the breakdown viscosity increased following irradiation. Physicochemical properties differed significantly and showed strong dose dependent relationship. Solubility, water absorption capacity and transmittance increased, whereas swelling power, bulk density and syneresis decreased upon increase in irradiation of starch. Correlation studies showed that irradiation dose was positively correlated with water absorption capacity and solubility index while it correlated negatively with pasting properties, swelling index, syneresis, and freeze thaw stability.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF UNDERSOWN CROPS AND STRAW BIOMASS ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 2001-2003 which aimed at describing the influence of undersown crops and spring barley straw fertilization on chemical composition of table potato tubers. Two factors were examined. I - undersown crops fertilization: control variant (without undersown crops fertilization, farmyard manure, black medic (Medicago lupulina, black medic (Medicago lupulina + Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum. II – straw fertilization (subblock without straw, subblock with straw. Obtained results allow to conclude that, fertilization with mixture of black medic with Italian ryegrass and black medic in combinations without straw or with straw in terms of size and quality of yield of potato tubers it equals or it even exceeds the farmyard manure fertilization. The increase of starch, vitamin C and true protein content in comparison with control variant was noted in potato tubers fertilizerd with undersown crops biomass and straw.

  14. A GC-MS-based metabolomics study on the tubers of commercial potato cultivars upon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uri, Csilla; Juhász, Zsófia; Polgár, Zsolt; Bánfalvi, Zsófia

    2014-09-15

    Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a system for the detection of amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and fatty acids, we characterised six commercial potato cultivars (Hópehely, Katica, Lorett, Somogyi kifli, Vénusz Gold, and White Lady) with different pedigrees, starch contents, cooking types, and dormancy periods, in five developmental stages from harvest to sprouting. The tubers were stored at 20-22°C in the dark. The metabolite data were subjected to principal component analysis. No correlation between metabolite contents of freshly harvested tubers and starch content or cooking type of the cultivars was detected. The storage decreased the fructose and sucrose and increased the proline concentrations of tubers. Irrespective of the length of dormancy a substantial difference in metabolite composition at each time point upon storage was detected in each cultivar except Somogyi kifli, the only cultivar amongst those tested with a pure Solanum tuberosum origin and A cooking type.

  15. Polysaccharide composition of raw and cooked chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) fruits and tuberous roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tânia M; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Carpita, Nicholas C; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-10-05

    Chayote is a multipurpose table vegetable widely consumed in Latin America countries. Chayote fruits, leaves and tuberous roots contain complex carbohydrates as dietary fiber and starch, vitamins and minerals. The complex polysaccharides (cell walls and starch) were analyzed in the black and green varieties of chayote fruits as well as in green chayote tuberous root before and after a controlled cooking process to assess changes in their composition and structure. The monosaccharide composition and linkage analysis indicated pectins homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan I backbones constitute about 15-20% of the wall mass, but are heavily substituted with, up to 60% neutral arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactans. The remainder is composed of xyloglucan, glucomannans and galactoglucomannans. Chayote cell-wall polysaccharides are highly stable under normal cooking conditions, as confirmed by the optical microscopy of wall structure. We found also that tuberous roots constitute a valuable additional source of quality starch and fiber.

  16. Longitudinal CT and MR appearances of hemimegalencephaly in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Ravikanth; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Ramachandran, K; Nayak, S Dinesh; Priyakumari, T

    2008-03-01

    A 3-day-old baby was referred to our institution with seizures since birth and a presumptive diagnosis of cerebral tumor detected by prenatal ultrasound. Computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging performed immediately after birth revealed the presence of an enhancing mass in the left cerebral hemisphere. The possibility of a congenital malignant brain tumor was considered. Although surgery was advised, the parents opted for conservative medical management. The infant was under treatment for seizures with antiepileptic drugs. At 7-month follow-up, there was a noticeable increase in the seizure activity with signs of developmental delay and increased head circumference. Repeat CT and MR imaging showed features of hemimegalencephaly with a calcified mass involving the left hemisphere. The patient was diagnosed to have tuberous sclerosis. This case report illustrates how an enhancing mass (possibly a tuber) over a period of time diminishes in size and becomes calcified in a patient with tuberous sclerosis and associated hemimegalencephaly.

  17. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: considerations for surgical or pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheless, James W; Klimo, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene that can result in the growth of hamartomas in multiple organ systems. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are slow-growing brain tumors associated primarily with tuberous sclerosis complex. They are usually located in the ventricles, often near the foramen of Monro, where they can cause an obstruction if they grow too large, leading to increased intracranial pressure. Surgery to remove a tumor has been the mainstay of treatment but can be associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Not all tumors and/or patients are suitable for surgery. The recent development of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors that target the pathway affected by TSC1/TSC2 mutations offers a novel pharmacotherapeutic option for these patients. We review the timing and use of surgery versus pharmacotherapy for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

  18. VATS therapy of chylothorax caused by leiomyomatosis complicated with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienn Csiszkó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioleiomyomatosis with tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare disease. One of the most frequent complications of lymphangioleiomyomatosis is pleural effusion (chylothorax wich can be treated with the use of VATS. Authors report a case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a 56-year-old female patient with tuberous sclerosis complex with an 8-week history of recurrent chylothorax, dyspnea and debilitating weakness. By CT scan a flat tissue proliferation was seen in the site of the thoracic duct and it was supposed to be the reason for the pleural effusion. A VATS resection of this laesion and ligation of the thoracic duct was performed successfully. Chylothorax is often associated with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis combined with tuberous sclerosis complex is extremely rare. In case of chylothorax VATS treatment is successful and may be the first choice.

  19. Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzichini Daniele

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

  20. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima and Huancayo (Junín. Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI Analysis was performed for yield variables: mini-tuber “weight” and “number of mini-tubers” per plant. There was a high variation in all the responses to the treatments. “Days to tuber set” was influenced by genetic responses, temperature and greenhouse Photosynthetically Active Radiation intensity. Considerable increases in the length of the vegetative cycle and plant height were recorded for all genotypes, and these were particularly notable in the warmer coastal environments. AMMI analysis showed that yield variables were primarily influenced by the genotypic effect followed by the genotype by environment interaction effect. The Venturana variety (T2 was the best performing genotype with a total average mini-tuber “weight” of 644 g per plant while the Chucmarina variety (T1 performed best for the variable “number of mini-tubers” with an overall average of 60.2 mini-tubers per plant. Both showed stability across different environments for these variables. The advanced clones T3 (395434.1, T5 (397077.16 and T6 (397073.16 showed stability for yield variables, but their performance was below the overall average of the trial. It is recommended that the environment and management should ideally be tailored to the genotype as this will result in significant yield gains.

  1. Tuberous sclerosis with bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TCS is an autosomal dominant disease which comes under a group of diseases known as neurocutaneous syndrome. Incidence of TCS is around 1 in 6000. The clinical triad of papular facial nevus, seizures and mental retardation is found in less than 50% of the patients. Renal lesions in TCS commonly consist of simple renal cyst and angiomyolipomas. Renal cell carcinoma though rarely associated with tuberous sclerosis may be its significant manifestations. We report a case of TCS with bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a 12 year old child with classical radiological and clinical signs.

  2. Physico-chemical properties and thermal aggregation of patatin, the major potato tuber protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pots, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In potato tubers patatin is the most abundant protein, it is a 43 kDa glycoprotein with a lipid acyl hydrolase activity. Next, different classes of potato protease inhibitors are present. The content and biological activity of patatin and a fraction of potato protease inhibitors of molecular size 20-22 kDa were monitored as a function of storage time of whole potato tubers. It was observed that the amount of buffer-extractable protein decreased gradually during storage of whole potat...

  3. A Case of Proliferative Retinopathy Complicated with Tuberous Sclerosis Treated by Vitreous Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Emika; Morishita, Seita; Akashi, Mari; Kohmoto, Ryohsuke; Fukumoto, Masanori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Kida, Teruyo; Sugasawa, Jun; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of proliferative retinopathy complicated with retinal hamartoma in a tuberous sclerosis patient. This study involved a 16-year-old female patient who was diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis at birth. Ophthalmic examination revealed retinal hamartoma surrounding the optic disc in both eyes. Vitreous surgery involving a vitrectomy and resection of the proliferative membranes was performed for proliferative retinopathy in her right eye. Postoperative fundus findings showed improvement and decreased exudative changes. The proliferative and exudative changes appeared to be due to the retinal hamartoma, and vitreous surgery proved effective in this case. PMID:28101046

  4. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

    OpenAIRE

    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez; Stef de Haan; Alfredo Rodríguez-Delfín

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima) and Huancayo (Junín). Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Ad...

  5. Estructura robótica Pre-Tensada para robot en tuberías petroleras

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un robot basado en la estructura Pre-Tensada con el fin de realizar tareas de inspección y mantenimiento en tuberías petroleras. Este tipo de estructura mecánica se caracteriza por su bajo peso y su alta capacidad de adaptación a los diferentes diámetros. La aplicación requiere que el dispositivo desarrollado se desplace verticalmente y a alta velocidad por las tuberías utilizadas en la extracción del petróleo. Cabe destacar que en dichas instalaci...

  6. Glycoalkaloids in potato tubers grown under controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitithamyong, A.; Vonelbe, J. H.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    Tuber content of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGA) was determined for the potato cultivars, Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali grown under different environmental conditions in growth chambers. The lowest TGA concentrations (0.30 to 0.35 mg g-1 dry tissue) were found in the cv. Norland with 400 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 12 h day length, 16 C temperature, and 350 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide. The ratio of alpha-chaconine to alpha-solanine was close to 60:40 under all growing conditions, except that it was 50:50 under the low temperature of 12 C. Cultivars responded similarly to environmental conditions although TGA was about 20% greater in cv. Russet Burbank and about 30% greater in Denali compared to Norland. The largest changes in TGA occurred with changes in temperature. In comparison to 16 C, TGA were 40% greater at 12 C, 80% greater at 20 C, and 125% greater at 24 C (0.70 mg g-1 dry weight). The TGA concentration increased from 10 to 25% with an increase in light from 400 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF for all three cultivars. TGA increased 20% with extension of the day length from 12 to 24 hr and also increased 20% when carbon dioxide was increased from 350 to 1000 micromoles mol-1. TGA concentrations were not influenced by changes in relative humidity from 50 to 80%. TGA concentrations decreased only slightly in harvests made from 9 to 21 weeks after planting. Variations in TGA among the different growing conditions and cultivars were below 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (approximately 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight) recognized as the upper concentration for food safety. However the results suggest that TGA should be considered when potatoes are grown at temperatures above 20 C.

  7. Glucose deprivation in tuberous sclerosis complex-related tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells possess unique metabolic phenotypes that are determined by their underlying oncogenic pathways. Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade promotes glycolysis and leads to glucose-dependence in tumors. In particular, cells with constitutive mTORC1 activity secondary to the loss of TSC1/TSC2 function are prone to undergo apoptosis upon glucose withdrawal in vitro, but this concept has not been tested in vivo. This study examines the effects of restricting glucose metabolism by pharmacologic and dietary means in a tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC tumor xenograft model. Results Tumor-bearing mice were randomly assigned to receive unrestricted carbohydrate-free ("Carb-free" or Western-style diet in the absence or presence of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG in one of four treatment groups. After 14 weeks, tumor sizes were significantly different among the four treatment groups with those receiving 2-DG having the smallest tumors. Unexpectedly, the "Carb-free" diet was associated with the largest tumors but they remained responsive to 2-DG. PET imaging showed significant treatment-related changes in tumor 18fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake but the standard uptake values did not correlate with tumor size. Alternative energy substrates such as ketone bodies and monounsaturated oleic acid supported the growth of the Tsc2-/- cells in vitro, whereas saturated palmitic acid was toxic. Correspondingly, tumors in the high-fat, "Carb-free" group showed greater necrosis and liquefaction that contributed to their larger sizes. In contrast, 2-DG treatment significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation, increased metabolic stress (i.e., ketonemia and AMPK activity, whereas rapamycin primarily reduced cell size. Conclusions Our data support the concept of glycolytic inhibition as a therapeutic approach in TSC whereas dietary withdrawal of carbohydrates was not effective.

  8. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Curcuma longa tuber powder

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    Shameli K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Shameli,1,2 Mansor Bin Ahmad,1 Ali Zamanian,2 Parvanh Sangpour,2 Parvaneh Shabanzadeh,3 Yadollah Abdollahi,4 Mohsen Zargar51Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Iran; 3Department of Mathematics, 4Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Qom, IranAbstract: Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vastly developing area of research. Metallic nanoparticles have received great attention from chemists, physicists, biologists, and engineers who wish to use them for the development of a new-generation of nanodevices. In this study, silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple and eco-friendly route using Curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts, which acted as a reductant and stabilizer simultaneously. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which included ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 415 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles was 6.30 ± 2.64 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products from C. longa for biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, Curcuma longa, biosynthesis, green synthesis, transmission electron microscopy

  9. Restoration of Normal Cerebral Oxygen Consumption with Rapamycin Treatment in a Rat Model of Autism-Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Oak Z; Wu, Chang-Chih; Liu, Xia; Rah, Kang H; Jacinto, Estela; Weiss, Harvey R

    2015-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is associated with autism spectrum disorders and has been linked to metabolic dysfunction and unrestrained signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin can mitigate some of the phenotypic abnormalities associated with TSC and autism, but whether this is due to the mTOR-related function in energy metabolism remains to be elucidated. In young Eker rats, an animal model of TSC and autism, which harbors a germ line heterozygous Tsc2 mutation, we previously reported that cerebral oxygen consumption was pronouncedly elevated. Young (4 weeks) male control Long-Evans and Eker rats were divided into control and rapamycin-treated (20 mg/kg once daily for 2 days) animals. Cerebral regional blood flow ((14)C-iodoantipyrine) and O2 consumption (cryomicrospectrophotometry) were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We found significantly increased basal O2 consumption in the cortex (8.7 ± 1.5 ml O2/min/100 g Eker vs. 2.7 ± 0.2 control), hippocampus, pons and cerebellum. Regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 extractions were also elevated in all brain regions. Rapamycin had no significant effect on O2 consumption in any brain region of the control rats, but significantly reduced consumption in the cortex (4.1 ± 0.3) and all other examined regions of the Eker rats. Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 was similar in the two groups and equally reduced by rapamycin. Thus, a rapamycin-sensitive, mTOR-dependent but S6K1-independent, signal led to enhanced oxidative metabolism in the Eker brain. We found decreased Akt phosphorylation in Eker but not Long-Evans rat brains, suggesting that this may be related to the increased cerebral O2 consumption in the Eker rat. Our findings suggest that rapamycin targeting of Akt to restore normal cerebral metabolism could have therapeutic potential in tuberous sclerosis and autism.

