Sample records for prentice-hall englewood cliffs

  1. Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, edited by Robert S. Corrnccini and Russell L. Ciochon, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela R. Willoughby


    Full Text Available F. Clark Howell retired from the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1991. At Berkeley, and earlier while at the University of Chicago, he was responsible for training a number of specialists in human biocultural evolution, or palaeoanthropology. In fact, Howell is credited with developing the concept of palaeoanthropology (and defining the term itself; he certainly created the framework for this integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to human evolution. For his retirement, former students and colleagues collaborated to produce this volume. Some of the papers were presented at a one day symposium reviewing the highlights of Howell's career along with current research directions in palaeoanthropology. It took place during the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association held in San Francisco in 1992. Bowell's long time colleague J. Desmond Clark gave the distinguished lecture at the same meeting. During his career, Howell directed excavations at Isimilain Tanzania, as well as Torralba and Ambrona in Spain (all extensive Acheulean localities, but is best known for his work west of the Omo River in southern Ethiopia. It was there during the 1960s and 1970s that he developed the methods and approaches which would come to characterize the best of palaeoanthropological research.

  2. Continuation of Research in the Development of High Sensitivity X-Ray and Electron Beam Resists Processes. (United States)


    J.M. Prausnitz, Molecular Thermodynamics Qf FliA Phase Eguiibria., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969, p. 298. 18. J. Manjkow, MS...Press, Ithaca, New York, 1953, p. 545. 25. J.M. Prausnitz, Molecular Thermodynamics 2f F Phase £ b , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969, p

  3. Celebrity Endorsement of Direct Mail Advertising: An Experiment. (United States)


    to the role of ŕDavid A. Aaker and John G. Myers, Advertising Management (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975), pp. 307-331. 1 2 Ibid...RA PH Y 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aaker , David A., and Myers, John G. Advertising Manage- ment. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975. Andersen

  4. Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Advanced Complex Materials for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications (United States)


    in Elastic Solids, (American Elservier Pub. Co., New York, 1973) [21] Y. C. Fung, Foundation of Solid Mechanics. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N...Propagations in Elastic Solids, (American Elservier Pub. Co., New York, 1973) [32] Y. C. Fung, Foundation of Solid Mechanics, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood

  5. Models for Undergraduate Project Courses in Software Engineering (United States)


    B. Software Development: A Rigorous Approach. Prentice-Hall Interna- tional, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. 68. Jones, Capers . Programming...Engineering: Analysis and Verification. Reston Publishing Company, Reston, Virginia, 1982. 80. Liskov, Barbara and Guttag, John. Abstraction and

  6. Command and Control: US Army Staffs and the Operations Process (United States)


    Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), 2; T. N. Dupuy, A Genius for War, The German Army and General Staff, 1807-1945 (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall ...V Corps, under Major General Leonard T. Gerow, would assault Omaha beach and push forward to establish a line from Isigny to Bayeux. Meanwhile, VII...General Staff, 1807-1945. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall , Inc., 1977. Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, INC

  7. Extending the Season for Concrete Construction and Repair. Phase II - Defining Engineering Parameters (United States)


    18 Tricalcium aluminate 12 7 8 Tetracalcium alumino-ferrite 8 12 9 Fineness (Blaine, m2/kg) 350 350 370 * Data from Mindess and Young (1981...compares favorably to published values for the thermal coefficient of expansion of mortar of between 7 and 12 ppm/°C ( Mindess and Young 1981, p. 526...Prentice- Hall. Mindess , S. and J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Mironov, S. A. 1977. Theory and

  8. An information systems auditor’s profile

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carroll, M


    Full Text Available , time and budgets (leadership) Resilience Good listener Passion for auditing Understand client environment / business Team player Conflict resolution Constant learning / seeking new knowledge Decisive / Judgement Diligence and detail Establish.... The South African Institute of Chartered Accountants, Johan- nesburg. Watne DA, PBB Turney. 2002. Auditing EDP Systems. Prentice Hall. South Africa, 2nd ed. Weber R. 1999. Information Systems Control and Audit. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs...

  9. Defense Communications Agency Upper Level Protocol Test System Transmission Control Protocol Remote Driver Specification (United States)


    Programming Language; Prentice-Hall, Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, NJ; 1978. Kernighan , B. W., and Pike, R.; The UNIX Programming Environment; Prentice-Hall, Inc...lmpipmentation in UNIX /C.................................. C-i APPENDIX D - Example Command Channel Packet Exchange. D-1 LW_- LIST OF FIGURES Figure...State Machine ........ 5-5 C.1-1 Outline of Command Channel Establishment in 4.2 BSD UNIX /C ........................... C-2 C.2-1 The C Syntax Format

  10. Enhanced Spectral Modeling of Sparse Aperture Imaging Systems (United States)


    Optical Society of America 61, 272-273. [19] Gonzalez , Rafael C. and R.E. Woods (2002). Digital Image Processing . Second Ed. Prentice Hall, Inc...research effort provides an adequate enough representation of the imaging process that any observed effects are not manufactured by the digital ...Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing . Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. [30] Lampkin, Curt M., G.W. Flint, and M.J. MacFarlane (1988

  11. Defense Communications Agency Upper Level Protocol Test System Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Remote Driver Specification (United States)


    Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, NJ; 1978. Kernighan , B. W., and Pike, R.; The UNIX Programming Environment; Prentice-Hall, Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, NJ; 1984. B-I...B-i APPENDIX C EXAMPLES OF REMOTE DRIVER IMPLEMENTATION IN UNIX /C.............. C-i 1-1 SECTION 1 - SCOPE AND PURPOSE This manual describes UNIX /C (Figure C-I). 3-2 Central I Driver Transport Connection DDN ) Network ( )__ __ _ _ Transport Connection Remote (background process) Driver

  12. Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests (United States)


    characteristics of Carya illinoensis ," Acta Hortic. 179:287-8. Zar, J. H. (1974). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 58...3 M aterials and Methods .................................... 4 Plant cultures ...Procedures for Detecting Flurprimidol Residues in Water, Plant Tissues , and Soil ..................................... 30 Introduction

  13. System Design Analysis of a Lightweight Laser Satellite Terminal (United States)


    Communication. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1987. 29. Klein, B.; Degnan, J. " Optical Antenna Gain. 1: Transmitting Antennas." Applied Optics, 13...2134-2141 (September 1974). 30. Klein, B.; Degnan, J. " Optical Antenna Gain. 2: Receiving Antennas." Applied Optics, 13: 2397-2401 (October 1974). 31

  14. The Contribution of Group Members’ Cognitive Resources to the Effectiveness of Small Groups (United States)


    into those who reported low and high job and boss stress, and correlations were then computed between their Wonderlic (1977) intelligence score, their...deviance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wonderlic , E. F. (1977). Wonderlic personnel test. Northfleld, IL: Wonderlic . Zais, M. M. (1979). The

  15. Future Modelling and Simulation Challenges (Defis futurs pour la modelisation et la simulation) (United States)


    Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1972. Nilsson Nils J. Principios de Inteligencia Artificial. Ed. Diaz de Santos OR5-305 orientaciones PCART,s. Y FSE,s...Reglamento de Artillería de Campaña R-O-2-2 Reglamento de Inteligencia Táctica Rich- Knight. Inteligencia Artificial. Ed. Mc Graw Hill Russell N

  16. Micromechanics of Concrete. (United States)


    reflects the dispersion of the coarse aggregates on the mesoscale. Specifically, the experimental measure- ments indicate ( Mindess and Young 1981, Zaitsev...Mecanique des Materiaux Solides, Dunod, Paris. Mindess , S. and J. Young (1981), Concrete, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Mura, T. (1982

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Low-Temperature Concrete Admixtures for Repairing Blast Holes in Cold Weather (United States)


    binder material ( Mindess and Young 1981). The designated values of initial and final set are arbitrarily set at 500 and 4000 psi, respectively. Initial...6th ed. Belmont, CA: Professional Publications, Inc. Mindess , S., and J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. PM-MRAP

  18. Investigation of Proprietary Air-Entraining Admixtures to Produce Frost- Resistant Concrete with Low Air Content (United States)


    given air content, a higher specific surface should result in a smaller spacing factor ( Mindess and Young 1981). Therefore, if a particular AEA produced...MS. Mindess , S., and Young, J. F. 1981. Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Powers, T. C. 1954 (May). "Void Spacing as a Basis for

  19. Altering the Application of the Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle for Air Force Software Programs. (United States)


    York: North Holland, Inc., 1981. 2. Fox, Joseph M. Software and Its Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1982. A 3. Gujarati ... Damodar . Basic Econometrics. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Company, 1978. J.,. 4. Larr, L., et al. Planning Guide for Computer Programming Development

  20. The Army Communications Objectives Measurement System (ACOMS): Survey Analysis Plan (United States)


    such as those of Lavidge and Steiner (1961), McGuire (1969), and Fishbein and Azjen (1975). Fishbein and Azjen (1975) and Aaker (1975) present...REFERENCES Aaker , D. A. (Ed.). (1975). Advertising management Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Fishbein, M., & Azjen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude

  1. Prysverlagings op voorraad met 'n dalende vraag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and most of the existing work considered clearance sales at the end of a season. ... outperform the current pricing policy of the shop management. ...... [2] Ballou RH, 1999, Business logistics management, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs ... [17] Kalpakam S & Sapna KP, 1994, Continuous review (s, S) inventory system with.