  10. Seasonal changes of androgen receptor, estrogen receptors and aromatase expression in the medial preoptic area of the wild male ground squirrels (Citellus dauricus Brandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wild ground squirrel is a typical seasonal breeder. In this study, using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the mRNA and protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom in the medial preoptic area (MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrel during the breeding season (April, the non-breeding season (June and pre-hibernation (September. AR, ERα, ERβ and P450arom protein/mRNA were present in the MPOA of all seasons detected. The immunostaining of AR and ERα showed no significant changes in different periods, whereas ERβ and P450arom had higher immunoreactivities during the breeding season and pre-hibernation when compared to those of the non-breeding season. Consistently, both the protein and mRNA levels of P450arom and ERβ were higher in the MPOA of pre-hibernation and the breeding season than in the non-breeding season, whereas no significant difference amongst the three periods was observed for AR and ERα levels. These findings suggested that the MPOA of hypothalamus may be a direct target of androgen and estrogen. Androgen may play important regulatory roles through its receptor and/or the aromatized estrogen in the MPOA of hypothalamus of the wild male ground squirrels.

  11. Effect of Testosterone on Neuronal Morphology and Neuritic Growth of Fetal Lamb Hypothalamus-Preoptic Area and Cerebral Cortex in Primary Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C Reddy

    Full Text Available Testosterone plays an essential role in sexual differentiation of the male sheep brain. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN, is 2 to 3 times larger in males than in females, and this sex difference is under the control of testosterone. The effect of testosterone on oSDN volume may result from enhanced expansion of soma areas and/or dendritic fields. To test this hypothesis, cells derived from the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA and cerebral cortex (CTX of lamb fetuses were grown in primary culture to examine the direct morphological effects of testosterone on these cellular components. We found that within two days of plating, neurons derived from both the HPOA and CTX extend neuritic processes and express androgen receptors and aromatase immunoreactivity. Both treated and control neurites continue to grow and branch with increasing time in culture. Treatment with testosterone (10 nM for 3 days significantly (P < 0.05 increased both total neurite outgrowth (35% and soma size (8% in the HPOA and outgrowth (21% and number of branch points (33% in the CTX. These findings indicate that testosterone-induced somal enlargement and neurite outgrowth in fetal lamb neurons may contribute to the development of a fully masculine sheep brain.

  12. The effects of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway stimulation on dopamine in the medial preoptic area and copulation in DHT-treated castrated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Satoru M; Wersinger, Scott R; Hull, Elaine M

    2007-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) provides important facilitative influence on male rat copulation. We have shown that the nitric oxide-cGMP (NO-cGMP) pathway modulates MPOA DA levels and copulation. We have also shown that systemic estradiol (E(2)) maintains neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity in the MPOA of castrates, as well as relatively normal DA levels. This effect of E(2) on nNOS probably accounts for at least some of the previously demonstrated behavioral facilitation by intra-MPOA E(2) administration in castrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of the MPOA NO-cGMP pathway in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated castrates should restore DA levels and copulatory behaviors. Reverse-dialysis of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), increased extracellular DA in the MPOA of DHT-treated castrates and restored the ability to copulate to ejaculation in half of the animals. A cGMP analog, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased extracellular DA, though not as robustly, but did not restore copulatory ability. The effectiveness of the NO donor in restoring copulation and MPOA DA levels is consistent with our hypothesis. However, the lack of behavioral effects of 8-Br-cGMP, despite its increase in MPOA DA, suggests that NO may have additional mediators in the MPOA in the regulation of copulation. Furthermore, the suboptimal copulation seen in the NO donor-treated animals suggests the importance of extra-MPOA systems in the regulation of copulation.

  13. Effects of NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors in the medial preoptic area on body temperature in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Trina; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2016-10-01

    Glutamate when microinjected at the medial preoptic area (mPOA) influences brain temperature (Tbr) and body temperature (Tb) in rats. Glutamate and its various receptors are present at the mPOA. The aim of this study was to identify the contribution of each of the ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the mPOA on changes in Tbr and Tb in freely moving rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=40) were implanted with bilateral guide cannula with indwelling styli above the mPOA. A telemetric transmitter was implanted at the peritoneum to record Tb and locomotor activity (LMA). A precalibrated thermocouple wire implanted near the hypothalamus was used to assess Tbr. Specific agonist for each ionotropic glutamate receptor was microinjected into the mPOA and its effects on temperature and LMA were measured in the rats. The rats were also microinjected with the respective ionotropic receptor antagonists, 15min prior to the microinjection of each agonist. Amongst amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid, AMPA increased Tb and LMA when injected at the mPOA. Specific antagonists for AMPA receptors was able to attenuate this increase (ptemperature.

  14. Raiz tuberosa de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius: potencialidade de cultivo, aspectos tecnológicos e nutricionais Yacon tuberous root (Smallanthus sonchifolius: cultivation potentialities, technological and nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Santana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius é uma planta da família Asteraceae, originária das regiões Andinas. Suas raízes tuberosas são semelhantes a batatas doces em aparência, possuem gosto doce e polpa crocante, sendo bastante consumidas na forma in natura. Seu consumo foi negligenciado até meados dos anos 80, quando foram descobertas peculiaridades em sua composição química que poderiam ser benéficas à saúde humana. A raiz apresenta elevado teor de água, possui reduzido valor energético e, diferentemente da maioria das espécies tuberosas que estocam energia na forma de amido, o yacon tem como principal carboidrato de reserva os frutooligossacarídeos (FOS, os quais têm sido motivo de destaque por exercerem atividade bifidogênica. Esta revisão aborda diferentes aspectos inerentes a esta espécie, como origem histórica, características botânicas, composição química e efeitos pós-colheita.Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius is a plant that belongs to Asteraceae family, originated from Andean regions. The tuberous roots produced by this plant are similar to sweet potatoes in appearance, have a sweet taste and a crunch pulp, being often consumed "in natura". Yacon was not usually consumed until the 80’s decade, when some peculiarities were discovered in its chemical composition that could be beneficial to human health. The tubers contain high water content, reduced energetic value and, unlikely most tuberous species which store the carbohydrates in the form of starch, yacon has fructooligosaccharides (FOS as its main reserve carbohydrate, being highlighted by its bifidogenic activity. This paper presents a literature review on many aspects about this specie, such as historical origin, botanical features, chemical composition and post harvest effects.

  15. Rapid metabolic discrimination and prediction of dioscin content from African yam tubers using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Jie, Eun Yee; Sartie, Alieu; Kim, Dong Jin; Liu, Jang Ryol; Min, Byung Whan; Kim, Suk Weon

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not FT-IR spectroscopy could be used for taxonomic and metabolic discrimination of African yam lines, tuber samples from African and Asian yam species were subjected to FT-IR. Most remarkable spectral differences between African and Asian yams were found in the 1750-1700 cm(-1) region, polysaccharide (1200-900 cm(-1)) and protein/amide I and II (1700-1500 cm(-1)) regions of FT-IR spectra. A hierarchical dendrogram based on partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of FT-IR data from 7 African yam species show phylogenetic relationship. In addition, the content of dioscin, a steroidal saponin found in yam tuber, was predicted using a PLS regression model with regression coefficient R(2)=0.7208 indicated that prediction model had average accuracy. Thus, considering these results we suggest that FT-IR combined with multivariate analysis could be applied as a novel tool for metabolic evaluation and high-throughput screening of African yam lines with higher content of dioscin.

  16. Study on submerged fermentation of Pleurotus tuber-regium%虎奶菇Pleurotus tuber-regium深层发酵的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林跃鑫; 刘春辉; 肖良建; 黄谚谚

    2009-01-01

    报道了虎奶菇Pleurotus tuber-regium深层发酵的最适培养基和摇瓶发酵条件.试验结果表明,Pleurotus tuber-regium对单糖、双糖、多糖和糖醇都有一定的利用,但葡萄糖、麦芽糖等对菌丝生长效果较好;酵母粉、黄豆饼粉等蛋白质含量高的氮源对菌丝的生长较为有利;通过k9(34)正交试验确定了Pleurotus tuber-regium发酵的最适培养基为:5%葡萄糖,0.4%酵母粉.0.1%KH2PO4,0.3%MgSO4·7H2O,0.001%VB1及微量NaCl;一定浓度内Na+对茵丝体生长有促进效果.最适的摇瓶发酵条件为:培养基起始pH7.0,培养温度32℃,接种量15%,摇床转速150r/min,250mL三角瓶最适装液量为70mL,发酵周期为6d.

  17. In vitro tuberization of Chlorophytum Borivilianum Sant & Fern (Safed musli) as influenced by sucrose, CCC and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad Ashraf, Mehdi; Abd Aziz, Maheran; Abdul Kadir, Mihdzar; Stanslas, Johnson; Farokhian, Elmira

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on the establishment of in vitro tuberization of Chlorophytum borivilianum using solid and liquid culture systems. A high in vitro tuberization rate on solid and stationary liquid Murashige and Skoog media was observed in the presence of 60 g l⁻¹ sucrose with 950, 1,265 and 1,580 µM 2-chloroethyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CCC). Application of a higher sucrose concentration of 90 g l⁻¹ showed a negative interaction with CCC on in vitro tuber number and days to in vitro tuber induction. For economic feasibility, 950 µM CCC with 60 g l⁻¹ sucrose was chosen as the best combination for in vitro tuberization in both solid and stationary liquid media. For optimization of in vitro tuber production,a comparison between solid, stationary liquid and shake liquid culture was carried out. Liquid culture with shaking at 80 r.p.m. resulted in a >2.5-fold increase in in vitro tuber production compared with solid culture.

  18. Caring for Children With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: What Is the Physical and Mental Health Impact on Caregivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentz, Anne M; Skalicky, Anne M; Pashos, Chris L; Liu, Zhimei; Magestro, Matthew; Pelletier, Corey L; Prestifilippo, Judith A; Nakagawa, JoAnne; Frost, Michael D; Dunn, David W; Wheless, James W

    2015-10-01

    Disease burden associated with tuberous sclerosis complex, a genetic disorder characterized by benign tumor growth including lesions in multiple organs, puts tremendous demands on families. This analysis examines the physical and mental health burden of tuberous sclerosis complex caregivers in the United States. An institutional review board-approved web-based survey of tuberous sclerosis complex caregivers collected information; descriptive analyses were conducted on age-based subgroups. A total of 275 caregivers of tuberous sclerosis complex patients responded. Mean patient age ≤ 18 years was 6.9 (±4.4) and 42.3 (±18.2) for patients >18 years of age. Caregivers reported multiple tuberous sclerosis complex manifestations and high health care utilization for patients. Caregivers spending more time on doctor visits or researching tuberous sclerosis complex had lower physical and mental health-related quality of life scores and more depressive symptoms. Tuberous sclerosis complex caregivers had significantly lower physical and mental health-related quality of life scores and more depressive symptomatology compared to US healthy adult population norms.

  19. Structure of viroid replicative intermediates: physico-chemical studies on SP6 transcripts of cloned oligomeric potato spindle tuber viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, G; Tabler, M; Brüggemann, W; Colpan, M; Klotz, G; Sänger, H L; Riesner, D

    1986-12-22

    The structure and structural transitions of transcripts of cloned oligomeric viroid were studied in physico-chemical experiments and stability calculations. Transcripts of (+) and (-) polarity, from unit up to sixfold length, were synthesized from DNA clones of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV) with the SP6 transcription system. Their structural properties were investigated by optical denaturation curves, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electron microscopy, sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium and velocity sedimentation. Secondary structures of the RNAs and theoretical denaturation curves were calculated using an energy optimization program. The secondary structure of lowest free energy for unit length and oligomeric transcripts is a rod-like structure similar to that of the mature circular viroids. When this structure is used as a model for calculations, there is a large degree of agreement between the theoretical and the experimental denaturation curves. At high temperatures, however, (+) strand transcripts exhibited a transition which was more stable than expected from the calculations or than was known from curves of mature viroids. This transition arises from a rearrangement of the central conserved region of viroids to a helical region of 28 stable base pairs either intermolecularly leading to bimolecular complexes, or intramolecularly giving rise to a branched secondary structure. The rearrangement could be detected by electron microscopy, HPLC, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The helical region serves to divide up the oligomeric (+) strand into structural units which may be recognized by cleavage and ligation enzymes which process the oligomeric intermediates to circular mature viroids.

  20. Genetic enhancement of oil content in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) through an integrated metabolic engineering strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Guo, Qigao; Akbar, Sehrish; Zhi, Yao; El Tahchy, Anna; Mitchell, Madeline; Li, Zhongyi; Shrestha, Pushkar; Vanhercke, Thomas; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo; White, Rosemary; Larkin, Philip; Singh, Surinder; Petrie, James

    2017-01-01

    Potato tuber is a high yielding food crop known for its high levels of starch accumulation but only negligible levels of triacylglycerol (TAG). In this study, we evaluated the potential for lipid production in potato tubers by simultaneously introducing three transgenes, including WRINKLED 1 (WRI1), DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1 (DGAT1) and OLEOSIN under the transcriptional control of tuber-specific (patatin) and constitutive (CaMV-35S) promoters. This coordinated metabolic engineering approach resulted in over a 100-fold increase in TAG accumulation to levels up to 3.3% of tuber dry weight (DW). Phospholipids and galactolipids were also found to be significantly increased in the potato tuber. The increase of lipids in these transgenic tubers was accompanied by a significant reduction in starch content and an increase in soluble sugars. Microscopic examination revealed that starch granules in the transgenic tubers had more irregular shapes and surface indentations when compared with the relatively smooth surfaces of wild-type starch granules. Ultrastructural examination of lipid droplets showed their close proximity to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may indicate a dynamic interaction with these organelles during the processes of lipid biosynthesis and turnover. Increases in lipid levels were also observed in the transgenic potato leaves, likely due to the constitutive expression of DGAT1 and incomplete tuber specificity of the patatin promoter. This study represents an important proof-of-concept demonstration of oil increase in tubers and provides a model system to further study carbon reallocation during development of nonphotosynthetic underground storage organs. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Characteristic of Tuber spp. localities in natural stands with emphasis on plant species composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Hilszczanska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Tuber establish ectomycorrhizal symbioses with shrubs, trees and some herbaceous plants. Some Tuber species, for example, T. melanosporum, T. magnatum, T. aestivum are economically important because they produce edible fruiting bodies with a distinctive taste and flavor. Our concept of truffle ecophysiology is dominated by the symbiosis with deciduous hosts, such as: Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, Castanea sativa, Corylus spp., Carpinus betulus, Ostrya carpinifolia, Betula verrucosa, and Tilia spp., whereas the real range of hosts in nature seems to be much wider. Moreover, interactions between Tuber mycelium and plant community could be more complex than just forming the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Here we show our inventory of plants and soils at six truffle’ sites in the southern part of Poland (Nida Basin and Przedbórz Upland. The aim of this study was to widen our understanding of ecological factors affecting Tuber spp., in the context of pioneering stage of research on truffles in Poland. We hope our findings will have a practical application and will help to choose suitable soils for truffle orchards.

  2. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Gao

    Full Text Available The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific.

  3. Potato tuber proteomics: Comparison of two complementary extraction methods designed for 2-DE of acidic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Wal, van der F.; Dierick, J.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Jardin, du P.; America, A.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Two protein extraction procedures were tested in order to remove interfering compounds prior to 2-DE of potato tubers. These methods using SDS lysis buffer and phenol-phase extraction were compared regarding the quality of the resulting 2-D gel. While the resolution of SDS extracts on semipreparativ

  4. Heat-induced conformational changes of patatin, the major potato tuber protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, A.M.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Gruppen, H.; Hamer, R.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a first structural characterization of isolated patatin, the major potato tuber protein, at ambient and elevated temperatures. Isolated patatin at room temperature is a highly structured molecule at both secondary and tertiary levels. It is estimated from far-ultraviolet circular

  5. Potato spindle tuber viroid detection in phloem exudates and guttation fluid of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is a single-stranded, non protein-encoding, covalently-closed circular RNA molecule (359nt) that infects many horticultural and agricultural crops. PSTVd is mechanically transmitted, replicates in the nucleus, and moves cell-to-cell through plasmodesmata. Though i...

  6. MAPA distinguishes genotype-specific variability of highly similar regulatory protein isoforms in potato tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Hummel, Jan; Egelhofer, Volker; Selbig, Joachim; van Dongen, Joost T; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-07-01

    Mass Accuracy Precursor Alignment is a fast and flexible method for comparative proteome analysis that allows the comparison of unprecedented numbers of shotgun proteomics analyses on a personal computer in a matter of hours. We compared 183 LC-MS analyses and more than 2 million MS/MS spectra and could define and separate the proteomic phenotypes of field grown tubers of 12 tetraploid cultivars of the crop plant Solanum tuberosum. Protein isoforms of patatin as well as other major gene families such as lipoxygenase and cysteine protease inhibitor that regulate tuber development were found to be the primary source of variability between the cultivars. This suggests that differentially expressed protein isoforms modulate genotype specific tuber development and the plant phenotype. We properly assigned the measured abundance of tryptic peptides to different protein isoforms that share extensive stretches of primary structure and thus inferred their abundance. Peptides unique to different protein isoforms were used to classify the remaining peptides assigned to the entire subset of isoforms based on a common abundance profile using multivariate statistical procedures. We identified nearly 4000 proteins which we used for quantitative functional annotation making this the most extensive study of the tuber proteome to date.

  7. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  8. Pancreatic tumors in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Gonca [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Melikgazi, Kayseri (Turkey); Sugimoto, Sam; Kammen, Bamidele F.; Karakas, S.P. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Kuperman, Rachel [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are not included in the diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex, although an association has been described. To investigate the association of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex and define MRI characteristics of the tumor. We retrospectively evaluated the abdominal MRI scans of 55 children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex for the presence of a pancreatic mass. The scans were performed over a period of 7 years to monitor renal pathology. We obtained each patient's clinical history and treatment protocol from the hospital's electronic medical records. A solid pancreatic mass was identified in 5/55 (9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3-20%) patients (4 male) with a mean age of 12.6 years. Four of the lesions were located in the pancreatic tail and one in the pancreatic body. All of the lesions were solid, ovoid and well demarcated, with a mean diameter of 3.1 cm. The masses uniformly demonstrated T1 and T2 prolongation, but their diffusion behavior and post-contrast enhancement varied. The two surgically resected lesions were synaptophysin (+) non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors on pathology. Two of the patients who did not have surgery were treated with everolimus; one of the lesions has shown interval decrease in size and the other has remained stable. Pancreatic tumor is relatively common in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. (orig.)

  9. Altered Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions and Epileptogenesis in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and in vivo (video-EEG). To directly compare glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission , excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and...Epileptogenesis in non-tuber neural tissue in TS may thus arise by an imbalance of decreased inhibitory and increased excitatory synaptic transmission ... transmission . Astrocytes could also regulate neuronal excitability by glutamate uptake and other means that alter expression and function of synaptic

  10. Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in Ikwuano local ... In terms of percentage volume of sales, Chin-Chin ranked 1st followed by ginger ... This will create markets and increase demand thereby eliminating wastage of ...

  11. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst-van Putten, H.J.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Pereira-Bertram, I.J.; Berg, H.; Krol, van der A.R.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,

  12. FERMENTATION OF INULIN BY A NEW STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM-THERMOAUTOTROPHICUM ISOLATED FROM DAHLIA TUBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENT, WJ; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1991-01-01

    A new inulin-fermenting strain of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum was isolated through enrichment on dahlia tubers, and subsequent plating on agar media with undissolved inulin. Both the cell-bound and cell-free inulinase(s) functioned optimally at 60-degrees-C and at neutral pH. This new strain I1

  13. Antifungal Activity of Chitosan on Fusarium sulphureum in Relation to Dry Rot of Potato Tuber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-cai; SUN Xiao-juan; BI Yang; GE Yong-hong; WANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activity of chitosan on Fusarium sulphureum in relation to the inhibitory effect on dry rot of potato tuber was investigated.The results showed spore germination and mycelial growth of F.sulphureura were inhibited by ehitosan treatment and the inhibitory effect was highly correlated with ehitosan concentration used in this study.Morphological changes such as intertwisting hyphal,distortion,and swelling with excessive branching were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation further indicated the ultrastructural alterations of hyphae.These changes included abnormal distribution of eytoplasma,non-membraneous inclusion bodies assembling in cytoplasm,considerable thickening of the hyphal cellular walls,and very frequent septation with malformed septa.Application of chitosan at higher concentration caused serious damage to fungal hyphae,including cellular membrane disorganisation,cell wall disruption,and breaking of inner cytoplast.New hyphae (daughter hyphae) inside the collapsed hyphal cells was often detected in the cytoplasm of ehitosan-treated hyphae.In vivo tests showed that chitosan treatment at 0.5 or 1% effectively controlled the dry rot of potato tuber inoculated with a spore suspension ofF.sulphureum.However,the chitosan treatment at 1% caused phytotoxicity to potato tuber.This study suggests that the use of ehitosan could be a promising handling as a natural fungicide to partially substitute for the synthetic fungicides in potato tuber.

  14. Aquatic plant shows flexible avoidance by escape from tuber predation by swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, B.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; De Boer, T.; De Vries, P.P.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deeper burial of bulbs and tubers has been suggested as an escape against below-ground herbivory by vertebrates, but experimental evidence is lacking. As deep propagule burial can incur high costs of emergence after dormancy, burial depth may represent a trade-off between sprouting survival and

  15. Tuberous sclerosis complex complicated with extraventricular cystic giant cell astrocytoma: case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xu-zhu; DAI Jian-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one of the most commonly identified neurocutaneous disorders with a prevalence of 1/6000 to 1/9000 in general population1,2 In the patients with TSC, 10%-15% have subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) .3

  16. Glyphosate carryover in seed potato: effects on mother crop and daughter tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on ‘Ranger Russet’ potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107...

  17. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  18. Variations in Zebra Chip disease expression and tuber biochemistry in response to vector density

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined effects of the number of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso)-positive psyllids feeding on potatoes to Lso titers, zebra chip disease (ZC) symptom severity, and levels of amino acids, carbohydrates, and phenolics in tubers harvested weeks later. Red La Soda and Russet Nor...

  19. Major Proteins of the Amyloplast of Agar and Soil - Grown Potato Tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Simon; Blennow, Andreas; Stensballe, Allan

    and total tuber extracts by SDS-PAGE and the specific activities of marker enzymes for amyloplast, cytosol, mitochondria and the vacuole. SDS-PAGE separated amyloplast and starch granule proteins were in-gel digested with trypsin, analyzed by mass spectrometry, and identified by searches against presently...

  20. Molecular analysis of differentially expressed genes during postharvest deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuberous roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems for cassava is the rapid deterioration after harvesting cassava tuberous roots, which limits the possibilities for production and distribution of cassava in the world. Postharvest deterioration is an inherent problem for cassava since wounding and mechanical damage of the t

  1. The tuberous epiphytes of the Rubiaceae 1: A new subtribe — The Hydnophytinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huxley, C.R.; Jebb, M.H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The morphology and ant-association of the five genera Hydnophytum Jack, Myrmecodia Jack, Anthorrhiza Huxley & Jebb, Squamellaria Becc. and Myrmephytum Becc. are described. On the basis of shared character states in tuber cavity development and inflorescence structure these five genera are united as

  2. From mTOR to Cognition: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Cognitive Impairments in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehninger, D.; de Vries, P. J.; Silva, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a multi-system disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the "TSC1" or "TSC2" gene and is often associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms, including intellectual disability, specific neuropsychological deficits, autism, other behavioural disorders and epilepsy. Method: Here, we review evidence from animal…

  3. Faciale angiofibromer ved tuberøs sklerose behandlet med sirolimussalve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Bygum, Anette; Hansen, Lars Kjærsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    We present a five-year-old boy with facial angiofibromas associated to tuberous sclerosis successfully treated with topical sirolimus 0.4% applied three times a week for six months. After six months we observed a nearly complete resolution of facial angiofibromas. The blood levels of sirolimus...

  4. Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Obstetric Complications in Children and Adolescents with Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rebecca J.; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the role of obstetric complications in determining phenotypic manifestations in tuberous sclerosis (TS), a disorder associated with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison of 43 children with TS and 40 unaffected siblings found children with TS experienced more obstetric complications, but these were related to mild rather…

  5. Attention Deficits in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): Rethinking the Pathways to the Endstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, P. J.; Watson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with a range of neurocognitive manifestations, including neuropsychological attention deficits most notably in dual tasking/divided attention. These dual-task deficits have so far been interpreted as evidence of a vulnerable "cognitive module" in TSC. Here, we suggest…

  6. 结节性硬化的CT诊断%The CT dignosis of tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井辉; 连庆峰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨结节性硬化症的CT诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析我院10年来经病理证实的6例结节性硬化的临床表现和CT特征,并结合有关文献进行分析.结果 6例患者均以智力低下、癫痫就诊,2例出现肾血管平滑肌脂肪瘤(AML),2例见巨细胞星形细胞瘤.结论 结节性硬化具有特征性的临床表现,CT能清晰显示病变的部位、大小、形态、密度及波及范围,CT是结节性硬化诊断的一种重要的检查方法.%Objective To study the CT features of tuberous sclerosis. Methods The CT and clinical features of six cases of tuberous sclerosis confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analysed. Results All patients suffered from epilepsy and hypophrenia, two patients had multiple angimyolipoma(AML), two patients had giant cell astrocytoma. Conclusion There are characteristic clinical features and CT appearances in tuberous sclerosis. CT can clearly demonstrate the location, size, shape, density and extent of the lesions, which is of great value for the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis.

  7. Resource utilization in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and associated seizures: a retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennert, Barb; Farrelly, Eileen; Sacco, Patricia; Pira, Geraldine; Frost, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Seizures are a hallmark manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex, yet data characterizing resource utilization are lacking. This retrospective chart review was performed to assess the economic burden of tuberous sclerosis complex with neurologic manifestations. Demographic and resource utilization data were collected for 95 patients for up to 5 years after tuberous sclerosis complex diagnosis. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.1 years, with complex partial and infantile spasms as the most common seizure types. In the first 5 years post-diagnosis, 83.2% required hospitalization, 30.5% underwent surgery, and the majority of patients (90.5%) underwent ≥3 testing procedures. In 79 patients with a full 5 years of data, hospitalizations, intensive care unit stays, diagnostic testing, and rehabilitation services decreased over the 5-year period. Resource utilization is cost-intensive in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and associated seizures during the first few years following diagnosis. Improving seizure control and reducing health care costs in this population remain unmet needs.

  8. Zebra Chip: What is the risk of disease transmission through potato tubers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip disease of potato is an economically devastating disease that causes a reduction in quality and quantity of tubers produced, and has affected growers in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. In an effort to determine if disease transmission can occur through fresh ...

  9. Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20 mg/kg bodyweight/8-week. Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P<0.01 lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P<0.01 the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde, and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  10. Physico-chemical properties and thermal aggregation of patatin, the major potato tuber protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In potato tubers patatin is the most abundant protein, it is a 43 kDa glycoprotein with a lipid acyl hydrolase activity. Next, different classes of potato protease inhibitors are present. The content and biological activity of patatin and a fraction of potato protease inhibitors of

  11. Expression of different glucansucrases in potato tubers: implications for starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok-Jacon, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the production of dextran (polymers with -(1→6)-linked glucosyl residues), mutan (polymers with -(1→3)-linked glucosyl residues) and alternan (polymers with alternating -(1→3)/ -(1→6)-linked glucosyl residues) in potato tubers. Modifications of the physicochemical properties of

  12. CHANGE OF INULIN IN THE TUBERS OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE AT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the change of the mass fraction of inulin in Jerusalem artichoke tubers during storage under different conditions. The influence of temperature, storage time and variety features on the content of inulin have been shown. The terms and conditions of storage of raw materials before processing have been set.

  13. Identification of epistatic interaction affecting glycoalkalid content in tubers of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.; Levin, I.; Struik, P.C.; Levy, D.