  2. Specification/Verification of Temporal Properties for Distributed Systems: Issues and Approaches. Volume 1 (United States)


    Philip A. Bernstein and Nathan Goodman. Concurrency control in distributed database systems. ACM Computing Surveys, 13(2):185-221, June 1981. [5] K. J...Sequential Processe8. Series in Computer Science. PrenticeHall International, Englewood Cliff, NJ, 1985. 96 [24] A. L. Hopkins Jr., T. Basil Smith, III, and J

  3. A Proposed Method of FSK Generation and Demodulation for the DREO Radio Test Bed (United States)


    34, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 1982 [3] Wilson, M. J. (editor), "The 1987 ARRL Handbook For The Radio Amateur", American...Hughes, Frederick W., "Op-Amp Handbook ", Prentice-Hall Publications, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1986 [11] EXAR Corporation Databook [12] Bendix

  4. Effects of the Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure upon Attribution of Attractive Qualities to the Ingratiation Target. (United States)


    8217 (1977) social learning theory . Proponents of this hypothesis hold that when in an ambiguous situation, such as an experiment, subjects, in their...San Francisco: Josey Bass, 1979. Bandura, A. Social Learning Theory . Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. H

  5. Marketing and Utilization of the Active Duty Dependent’s Dental Insurance Plan (United States)


    program. of responses rather than to each level of response. Analyses According to Bandura’s " social learning theory :’ consumers were completed using the...Bandura A. Social Learning Theory . Englewood Cliffs. NJ. Prentice Hall Publishers. problem. 18 1977 However, to maximally enhance ADDDIP enrollment

  6. Personality and Selective Attention. (United States)


    1977) have integrated information processing models of attention with social learning theory in order to conoeptualize the behavior change process...consistency at these loci. ’M Nielsen & Sarason 35 References Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice- Hall, Inc

  7. The Attitudes of Navy Corrections Staff Members: What they Think About Confinees and their Jobs (United States)


    in a position to also facilitate behavioral changes in confinees by serving as appropriate role models. Social learning theory suggests that...319-342. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bhagat, R. S. (1982). Conditions under which stronger job

  8. Modelling Phase Transition Phenomena in Fluids (United States)


    theorem [Sard 1942, Sternberg 1964] the set of the critical values of any (differentiable) map has zero measure. In our case of a two-parametric...Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 48(12), 883–890. Sternberg , S., ed. (1964) Lectures on Differential Geometry, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Truesdell, C

  9. A Study to Identify the Transitional Training Needs for United States Army Medical Residents (United States)


    Books Kotler , Philip, and Roberta Clarke. Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1987. Runyon, Richard P ., and...I. INTRODUCTION..........................1 Orientation..........................1 General........................... P Problem Statement...leadership development, office communi-ations, professional and legal obligations, Rawls 8 and practice marketing . Because these newly trained physicians

  10. A Band Relaxation Algorithm for Reliable and Parallelizable Circuit Simulation (United States)


    Varga, Matriz Iterative Analysis, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1962. [WEB] D. M. Webber, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, "Circuit Simulation...White, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Relazation Techniques for the Simulation of VLSI Circuits, Kluwer Pub., Boston , 1986. 11 (WIN] 0. wing, j. W. Huang

  11. MARSnet: Mission-aware Autonomous Radar Sensor Network for Future Combat Systems 12/8/06 to 12/31/09 (United States)


    Probabilistic Models and Statistical Methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995. [24] A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random...Stochastic Processes, Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2005. [30] A. Papoulis , Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, McGraw-Hill...25. Military Communications Conference, 2006. MILCOM 2006, 2006, pp. 1–7. [9] A. Papoulis , Probability, Random Variables, and Stochas- tic Processes

  12. Robust and Adaptive Guidance and Control Laws for Missile Systems (United States)


    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988. positive real lemma are developed in Sections II and HI using optimal [111 R. S. Varga . Matrix Iterative...testing certain Math, 1987. square matrices for positive definiteness related to the generalized [14] F. Alvarado , "Parallel solution of transient

  13. Air-Ground Integration: Preliminary Results from the Coalition Attack Guidance Experiment (The International C2 Journal Volume 5, Number 3, 2011) (United States)


    Between Structure and Technology. In Handbook of Organizational Design vol. 2: 3-38, eds. P. C. Nystrom and W. H. Starbuck . New York, NY: Oxford... Starbuck . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Mintzberg, H. 1989. The Structure of Organizations. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Nemetz, P. L

  14. The Role and Importance of the D in PTSD (United States)


    Hell: Post-Traumatic Stress, Vietnam, and the Civil War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dumit, J. (2006). “Illnesses You Have to Fight to...Discrimination American Style: Institutional Racism and Sexism . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Finley, E. P. (2011). Fields of Combat: Understanding PTSD

  15. Building a Culture of Excellence within the DeWitt Health Care Network (United States)


    Medical Command, the northeast subordinate command of the U.S. Army Medical Command. The DACH grew into the DHCN through reorganization and expansion ...Kuczmarski, T. D. (1995). Values-based leadership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Lee, F. (2004). If Disney ran your hospital: 9 Vi

  16. Guide to National Security Policy and Strategy (United States)


    possible strategy by examining it for suitability, acceptability, and feasibility. Those three adverbs test each of the three components of strategy...see Karl Deutsch , The Analysis of International Relations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1968), pp. 21-39. 38 Robert Jervis, Perceptions and

  17. Stigma: "What Is It and Why Does the Operational Commander Need To Be Concerned?" (United States)


    An Achievable Vision, 5. 5 Stuart, Stigma and Work. 6 Goffman , Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. 7 Dovidio, Major, & Crocker...York: Guilford Press, 2000. Goffman , E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963

  18. fed a low or a medium protein diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physiology, Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X4, .... Group 1 were fed a low nitrogen diet (LN) based on milled oats {Avena sativa) hay, with a metabolizable energy .... Halving the intake of drinking water halved the output of urine ..... Book, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp.

  19. Recent Naval Postgraduate School Publications. (United States)


    probability and statistics Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, June, 1985.’,.. 857 p. He, X G; Higashida , M; Kerr, D S; Orooji, A; Shi, Z Z; Strawser, P R...School, (NPS-52-85-011), , Aug., 1985. 46 p. He X; Higashida , M; Hsiao, D K; Kerr, D S; Orooji, A; Shi trawser, P the implementation of a multi

  20. An Empirical Study to Enhance the Reenlistment Process of Civilian Personnel with Prior Military Service. (United States)


    Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publica- tions, 1980. Kotler , P. Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1980...02940 Mr. Philip Bernard B-K Dynamics, Inc. 15825 Shady Grove Road Rockville, MD 20850 Dr. Bruce M. Meglino College of Business Administration

  1. Explicit, Implicit, and Subjective Rating Measures of Situation Awareness in a Monitoring Task (United States)


    range of the subjects’ weapon (referred to as "envelope sensitivity" and calculated as A’ see Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). In his experiment...1982). Design and analysis: A researchers handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Macmillan, N. A., and Creelman , C. D. (1990). Response

  2. A Classification of Designated Logic Systems (United States)


    x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION When thinking of ’logic’ we tend to think in Aristotelian terms, or in terms of the Principia Mathematica (Russell and...and Wright, Charles R. B. Discrete Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985. Russell, B. and Whitehead, A. Principia Mathematica

  3. Harbingers of the Caliphate: Islamic State Revolutionary Actions 2011-2014 (United States)


    Duma,” Al-Safir, June 17, 2014, 50 Stuart Ramsay, “IS Files Reveal Assad’s Deals with Militants,” Sky...Beast, November 1, 2011, stuart -bowen-iraq-military-not-ready- for-u-s-withdrawal.html. 37...Theory and Justice. 2nd ed. Prentice- Hall Contemporary Comparative Politics Series. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall , 1984. Gregg, Heather S

  4. Navigating the Human Terrain: Development of Cross-Cultural Perspective Taking Skills (United States)


    willing to make self-sacrifices to be part of this group, and are less likely to indulge in social loafing (Earley, 1989). However, they are likely...1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Earley, P. C. (1989). Social loafing and collectivism: A comparison of...Behavioral and Social Sciences Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. Army Research Institute for the

  5. A simplified model of software project dynamics


    Ruiz Carreira, Mercedes; Ramos Román, Isabel; Toro Bonilla, Miguel


    The simulation of a dynamic model for software development projects (hereinafter SDPs) helps to investigate the impact of a technological change, of different management policies, and of maturity level of organisations over the whole project. In the beginning of the 1990s, with the appearance of the dynamic model for SDPs by Abdel-Hamid and Madnick [Software Project Dynamics: An Integrated Approach, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991], a significant advance took place in the field of p...

  6. Soviet Counterinsurgency (United States)


    not result in the development of a comprehensive Marxist-Leninist military doctrine. As D.F. White notes, it was left to Trotsky , Frunze, Tukhachevsky...significantly alter the basic structure and interrelationships of d Meade Earle, "Lenin, Trotsky , Stalin: Soviet Concepts of War," in: Makers of Modern...Sokolovskii, ed., Soviet Military Strategv, trans. Herbert S. Dinerstein, Leon Goure, and Thomas Wolfe (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1963): 48-49. 22Joseph

  7. A Non-Cognitive Formal Approach to Knowledge Representation in Artificial Intelligence. (United States)


    Rewriting," Information and Control, 25: 10-19 (May 1974). Crespi-Reghizzi, Stefano and others. " Algebraic Properties of Operator Precedence Languages...McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983. 7. Ginsburg, Seymour. Algebraic and Automata-Theoretic Properties of Formal Languages. New York: American Elsevier...Stanat, Donald F. and David F. McAllister. Discrete Mathematics in Computer Science. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1977. 91. Rotman , B.and G.T

  8. Effects of Practice in Selecting and Executing Keypressing Sequences (Effecten van oefening op het selecteren en uitvoeren van een sequentiele toetsdruktaak). (United States)


    is concurrent with execution ( Klapp & Wyatt, 1976; Portier et al., 1990; Portier & Van Galen, in press; Rosenbaum et al., 1986). The second aspect is...1980). Use of simple reaction time in motor programming studies: A reply to Klapp , Wyatt, and Lingo. Journal of Motor Behavior 12, 163-168. Henry, EM...and analysis: A researcher’s handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Klapp , S.T. & Wyatt, E.P. (1976). Motor programming within a sequence of

  9. The Effects of Seductive Details on Recognition Tests and Transfer Tasks (United States)


    Educational psychology . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Dewey, J. (1913). Interest and effort in education. New York: The Free Press. Donaldson, W... Educational Psychology , 89, 92-103. Harp, S. F., & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science...learning. Journal of Educational Psychology , 90, 414-434. Hidi, S. (1990). Interest and its contribution as a mental resource for learning. Review of

  10. Communication and Control in Organizations: Applying the Work of James Thompson and Gregory Bateson to Interpretive Research. (United States)


    Harre 1979), linquists (Chomsky JN 1976), literary theorists (Eagleton 1983), and a long list of social scientists ( Schutz 1970, Berger and Luckmann...the Corporation. New York: Basic Books. Kline, G. L. (1963). Alfred North Whtega: Essays on ail PhilQj . Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall...1983). ’A Communication-Rules Approach to Organizational Culture’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 557-581. Schutz , A. (1970). DU Phenomenologv And

  11. The Determination of the Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes for Anisotropic Laminated Plates Including the Effects of Shear Deformation and Rotatory Inertia. (United States)


    shear effects began with Pryor and Barker [133. Their model was based on Reissner’s plate theory and was applied to the cylindrical bending of a...Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1974. 6. Dym, Clive L. and Irving H. Shames. Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill...13. Pryor, Jr., C. W. and Barker , R. M. "A Finite Element Analysis Including Transverse Shear Effects for Applications to Laminated Plates,’ AIAA J

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-Alkanes in beaked sea snake Enhydrina schistose (Daudin, 1803) from the Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mote, S.; RanjeetKumar; Naik, B.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    on marine organisms. A more extensive characterization and a separation of the complex hydrocarbon mixture into individual components is necessary for distinguishing between hydrocarbons of recent biogenic origin and hydrocarbons from fossil fuels. Among... JM (1993) The Biomarker Guide: Interpreting molecular fossils inpetroleum and ancient sediments, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 363 Readman JW, Fillmann G, Tolosa I, Bartocci J, Villeneuve JP, Catinni C, Mee LD (2002) Petroleum...