    2003-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites characterised by an undesirable taste, and known to be toxic when consumed in large quantities. Their content in potato tubers should therefore be selected against and DNA markers can significantly facilitate such a process. This study was designed to describ

  14. Oral toxicity of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in mice

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    Yadu Nandan Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber is an important constituent of Ayurvedic system of medicine. The tuber of this plant has high medicinal value and is consumed as a food. It is associated with acridity (itchy sensation in mouth and throat upon oral consumption and presence of high oxalates raphides. Aims: To evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity studies of methanolic (APME and aqueous (APAE extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in Swiss albino mice according to OECD guidelines. Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, the mice were orally administered a single dose of APME or APAE (2000 mg/kg and clinical signs and mortality were observed for 14 days. In subacute (repeated dose oral toxicity study, the mice were administered once daily, orally with APME or APAE (1000 mg/kg up to 28 days. The parameters assessed were behavior, clinical signs, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and major organ weights and histology. Results: In acute toxicity study, there was no treatment related mortality and morbidity in any of the group. In subacute toxicity study, there were no significant changes in behavior, body weight, feed and water consumption, urinary, biochemical, hematological and organ weight and histological parameters compared to vehicle treated group. There was no treatment related mortality or morbidity. Conclusions: Administration of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber, individually in acute and 28 days repeated dose in mice, did not exhibit any toxicity or adverse effect at the doses used.

  15. Molecular Diagnostics for Complex Pest and Disease Resistance and Tuber Quality Traits: Concept, Achievements and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, C.; Urbany, C.; Li, L.; Stich, B.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Draffehn, A.; Ballvora, A.

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the concept of molecular diagnostic of complex traits related to pest and disease resistance and to tuber quality of potato, and describe recent achievements and perspectives. Many potato characteristics are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Knowing the genes and

  16. Relationship Between Pink Eye Symptoms and Cell Damage in the Tuber Periderm and Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a tuber disorder that leads to processing complications and bud-end rot in storage. Despite the significance of PE for the potato processing industry, limited progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis of this disorder. Although the internal autofluorescence tha...

  17. Hiding from swans: optimal burial depth of sago pondweed tubers foraged by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, L.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    1 We used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that the burial depth of Potamogeton pectinatus tubers will vary with local sediment type and swan predation pressure. 2 In the field, mortality due to predation by swans decreased linearly with burial depth (from 100

  18. Cloning and characterization of a tuberous root-specific promoter from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehorst-van Putten, Herma J J; Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Pereira-Bertram, Isolde M; van den Berg, Hans H J; van der Krol, Alexander R; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-12-01

    In order to obtain a tuberous root-specific promoter to be used in the transformation of cassava, a 1,728 bp sequence containing the cassava granule-bound starch synthase (GBSSI) promoter was isolated. The sequence proved to contain light- and sugar-responsive cis elements. Part of this sequence (1,167 bp) was cloned into binary vectors to drive expression of the firefly luciferase gene. Cassava cultivar Adira 4 was transformed with this construct or a control construct in which the luciferase gene was cloned behind the 35S promoter. Luciferase activity was measured in leaves, stems, roots and tuberous roots. As expected, the 35S promoter induced luciferase activity in all organs at similar levels, whereas the GBSSI promoter showed very low expression in leaves, stems and roots, but very high expression in tuberous roots. These results show that the cassava GBSSI promoter is an excellent candidate to achieve tuberous root-specific expression in cassava.

  19. Electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, S.; Siritaratiwat, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch at various frequencies using electric impedance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, as well as determine the classification of the electrical parameters of both materials using the principle component analysis (PCA) method. All samples were measured at room temperature. The electrical and absorption parameters consisted of dielectric constant, dissipation factor, parallel capacitance, resistance, reactance, impedance and absorbance. It was found that the electrical and absorption properties of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch were a function of frequency, and there were significant differences between the materials. The dielectric constant, parallel capacitance, resistance and impedance of fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch had similar dramatic decreases with increasing frequency. However, the reactance of both materials increased with an increasing frequency. The electrical parameters of both materials could be classified into two groups. Moreover, the dissipation factor and phase of impedance were the parameters that could be used in the separation of both materials. According to the absorbance patterns of the fresh cassava tubers and cassava starch, there were significant differences.

  20. Application of bubble separation for quantitative analysis of choline in Dioscorea (yam) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Chung; Chen, Shiau-Huei; Huang, Pau-Yau; Li, Yun-Ju

    2005-04-06

    A modified assay based on the AACC official method 86-45 (AACC, 2000) for the determination of choline in three cereals and three varieties of Dioscorea (yam) tubers was developed. When tested in wheat, rice, and oat flour, choline estimated by the modified method was 34.0-45.3% higher than that of the original AACC method. In a system with higher contents of starch and mucilage, such as Dioscorea (yam) tubers, extra procedures in sample preparation needed to be carried out to separate starch and mucilage. The choline contents of the following Dioscorea (yam) tubers using the original AACC method and the present modified AACC method through coupling an additional bubble separation procedure, respectively, were (mean +/- SD, mg/g solid) Keelung yam (D. pseudojaponicaY.) 0.92 +/- 0.09 and 2.21 +/- 0.12, Yangmingshan yam (D. alata L.) 0.77 +/- 0.09 and 1.78 +/- 0.28, and Ming-Chien yam (D. purpurea) 0.44 +/- 0.09 and 1.35 +/- 0.19. Choline was 231-306% higher than when the original AACC method was used. Dioscorea (yam) tubers were much higher in choline content than they were in cereals. Bubble separation is an appropriate procedure in the practice for the maximum assay of choline in yams. It is accurate, rapid, easy to handle, and especially good for recovering choline from a starch and polysaccharide-protein-containing system.

  1. FERMENTATION OF INULIN BY A NEW STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM-THERMOAUTOTROPHICUM ISOLATED FROM DAHLIA TUBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENT, WJ; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1991-01-01

    A new inulin-fermenting strain of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum was isolated through enrichment on dahlia tubers, and subsequent plating on agar media with undissolved inulin. Both the cell-bound and cell-free inulinase(s) functioned optimally at 60-degrees-C and at neutral pH. This new strain I1

  2. Clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex in children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC in children with epilepsy.  Methods The clinical data of 36 TSC children complicated with epilepsy were analyzed retrospectively.  Results All children had epilepsy as first symptom: 23 cases of seizures happened on age less than one year old (63.89%, 8 cases on age 1-3 years old (22.22%, and 5 cases on age more than 3 years old (13.89% . Main attack types were as follows: 12 cases with focal seizures (33.33% , 5 cases with generalized seizures (13.89% , 7 cases with spasms (19.44% and 12 cases (33.33% with mixed seizures. Mental retardation was found in 19 cases (67.86%. Among 30 cases who received brain MRI examination, all had subependymal nodules, 26 cases (86.67% were complicated with cortical and subcortical nodules, 2 cases (6.67% with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA, one case (3.33% with pachygyria. EEG examination showed interictal epileptiform discharges in 34 cases (94.44% , including multifocal discharges in 12 patients (35.29% , generalized discharges in 8 patients (23.53% , focal discharges and hypsarrhythmia in 7 patients (20.59% respectively. Seizures were monitored in 8 patients, and the types included spasms in 4 cases, focal seizures in 3 cases, and myoclonic seizures in one case. Seventeen cases (47.22% took one single antiepileptic drug, 12 cases (33.33% took two drugs, and 7 cases (19.44% took three drugs, while one of them underwent surgical treatment. After 0.50-10 year follow-up, seizures free happened in 7 cases (19.44%, improved in 16 cases (44.44%, and invalid in 13 cases (36.11%.  Conclusions Epilepsy is the most common nervous system performance in children TSC, and most seizures begin to happen in infants. The main types of onset are partial seizures and spasms. Most of the patients get improved with antiepileptic drugs. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.12.011

  3. Systemic disease manifestations associated with epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Anna; Wong, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most disabling symptoms of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. The relationship between systemic disease manifestations and the presence of epilepsy has not been thoroughly investigated. This study utilizes a multicenter TSC Natural History Database including 1,816 individuals to test the hypothesis that systemic disease manifestations of TSC are associated with epilepsy. Univariate analysis was used to identify patient characteristics (e.g., age, gender, race, and TSC mutation status) associated with the presence of epilepsy. Individual logistic regression models were built to examine the association between epilepsy and each candidate systemic or neurologic disease variable, controlling for the patient characteristics found to be significant on univariate analysis. Finally, a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed, using the variables found to be significant on the individual analyses as well as the patient characteristics that were significant on univariate analysis. Nearly 88% of our cohort had a history of epilepsy. After adjusting for age, gender, and TSC mutation status, multiple systemic disease manifestations including cardiac rhabdomyomas (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.9, p = 0.002), retinal hamartomas (OR 2.1, CI 1.0-4.3, p = 0.04), renal cysts (OR 2.1, CI 1.3-3.4, p = 0.002), renal angiomyolipomas (OR 3.0, CI 1.8-5.1, p < 0.001), shagreen patches (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.7, p = 0.04), and facial angiofibromas (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.9, p = 0.03) were associated with a higher likelihood of epilepsy. In the multivariable logistic regression model, cardiac rhabdomyomas (OR 1.9, CI 1.0-3.5, p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with the presence of epilepsy. The identification of systemic disease manifestations such as cardiac rhabdomyomas that confer a higher risk of epilepsy development in TSC could contribute to disease

  4. Nonfunctional Islet Cell Tumor of the Pancreas in a Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis: A Case Report with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Cansu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet cell tumors (ICTs are rare tumors of the pancreas. Association of this type of tumor with tuberous sclerosis is extremely rare. Only 13 cases of pancreatic ICT with tuberous sclerosis have so far been documented in the literature. However, awareness of the association of tuberous sclerosis and ICT is important for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this condition. This article presents the case of a 63-year-old female with angiomyolipoma (AML of the kidney and liver, calcified subependymal nodules and a large mass in the pancreas, which was proven to be an ICT on histopathological examination.

  5. Discriminative study of a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivation region by measuring the stable isotope ratios of bio-elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Jin, Yong-Ik; Oh, Yong-Taek; Prabakaran, Mayakrishnan; Youn, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Compared to other foods, the use of common bio-elements to identify the geographical origin of potato remains limited. Thus, this study aimed to verify whether the cultivation regions of raw potato tubers could be determined by the stable isotope composition analysis of bio-elements. δ(13)CVPDB and δ(15)NAIR in potato were influenced by region and cultivar, whereas δ(18)OVSMOW and δ(34)SVCDT were only influenced by region (ppotato tubers varies with respect to cultivation regions and cultivars.

  6. Effect of processing on the alkaloids in Aconitum tubers by HPLC-TOF/MS

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    Min Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015, only processed Aconitum tubers can be clinically applied, and the effect of processing is unclear. This research aimed to explore the effect of processing on cardiac efficacy of alkaloids in Aconitum tubers. First, the chemical ingredients in unprocessed and processed Aconitum tubers were identified and compared by using high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS and multivariate pattern recognition methods. Then the representative alkaloids in Aconitum tubers, aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine, which belong to diester-diterpenoid alkaloids, monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids, respectively, were selected for further validation of attenuated mechanism. Subsequent pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats were used for validate the effect of processing on cardiac functions. After processing the Aconitum tubers, it was found that the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were reduced, and those of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids were increased, suggesting that diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were transformed into monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids. Through further decocting the aconitine in boiling water, it was confirmed that the three alkaloids could be progressively transformed. Pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats showed that aconitine at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg and aconine at a dose of 10 mg/kg enhanced the cardiac function, while benzoylaconine at a dose of 2 mg/kg weakened the cardiac function. The effect of processing is attributed to the transformation of the most toxic diester-diterpenoid alkaloids into less toxic monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids.

  7. Effects of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture on Diabetes Mellitus Induced by Streptozotocin in Rat

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    Park, Jae-Young

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture on Diabetes Mellitus induced by streptozotocin in rat. Body weight, serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, free cholesterol and total protein were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat injected with Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture solution at Pisu(BL20 respectively for 30 days. In order to study the effects of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture at Pisu(BL20 on Diabetes Mellitus induced by Streptozotocin in rat, The groups were divided into five groups; Normal group(non treated group, N.-Saline group(administration of injection with normal saline at BL20 in 30 days after streptozotocin injection, Control group(non treated group after streptozotocin injection, H. Acup. group (administration of Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture at BL20 in 30 days after streptozotocin injection, and Acup. group (administration of acupuncture at BL20 in 30 days after streptozotocin injection. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. As compared with Control group, there wae no significant tendency to diminish the rate of weight loss in H. - Acup. group. 2. As compared with Control group, there wae signiticant increase of serum insulin level in H. -Acup. group. 3. As compared with Control group, there was decrease of glucose level in H.- Acup. group. 4. As compared with Control group, there was decrease of triglyceride level in H. - Acup. group. 5. As compared with Control group, trere wae increase of HDL cholesterol level in H. - Acup. group. 6. As compared with Control group, there was significant increase of free cholesterol level in H. - Acup. group. 7. As compared with Control group, there was Increase of total protein level in H. - Acup. group. According to above mentioned results, Liriopis Tuber Herbal-Acupuncture was expected to be effective in treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications

  8. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

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    John P. Collister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO, and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, an intracellular superoxide (O2·− scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·− in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD or control vector (AdEmpty were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7 in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9. These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·− in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  9. Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke; Tsukahara, Shinji; Yoshida, Sachine; Takase, Kenkichi; Oda, Satoko; Kuroda, Masaru; Funato, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

  10. Ageing and Chronic Administration of Serotonin-Selective Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Upregulate Sirt4 Gene Expression in the Preoptic Area of Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong eDutt Way

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunction and cognitive deficits are markers of the ageing process. Mammalian sirtuins (SIRT, encoded by sirt 1-7 genes, are known as ageing molecules which are sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT. Whether the 5-HT system regulates SIRT in the preoptic area (POA, which could affect reproduction and cognition has not been examined. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of citalopram (CIT, 10mg/kg for 4 weeks, wk, a potent selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor and ageing on SIRT expression in the POA of male mice using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Age-related increases of sirt1, sirt4, sirt5, and sirt7 mRNA levels were observed in the POA of 52 wk old mice. Furthermore, 4 wk of chronic CIT treatment started at 8 wk of age also increased sirt2 and sirt4 mRNA expression in the POA. Moreover, the number of SIRT4 immuno-reactive neurons increased with ageing in the medial septum area (12 wk = 1.00±0.15 vs 36 wk = 1.68±0.14 vs 52 wk = 1.54±0.11, p<0.05. In contrast, the number of sirt4-immunopositive cells did not show a statistically significant change with CIT treatment, suggesting that the increase in sirt4 mRNA levels may occur in cells in which sirt4 is already being expressed. Taken together, these studies suggest that CIT treatment and the process of ageing utilize the serotonergic system to up-regulate SIRT4 in the POA as a common pathway to deregulate social cognitive and reproductive functions.