  13. Guidelines for Research Planning and Design in Task Analysis (United States)


    Kaplan, Abraham, THE CONDUCT OF INQUIRY, San Francisco: Chandler, 1964. Nagel , Ernest, THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE, New York: Harcourt Brace, Inc...Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. Selltiz , Claire,, RESEARCH METHODS IN SOCIAL RELATIONS, New York: Holt-Dryden, 1959...ATSH-DET Deputy Commander U.S. Array Institute of Administration Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN 46216 ATTN: EA Dr. Stanley L. Cohen U.S. Array

  14. Examination of Noise Management Approaches in the United States (United States)


    a firm and they are free to reduce emissions in any manner to meet the targeted levels (Seneca and Taussig , 1984). For noise control this has been... Michael J. 1982. O’Hare International Airport: Impervious to Proposed State Efforts to Limit Airport Noise. Journal of Law and Commerce 47:413-48... Taussig . 1984. Environmental Economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Setter, David M. 1980-81. Highway Noise: To Compensate or Not to

  15. Geometric Modeling Applications Interface Program. Schema Manager User’s Manual (United States)


    Standard, Product Definition Data Interface (PDDI), Project 5601, Contract F33516-82-5036, July 1984. Information Modeling Manual IDEF-Extended ( IDEFIX ...Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, M. P. de Carmo, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976. IDEFIX Readers Reference, D. Appleton...IDEF Information Modeling. IDEFIX -IDEF Extended Information Modeling. IDEF2 -IDEF Dynamics Modeling. IDSS - Integrated Decision Support System

  16. Macroeconomics and Public Policy. (United States)


    I., National Income & Economic Accounting, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York...system. .0 207 0 References * Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. Edgmand, M. R., Macroeconomics: Theory and...Central Banking, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974, 4th ed. Dornbusch , R. & Fischer, S., Macroeconomics, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978. Goldfeld, S. M

  17. Narcissism and Toxic Leaders (United States)


    Psychology 36, (1978): 635-42; Albert Bandura , “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, (3)3...1999): 193-209; Albert Bandura , Self- Efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York: Freeman, 1997); Albert Bandura , Social Foundations of Thought and...Action: A Social Cognition Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NH: Prentice Hall, 1986). 9. Bandura , “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities

  18. Concepts. The Journal of Defense Systems Aquisition Management. Autumn 1980. Volume 3. Number 4. (United States)


    be? 1. Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall...increasing requirements and limited resources. 102 Functional View of Organizationseqc .... Paul O. Ballou The traditional organizational structure has been a... Paul 0. Ballou The traditional approach to organizing has been a pyramid structure in which all decision-making power flows from top down. In the early

  19. ROSS: An Object-Oriented Language for Constructing Simulations. (United States)


    W. Giarla, S. Narain, E. Cesar , and S. Turner, R-3158-AF, October 1984. Fast Concurrent Simulation Using the Time Warp Mechanism, Part I: Local Contru... Villanueva , and H. M. Markowitz, The Simscript H Pmoramming Language, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1968. Klahr, P., J. Ellis, W. Giarla, S...Narain, E. Cesar , and S. Turner, TWIRL Tactical Warfare in the ROSS Lanuage, The Rand Corporation, R.3158-AF, October 1984. Klahr, P., and W. S

  20. Antecedents and Outcomes of End User Computing Competence (United States)


    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (1980). Ajzen , Icek . “The Theory of Planned Behavior,” Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 50...179-207 (December 1991). Ajzen , Icek . “Perceived Behavioral Control, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and the Theory of Planned Behavior,” Journal...of Applied Social Psychology, 32: 1-20 (2002). Ajzen , Icek and Krebs, Dagmar. “Attitude Theory and Measurement: Implications for Survey Research

  1. An Examination of Hypercube Implementations of Genetic Algorithms (United States)


    answer questions on the C programming language. Capt Paul Hardy and Capt Joann Sartor taught me much of what I know of IATEX and its Ada compiler. To have maximal portability, the C programming language, which is commonly available, is used to code the messy genetic algorithm...50. Kernighan, forian W. and Dennis M. Ritchie. The C Programming Language. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978. 51. Kleinbaum, David G

  2. Faith and the Soldier: Religious Support on the Airland Battlefield. (United States)


    Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Bowlby , John . Attachment and Loss, Volume I, Attachment. London: Hogarth Press, 1969. Bowlby , John ...2 In 1985, speaking at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, the I 6. M I Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General John W. Vessey, Jr., said: The...the spiritual dimension of life. We struggle with jobs that burn us out, forgetting that work, as envisioned by the sixteenth-century theologian John

  3. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Organizations. (United States)


    development is based on the conceptual terms used to describ. real phenomena. As was notea earlier, social learning theory has been heavily influenced by...A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1977. Bandura, A. The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist...substitute for leadership: A social learning theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 1980, 5, 361-367. Mash, E.J., & Terdal, L.G. (Eds.). Behavior

  4. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment, (United States)


    to resist as well as resistance skills; o its integration of elements from the Health Belief Model, social learning theory , and the self-efficacy...resistance behavior, the principles underlying the curriculum represent a unique synthesis of the Health Belief Model of prevention, social learning theory , and...15 - REFERENCES Bandura, A. (1977a) Social Learning Theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (1977b) "Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying

  5. A Reliability Assessment of Participant Observational Measures of Leader Behavior in Natural Settings. (United States)


    significant increases in accuracy. Such practice exercises stem from the modeling principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1977). Using videotaped...categories, and the trainees used the instru- ment to record the behaviors they observed. By following the principles of social learning theory (Bandura, 1976...Management, 1979, 2, 85-102. Bandura, A. Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. Barrow, J.C. Worker performance and task

  6. Engineering Design Theory: Applying the Success of the Modern World to Campaign Creation (United States)


    common use relates to medicine , and to engineering within design curriculums. 51 Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 8th ed. s.v. “Hueristic... medicine , the practice of law, or engineering. Design as a Cultural Shift The recommendation to move away from commander and cognitively-focused...Introduction to Design, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962. Asimov, Isaac. The Roving Mind, New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983. Bell

  7. Using Response Surface Methodology as an Approach to Understand and Optimize Operational Air Power (United States)


    Introduction to Taguchi Methodology. In Taguchi Methods : Proceedings of the 1988 European Conference, 1-14. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Box G. E. and N...Parameter Design, and the Taguchi Method . Journal of Quality Technology 17(4):176-188. Kometer, Michael W. 2005. Command in Air War: Centralized vs...1989. Quality Engineering Using Robust Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Ranjit R. 1990. A Primer on the Taguchi Method . New York, NY: Van

  8. A Marketing Assessment of Beneficiaries at Kimbrough Army Community Hospital (United States)


    L8(2), 58-66. Kotler , P ., & Clarke, R. N. (1987). Marketing for Health Care Organizations. Englewood-Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. McDevitt, P . K...environment, organizational goal formulation, strategy formulation, Marketing Assessment 10 organization and systems design ( Kotler , 1987). Second...environmental analysis itself is concerned with identifying marketing opportunities, threats, environmental trends and their implications ( Kotler , 1987

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Use of an Inexpensive Cordless Telephone as a Part of a Data Communications Link. (United States)


    BJ, p . 3. 15. Brabb, GJ, p .5 - 8. 16. Kotler , Ps Principles of Marketing , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980, p . 49. 17. Whittemore, BJ, p ...15). Utility is defined as the abilityj to satisfyj a need or desire. The marketing discipline recognizes the four categories of utilityj Since information posesses the characteristics of goods in the market place and data is the raw material from which information is derived, it is

  10. An Annotated Reading List for Concurrent Engineering (United States)


    Yasuhiro, Toyota Production System, Industrial Engineering and Management Press, Norcross, GA, 1983. The author provides a detailed tutorial of the Toyota ...from Toyota and Toyota Gosei, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987. This book contains a translation of a series of lectures about the Toyota ...pp. 37-44, October 1988. The authors present an argument that the newer management techniques such as just-in- time and continuous improvement ( Kaizen

  11. Analysis of Parametric Adaptive Signal Detection with Applications to Radars and Hyperspectral Imaging (United States)


    communications, geolocation, sonars, audio and speech process- ing, and seismology [5–7]. STAP based multichannel signal detectors have been successfully utilized...exploration seismology ,” in Array Signal Processing, S. Haykin, Ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985. [7] S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical...bistatic data,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Radar Conference, Rome, Italy , May 2008. [45] S. Lawrence Marple, Jr., P. M. Corbell, and M

  12. Measuring Patient Satisfaction as a Basis for Medical Marketing and Strategic Planning (United States)


    Health Associates. Z. 100-105 (December 1975). Kotler , Philip . Marketin2 for Nonprofit Oranizations (Second Edition). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall...programs designed to bring about voluntary exchanges of values of target markets for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives" ( Kotler , 1982:6...and William A. Fleiner. "The Marketing Audit: A Tool for Health Service Organizations," Health Care Marketing Issues and Trends Edited by Philip D

  13. Acquisition Review Quarterly. Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1995 (United States)


    then different strategies and tactics may be deemed necessary for each segment that is targeted ( Kotler , 1988). There are a number of plausible...and Co. Kotler , P. (1988). Marketing Management: Analysis and Planning (6th ed.), (pp. 280-284). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 40- Winter...James R. Penick, USA F; CAPT John H. Priesel, USN; Joseph M. Rivamonte; William E. Roberson, Jr.; CAPT Dennis L. Ryan, III, USN; Philip H. Spector

  14. Manager-Organization Linkages: The Impact of Changing Work Environments. (United States)


    creation of the rest of the occupational characteristics that have come to be associated with the professions (cf. Ritzer , 1977). One of the more...Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Mi. Ritzer , G. (1977). Working: Conflict and Change, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Schein, E... George E. Rowland Temple University, The Merit Center Ritter Annex, 9th Floor College of Education Philadephia, PA 19122 Dr. Irwin G. Sarason

  15. Computer-Based Teleconferencing and Its Impact on Command and Staff Relationships within the United States Army (United States)


    decision making process. 31 IV. LABOR vs. WORK Frederick Herzberg claims that, "people labor to avoid the growing pains of depravation, while they work...collar’ versus "white collar" personnel still apply for measures of efficiency and 1.3 Frederick Herzberg . "Maximizing Work & Minimizing Labor" Industry...PROCESS (Prentice-Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1982). Herzberg , Frederick . "Maximizing Work and Minimizing Labor i.VYfTRY WIM", 13 October

  16. A Study on How to Implement an Effective Marketing and Education Program for Coordinated Care (United States)


    could play. Philip Kotler and Roberta N. Clarke (1987) recognize that the role marketing plays in health care organizations varies greatly. It is...accepted by professional marketers is provided by Kotler and Clarke (1987): Marketing is the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of carefully...Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen. Kotler , P. & Clarke, R. N. (1987). Marketina for health care organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Leebov, W. (1988

  17. United States 1st Armored Division and Mission Command at the Battle of Faid Pass (United States)


    Harvard Business Review (September 2009), accessed December 1, 2016, overload. 4 Robert Martinage...and David J. Snowden. “A Leader’s Framework for Decision Making.” Harvard Business Review (November 2007). Calhoun, Mark T. Defeat at Kasserine...William R. MacKaye. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970. Hemp, Paul. “Death by Information Overload.” Harvard Business Review (September 2009

  18. Defense Communications Agency Upper Level Protocol Test System TELNET protocol Remote Driver Specification (United States)


    and Ritchie, D. M.; The C Programming Language; Prentice-Hall, Inc.; Englewood Cliffs, NJ; 1978. Kernighan , B. W., and Pike, R.; The UNIX Programing...Implementation in UNIX /C .... D-1 .4 , •% • . . . % - % " Wa- , ." - , % " .% - % . ... . - -, - - -• • -% % ,% %, ." LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Connection...Connection Establishment in 4.2 BSD UNIX /C .... D-4 Figure D.2. The C Syntax Format of the Data Packet ................... D-5 Figure D.3. A Packet Assembler

  19. Introduction to Software Design (United States)


    providing a well-structured intro- duction to the use of formal methods. The section Jensen79 on specification of the UNIX filing system may in- Jensen, IL W...for Analysts and Programmers. Englewood Kernighan , B. W., and P. Plauger. Software Tools. Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984. ISBN 0-13- Reading... UNIX philosophy of providing small, independent tools and linking these together to pro- duce more powerful tools tailored for specific pur- poses

  20. Measures of Self-Report, Urinary Catecholamines, and Salivary Immunoglobulin-A in Victims of Chronic Stress (United States)


    Measureaent Proble~s in Psychoneuroimmunology TMI Nuclear Accident • . • • . . . • • • • • Stress at TMI • • • • . • • • • • . • . • . Toxic...DeJong <Eds.>, Social demography. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1970. Cunningham, A.J. Epilogue to Psychoneuroimmunology . In R...Ader <Ed.>, Psychoneuroimmunology . New York: · Academic Press, 1981. Cunningham, A.J. Understanding Immunology. New York: Academic Press, 1977

  1. A Study to Establish Baseline Data on the Retiree Population’s Perceptions of Access and Health Care Delivered through Outpatient Services at Ireland Army Community Hospital (United States)


    common household products, there are many ideas and principles that are used in marketing consumer products that can be applied to primary health care...Design & Analysis, Chicago: Free Press, 1955. Kotler , Phillip., Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., recapture ’the retiree population around IACH, Ft. Knox, KY. and to implement a marketing strategy which would attempt to recapture a portion of

  2. Solubility and Phase Behavior of CL20 and RDX in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (United States)


    can be evaluated using a cubic equation of state such as the Redlich - Kwong -Soave or the Peng-Robinson equations. In this work, the Peng-Robinson...biphenyl in supercritical carbon dioxide. The applicability of the estimation techniques employed for the critical properties for CL20 was established...25, 326. Modell, M., Reid, R.C., 1983, Thermodynamics and Its Applications , (2nd ed., Prentice Hall Publishing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ). Morris

  3. Generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills,...

  4. Advanced Modeling and System Parameter Identification through Minimal Dynamic Stimulation and Digital Signal Processing (United States)


    1980, Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 7. 6 Ogata , K., Modern Control Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1970, Chaps. 2, 4, 6, 9, and 13...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 13-08-2014 2...hydraulic table built by Carco in 2001 and is driven by an Ideal Aerosmith Aero 4000 controller installed in 2011. The controller has a 10 MHz

  5. Handbook for Design of Undersea, Pressure-Resistant Concrete Structures (United States)


    21. S. Mindess and J.F. Young. Concrete. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1981, pp 422-424. 22. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Technical...Hellawell, "The solidification of cement," Scientific American, vol 237, no. 1, Jul 1977 , pp 82-90. 25. T.C. Powers, "The nature of concrete," Special...H.H. Haynes. Port Hueneme, Calif., Nov 1977 . 40. Technical Memorandum M-44-77-08: Data from hydrostatic test of concrete sphere AY-l1, by H.H. Haynes

  6. Immunologic Control of Diarrheal Disease Due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Reactogenicity, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy Studies of Pili Vaccines (United States)


    work-scope involved intensive collaboration with the Department of Gastroenterology (Col. Edgar Boedeker and Capt. Christopher Cheney) and the...70. In B.D. Davis and L. Warren, Eds., The specificity _ cell surfaces. Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1967. 7. Buts, J.P., Morin , C.L...vaccine and challenge. Infect. Immun. 22:771, 1978. 30. Morin , C.L., Buts, J-P, Weber, A., Roy, C.C., Brochu, P. One-hour blood xylose test in diagnosis

  7. Shoreline accretion and sand transport at groynes inside the Port of Richards Bay.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS


    Full Text Available to the Wiegel [Wiegel, R. L. (1964). Oceanographical engineering. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.] classification. The shoreline accreted progressively at the two groynes at 0.065 m/day and 0.021 m/day respectively. The shorelines accreted right up.... The groynes, which were designed according to the Van der Meer (1990)method,were constructed by end tipping (Schoonees et al., 1999). Two layers, namely, the core and armour layers, were built with steep side slopes of 1: 1.5 to minimise the required...

  8. Negotiation Based Deconfliction in Air-traffic Control (United States)


    the Eleventh In- ternational Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 912–917, San Mateo, CA, 1989. Morgan Kaufmann. 27 January, 2008 FA8655...Tomáš Krajńık, and David Šǐslák. Od osamocených robot̊u ke kolaborativńı robotice, Umělá inteligence (5), pages 431–496. Academia, Praha, 2007...Russell and P. Norvig. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Prentice Hall Series in Artificial Intelligence, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

  9. Health Care Marketing at Keller Army Community Hospital West Point, New York (United States)


    Kotler , Philip . Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975. MacStravic, Robin E. Marketing Health Care. Germantown...102 (17 November 1980): 68-81. Kotler , Philip . "What Consumerism Means for Marketers." Harvard Business Review. (May-June, 1972): 50-56. and Levy...As a corollary, Kotler predicts that "between 1,000 and 1,500 hospitals of the 7,000 in the U.S. will close in the next five years.. .one reason

  10. Iris image enhancement for feature recognition and extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza, GP


    Full Text Available Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E. 2002. Digital Image Processing 2nd Edition, Instructor?s manual .Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, pp 17-36. Proen?a, H. and Alexandre, L.A. 2007. Toward Noncooperative Iris Recognition: A classification approach using... for performing such tasks and yielding better accuracy (Gonzalez & Woods, 2002). METHODOLOGY The block diagram in Figure 2 demonstrates the processes followed to achieve the results. Figure 2: Methodology flow chart Iris image enhancement for feature...

  11. Back-propagation neural network in tidal-level forecasting by Ching-PiaoTsai and Tsong-Lin Lee - Discussion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    an interesting study on the ap- plication of an artificial neural network (ANN) for forecasting tidal levels. This technique is comparable to the already pop- ular time series modeling with an added advantage in that the functional form between the input variable... of hydrologic models.’’ J. Hydrology, 81, 57–77. McCuen, R. H. (1993). Statistical hydrology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Tokar, A. S., and Johnson, P. A. (1999). ‘‘Rainfall-runoff modeling using artificial neural networks.’’ J. Hydrologic Engrg., ASCE...

  12. The Rand Strategy Assessment System’s Green Agent Model of Third-Country Behavior in Superpower Crises and Conflict. Revision (United States)


    with sufficient capacity operating under BSD 4.2 UNIX .5 Force Agent is written in the C language. ’ The rest of the RSAS models are written in Rand...Bell Laboratories. For an introduction to UNIX , see R. Thomas and J. Yates, A User Guide to the UNIX System, OSBORNE/McGraw-Hill, Berkeley, California...1982. ’The standard reference on C is B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

  13. Cliffs User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena


    Cliffs is an open-source relative of MOST (Method Of Splitting Tsunamis) numerical model, implemented as described in (Tolkova, 2014, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 171(9), 2289-2314). Cliffs features: Shallow-Water approximation with an option to manipulate numerical dispersion; Use of Cartesian or spherical (lon/lat) coordinates; 1D and 2D configurations; Structured co-located grid with (optionally) varying spacing; Runup on land; Initial conditions or boundary forcing; Grid nesting with one-way coupling; Parallelized with OpenMP; NetCDF format of input/output data. This user manual accompanies Cliffs code distribution.

  14. Advances in Activity Cliff Research. (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  15. Activity cliff networks for medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Network representations are widely used in bioinformatics but have only been little explored in chemistry. Thus far, only a few attempts have been made to generate and analyze compound networks. Among these are the first activity cliff networks. In medicinal chemistry, activity cliffs are focal points of structure-activity relationships (SAR) analysis. Activity cliffs have generally been defined as pairs of structurally similar or analogous active compounds that have a large difference in potency against their target. However, most activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple highly and weakly potent compounds. Recently, a comprehensive activity cliff network has been generated for current public domain bioactive compounds, hence providing a first global view of activity cliff formation. The design of activity cliff networks is discussed herein. From the global activity cliff network, local networks can be extracted for individual compound activity classes that provide graphical access to high-level SAR information for compound optimization efforts.

  16. JIT supply chain; an investigation through general system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Mishra


    Full Text Available This paper explains theoretical approach of the four theories of General system Theory (GST developed by Yourdon (1989 [Yourdon, E. (1989. Modern Structured Analysis. Yourdon Press, Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Senge] while applying it in information technology and subsequently used by caddy (2007 [Caddy I.N., & Helou, M.M. (2007. Supply chains and their management: Application of general systems theory. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 14, 319–327.] in field of supply chain and management. JIT philosophy in core activities of supply chain i.e. procurement, production processes, and logistics are discussed through general system theory. The growing structure of the supply chain poses the implication restrictions and requires a heavy support system, many times a compromise is done while implementing JIT. The study would be useful to understand the general trends generated naturally regarding the adoption of the JIT philosophy in the supply chain.