  11. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Nutsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here, we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, versus animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  12. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  13. Sweet potato resistance to Euscepes postfasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): larval performance adversely effected by adult's preference to tuber for food and oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y; Yasuda, K; Sakai, T; Ichinose, K

    2014-08-01

    The preferences of the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), to tubers of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.), for food and for oviposition were evaluated, and correlated to sweet potato's resistance to immatures. Adults (parent) were released in a plastic box containing tubers of sweet potato cultivars and maintained for 5 d, after which the adults on each tuber were counted. All adults were then removed and each tuber was maintained separately. New adults that emerged from the tubers were counted. Cultivars were grouped by cluster analyses using the number of parent adults on the tubers and the number of new adults emerging from the tubers, adjusted for the weight of each tuber. Cultivars were divided into five groups: average level of preference, preferred, preferred for oviposition but not for food, preferred for food but not for oviposition, and not preferred. New adults from the first two groups took less time to eclose than those from the other groups, and their body size was smaller. In a second experiment, one to five cultivars were selected from each group and inoculated each tuber with 10 weevil eggs on each cultivar. Although the proportion of eclosed adults was not significantly different between cultivars, the time to eclosion was shorter and body size was smaller on preferred cultivars. The selection of tubers by parent adults was not linearly related with larval development, and did not reduce the survival of the immatures.

  14. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Tuber magnatum in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iotti Mirco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuber magnatum, the Italian white truffle, is the most sought-after edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom. Previous studies report the difficulties of detecting its mycorrhizas and the widespread presence of its mycelium in natural production areas, suggesting that the soil mycelium could be a good indicator to evaluate its presence in the soil. In this study a specific real-time PCR assay using TaqMan chemistry was developed to detect and quantify T. magnatum in soil. This technique was then applied to four natural T. magnatum truffières located in different regions of Italy to validate the method under different environmental conditions. Results The primer/probe sets for the detection and quantification of T. magnatum were selected from the ITS rDNA regions. Their specificity was tested in silico and using qualitative PCR on DNA extracted from 25 different fungal species. The T. magnatum DNA concentration was different in the four experimental truffières and higher in the productive plots. T. magnatum mycelium was however also detected in most of the non-productive plots. Ascoma production during the three years of the study was correlated with the concentration of T. magnatum DNA. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that the specific real-time PCR assay perfected in this study could be an useful tool to evaluate the presence and dynamics of this precious truffle in natural and cultivated truffières.

  15. Identification of the epileptogenic zone in patients with tuberous sclerosis : Concordance of interictal and ictal epileptiform activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Astrid; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; Spetgens, Willy P. J.; Ferrier, Cyrille H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Jansen, Floor E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the majority of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) multifocal epileptiform activity is present interictally. Therefore, its value in identifying epilepsy surgery candidates has been doubted. We hypothesize that dominant interictal epileptiform foci are concordant with the i

  16. Congenital segmental lymphedema in tuberous sclerosis complex with associated subependymal giant cell astrocytomas treated with Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Giulia; Mancardi, Maria Margherita; Baglietto, Maria Giuseppina; Janis, Sara; Vercellino, Nadia; Rossi, Andrea; Consales, Alessandro; Raso, Alessandro; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic, multisystemic disorder characterized by circumscribed benign lesions (hamartomas) in several organs, including brain. This is the result of defects in the TSC1 and/or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes, encoding the hamartin-tuberin complex that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Specific inhibitors of this pathway have been shown to reduce the volume of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas associated with tuberous sclerosis. Congenital lymphedema is rarely seen in association with tuberous sclerosis, with only a few reported cases. Although this association can be coincidental, the dysgenetic lymphatic system can represent a hamartia as a consequence of gene mutation. We describe a child with congenital lymphedema in tuberous sclerosis and associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma who experienced lymphangitis under treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Because our patient did not show worsening of lymphedema, congenital lymphedema does not seem to be a contraindication for this therapy.

  17. Clinical and Para clinical Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study on 81 Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan TONEKABONI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Tonekaboni SH, Tousi P, Ebrahimi A, Ahmadabadi F, keyhanidoust Z, Zamani Gh, Rezvani M, Amirsalari S, Tavassoli A, Rounagh A, Rezayi A. Clinical and Para clinical Manifestations of Tuberous Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study on 81 Pediatric Patients. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3: 25-31.ObjectiveMigraine is a disabling illness that causes absence from school andaffects the quality of life. It has been stated that headache may representan epileptic event. EEG abnormality is a prominent finding in childrenwith migraine. The aim of this study was to evaluate EEG abnormalitiesin children with migraine.Materials & MethodsTwo-hundred twenty-eight children were enrolled into the study.Evaluation and following of cases was performed by one physician,paraclinical tests were used to increase the accuracy. The study wasconducted under the supervision of pediatric neurology masters and theselected cases were from different parts of the country.ResultsComparing EEG abnormalities in different types of migraine revealedthat there is an association between them. There was also a significantdifference between EEG abnormalities in different types of aura. Migrainetype was associated with the patient’s age. Sleep disorders were morecommon in patients with a positive family history of seizure.ConclusionOur study dosclosed migraine as a common problem in children withabnormalities present in approximately 20% of the patients. Migraineand abnormal EEG findings are significantly associated.RefrencesBundey S, Evans K. Tuberous sclerosis: a genetic study. J Neurol Neurosurg. Psychiatry 1969 Dec;32(6:591-603.Staley BA, Vail EA, Thiele EA. Tuberous sclerosis complex: diagnostic challenges, presenting symptoms,and commonly missed signs. Pediatrics 2011 Jan;127(1:e117-25.Thiele EA, Korf BR. Phakomatoses and allied conditions.In: Swaiman KF, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM. Swaimans pediatric neurology. 5th ed. China: Elsevier Saunders;2012. p. 504

  18. Strboh A homologue of NADPH oxidase regulates wound-induced oxidative burst and facilitates wound-healing in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Iyer, Suresh; Knowles, N Richard

    2007-12-01

    During 30-months of storage at 4 degrees C, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers progressively lose the ability to produce superoxide in response to wounding, resist microbial infection, and develop a suberized wound periderm. Using differentially aged tubers, we demonstrate that Strboh A is responsible for the wound-induced oxidative burst in potato and aging attenuates its expression. In vivo superoxide production and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity from 1-month-old tubers increased to a maximum 18-24 h after wounding and then decreased to barely detectable levels by 72 h. Wounding also induced a 68% increase in microsomal protein within 18 h. These wound-induced responses were lost over a 25- to 30-month storage period. Superoxide production and NOX activity were inhibited by diphenylene iodonium chloride, a specific inhibitor of NOX, which in turn effectively inhibited wound-healing and increased susceptibility to microbial infection and decay in 1-month-old tubers. Wound-induced superoxide production was also inhibited by EGTA-mediated destabilization of membranes. The ability to restore superoxide production to EGTA-treated tissue with Ca(+2) declined with advancing tuber age, likely a consequence of age-related changes in membrane architecture. Of the five homologues of NOX (Strboh A-D and F), wounding induced the expression of Strboh A in 6-month-old tubers but this response was absent in tubers stored for 25-30 months. Strboh A thus mediates the initial burst of superoxide in response to wounding of potato tubers; loss of its expression increases the susceptibility to microbial infection and contributes to the age-induced loss of wound-healing ability.

  19. Effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on the performance of an automated peeling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Ademosun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of cassava tuber at all levels is still largely carried out manually; however, this work is presented with a view to investigate the effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on mechanical peeling and hence provides a basis for cassava peeling mechanization. These properties include size of the tuber, tl, proportion by weight of peel, wp, average moisture content of the peel, map, peel thickness, tp, tuber diameter, td, tuber surface taper angle, α, peel penetration force, F, and peel shearing stress, ts. The results showed that for Slmhf; tl ranged from 140-460mm, wp ranged from 13.12-20.06%, map was 76.27%, tp ranged from 1.62-4.34mm, td ranged from 31.08-136.63mm, α ranged from 9.03-23.130, F ranged from 0.17-1.85N/mm, ts ranged from 0.85-9.25N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 70.82-96.21%. Similarly, for Ssmlf; tl ranged from 125-362mm, wp ranged from 10.52-16.66%, map was 70.97%, tp ranged from 1.22-4.12mm, td ranged from 18.86-99.29mm, α ranged from 5.20-12.290, F ranged from 0.13-1.54N/mm, ts ranged from 0.65-7.70N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 67.27-92.25 %. The results confirm influence of physico-mechanical properties of cassava tuber on mechanical peeling.

  20. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production.

  1. Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods: A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Anoma Chandrasekara; Thamilini Josheph Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Starchy roots and tuber crops play a pivotal role in the human diet. There are number of roots and tubers which make an extensive biodiversity even within the same geographical location. Thus, they add variety to the diet in addition to offering numerous desirable nutritional and health benefits such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. A number of bioactive constituents such as phenolic compounds, saponins, bioactive proteins, g...

  2. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on yam (Dioscorea spp.) tuber weights and secondary metabolite content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fun-Chi; Lee, Chen-Yu; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widely distributed in nature. They live in the roots of higher plants, in a symbiotic relationship. In this study, five commercial species of yams (Dioscorea spp.) were inoculated with six species of AMF, Glomus clarum, G. etunicatum, G. fasciculatum, Gigaspora sp., G. mosseae, and Acaulospora sp., in field cultivation conditions to investigate the influence of AMF inoculation on tuber weights and secondary metabolite content in yam tubers. The results showed that mycorrhizae formation rates ranged from 63.33% to 90%. G. etunicatum inoculation treatment increased the tube weights of the five species of yam tubers by 39%, 35%, 20%, 56%, and 40% for Tainung 1, Tainung 2, Ercih, Zihyuxieshu, and Tainung 5, respectively. The content of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin, was significantly increased by the AMF treatment in tuber flesh and peel of all the tested yam species. Specifically, the maximums exchange of secondary metabolite contents increased to 40%, 42%, and 106% for polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin, respectively, in the tuber fresh. This study revealed that different species of yam had varying degrees of affinity with various AMF species; selecting effective AMF species is necessary to facilitate yam growth and improve the quality and quantity of yam tubers.

  3. Angiographic and volumetric effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors on angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahul A Sheth; Adam S Feldman; Elahna Paul; Elizabeth A Thiele; T Gregory Walker

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the angiographic and volumetric effects of mammalian target of rapamycin(m TOR) inhibitors on angiomyolipomas(AMLs) in a case series of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.METHODS: All patients who underwent catheter angiography prior to and following m TOR inhibitor therapy(n = 3) were evaluated. All cross-sectional imaging studies were analyzed with three-dimensional volumetrics, and tumor volume curves for all three tissue compartments(soft tissue, vascular, and fat) were generated. Segmentation analysis tools were used to automatically create a region of interest(ROI) circumscribing the AML. On magnetic resonance images, the "fat only" map calculated from the in- and opposed-phase gradient recalled echo sequences was used to quantify fat volume within tumors. Tumor vascularity was measured by applying a thresholding toolwithin the ROI on post-contrast subtraction images. On computed tomography images, volume histogram analysis of Hounsfield unit was performed to quantify tumor tissue composition. The angiography procedures were also reviewed, and tumor vascularity based on pre-embolization angiography was characterized in a semi-quantitative manner. RESULTS: Patient 1 presented at the age of 15 with a 6.8 cm right lower pole AML and a 4.0 cm right upper pole AML. Embolization was performed of both tumors, and after a few years of size control, the tumors began to grow, and the patient was initiated on m TOR inhibitor therapy. There was an immediate reduction in the size of both lesions. The patient then underwent repeat embolization and discontinuation of m TOR inhibition, after which point there was a substantial regrowth in both tumors across all tissue compartments. Patient 2 presented at the age of 18 with a right renal AML. Following a brief period of tumor reduction after embolization, she was initiated on m TOR inhibitor therapy, with successful reduction in tumor size across all tissue compartments. As with patient 1, however

  4. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  5. Biochemical characterization of a sphingomonad isolate from the ascocarp of white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavić A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Available information on bacteria that influence the economically important white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico life cycle is scarce. From the ascocarp of white truffle we isolated a strain TMG 022C, capable for growth in nitrogendepleted conditions and assimilation of mannitol and trehalose. According to 16S rDNA sequence phylogeny, the strain was closely related to Sphingobium amiense. The strain had the ability to perform ammonification, reduce nitrate and solubilize Ca3(PO42, produce chitinase, lipase, phospholipase and β-glucanase, but not cellulase, pectinase, protease and siderophores. The results suggest that Sphingobium sp. TMG 022C could have an influence on the Tuber magnatum life cycle through improved mycelium nutrition and ascocarp decomposition.

  6. Effect of some heavy metals on the growth and development of Pleurotus tuber-regium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpaja EO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc on the growth and fruit body production in Pleurotus tuber-regium was investigated. Lead sulphate, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, cadmium nitrate and mercury chloride were added to garden soil at concentrations of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol per 3 kg of soil. Sclerotia of the test mushroom were used to inoculate the artificially contaminated soil. Mercury prevented growth and fruit body production in P. tuber-regium. Fungal morphometry was greatly affected by lead. The heavy metal content in the fungal biomass complex increased with increase of heavy metal concentration in the soil. The highest concentration (183.06 mg/kg was found in zinc at 2 mmol/L.

  7. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera; Gelichiidae) to plant volatiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P D Das; R Raina; A R Prasad; A Sen

    2007-03-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from males and females of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella in response to a broad range of plant volatile compounds belonging to diverse chemical classes. The responses to 27 compounds were evaluated, which indicated significant differences in EAGs between chemicals as well as between sexes. The fatty acid derivatives comprising essentially green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in females. The response profile of males was, in general, lower than that of females. EAG responses to the oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes were lower in both males and females. Dose–response studies indicate differences in response between the sexes and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in this species.