  17. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  18. Magnitude-frequency of sea cliff instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. F. Marques


    Full Text Available The magnitude-frequency relationship of sea cliff failures in strong, low retreat rate cliffs, was studied using systematic historical inventories carried out in the coasts of Portugal and Morocco, in different geological and geomorphological settings, covering a wide size scale, from small to comparatively large rockslides, topples and rockfalls, at different time and spatial scales. The magnitude-frequency expressed in terms of volume displaced and of horizontal area lost at the cliff top showed good fit by inverse power laws of the type p=a.x−b, with a values from 0.2 to 0.3, and exponents b close to 1.0, similar to those proposed for rockfall inventories. The proposed power laws address the magnitude-frequency for sea cliff failures, which is an important component of hazard assessment, to be completed with adequate models for space and time hazard components. Maximum local retreat at the cliff top provided acceptable fitting to inverse power laws only for failures wider than 2m, with a = 4.0, and exponent b = 2.3, which may be useful to assess the cliff retreat hazard for the use of areas located near the cliff top.

  19. Dynamics of a cliff top dune (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. R.


    Morphological changes during more than 100 years have been investigated for a cliff-top dune complex at Rubjerg at the Danish North Sea coast. Here the lower 50 m of the cliff front is composed of Pleistocene steeply inclined floes of silt and clay with coarse sand in between which gives it a saw-tooth appearance. On top of this the dunes are found for several kilometres along the coastline. Due to erosion by the North Sea the cliff has retreated about 120 m between approximately 1880 and 1970 as indicated from two national surveys, and recent GPS-surveys indicate that erosion is continuing at a similar rate. Nevertheless the cliff top dune complex has survived, but its morphology has undergone some changed. The old maps indicate that around 1880 the dune complex was composed of several up to about 20 m high dunes streamlined in the East-West direction which is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. When protective planting started during the first half of the 20th Century the cliff top dunes gradually merged together forming a narrow, tall ridge parallel to the shore line with the highest part reaching about 90 m near 1970. In 1993 the highest points along the ridge was almost 95 m high, but then the protective planting was considerably reduced and recent annual GPS-surveys indicate that the dunes respond quickly to this by changing their morphology towards the original appearance. It is remarkable that despite the mass wasting caused by the constant erosion of the cliff front the dunes have remained more or less intact. Theoretical studies of hill flow indicate given the proper geometry of the cliff then suspension of even coarse grains can be a very effective agent for carrying sand from the exposed parts of the cliff front to and beyond the cliff-top. Mostly the sand grains are deposited within some hundred meters downwind of the cliff dune while silt is often carried more than 10 km inland. Field observations indicate that where the dislodged floes and

  20. A contrasting study: cliff and bank swallows (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the project was to contrast as population of Cliff Swallows and a population of Bank Swallows. Both populations had nests located in a gravel pit near...

  1. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  2. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  3. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  4. Manfred Kets de Vries: The Leadership Mystique – a users’ manual for the human enterprise. Prentice Hall, Great Britain. 2001.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Love


    Full Text Available Manfred Kets de Vries is one of Europe’s leading management thinkers and writers. He is an academic of international standing (Econ. Drs. Amsterdam, DBA Harvard & Psychoanalyst of International Psychoanalytical Association who currently holds the Chair of Human Resource Management at INSEAD. He is programme director of INSEAD’s top management programme, The Challenge of Leadership: Developing your Emotional Intelligence, and director of the INSEAD/HEC joint programme, Coaching and Consulting for Change. He also consults widely on organisational transformation and strategic human resource management.

  5. Grout for Closure of the Demonstration Vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility (United States)


    of the cement was also expected to provide excellent resistance to sulfates ( Mindess and Young, 1981) which are known to be present in the liquid...Produced in a Pilot-Scale Test," PNL-6396, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Mindess , S. and J. F. Young. 1981. Concrete, 671 pp, Prentice-Hall, Englewood

  6. Mechanics of Concrete II (United States)


    Mindess (1981) also agrees with the first of the two reactions but allows for transformation of the ettringite to monosulphate in the case when all...Comp. Materials, 23, pp. 163-194. 3 Mindess , S. and J. F. Young (1981), Concrete, Prentice Hall, Englewood Clifs, N.J. * 74 I Moavenzadeh, F.(1971

  7. Short-term sea cliff failure events accumulate into long-term cliff retreat signals (United States)

    Limber, Patrick; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey; Barnard, Patrick


    Sea cliff retreat is an episodic process, where sudden landslide events punctuate longer periods of relative cliff stability. Understanding sea cliff behavior is key to defining coastal hazard zones or projecting future retreat due to sea level rise (SLR), when present. But, predicting when a particular landslide will occur, or how large it will be, is exceptionally difficult. As a result, rates of sea cliff retreat are often time-averaged over many individual landslides during a given time interval. Time averaging of episodic processes like cliff retreat has several drawbacks, however. For one, the mean erosion or retreat rate can be heavily biased by the time interval over which it is measured, especially over short time scales (e.g. immediate loss of information about the short-term, seemingly random processes (i.e. landslides) that give rise to them. Is a mean long-term (multiple decades or longer) retreat rate caused by the accumulation of a few large landslides, or many smaller landslides? Or, consider the corollary: can observations of landslide size and frequency be used to infer long-term cliff retreat rates? Fortunately the relationship between landslide area and frequency follows a predictable pattern in which landslide frequency (or probability) is a negative power law function of landslide area. Using on landslide frequency-area relationships determined using cliff edges extracted from 18 LiDAR surveys over a 12-year period in California (USA), we developed a simple cellular automata model of probabilistic cliff failure in order to link long-term and short-term cliff behavior. During a model time step, each alongshore cell on the cliff edge has a failure probability primarily determined by 1) a prescribed landslide frequency-area distribution and 2) beach width, so that the failure probability is lessened for wide beaches and vice versa. Beach width at each cell is determined by relative rates of cliff and beach erosion, driven by, for example, SLR or

  8. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes. (United States)

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L


    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  9. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012


    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  10. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  11. Activity cliffs in drug discovery: Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde? (United States)

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Medina-Franco, José L; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Nicolotti, Orazio; Cordeiro, M Natália D S; Borges, Fernanda


    The impact activity cliffs have on drug discovery is double-edged. For instance, whereas medicinal chemists can take advantage of regions in chemical space rich in activity cliffs, QSAR practitioners need to escape from such regions. The influence of activity cliffs in medicinal chemistry applications is extensively documented. However, the 'dark side' of activity cliffs (i.e. their detrimental effect on the development of predictive machine learning algorithms) has been understudied. Similarly, limited amounts of work have been devoted to propose potential solutions to the drawbacks of activity cliffs in similarity-based approaches. In this review, the duality of activity cliffs in medicinal chemistry and computational approaches is addressed, with emphasis on the rationale and potential solutions for handling the 'ugly face' of activity cliffs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.


    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Deriving mechanisms and thresholds for cliff retreat in soft-rock cliffs under changing climates: Rapidly retreating cliffs of the Suffolk coast, UK (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spencer, T.; Boreham, S.


    Understanding changing thresholds and mechanisms for retreat in soft rock cliffs is important under changing climates. This can be achieved through combining detailed field observation, long-term process and morphological monitoring and numerical modelling. The cliffs of the Suffolk coast, southern North Sea have exhibited long-term (1883-2010) recession rates of 3.5 m a- 1, rising to 4.7 m a- 1 in the period 1993-2010. Annual to biannual ground survey data, and the application of GIS techniques to digitised records of changing shoreline position from historic maps and aerial photography, reveal considerable decadal-scale variations in cliff recession, within which are nested inter-annual fluctuations in rates of retreat. Archival datasets on significant periods of onshore winds and their interaction with high water levels (including the incidence of storm surges) and rainstorm events are used to determine thresholds for cliff base erosion and its propagation upwards through the cliff profile. In addition, the ‘GEO-Slope' dynamic coupled hydrology-stability model is used to establish thresholds for cliff face failures driven by variations in rainfall inputs. Retreat mechanisms are complex, governed by cliff geology, both as a primary control on suction loss and through its interaction with basal marine conditions. The study allows a general model of cliff retreat for soft rock cliffs to be put forward, whereby a resistant basal platform is overlain by more erodible, weakly and moderately cemented sands and gravels. In this model, the varying balance between marine and terrestrial forcing factors are reflected in low ( 7 m a- 1) modes of cliff retreat.

  14. The Fiscal Cliff May be Overblown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cyrus Sanati


    The markets have taken a beating since President Obama trounced Mitt Romney in Tuesday's election. The Dow is down 3% in the last two trading sessions and looks to be headed further south on Friday. While it is true that the markets historically take a dive after an incumbent president wins reelection, this latest drop has many on Wall Street on edge. Forget the weak corporate earnings, the freak hurricane that hit the East Coast and renewed troubles in Europe- no, this is all because of one thing: The looming fiscal cliff. Or that is what we are to believe.

  15. Advancing land-terminating ice cliffs in Northwest Greenland (United States)

    Prinz, Rainer; Abermann, Jakob; Steiner, Jakob


    Land-terminating ice cliffs are intriguing features that occur in various ice-covered regions around the world both in high and low latitudes. Over flat terrain land-terminating ice cliffs can only persist under a complex interplay between certain climatic and ice dynamic conditions with "cold" and "dry" being the common pillars for their occurrence. In North Greenland, dry calving ice cliffs are an abundant feature, however, to our knowledge, detailed investigations are limited to studies more than six decades ago in the Thule area. Rough estimates state that approximately 45% of the ice sheet in Northwest Greenland terminate as cliffs on land. The ice cliff position and its change with time is a combined signal of the ice flow and mass balance at the cliff. The ice flow is triggered by a mass imbalance upstream the ice cliff integrating a potentially long response time, basal sliding and ice deformation, whereas the mass balance of the ice cliff is determined by the sum of the energy fluxes at the cliff face and the calving flux. Studies during the 1950s and 1960s report counterintuitive results with a generally negative mass balance and a reduction of ice cliff height versus a net advance of the cliff. This intriguing evolvement warrants closer attention as it remained unstudied thereafter even though it is likely relevant for a large portion of cold and dry North Greenland. Thus, the purpose of this contribution is to build a relevant basis for future process studies by (i) determining the occurrence of ice cliffs in Northern Greenland, (ii) classifying them by obvious morphological distinctions such as height and steepness and (iii) give a first-order estimate on percentage of advancing vs retreating areas. Repeating the past study above using recent space-borne earth observation data (digital elevation models from 1985, 2007 and 2015) we mapped the evolution of the ice sheet margin. Results at the same cliff and at another independent location in Northwest

  16. The Activist Decade: Its Influence on Briar Cliff College. (United States)

    Johnson, Patricia

    The influence of the "activist decade" (spanning the early 1960s through the early 1970s) on Briar Cliff College (Iowa), a small midwestern liberal arts college affiliated with the Catholic Church, is discussed. Forces such as racism, the Vietnam War, and student unrest elicited concern and activism at Briar Cliff College, although there…

  17. Predicting coastal cliff erosion using a Bayesian probabilistic model (United States)

    Hapke, C.; Plant, N.


    Regional coastal cliff retreat is difficult to model due to the episodic nature of failures and the along-shore variability of retreat events. There is a growing demand, however, for predictive models that can be used to forecast areas vulnerable to coastal erosion hazards. Increasingly, probabilistic models are being employed that require data sets of high temporal density to define the joint probability density function that relates forcing variables (e.g. wave conditions) and initial conditions (e.g. cliff geometry) to erosion events. In this study we use a multi-parameter Bayesian network to investigate correlations between key variables that control and influence variations in cliff retreat processes. The network uses Bayesian statistical methods to estimate event probabilities using existing observations. Within this framework, we forecast the spatial distribution of cliff retreat along two stretches of cliffed coast in Southern California. The input parameters are the height and slope of the cliff, a descriptor of material strength based on the dominant cliff-forming lithology, and the long-term cliff erosion rate that represents prior behavior. The model is forced using predicted wave impact hours. Results demonstrate that the Bayesian approach is well-suited to the forward modeling of coastal cliff retreat, with the correct outcomes forecast in 70-90% of the modeled transects. The model also performs well in identifying specific locations of high cliff erosion, thus providing a foundation for hazard mapping. This approach can be employed to predict cliff erosion at time-scales ranging from storm events to the impacts of sea-level rise at the century-scale. ?? 2010.

  18. A quantitative analysis of rock cliff erosion environments (United States)

    Lim, M.; Rosser, N.; Petley, D. N.; Norman, E. C.; Barlow, J.


    The spatial patterns and temporal sequencing of failures from coastal rock cliffs are complex and typically generate weak correlations with environmental variables such as tidal inundation, wave energy, wind and rain. Consequently, understanding of rock cliff behaviour, its response to predicted changes in environmental forcing and, more specifically, the interaction between marine and climatic factors in influencing failure processes has remained limited. This work presents the results from the first attempt to characterise and quantify the conditions on coastal cliffs that lead to accelerated rates of material detachment. The rate of change in an 80 m high section of coastal rock cliffs has been surveyed annually with high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The rockfall data have been analysed according to a simplified source geology that exhibit distinct magnitude-frequency distributions relating to the dominance of particular failure types. An integrated network of sensors and instrumentation designed to reflect the lithological control on failure has been installed to examine both the distinction between prevailing conditions and those affecting the local cliff environment and the physical response of different rock types to micro-climatic processes. The monitoring system records near-surface rock strain, temperature, moisture and micro-seismic displacement in addition to air temperature, humidity, radiation, precipitation, water-level and three-dimensional wind characteristics. A characteristic environmental signal, unique to the cliff face material, has been identified that differs substantially from that experienced by the surrounding area; suggesting that established methods of meteorological and tidal data collection are insufficient and inappropriate to represent erosive processes. The interaction between thermo- and hydro-dynamics of the cliff environment and the physical response of the rock highlights the composite environmental effects

  19. Erosion risk assessment of active coastal cliffs in temperate environments (United States)

    Del Río, Laura; Gracia, F. Javier


    The potentially negative consequences resulting from cliff recession are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. The assessment of such processes has traditionally been performed by calculating average cliff recession rates and projecting them into the future, without taking into consideration the diverse factors affecting cliff dynamics and stability. In this work a new, practical method is presented to evaluate cliff erosion risk in temperate environments, by analysing the main factors responsible for both the physical and the socioeconomic aspects of erosion, representing cliff loss potential and damage potential, respectively. For this purpose an integration of 11 physical variables (such as cliff lithology, beach characteristics or rainfall regime) and 6 socioeconomic variables (such as land use type or population density) is proposed. These variables are weighted and combined into a Hazard Index and an Impact Index, which in turn are merged into a composite Risk Index where the resulting values are normalized and expressed as a percentage of the maximum theoretical risk. The method is tested and validated by using data about cliff retreat rates and mass movement processes in the coast of Cádiz province (SW Spain). The proposed approach allows the zoning of coastal cliffs according to the risk, hazard and/or impact levels, including the recognition of critical areas where specific intervention strategies should be adopted. The method presented in this work is deemed both practical and scientifically valid, without requiring extensive and detailed surveys of the area where it is to be applied. This way, it constitutes an easy to use, valuable tool for decision-making regarding land use planning and management strategies for active coastal cliffs.

  20. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 6 (United States)


    Honorable John Grimes Kristen Baldwin Jeff Schwalb Phil Perkins Karl Rogers Joe Jarzombek Brent Baxter Kasey Thompson Ken Davies Chelene Fortier...Reading 1. Boehm, Barry W. Software Engineer- ing Economics. Prentice Hall, Engle- wood Cliffs, NJ; 1981. 2. Crosby , Philip B. Quality Is Free. New

  1. Inversion for Subbottom Sound Velocity Profiles in the Deep and Shallow Ocean (United States)


    the solution of the inverse problem have been established. In a recent paper, for example, Athanassoulis and Papanicolau [3] derived an inverse...D. 0. Anderson and John B. Moore. Optimal Filtering. Prentice-Hall, En- glewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979. [3] G. Athanassoulis and V. Papanicolau . Eigenvalue

  2. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change. (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K


    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  3. The Theory of Planned Behavior as it predicts potential intention to seek mental health services for depression among college students. (United States)

    Bohon, Lisa M; Cotter, Kelly A; Kravitz, Richard L; Cello, Philip C; Fernandez Y Garcia, Erik


    Between 9.5% and 31.3% of college students suffer from depression (American college health association national college health assessment II: reference group executive summary spring 2013. Amer. Coll. Health Assoc. 2013; Eagan K, Stolzenberg EB, Ramirez JJ, Aragon, MC, Suchard, RS, Hurtado S. The American freshman: national norms fall 2014. Higher Educ. Res. Inst.; 2015). Universities need to understand the factors that relate to care-seeking behavior. Across 3 studies, to relate attitudes, social norms, and perceived behavioral control to intention to seek mental health services, and to investigate barriers to care-seeking. University college students (N = 845, 64% female, 26% male, and 10% unspecified). New measures were created in Studies 1 and 2, and were examined using structural equation modeling in Study 3. Partially consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, I, Fishbein, M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1980), a model with an excellent fit revealed that more positive attitudes about care and higher perceived behavioral control directly predicted higher intention to seek mental health services. Educating college students about mental health disorders and treatments, enhancing knowledge about available services, and addressing limited access to long-term care might improve treatment rates for students suffering from depression.

  4. Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice. (United States)

    Perry, R N Beth


    Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice is the focus of this paper. The phenomenological research study reported involved a group of 8 nurses identified by their colleagues as exemplary. The major theme revealed in this study was that these exemplary nurses were also excellent role models in the clinical setting. This paper details approaches used by these nurses that made them excellent role models. Specifically, the themes of attending to the little things, making connections, maintaining a light-hearted attitude, modeling, and affirming others are presented. These themes are discussed within the framework of Watson [Watson, J., 1989. Human caring and suffering: a subjective model for health services. In: Watson, J., Taylor, R. (Eds.), They Shall Not Hurt: Human Suffering and Human Caring. Colorado University, Boulder, CO] "transpersonal caring" and [Bandura, A., 1997. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ] "Social Learning Theory." Particular emphasis in the discussion is on how positive role modeling by exemplary practitioners can contribute to the education of clinical nurses in the practice setting.

  5. Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition (by Paula Y. Bruice) (United States)

    Katz, Marlene G.


    Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1998, xxx +1256 pp, 6 appendices. ISBN 0-13-841925-6. $99. The author has made some constructive changes to the second edition of this visually pleasing book. The chapter order has been rearranged so that all of spectroscopy is covered in two adjoining chapters (new problems combining NMR and IR have been added), all of the chapters on bioorganic chemistry are grouped together (information on reducing sugars has been added), and the last section now covers heterocycles, pericyclic reactions, polymer synthesis, multistep synthetic strategies, and drug design. The publisher offers additional material at its Web site and a paperback for students assisting them in using the Internet. The ChemCentral Organic Web site has problem sets to supplement each chapter (including hints for struggling students) and animations of molecules undergoing reactions. In addition the Web site provides syllabus construction software for instructors. The accompanying study guide/solutions manual, written by the textbook author, contains a glossary, answers to chapter problems, and a practice test (for the first twenty chapters). There are sections called "special topics" which offer in-depth treatment of pH, pKa, buffers, and the electron-pushing formalism.

  6. 'The stumbling disease': a case study of stigma among Azorean-Portuguese. (United States)

    Boutté, M I


    There exists among Azorean-Portuguese a biological malady that is inherited. First recognized by biomedicine in 1972 as a distinct disease entity, it has been in existence in the United States and the Azores Islands since at least the mid-1800s. The malady is generally known as the 'stumbling disease' among the Azorean-Portuguese; the current biomedical literature refer to it as Machado-Joseph disease. Historically an aura of stigma has surrounded affected individuals, their families, and primary ethnic group in which the malady is currently found. Drawing heavily on the work of Erving Goffman Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963) and labelling theory, this paper explores the nature of this stigma. The cultural contexts of a small, face-to-face, homogeneous island setting is contrasted with that of the heterogeneous, anonymous setting of the United States to illuminate various aspects of the stigma configuration. The cultural context has important implications for stigma definitions, modes of social control, and management strategies of the stigmatized.

  7. Computer Based Collaborative Problem Solving for Introductory Courses in Physics (United States)

    Ilie, Carolina; Lee, Kevin


    We discuss collaborative problem solving computer-based recitation style. The course is designed by Lee [1], and the idea was proposed before by Christian, Belloni and Titus [2,3]. The students find the problems on a web-page containing simulations (physlets) and they write the solutions on an accompanying worksheet after discussing it with a classmate. Physlets have the advantage of being much more like real-world problems than textbook problems. We also compare two protocols for web-based instruction using simulations in an introductory physics class [1]. The inquiry protocol allowed students to control input parameters while the worked example protocol did not. We will discuss which of the two methods is more efficient in relation to Scientific Discovery Learning and Cognitive Load Theory. 1. Lee, Kevin M., Nicoll, Gayle and Brooks, Dave W. (2004). ``A Comparison of Inquiry and Worked Example Web-Based Instruction Using Physlets'', Journal of Science Education and Technology 13, No. 1: 81-88. 2. Christian, W., and Belloni, M. (2001). Physlets: Teaching Physics With Interactive Curricular Material, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 3. Christian,W., and Titus,A. (1998). ``Developing web-based curricula using Java Physlets.'' Computers in Physics 12: 227--232.

  8. A Stefan model for mass transfer in a rotating disk reaction vessel

    KAUST Repository

    BOHUN, C. S.


    Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015. In this paper, we focus on the process of mass transfer in the rotating disk apparatus formulated as a Stefan problem with consideration given to both the hydrodynamics of the process and the specific chemical reactions occurring in the bulk. The wide range in the reaction rates of the underlying chemistry allows for a natural decoupling of the problem into a simplified set of weakly coupled convective-reaction-diffusion equations for the slowly reacting chemical species and a set of algebraic relations for the species that react rapidly. An analysis of the chemical equilibrium conditions identifies an expansion parameter and a reduced model that remains valid for arbitrarily large times. Numerical solutions of the model are compared to an asymptotic analysis revealing three distinct time scales and chemical diffusion boundary layer that lies completely inside the hydrodynamic layer. Formulated as a Stefan problem, the model generalizes the work of Levich (Levich and Spalding (1962) Physicochemical hydrodynamics, vol. 689, Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ) and will help better understand the natural limitations of the rotating disk reaction vessel when consideration is made for the reacting chemical species.

  9. Multiplicities of fixed points of holomorphic maps in several complex variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Guangyuan


    [1]Berestycki, H., Nirenberg, L., Varadhan, S. V. R., The principal eigenvalue and maximum principle for second order elliptic operators in general domains, Comm. Pure and Appl. Math., 1994, 47: 47.[2]Chen, Y. Z., Alexandrov's maximum principle and Bony's maximum principle for parabolic equations, Acta Mathematica Applicae Sinica, 1985, 2: 309.[3]Dong, G. C., Nonlinear Second Order Partial Differential Equations, AMS Translations, Providence: AMS, 1991.[4]Krylov, N. V., Nonlinear Elliptic and Parabolic Equations of Second Order, Mathematics and Its Applications, Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publication Company, 1987.[5]Tso, K. S., On the Alexandrov_Bakel'man type maximum principle for second order parabolic equations, Comm. PDE, 1985, 10: 543.[6]Miller, K., Barriers on cones for uniformly elliptic operators, Ann. Mat. Pura e Appl., 1967, 76: 93.[7]Strook, D., Varadhan, S. V. R., Multidimensional Diffusion Process, New York, Berlin: Springer_Verlag, 1979.[8]Pinsky, R. G., Positive Harmonic Functions and Diffusions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.[9]Friedman, A., Partial Differential Equations of Parabolic Type, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice_Hall Inc., 1964.

  10. Parabolic equations and Feynman_Kac formula on general bounded domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Gongqing


    [1]Berestycki, H., Nirenberg, L., Varadhan, S. V. R., The principal eigenvalue and maximum principle for second order elliptic operators in general domains, Comm. Pure and Appl. Math., 1994, 47: 47.[2]Chen, Y. Z., Alexandrov's maximum principle and Bony's maximum principle for parabolic equations, Acta Mathematica Applicae Sinica, 1985, 2: 309.[3]Dong, G. C., Nonlinear Second Order Partial Differential Equations, AMS Translations, Providence: AMS, 1991.[4]Krylov, N. V., Nonlinear Elliptic and Parabolic Equations of Second Order, Mathematics and Its Applications, Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publication Company, 1987.[5]Tso, K. S., On the Alexandrov_Bakel'man type maximum principle for second order parabolic equations, Comm. PDE, 1985, 10: 543.[6]Miller, K., Barriers on cones for uniformly elliptic operators, Ann. Mat. Pura e Appl., 1967, 76: 93.[7]Strook, D., Varadhan, S. V. R., Multidimensional Diffusion Process, New York, Berlin: Springer_Verlag, 1979.[8]Pinsky, R. G., Positive Harmonic Functions and Diffusions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.[9]Friedman, A., Partial Differential Equations of Parabolic Type, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice_Hall Inc., 1964.

  11. Cliff swallow populations in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During breeding season, cliff swallows are widely distributed throughout Alaska and North America south to Mexico, and they are locally common in western and...

  12. Life strategies of bryophytes on loess cliffs in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Marko S.


    Full Text Available The loess cliffs of Vojvodina present a special ecosystem type. The main plant components in these habitats are cryptogams (bryophytes and lichens. The biology and life strategies of bryophytes recorded on loess in Vojvodina are studied in the present work, whose results confirm a very special ecology in such habitats. Colonist species with xeropottioid characteristics are dominant among bryophytes. It is stressed that loess cliff habitats are especially important from the standpoint of conservation.

  13. Modeling Conflict between China and the United States (United States)


    Moore , “China Views Globalization: Toward a New Great Power Politics,” The Washington Quarterly, vol. 27, Issue 3 (2004). These articles predicate...Baldwin, Paradoxes of Power, Basil Blackwell, New York, 1989 and Karl Deutsche, The Analysis of International Relations (Prentice Hall, Englewood NJ...Baldwin David. Paradoxes of Power. Basil Blackwell, New York, 1989 Barnes, Julian. “Navy SEALs Rescue Hostages in Somalia,” Wall Street

  14. A Study of Fracture Processes in Concrete Using Laser Holography (United States)


    pp 773-782, 1977 . 2. Jenq, Y. S. and Shah, S. P., "A Fracture Toughness Criterion for Concrete," Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp...34 Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 113, No. 3, pp. 431-449, Mar. 1987. 10. Mindess , S. and Young, J. F., Concrete, Prentice Hall, Englewood...Application to the Method to Orthodontics," Applied Optics, 18, 1977 . 20 FIGURES Fig. I.1. Cohesive Crack Models. (A) Dugdale-Barrenblatt, (B) Hillerborg

  15. Formal Models versus Human Situational Understanding: Inherent Limitations on the Modeling of Business Expertise (United States)


    New York, 1979. 1221 Kotler , P ., MARKETING MANAGEMENT, Fourth Edition, Prentice- Hall, Inc., Englewood, N. J., p . 322, 1980. 123] Dreyfus, S. and H...reader experience and skill, we shall try our hand at illustration by means of a business skill, market - ing management. Not being personally this area, we can only speculate. The amount of verisimilitude that experienced marketing decision-makers find in our descrintior will be a test of

  16. Army Library Institute V: Product/Marketing/Service - Volume I, Report of Proceedings (United States)


    Strategy for Survival" College and Research Libraries (July) pg. 328-332. Kotler , Philip (1975) Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations (Englewood...refer you to Philip Kotler’s, "Marketing for Non-Profit Organizations" (Prentice-Hall, 1975). The essential Idea of marketing concerns the process by...927-5017 Casey, Philip M. U.S. Army ARRCOM ATTN: DRSAR-LEP-L Rock Island, XL 61299 AV: 793-4208 Cass, Ed C. Chief Archivist, USMA West

  17. Modeling the Long-Term Evolution of Supraglacial Ice Cliffs on Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers (United States)

    Buri, P.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Supraglacial ice cliffs are present on debris-covered glaciers worldwide and provide the only direct atmosphere-ice interface over the lower sections of these glaciers. Low albedo and high longwave emissions from surrounding debris cause very high melt rates, accounting for a significant portion of total glacier mass loss. As a result, ice cliffs affect glacier downwasting and mass balance. Additionally, and in contrast to the debris-covered ice, high melt at cliffs turns them into dynamic features, directly affecting glacier surface evolution. While conceptual ideas about the formation, evolution and collapse of ice cliffs exist, their life cycles have never been thoroughly documented. Based on observations obtained from high-resolution aerial and terrestrial images analyzed with Structure-from-Motion and with data from automatic weather stations on two glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya, we simulate the evolution of selected ice cliffs over several seasons using a new physically-based model of cliff backwasting. The 3D model calculates the energy-balance at the cliff scale and includes the cliff interaction with supraglacial ponds and reburial by debris. We consider cliffs of different shape, orientation and slope, and we show that backwasting leads to a variety of evolution typologies, with cliffs that maintain a constant, self-similar geometry, cliffs that grow laterally and cliffs that disappear through slope shallowing and debris melt-out. Most cliffs persist over several seasons. The presence of a pond appears to be the key control for cliffs to survive, while east and west facing cliffs grow because of higher radiation receipts. We use the model to test the hypothesis that south-facing cliffs do not survive. We show that most south-facing cliffs demise after one melt season on both glaciers, because of high input of solar radiation exceeding the longwave radiation receipt. For north facing features, the longwave radiation receipts at lower cliff sections

  18. Recent progress in understanding activity cliffs and their utility in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The activity cliff concept is of high relevance for medicinal chemistry. Recent studies are discussed that have further refined our understanding of activity cliffs and suggested different ways of exploiting activity cliff information. These include alternative approaches to define and classify activity cliffs in two and three dimensions, data mining investigations to systematically detect all possible activity cliffs, the introduction of computational methods to predict activity cliffs, and studies designed to explore activity cliff progression in medicinal chemistry. The discussion of these studies is complemented with new findings revealing the frequency of activity cliff formation when different molecular representations are used and the distribution of activity cliffs across different targets. Taken together, the results have a number of implications for the practice of medicinal chemistry.

  19. A regional approach for modeling cliff retreat rate: The Makhteshim Country, Israel (United States)

    Finzi, Yaron; Harlev, Noam


    Cliff retreat rate significantly affect the evolution of landforms and cliff stability. Cliff retreat studies also provide intriguing clues regarding past geomorphic conditions and environmental changes. We hereby present a model to calculate cliff retreat rate based on spatial data of cliff structure and morphology. The model is applied to numerous cliffs in the arid Makhteshim Country, Israel, and results are calibrated using published rates of two local cliffs. The calculated retreat rates confirm previous assertions that the crater cliffs are receding very slowly, but reveal that the rates vary significantly along the cliffs (1-18 cm ky- 1). Results also provide first estimates of retreat rates of other major cliffs in the region including fast retreat rates at the Sede Zin cliff (300-600 cm ky- 1). The proposed model provides a robust analysis to account for local cliff-talus morphology and yields rate estimates representative of current conditions rather than a long-term (geologic) average rate. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional geomorphic processes and on the stability of specific cliff sections within the study area.