  8. The occurrence of defects of potato tubers in conditions of mechanical-chemical weeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Zarzecka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented results were obtained from field experiment conducted in the period 2005-2007. Experimental variants included four weed control methods: one mechanical (control object and three combinations of mechanical and chemical treatments with the use of herbicides Plateen 41,5 WG, Racer 250 EC and Sencor 70 WG. Mechanical-chemical treatments contributed to the decrease of external and internal defects as compared to the control object with mechanical weeding. Significant effects of the weed control methods and weather conditions on the side yields (mass of small tubers and mass of tubers with defects were observed in the years of study. Results show that share of side yield in total yield amounted to mean 31.1%.

  9. Research on Image Reconstruction Algorithms for Tuber Electrical Resistance Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of electrical resistance tomography (ERT technology has been expanded to the field of agriculture, and the concept of TERT (Tuber Electrical Resistance Tomography is proposed. On the basis of the research on the forward and the inverse problems of the TERT system, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm is proposed, which can be used in TERT system to monitor the growth status of the plant tubers. The image reconstruction of TERT system is different from the conventional ERT system for two phase-flow measurement. Imaging of TERT needs more precision measurement and the conventional ERT cares more about the image reconstruction speed. A variety of algorithms are analyzed and optimized for the purpose of making them suitable for TERT system. For example: linear back projection, modified Newton-Raphson and genetic algorithm. Experimental results showed that the novel hybrid algorithm is superior to other algorithm and it can effectively improve the image reconstruction quality.

  10. Metabolomics reveals drastic compositional changes during overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Morten R; Bach, Vibe; Edelenbos, Merete; Bertram, Hanne C

    2012-09-19

    Metabolic changes were investigated in overwintering Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) metabolomics. Three varieties were studied; as a result of overwintering, the amount of inulin was found to decrease in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. This was mainly due to its conversion to sucrose and, at the same time, formation of inulin with a lower degree of polymerization. Major effects on the concentration of citric acid, malic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and adenosine were also found. Intriguingly, malic acid concentration increased and citric acid concentration decreased. These changes, together with an increase in sucrose and GABA concentrations, were ascribed to mobilization of nutrients prior to sprouting, suggesting that malic acid and GABA serve as carbon and nitrogen sources during sprouting of Jerusalem artichokes.

  11. Evaluation of herbicide combinations for livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) control in tuberous begonia (Begonia x tuberhybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, M; van Labeke, M C

    2004-01-01

    In the past years livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) is observed increasingly in begonia production fields. Control of weeds in begonia is generally done by a combined application of the soil herbicides isoxaben + simazin followed 10 days later by application of the contact herbicide bentazone. This treatment usually controls the weed population sufficiently with exception of amaranth. In 2003 a field trial was conducted to evaluate control of livid amaranth in tuberous begonia with isoxaben, simazin. S-metolachloor, phenmedipham + desmedipham and bentazone. These herbicides were used as combinations of soil treatment and contact herbicides. The results suggest that a soil treatment of isoxaben + S-metolachloor significantly reduces livid amaranth compared to isoxaben + simazin, without a pronounced negative effect on tuber yield. Application of phenmedipham + desmedipham however did not improve control of livid amaranth compared to bentazone.

  12. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    in each plot in 2011. At the harvest time tuber yield and also percent and severity of infection was determined. All data was analyzed statistically and Duncan test was used for comparison of means. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance results showed that, potato tuber yield was affected by the crop rotation, the rate of returning residues, and also interaction between rotation × returning residues statistically (P≤0.01.When 1000 tuber was considered, analysis of variance results showed, crop rotation had a very significant effect (P≤0.01 on number and percent of infected tubers to wireworm and its holes. The most infected tubers ie.42.34 and holed i.e. 61.4 and totally 4.24% of tubers were belonged to the rotation 2, where in the rapeseed crop was preceding plant. The least one was achieved in rotation 1, with the rates of 27, 37 and 2.8% where in potato crop was not planted previously. The most infection to wireworm was found in 100% residue returning to the soil with 3.8% and the least one in no residue returning to the soil, i.e. 3.4 %. Results showed with increasing residue returning to the soil, the damage of wireworms is increased too. Conclusion: Generally applying crop rotation using different crops and residue returning to the soil is resulted in higher potato tuber yield. This increasing rate for tuber yield was 116% and 57 % when the preceding crops were wheat and rapeseed respectively compared to the mean of rotations 3 and 4. For the aim of sustainable production of potato and reducing of wireworm damage it is necessary we focus on other crop rotation and the importance of C:N ratio and the rate of residue returning to the soil. So we need to conduct new experiments with these purposes.

  13. Everolimus Treatment for an Early Infantile Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Takayama, Rumiko; Minagawa, Kimio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are benign tumors often observed with tuberous sclerosis complex. These tumors are rarely diagnosed during fetal life or early infancy. Until recently, the only available treatment has been surgical resection. Current clinical research has demonstrated that everolimus can induce these tumors' regression. We report a 19-month-old boy with tuberous sclerosis complex. At 2 months of age, he presented with congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytoma that was complicated by refractory epilepsy and severe mental retardation. Treatment with everolimus was started when he was 10 months old. Three months after initiating everolimus, the tumor was significantly reduced in size, and the reduction was subsequently maintained. His seizures decreased and he showed cognitive and developmental improvement. No severe adverse events have been observed to date. Everolimus has promise as an effective alternative to surgery for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas during early infancy.

  14. Combined targeted treatment in early onset epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Moavero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is associated with epilepsy in up to 85% of cases, and in 2/3, the onset is within the first year of life. An early antiepileptic treatment is crucial to minimize the consequences of epilepsy on cognition and behavior. We present a case report of a child with tuberous sclerosis who presented with infantile spasms at the age of 6 months, immediately treated with vigabatrin. Because of the presence of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, he also received everolimus since 18 months of age. We might wonder if an earlier treatment could have produced a better outcome; in fact, despite a targeted combined treatment, he continues to suffer from sporadic focal motor seizures, and at the age of 40 months, he presents severe developmental delay with autism-like behavior.

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility of tuber mustard is associated with the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yanxi; CHEN Zhujun; CAO Jiashu; CHEN Xuejun; LIU Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Two transcripts of T gene, T1170 and T1243, were obtained from the mitochondrial cDNA of tuber mustard CMS line. T1243 was a transcript with an intron unspliced, which has the basic characteristics of type Ⅱ intron. The expressions of the two transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed that, at seedling stage, the expression of T gene was mainly in the form of T1170 but decreased with the development gradually, while the expression abundance of another transcript, T1243, increased gradually. The T1243 was prevalent at the profuse flowering stage. The expression pattern was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These results suggested that the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts were related to CMS of tuber mustard.

  16. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles.

  17. The Analysis of Productivity Growth of Tuber Crops in Nigeria (1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunniyi, L. T.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the productivity of Tuber crops in Nigeria from twenty states between the periods of 1995 -2006 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to estimate the total factor productivity (TFP which was further decomposed to reveal the source of productivity growth over the reference period. Negative TFP growth was observed for all the tuber crops considered in the study on the average but an evidence of convergence in productivity level was observed when considering the starting TFP, majority of the states had low TFP (<0.6 but grew over the years by about 0.2 with Kaduna and Adamawa having the highest TFP for cocoyam and cassava respectively

  18. Synthesis of fructans by fructosyltransferase from the tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaya N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (SST and fructan:fructan fructosyl-transferase (FFT activities from crude extracts of tuberous roots of Viguiera discolor growing in a preserved area of cerrado were analyzed in 1995-1996. SST activity was characterized by the synthesis of 1-kestose from sucrose and FFT activity by the production of nystose from 1-kestose. The highest fructan-synthesizing activity was observed during early dormancy (autumn, when both (SST and FFT activities were high. The increase in synthetic activity seemed to start during the fruiting phase in the summer, when SST activity was higher than in spring. During winter and at the beginning of sprouting, both activities declined. The in vitro synthesis of high molecular mass fructans from sucrose by enzymatic preparations from tuberous roots collected in summer showed that long incubations of up to 288 h produced consistently longer polymers which resembled those found in vivo with respect to chromatographic profiles.

  19. Evidence that gonadal steroids modulate nitric oxide efflux in the medial preoptic area: effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate and correlation with luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, S; Xu, B; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S

    1996-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. This study was undertaken to determine 1) NO activity in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) where LHRH- and NO synthase-containing neurons are coextensive; 2) whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, which stimulates LHRH release, augments NO activity in the MPOA; and 3) whether NO activation in the MPOA underlies the steroid dependency of NMDA-induced pituitary LH release. As extracellular levels of cGMP in discrete brain sites are a reliable index of basal and stimulated activity of NO, extracellular cGMP levels in the MPOA of freely moving, awake rats were measured by microdialysis in the current study. In the first experiment, the MPOA of intact and castrated male rats were microdialyzed with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at a rate of 5 microliters/min. The basal level of cGMP efflux was determined from the initial seven samples collected at 20-min intervals. The NO response to a single i.v. injection of NMDA (10 mg/kg) or saline was assessed in the next five samples. In the second experiment, the basal and NMDA-evoked NO effluxes in the MPOA of ovariectomized (ovx) and estrogen-treated ovx rats were examined. Results showed that in both sexes, the absence of gonadal steroids resulted in significantly lower basal cGMP levels. Additionally, the cGMP response to NMDA was steroid dependent. Whereas in castrated rats it failed to affect cGMP efflux, NMDA in intact male rats promptly raised cGMP levels at 20 min, and these elevated levels were maintained through the duration of the experiment. This NMDA-induced cGMP response, observed selectively in intact rats, was also associated with stimulation of plasma LH levels. In female rats, NMDA similarly enhanced MPOA cGMP efflux and pituitary LH secretion in estradiol benzoate-treated, but not in oil-treated, ovx rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-amino-5-phosphoropentanoic acid

  20. A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus.

  1. Insights into organ-specific pathogen defense responses in plants: RNA-seq analysis of potato tuber-Phytophthora infestans interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Liangliang; Tu, Zheng Jin; Millett, Benjamin P; Bradeen, James M

    2013-01-01

    .... Although interaction transcriptome dynamics between potato foliage and various pathogens have been reported, no transcriptome study has focused specifically upon how potato tubers respond to pathogen infection...

  2. Effects of different temperatures and hormone treatments on breaking dormancy in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Khadige

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini propagation is a new method to produce potato. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications was conducted to investigate the effect of two temperature levels (18 and 25°C and six hormone treatments (H1: 0% of ethanol + 0 mg/l of gibberellic acid, H2: 0% of ethanol + 10 mg/l of gibberellic acid, H3: 0.5% of ethanol + 0 mg/l of gibberellic acid, H4: 0.5% of ethanol + 10 mg/l of gibberellic acid, H5: 0.5% of ethanol + 20 mg/l of gibberellic acid, H6: 0.5% of ethanol + 30 mg/l of gibberellic acid on mini tubers of two varieties of potato (Agria and Santé. The longest sprouts were about 14.13 mm long and they were produced by Santé variety at 18°C and H1 hormone level. Sprouting percentage was higher in Santé (75.69% than in Agria (59.72%. The highest average percentage of sprouted tubers (95% was achieved at the temperature of 18°C and with H4 hormone treatment. Santé had the shortest dormancy duration by using H1 hormone level at 18°C. Applying H6 hormone level at 18°C produced more sprouts per tuber in Santé. Santé was better than Agria with or without hormone treatment in respect of all measured traits. Higher GA concentration accelerates tuber sprouting in both varieties.

  3. Edible Film Making of Starch Canna Tuber (Canna Edulis Kerr) and Aplication to Packaging Galamai

    OpenAIRE

    Hafnimardiyanti Hafnimardiyanti; M.Ikhlas Armin; Martalius Martalius

    2014-01-01

    Canna (Canna edulis Kerr) was a tuber that had a high carbohydrate content so canna had excellent prospects to develop into edible film. The purpose of this study was to make edible film of canna starch, knowing storability galamai was packed with edible film and determine the level of preference panelists through organoleptic tests. In this research, manufacture of edible films with various concentrations of canna starch 2%, 3%, 4% and the use of plasticizer (glycerol) 1%, 2% and 3% with 100...

  4. Using Genetic Buffering Relationships Identified in Fission Yeast To Elucidate the Molecular Pathology of Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    sclerosis. Our ongoing study has identified two genes, fft3 (a SMARCAD1 family ATP -dependent DNA helicase) and ypa1 (protein phosphatase type 2A...TERMS Tuberous Sclerosis, Genetic Buffering, Fission Yeast, Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange, protein phosphatase type 2A regulator, ATP -dependent...identified two genes, fft3 (encoding a SMARCAD1 family ATP -dependent DNA helicase) and ypa1 (encoding a PTPA family protein phosphatase regulator) as

  5. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  6. Analysis of twenty pediatric cases of tuberous sclerosis complex: Are we doing enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Nath; Abhishek Dubey; Raj Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neuro-cutaneous disease characterized by hamartoma formation in various organs particularly the skin, brain, eye, kidney, heart and lungs. Patients usually have multisystem involvement and thus present to different medical specialties with varied complaints while the true nature of the disease and the hidden manifestations may remain unattended. A im: To assess the frequency and characteristics of various cutaneous and systemic manifestations ...

  7. Epileptogenesis and treatment options in a tuberous sclerosis complex epilepsy mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cátia Alexandra Pinho

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Celular e Molecular (Neurobiologia), apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder, resulting from inactivating mutations in either Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes. It is characterized by multisystemic benign tumors throughout the body, including the brain, together with neurological abnormalities such as epilepsy, autism and...

  8. The neuroanatomical phenotype of tuberous sclerosis complex: focus on radial migration lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeghen, Agnies M. van [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Carol and James Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Boston, MA (United States); Erasmus Medical Centre, ENCORE, Expertise Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Department of Neuroscience, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Teran, Laura Ortiz; Johnson, Jason; Caruso, Paul [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Pulsifer, Margaret B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Psychological Assessment Center, Boston, MA (United States); Thiele, Elizabeth A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Carol and James Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The contribution of radial migration lines (RMLs) to the neuroanatomical and neurocognitive phenotype of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the neuroradiological phenotype of TSC, distinguishing RMLs from normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetric fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging. Magnetic resonance images of 30 patients with TSC were evaluated. The frequencies of RMLs, tubers, and subependymal nodules (SENs) were determined for every hemispheric lobe. Cerebellar lesions and subependymal giant cell tumors were counted. DTI metrics were obtained from the NAWM of every hemispheric lobe and from the largest RML and tuber. Analyses of variance and correlations were performed to investigate the associations between neuroanatomical characteristics and relationships between RML frequency and neurocognitive outcomes. NAWM DTI metrics were compared with measurements of 16 control patients. A mean of 47 RMLs, 27 tubers, and 10 SENs were found per patient, and the frequencies of these lesions were strongly correlated (p < 0.001). RML fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were strongly inversely correlated (p = 0.003). NAWM DTI metrics were similar to the controls (p = 0.26). RML frequency was strongly associated with age of seizure onset (p = 0.003), intelligence outcomes (p = 0.01), and level of autistic features (p = 0.007). A detailed neuroradiological phenotype is presented, showing that RMLs are the most frequent neuroanatomical lesion, are responsible for white matter DTI abnormalities, and are strongly associated with age of seizure onset, intelligence outcomes, and level of autistic features. (orig.)

  9. Optimal management of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: current and emerging options

    OpenAIRE

    Wang S; Fallah A

    2014-01-01

    Shelly Wang,1 Aria Fallah2,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Miami Children’s Hospital, Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: Seizures are clinically significant manifestations associated with 79%–90% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Often occurring within the first year of life in the form of infantile sp...

  10. Altered Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions and Epileptogenesis in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Tsc1-deficient astrocytes on neuronal morphology and neuronal activity associated with seizures. 2. KEY WORDS epilepsy, seizure, tuberous sclerosis...seizures; and F) increased spine density on recombinant pyramidal neuron dendrites prior to the onset of spontaneous seizures. What was accomplished: We...soma size and morphology , suggesting that these neurons possess a negative feedback mechanism that in part counteracts the effect of the TSC1 deletion

  11. Proteome characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Samrina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomics is increasingly becoming an important tool for the study of many different aspects of plant functions, such as investigating the molecular processes underlying in plant physiology, development, differentiation and their interaction with the environments. To investigate the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz proteome, we extracted proteins from somatic embryos, plantlets and tuberous roots of cultivar SC8 and separated them by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Results Analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS yielded a total of 383 proteins including isoforms, classified into 14 functional groups. The majority of these were carbohydrate and energy metabolism associated proteins (27.2%, followed by those involved in protein biosynthesis (14.4%. Subsequent analysis has revealed that 54, 59, 74 and 102 identified proteins are unique to the somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous roots, respectively. Some of these proteins may serve as signatures for the physiological and developmental stages of somatic embryos, shoots, adventitious roots and tuberous root. Western blotting results have shown high expression levels of Rubisco in shoots and its absence in the somatic embryos. In addition, high-level expression of α-tubulin was found in tuberous roots, and a low-level one in somatic embryos. This extensive study effectively provides a huge data set of dynamic protein-related information to better understand the molecular basis underlying cassava growth, development, and physiological functions. Conclusion This work paves the way towards a comprehensive, system-wide analysis of the cassava. Integration with transcriptomics, metabolomics and other large scale "-omics" data with systems biology approaches can open new avenues towards engineering cassava to enhance yields, improve nutritional value and overcome the

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Epileptogenesis and Seizure Progression in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1 Deficient Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which form a regulatory complex responsible for limiting the activity of an important intracellular regulator of cell ...growth and metabolism known as mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). The pathological hallmark of TSC brains are cortical tubers...characterized by disorganized cortical lamination, aberrant dendritic arbors and axonal projections, astrocyte gliosis and abnormal cell morphology (ie

  13. Congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a brain tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). It usually grows in a second decade of life, but may develop in the first months of life. The aim of this work was to establish the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of congenital SEGA in TSC patients. Methods Cohort of 452 TSC patients was reviewed to identify cases with growing or hydrocephalus producing SEGAs in the first 3 months of life. Clinical presentation, siz...

  14. Nitrogen and sugar content variability in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

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    Terzić Sreten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several nutritive values for tubers of 114 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus populations were evaluated during 2006. The used material is a part of wild sunflower species collection at the Institute of field and vegetable crops and it is situated in Rimski Šancevi, Novi Sad. The samples were analyzed as fresh tubers on 'Venema' automatic laboratory for alpha amino nitrogen, sodium and potassium content. Total sugar content was determined as the brix value on a refractometer. Total nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl method on dried samples. Significant variability was found for all analyzed traits. Total nitrogen varied from 0,695 to 2,179% dry weight (mean 1,23%, alpha amino nitrogen content 0,012 to 0,118% fresh weight (m. 0,07%, potassium 0,231 0,452% fresh weight (m. 0,403% and sodium 0,0003 - 0,0143% fresh weight (m. 0,007%. Total sugar content varied from 13,69 - 22,94% fresh weight (m. 19,14%. Alpha amino nitrogen is an essential nutrient for animals so that it's presence in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke as food is positive. The protein content is similar to the one in potato and as such satisfactory for nutrition. The K/Na ratio is high which is useful, because an increased content of potassium in food can positively affect the reduction of Na/K ratio and lower systolic blood pressure by a significant amount in adults with mild hypertension. Inulin makes up to 80% of the total sugar content in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, and as a dietary fiber and a fructose polymer it positively influences digestion and sugar blood levels. The obtained results suggest that selection of cultivars and populations with inappropriate nutritive values is possible. Further research is needed to estimate the share of genetic in total variability and to determine whether the selection for new cultivars is justified.

  15. Tylosema esculentum (Marama Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Chingwaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tylosema esculentum (marama beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4, adult pig (CLAB and adult bovine (CIEB origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE and cotyledon water extract (MCW without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp. (≥0.1 mg/mL, seed coat extract (MSCE and seed coat water extract (MSCW (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL, especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm2 of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.

  16. The role of pH in Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza development within commercial orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accepted advice when establishing a plantation of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum is that young inoculated trees should be planted on calcareous soils with a naturally high pH level. When a site is employed that has a naturally low pH level, lime is often applied to raise the pH to a considered ideal level of c.7.5. However, this may not be the correct approach. Here we present data from 33 data points taken from commercial truffle orchards in England, UK. Soil pH is correlated to Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza survivorship and development. The optimal observed pH was 7.51 but the actual optimal pH for cultivation may be higher. Sub optimal pH levels lead to a reduction of Tuber aestivum syn. uncinatum mycorrhiza. This reduction is not permanent and mycorrhization levels may be improved within a 12 month period by amending the soil pH. The importance of understanding the interaction of pH with other variables and the results in relation truffle cultivation are discussed.

  17. Extraction of glucomannan of porang tuber (Amorphophallus onchophillus) by using IPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhani, Dyah Hesti; Nugroho, Fatoni; Muslihuddin, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Amorphophallus oncophyllus also known as porang tuber is a local tuber rich of glucomannan. Due to the unique rheological and the gelling properties, glucomannan is widely employed as emulsifier and stabilizer and has been approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Isolation method of glucomannan from the tuber affects the mannan properties which in turn influence the scope of the applications. Ethanol solution combined with thermal treatment is commonly applied to purify glucomannan. However, the Amorphophallus sp also contains ˜0.2 mg b-carotenes/100 g dry weight, an impurities which difficult to be removed by ethanol-2 propyl alcohol (IPA) is more effective to remove undesirable components of glucomannan including carotenes compared to ethanol. This research objective was to study the effect of extraction time, temperature, IPA concentration, and ratio of solvent and flour on purification of glucomannan of A. onchophillus. Glucomannan content, starch content and viscosity were determined after the extraction. The highest glucomannan concentration was obtained at extraction by using 80% IPA and ratio of solvent/sample 8:1 (ml/g) for 4 h at 75°C. This condition gave 72.8% glucomannan and 2.69% starch with 4,300 cPs viscosity.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritiel Corrêa da Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%, fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds.

  19. Tuberous sclerosis associated with MDR1 gene expression and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowski, A; Sevlever, G; Taratuto, A; Massaro, M; Rabinowicz, A

    1999-10-01

    Intractable seizures are the most common manifestation in severe cases of tuberous sclerosis. Multidrug resistance type 1 (MDR1) gene expression is directly linked to the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy as the major cause of treatment failure, but it has not been reported in tuberous sclerosis cells nor has the relationship between the MDR1 gene and antiepileptic drugs been described. A 4-month-old female is described with poorly controlled seizures secondary to tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with antiepileptic drugs, including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and lorazepam, without improvement of symptoms. Phenytoin blood levels were invariably subtherapeutic and ranged from 0.45 to 3.55 microg/mL, despite several consecutive intravenous loading doses. Surgical treatment with total resection of the brain lesions was performed as a last resort. Immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tissues revealed high levels of P-glycoprotein 170 expression, the product of the MDR1 gene. Both MDR1 gene expression and persistently low phenytoin levels likely share a common pathway liable to induce drug-resistant epilepsy.

  20. Edible Film Making of Starch Canna Tuber (Canna Edulis Kerr and Aplication to Packaging Galamai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafnimardiyanti Hafnimardiyanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canna (Canna edulis Kerr was a tuber that had a high carbohydrate content so canna had excellent prospects to develop into edible film. The purpose of this study was to make edible film of canna starch, knowing storability galamai was packed with edible film and determine the level of preference panelists through organoleptic tests. In this research, manufacture of edible films with various concentrations of canna starch 2%, 3%, 4% and the use of plasticizer (glycerol 1%, 2% and 3% with 100 ml of water as a solven and then applied to galamai as a packaging. Of research on edible film get the best that was produced with the use of starch canna tuber 3% with the addition of 1% glycerol, wherein the edible film produced slightly thick and easily opened from the mold. Of organoleptic test showed that galamai packed with edible films of canna tuber starch 3% was the highest scores of the panelists with categories like. From the Friedman test showed that all three variations of the edible film packaging galamai, provide diversity to the test variable organoleptic (color, aroma, texture and flavor. Galamai was packed with edible film could be stored for 1 month.

  1. Tall gastrodis tuber combined with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in focal epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Wang; Zhenyu Fan; Yongqin Zhang; Yuxia Yang; Yaqing Liu; Xiaoli Dang; Wenjun Song; Yinping Wu; Jiang Ye

    2013-01-01

    One hundred patients with focal epilepsy were recruited for the present study and their seizures controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The patients then orally received a capsule of tall gastrodis tuber powder, a traditional Chinese drug, and underwent single photon emission computed tomography, long-term electroencephalogram, and CT/MRI. Blood drug levels were monitored throughout the study. Before treatment with tall gastrodis tuber, 35 of the 100 cases had abnormal CT/MRI scans; 79 cases had abnormal single photon emission computed tomography images; 86 cases had abnormal electroencephalogram; and a total of 146 abnormal perfusion foci were observed across the 100 subjects. After treatment, the number of patients with normal single photon emission computed tomography images increased by 12; normal electroencephalogram was observed in an additional 27 cases and the number of patients with epileptiform discharge decreased by 29 (34% of 86); the total number of abnormal perfusion foci decreased by 52 (36%) and changes in abnormal foci were visible in 65 patients. These changes indicate that the administration of tall gastrodis tuber in combination with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in patients with focal epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that traditional Chinese drugs can repair abnormal perfusion foci and, as such, are a promising new pathway in the treatment of focal epilepsy.

  2. Preliminary Study on Immunomodulatory Effect of Sarang-Semut Tubers Myrmecodia tuberosa and Myrmecodia pendens

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    Triana Hertiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Sarang-Semut tubers, Myrmecodia tuberosa and M. pendens (Rubiaceae are both medicinal plants originating from Papua which have broad range of therapeutic values including those to improve vitality. Nevertheless, no scientific proof is available so far on their immunomodulatory effect. The purpose of this study was to reveal the potency of Sarang-Semut tubers as immunomodulatory agent by evaluating their effects on Balb/c mice lymphocytes proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis by in vitro techniques. Approach: Bioactivity assays were performed on the raw extracts and fractions. Extracts were obtained by macerating the pulverized samples in ethanol 95%, followed by successive fractionation to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water fractions. Series of extracts and fractions were made to concentration 10, 20, 50 and 100 µg mL-1 by adding 0.5% Tween 80. Lymphocytes proliferation was observed by the MTT reduction method and analyzed using microplate reader at 550 nm. Macrophage phagocytosis activity was determined based on the number of latex beads uptake by the macrophage cells. Results: All extracts and fractions significantly increased the lymphocytes proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis activity in comparison to negative control. The ethyl acetate fraction of M. pendens (50 µg mL-1 showed the highest activity in lymphocytes proliferation assay, but the highest macrophage phagocytic index was shown by M. tuberosa ethanol extract (50 µg mL-1. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Sarang-Semut tubers are potential to be developed as immunomodulatory agents.

  3. Multiple Mobile mRNA Signals Regulate Tuber Development in Potato

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    David J. Hannapel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Included among the many signals that traffic through the sieve element system are full-length mRNAs that function to respond to the environment and to regulate development. In potato, several mRNAs that encode transcription factors from the three-amino-loop-extension (TALE superfamily move from leaves to roots and stolons via the phloem to control growth and signal the onset of tuber formation. This RNA transport is enhanced by short-day conditions and is facilitated by RNA-binding proteins from the polypyrimidine tract-binding family of proteins. Regulation of growth is mediated by three mobile mRNAs that arise from vasculature in the leaf. One mRNA, StBEL5, functions to activate growth, whereas two other, sequence-related StBEL’s, StBEL11 and StBEL29, function antagonistically to repress StBEL5 target genes involved in promoting tuber development. This dynamic system utilizes closely-linked phloem-mobile mRNAs to control growth in developing potato tubers. In creating a complex signaling pathway, potato has evolved a long-distance transport system that regulates underground organ development through closely-associated, full-length mRNAs that function as either activators or repressors.

  4. Hemispherectomy for Hemimegalencephaly Due to Tuberous Sclerosis and a Review of the Literature.

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    Cuddapah, Vishnu Anand; Thompson, Matthew; Blount, Jeffrey; Li, Rong; Guleria, Saurabh; Goyal, Monisha

    2015-11-01

    Hemimegalencephaly with tuberous sclerosis complex is an uncommon association, usually associated with intractable seizures that begin in the neonatal period or early infancy. Typically, the seizures are managed with medications until the patient is older when surgical treatment is considered safe. We describe a 7-week-old infant with tuberous sclerosis (TSC1 mutation) and hemimegalencephaly who underwent a functional hemispherectomy for status epilepticus. No clinical seizures have occurred since surgery nearly 5 years ago and subsequent weaning of antiepileptic drugs 3 years ago. This is one of the youngest patients with tuberous sclerosis complex treated with a hemispherectomy and one of seven patients described in the literature. Our patient, along with previously reported cases, suggests that a hemispherectomy is a viable option in the very young. With evolution of this surgical process since its inception nearly 6 decades ago, it may now be performed safely in early infancy, engendering the possibility of seizure freedom in most and thus optimizing neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crystal structure of the yeast TSC1 core domain and implications for tuberous sclerosis pathological mutations.

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    Sun, Wei; Zhu, Ye Julia; Wang, Zhizhi; Zhong, Qiang; Gao, Feng; Lou, Jizhong; Gong, Weimin; Xu, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a disease caused by mutations in two tumor-suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. The TSC1 protein, also known as hamartin, has a critical role in controlling mTOR signalling. TSC1 does not bear apparent sequence homology with other proteins. Here we show that the N-terminal half of yeast TSC1 forms a protease-resistant domain, which is evolutionarily conserved. The crystal structure of this yeast TSC1 core domain shows that it contains a pseudo-HEAT repeat fold with its C-terminal end capped by a helical subdomain. This allows us to model the three-dimensional structure of the human TSC1 N-terminal domain (TSC1-NTD), which anchors essentially all pathogenic TSC1 missense mutations found in tuberous sclerosis patients. Interestingly, most pathogenic mutations map inside of the folded TSC1-NTD structure, whereas most non-pathogenic variants are on the structural surface. This indicates that the disruption of the TSC1-NTD globular structure is a major cause of tuberous sclerosis.

  6. Mutational analysis of paediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex in Korea: genotype and epilepsy.

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    Lee, Jin Sook; Lim, Byung Chan; Chae, Jong-Hee; Hwang, Yong Seung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Kim, Ki Joong

    2014-12-01

    To date, only a few studies have reported that, in tuberous sclerosis, TSC2 mutations are more frequently associated with infantile spasms and cognitive impairment compared to TSC1 mutations. We analyzed the mutational spectrum of patients with tuberous sclerosis in Korea and attempted to explore the associations between genotype and seizure type/outcome. We performed mutational analyses on 70 unrelated patients with clinically confirmed tuberous sclerosis by using direct DNA sequencing and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The patients' medical records, including epilepsy type and outcome, were reviewed retrospectively. We identified pathogenic mutations in 55 patients (79%), 25 of which were novel. There were 12 TSC1 mutations and 43 TSC2 mutations. TSC1 mutations included 8 frameshift and 4 nonsense mutations. TSC2 mutations included 12 frameshift, 10 nonsense, 6 splicing, and 6 missense mutations, as well as 4 in-frame deletions and 5 large deletions. Fifty-eight patients had epilepsy (83%), including 19 patients with a history of infantile spasms. Compared to patients with TSC1 mutations, individuals with TSC2 mutations had a significantly higher frequency of epilepsy (p<0.05) and tended to have a higher frequency of infantile spasms (37% vs 17%; p<0.3). Most of the patients with TSC2 mutations who developed infantile spasms exhibited subsequent epilepsy (13/14; 93%). However, the presence/absence of infantile spasms did not influence seizure remission or cognitive outcome.

  7. Tuberous Sclerosis and Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas: A Case Report and Literature Review of Emerging Treatment Strategies

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    Francois Jo-Hoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare multisystemic genetic disorder associated with the development of benign hamartomas. Angiomyolipomas are one such characteristic finding that may be seen in 55–80% of tuberous sclerosis complex patients. While being normally asymptomatic, they can also cause significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex and recently discovered bilateral renal angiomyolipomas, admitted for hematuria who underwent left renal artery embolization; however, worsening renal function necessitated subsequent nephrectomy. Despite still being mainstays of treatment, invasive interventions are now being recommended for specific patient populations as demonstrated in our case. Emerging strategies targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway have been shown to reduce the size of angiomyolipomas and are now used to treat asymptomatic cases >3 cm. Our review discusses these treatment options with the intention of increasing awareness of current recommendations and hopefully leading to increased application of these novel therapies that will reduce the need for invasive interventions.

  8. Tylosema esculentum (Marama) Tuber and Bean Extracts Are Strong Antiviral Agents against Rotavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingwaru, Walter; Majinda, Runner T; Yeboah, Sam O; Jackson, Jose C; Kapewangolo, Petrina T; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Cencic, Avrelija

    2011-01-01

    Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm(2)) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.

  9. Expected response to early-generation selection for yield and tuber appearance traits in potatoes

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    Vicenti Gonçalves Ney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of potato clonal families, and to estimate genetic variance, heritability and the expected response to selection of tuber yield and appearance traits in early generations. Twelve potato families were obtained from crosses between two groups of randomly-selected genotypes, including Eliza, C1730-7-94, and C-1742-8-95 in group 1; and Shepody, Asterix, Caesar, and White Lady in group 2. The crosses were made in factorial design (3 genotypes x4 genotypes, and each family consisted of 75 genotypes. Experiments were conducted in the fall of 2010, with a seedling generation under greenhouse conditions, and in the fall of 2011, with a clonal generation under field condition. High heritability estimates suggest that mild to moderate selection can be applied in the seedling generation to eye depth, eyebrow prominence, tuber curvature, flattening and shape uniformity. The C1742-8-95/White Lady stood out as a superior cross, as did all other crosses with White Lady, regarding tuber appearance and yield traits.

  10. Granular Nematicides for Control of the Yam Nematode, Scutellonema bradys, and Relevant Residues in Raw Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyan, S O; Badra, T

    1982-04-01

    Four granular nentaticides were evaluated for control of the yam nematode, Scutellonema bradys (Steiner &LeHew) Andrassy, on Guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, under field conditions prevelant in the tropics. A single application of nematicides (sidedressing) at the rate of 2 kg ai/ha as postplanting treatment at the onset of the rainy season depressed numbers of S. bradys attacking yams during the growing season and significantly increased tuber yields over untreated. The efficacy, based on the regression coefficient values of evaluated nematicides, was in the order of miral, carbofuran, aldicarb, and oxamyl (b = -75.9, -75.5, -72.1, and -65.9, respectively). Yam tuber yields increased by 136.9, 90.6, 87.9, and 85.3% over untreated (P = 0.05) in aldicarb, carbofuran, oxamyl, and miral treated plots, respectively. Residues in raw tubers pretreated with aldicarb, carbofuran, or miral were negligible (front less than 0.02 to 0.3 ppm) and far below the established tolerance levels (l.0 and 1.3 ppm for aldicarb and carbofuran, respectively) of a related crop in the United States. This is the first report on residues of systemic pesticides in yams.

  11. Preparation of high-fructose syrup from the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S E; GrootWassink, J W

    1979-11-01

    Fructose has recently received much attention due to renewed interest in natural sweeteners. In addition, fructose has some advantages to sucrose in sweetness, solubility, viscosity, and dental health characteristics. Fructose is deposited as storage fructans of the inulin (beta-1,2) type in tubers and rhizomes of the Compositae family. The utilization of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tuber as a source of fructose syrup is discussed. This plant has the potential to produce more sugar per acre than corn or sugar beets. In addition, the artichoke has higher frost resistance and lower heat unit requirements than corn and is somewhat more tolerant to low moisture conditions than sugar beets. A high quality fructose syrup can be produced from artichoke tubers. The extraction step was found to be particularly important since development of adverse colors and flavors must be prevented. The fructans may be acid or enzyme hydrolyzed but the latter method gave a higher quality syrup. Ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal were effective in removing coloring and flavoring materials, and also reduced other noncarbohydrate constituents. Since the enzymatic hydrolysis of the fructans is an attractive alternative to acid hydrolysis, a process was developed for producing and purifying a special beta-fructofuranosidase (inulase) from Saccharomyces fragilis. Inulase has a much higher specificity for fructans than commerically available beta-fructofuranosidase (invertase).

  12. Transcriptional-metabolic networks in beta-carotene-enriched potato tubers: the long and winding road to the Golden phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Al-Babili, Salim; Tavazza, Raffaela; Scossa, Federico; Papacchioli, Velia; Migliore, Melania; Beyer, Peter; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in a large number of countries. Biofortification of major staple crops (wheat [Triticum aestivum], rice [Oryza sativa], maize [Zea mays], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) with β-carotene has the potential to alleviate this nutritional problem. Previously, we engineered transgenic "Golden" potato tubers overexpressing three bacterial genes for β-carotene synthesis (CrtB, CrtI, and CrtY, encoding phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and lycopene β-cyclase, respectively) and accumulating the highest amount of β-carotene in the four aforementioned crops. Here, we report the systematic quantitation of carotenoid metabolites and transcripts in 24 lines carrying six different transgene combinations under the control of the 35S and Patatin (Pat) promoters. Low levels of B-I expression are sufficient for interfering with leaf carotenogenesis, but not for β-carotene accumulation in tubers and calli, which requires high expression levels of all three genes under the control of the Pat promoter. Tubers expressing the B-I transgenes show large perturbations in the transcription of endogenous carotenoid genes, with only minor changes in carotenoid content, while the opposite phenotype (low levels of transcriptional perturbation and high carotenoid levels) is observed in Golden (Y-B-I) tubers. We used hierarchical clustering and pairwise correlation analysis, together with a new method for network correlation analysis, developed for this purpose, to assess the perturbations in transcript and metabolite levels in transgenic leaves and tubers. Through a "guilt-by-profiling" approach, we identified several endogenous genes for carotenoid biosynthesis likely to play a key regulatory role in Golden tubers, which are candidates for manipulations aimed at the further optimization of tuber carotenoid content.

  13. Transfer of Uranium and Radium-226 from soil to tubers and roots culture on the northern coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil; Transferencia do uranio e radio-226 do solo para tuberculos e raizes cultivados na costa norte de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Romilton dos Santos [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mazzilli, Barbara Pace [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Tubers and roots are the most produced foodstuffs along the northern coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil. This region presents uranium anomalies in subsoil, with a radionuclide concentration mean of 150 ppm, due to phosphate mines. The phosphatic ore extraction activities, have produced a soil movement, so that more rich materials containing uranium and radium-226 have been transferred from subsoil to cultivation layers of the soil.These facts associated with intensive agricultural production of the region, has determined the performance of this study, which has the objective to measure uranium and radium-226 concentrations in soil, tubers and roots, cultivated in this area, as well as its partition in soil-to-plant system. The results found show that exchangeable fraction of uranium and radium-226 concentrations in soil ranged between 0.12 to 7.67+- 0.57 Bq/Kg of dry soil and 3.7 to 30.3+-1.4 Bq/Kg of dry soil, respectively. Otherwise, these radionuclide concentrations in tubers and roots ranged from 12.9 to 78.8+-8.0 Bq/Kg wet weight and 120 to 1607+-80 Bq/Kg wet weight, respectively. The transfer factor is defined as concentration of the nuclide in a plant organ at harvest divided by concentration of the nuclide in dry soil, and the mean values found to uranium and radium-226 transfer factors (8.5 and 3.2) have demonstrated that uranium, in spite of its lower soil concentration, is more absorbed by cultivars than radium-226.

  14. Production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in potato tuber during the necrotrophic phase of hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora infestans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anshu; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2012-12-05

    In this study, evidence is provided on the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (HO) in the potato tuber during the necrotrophic phase of the hemibiotrophic pathogen Phytophthora infestans infection. Using 3,3-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) imaging technique, the formation of H(2)O(2) was demonstrated in P. infestans-infected potato tuber. For the first time, HO formation was demonstrated in P. infestans-infected potato tuber using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. An enhancement in spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission indicated the extent of lipid peroxidation in the P. infestans-infected potato tuber. The data presented in this study reveal that the formation of H(2)O(2) and HO in the P. infestans-infected potato tuber is associated with lipid peroxidation. It is proposed here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive indicator of the oxidative processes in the quality control at food industry.

  15. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India

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    RAJA RISHI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kumar R, Tapwal A, Pandey S, Rishi R, Borah D. 2013. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India. Biodiversitas 14: 67-72. Non-timber forest products constitute an important source of livelihood for rural households from forest fringe communities across the world. Utilization of wild edible tuber plants is an integral component of their culture. Mycorrhizal associations influence the establishment and production of tuber plants under field conditions.The aim of present study is to explore the diversity and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF colonization of wild edible tuber plants grown in wet evergreen forest of Assam, India. A survey was conducted in 2009-10 in Sunaikuchi, Khulahat, and Bura Mayong reserved forest of Morigaon district of Assam to determine the AMF spore population in rhizosphere soils and root colonization of 14 tuberous edible plants belonging to five families. The results revealed AMF colonization of all selected species in all seasons. The percent colonization and spore count was less in summer, moderate in winter and highest in rainy season. Seventeen species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded in four genera viz. Acaulospora (7 species, Glomus (5 species, Sclerocystis (3 species and Gigaspora (2 species.

  16. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakpa Michael Monday; Asuzu Isaac Uzoma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results: Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  17. Genetic Variation of the First Generation of Rodent Tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Mutants Based on RAPD Molecular Markers

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    Nesti Fronika Sianipar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. is a herbal plant from the Araceae family. The plant has high medical potential and is effective to cure cancer. However, the low level of its genetic variation limits its exploration for desirable traits. The low level of genetic variation in Rodent tuber is mainly due to its asexual reproduction system. It usually reproduces vegetatively via tuber separation. Therefore, gamma irradiation had been applied to rodent tuber in vitro to increase its genetic diversity. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the first generation (MV1 of gamma irradiated rodent tuber mutant using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. A total of 14 mutant DNA samples were analyzed with 14 RAPD primers. The result showed that 67 out of 123 DNA bands were polymorphic among mutant lines. Based on cluster analysis these mutants showed 0.78-0.97 genetic similarity. Cutting of dendogram at genetic distance of 0.89 produced four main clusters. Mutants with high genetic variation are now available. This increases the opportunity of obtaining mutant lines with high anti-cancer activity.

  18. Wounding induces changes in tuber polyamine content, polyamine metabolic gene expression, and enzyme activity during closing layer formation and initiation of wound periderm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuber wound-healing processes are complex, and the associated regulation and modulation of these processes are poorly understood. Polyamines (PA) have been shown to be involved in modulating a variety of responses to biotic and abiotic plant stresses and have been suggested to be involved in tuber ...

  19. Ethylene in the atmosphere of commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) storage bins and potential effects on tuber respiration rate and fried chip color

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    Careful storage management is required to maintain post-harvest potato tuber quality. The plant growth regulator ethylene has well documented effects on potato tuber respiration rate, fried product color, and sprouting, but data on the amount of ethylene present in ventilated potato storages and how...

  20. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...