  20. CliffsNotes Writing Grammar, Usage, and Style Quick Review

    CERN Document Server

    Eggenschwiler, Jean; Reinhardt, Claudia L W


    Inside the Book: Nouns - Verbs - Pronouns - Modifiers - Connecting Words and Phrases - Clauses, Phrases, and Sentences - Common Sentence Errors - Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Marks - Commas, Semicolons, and Colons - Dashes, Parentheses, and Quotation Marks - Idioms, Clichés, Jargon, and Wordiness - How to Begin a Writing Assignment - How to Research and Organize Your Writing - Revising and Editing - Review Questions - Resource Center - Glossary - Frequently Confused Words Why CliffsNotes? Go with the name you know and trust - Get the information you need-fast! CliffsNotes Quick Rev

  1. A grid-based model of backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Steiner, Jakob F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Wouter W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113


    Ice cliffs might be partly responsible for the high mass losses of debris-covered glaciers in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region. The few existing models of cliff backwasting are point-scale models applied at few locations or assume cliffs to be planes with constant slope and aspect, a major

  2. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants. (United States)

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy


    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  3. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob F.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of evolution emerge: (i) reclining cliffs that flatten during the ablation season; (ii) stable cliffs that maintain a self-similar geometry; and (iii) growing cliffs, expanding laterally. We use the insights from this unique data set to develop a 3-D model of cliff backwasting and evolution that is validated against observations and an independent data set of volume losses. The model includes ablation at the cliff surface driven by energy exchange with the atmosphere, reburial of cliff cells by surrounding debris, and the effect of adjacent ponds. The cliff geometry is updated monthly to account for the modifications induced by each of those processes. Model results indicate that a major factor affecting the survival of steep cliffs is the coupling with ponded water at its base, which prevents progressive flattening and possible disappearance of a cliff. The radial growth observed at one cliff is explained by higher receipts of longwave and shortwave radiation, calculated taking into account atmospheric fluxes, shading, and the emission of longwave radiation from debris surfaces. The model is a clear step forward compared to existing static approaches that calculate atmospheric melt over an invariant cliff geometry and can be used for long-term simulations of cliff evolution and to test existing hypotheses about cliffs' survival.

  4. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: A statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal. (United States)

    Marques, F.; Matildes, R.; Redweik, P.


    Mass movements are the dominant process of sea cliff evolution, being a considerable source of natural hazard and a significant constrain for human activities in coastal areas. Related hazards include cliff top retreat, with implications on planning and land management, and unstable soil or rock movements at the cliffs face and toe, with implications mainly on beach users and support structures. To assess the spatial component of sea cliff hazard assessment with implications on planning, i.e. the susceptibility of a given cliff section to be affected by instabilities causing retreat of the cliff top, a statistically based study was carried out along the top of the sea cliffs of Burgau-Lagos coastal section (Southwest Algarve, Portugal). The study was based on bivariate and multi-variate statistics applied to a set of predisposing factors, mainly related with geology and geomorphology, which were correlated with an inventory of past cliff failures. The multi-temporal inventory of past cliff failures was produced using aerial digital photogrammetric methods, which included special procedures to enable the extraction of accurate data from old aerial photos, and validated by systematic stereo photo interpretation, helped by oblique aerial photos and field surveys. This study identified 137 cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2007 along the 13 km long cliffs, causing the loss of 10,234 m2 of horizontal area at the cliffs top. The cliff failures correspond to planar slides (58%) mainly in Cretaceous alternating limestone and marls, toppling failures (17%) mainly in Miocene calcarenites, slumps (15%) in Plio-pleistocene silty sands that infill the karst in the Miocene rocks, and the remaining 10% correspond to complex movements, rockfalls and not determined cases. The space distribution of cliff failures is quite irregular but enables the objective separation of sub sections with homogeneous retreat behavior, for which were computed mean retreat rates between 5x10-3m

  5. Lidar-Based Rock-Fall Hazard Characterization of Cliffs (United States)

    Collins, Brian; Greg M.Stock,


    Rock falls from cliffs and other steep slopes present numerous challenges for detailed geological characterization. In steep terrain, rock-fall source areas are both dangerous and difficult to access, severely limiting the ability to make detailed structural and volumetric measurements necessary for hazard assessment. Airborne and terrestrial lidar survey methods can provide high-resolution data needed for volumetric, structural, and deformation analyses of rock falls, potentially making these analyses straightforward and routine. However, specific methods to collect, process, and analyze lidar data of steep cliffs are needed to maximize analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper presents observations showing how lidar data sets should be collected, filtered, registered, and georeferenced to tailor their use in rock fall characterization. Additional observations concerning surface model construction, volumetric calculations, and deformation analysis are also provided.

  6. Multi-temporal retreat rates along the eastern Mediterranean coastal cliff (United States)

    Katz, O.; Mushkin, A.


    The Israeli coastal cliff extends about 50 km along the eastern Mediterranean shores. The cliff is comprised of late Quaternary eolianites and paleosols and reaches heights of up to 50 meters. In places, time-averaged inland cliff-top retreat rates of up to a few tens of centimeters per year have been measured usually by comparing aerial photos from the last decades. Commonly, these locally constrained retreat rates have been: 1) extrapolated as representative of the entire cliff length, and 2) adopted by hazard-mitigation and planning authorities. Here, we re-evaluate the current understanding of coastal-retreat patterns and rates along Israel's Mediterranean cliff line using a suite of field observations, aerial photography and recently obtained airborne and ground based high resolution LiDAR measurement of cliff morphologies. First, we constrain the decadal-scale retreat rates along the coastal-cliff by comparing the cliff-top location in 1945 and 2004 using aerial photos. We find a statistically significant spatial correlation between: 1) calculated low retreat rates (less than 0.1 m/yr) and field-based criteria indicating overall stability: slope angle of 45 deg. and talus cover along the lower part of the cliff and developed vegetation cover, and 2) high retreat rates and field criteria indicating recent instability: fresh landslide scars and 'hanging' valleys, which provides independent support for the calculated retreat rates. Calculated 60 years average cliff-top retreat rates of less than 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/yr along 58%, 77% and 85% of the cliff length, respectively, reveal that extended stretches of the cliff line did not experience detectable retreat in the past 60 years, thus implying relative stability of 50% of Israel's costal cliffs during this time period. Second, we constrain the annual retreat rates using repeat high-resolution ground based LiDAR surveys before and after an extreme winter storm that occurred in Dec. 2010. Locally, storm induced

  7. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff (United States)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen


    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  8. Ancient "Red Cliff" battlefield: a historical-geographic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiugui


    The famous battle of Chibi,or "battle of Red Cliff",took place in 208 CE,the 13th year of the Jian'an period of the Eastern Han dynasty.This paper holds that the whole battle consisted of three inseparable stages,namely the initial clash at Chibi,the chase battle to Wulin,and Cao Cao's disorganized escape along Huarong Road.The Red Cliff battlefield thus extended across a distance of more than 300 li (150km).Even if the Chibi where the initial military engagement took place (that is,Chiji Hill,southwest of Wuchang in modern Wuhan City) has already disappeared,it should be restored to its proper historical position.The chase battle along the Yangzi River came to an end at Wulin,across the river is Chibi Hill in today's Chibi City.Although this Chibi is not the Chibi where the initial combat took place,it nonetheless forms an integral part of the ancient Chibi battlefield as a whole.The Huarong Road along which Cao Cao escaped runs through the middle of today's Jianghan Plain.Finally,the text aims to show that Chibi (Red Nose)1 Hill in modern Huangzhou City has nothing to do with the Chibi of the "battle of Red Cliff."

  9. An empirical conceptual gully evolution model for channelled sea cliffs (United States)

    Leyland, Julian; Darby, Stephen E.


    Incised coastal channels are a specific form of incised channel that are found in locations where stream channels flowing to cliffed coasts have the excess energy required to cut down through the cliff to reach the outlet water body. The southern coast of the Isle of Wight, southern England, comprises soft cliffs that vary in height between 15 and 100 m and which are retreating at rates ≤ 1.5 m a - 1 , due to a combination of wave erosion and landslides. In several locations, river channels have cut through the cliffs to create deeply (≤ 45 m) incised gullies, known locally as 'Chines'. The Chines are unusual in that their formation is associated with dynamic shoreline encroachment during a period of rising sea-level, whereas existing models of incised channel evolution emphasise the significance of base level lowering. This paper develops a conceptual model of Chine evolution by applying space for time substitution methods using empirical data gathered from Chine channel surveys and remotely sensed data. The model identifies a sequence of evolutionary stages, which are classified based on a suite of morphometric indices and associated processes. The extent to which individual Chines are in a state of growth or decay is estimated by determining the relative rates of shoreline retreat and knickpoint recession, the former via analysis of historical aerial images and the latter through the use of a stream power erosion model.

  10. Ice cliff dynamics in the Everest region of the Central Himalaya (United States)

    Scott Watson, C.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.


    The importance of ice cliffs for glacier-scale ablation on debris-covered glaciers is now widely recognised. However, a paucity of data exists to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of ice cliffs. In this study we analysed the position and geometry of 8229 ice cliffs and 5582 supraglacial ponds on 14 glaciers in the Everest region between 2000 and 2015. We observed notable ice cliff and pond spatial coincidence. On average across our study glaciers, 77% of supraglacial pond area was associated with an adjacent ice cliff, and 49% of ice cliffs featured an adjacent supraglacial pond. The spatial density of ice cliffs was not directly related to glacier velocity, but did peak within zones of active ice. Furthermore, we found that ice cliff density was glacier-specific, temporally variable, and was positively correlated with surface lowering and decreasing debris thickness for individual glaciers. Ice cliffs predominantly had a north-facing (commonly north-westerly) aspect, which was independent of glacier flow direction, thereby signifying a strong solar radiation control on cliff evolution. Independent field observations indicated that cliff morphology was related to aspect, local debris thickness, and presence of a supraglacial pond, and highlighted the importance of surface runnel formation, which acts as a preferential pathway for meltwater and debris fluxes. Overall, by coupling remote sensing and in-situ observations it has been possible to capture local and glacier-scale ice cliff dynamics across 14 glaciers, which is necessary if explicit parameterisation of ice cliffs in dynamic glacier models is to be achieved.

  11. Exploring the cliff retreat response to base level change using SFM photogrammetry and cosmogenic 36Cl, Coal Cliffs, Utah, USA (United States)

    Sheehan, C.; Ward, D.


    The retreat of cliffbands is an important erosional process within the relatively undeformed sedimentary layers of the Colorado Plateau. Many iconic cliff landforms, including those of Monument Valley and Grand Canyon, are maintained by the interaction of these different rock types. A several kilometer thickness of incised sandstone and shale formations allow this region to act as a natural laboratory for studying the effects of variable lithologies on landscape evolution. Cliffband morphology and retreat on the plateau are controlled by several factors that may vary over time and space, including lithology, rate and distribution of rockfall debris, bedrock structure, baselevel, and climate. The relative importance of each factor in setting rates of cliff retreat are not entirely clear. Because regional headwaters are commonly sourced at cliff bases, these landforms are often the final and slowest areas to respond to baselevel changes, allowing rockfall and other local stochastic processes to overwhelm the erosional response to a baselevel forcing. The roles of these processes are difficult to assess because very few measurements of retreat rates over geomorphic timescales (103-106 years) have been produced, and thus changes in cliffband position through time have only been constrained by inferences made from the regional erosional history. Here, we control for climate and rock type by focusing on a continuous, 40-kilometer section of the lithologically consistent Coal Cliffs in Emery County, Utah. This area presents several natural experiments illustrating cliffband response to different forcings, including relict surfaces reflecting a baselevel change, drainage divides across which the adjustment to base level change may be asynchronous, a zone wherein the caprock layer has been removed by backscarp erosion, and a generally continuous gradient in cliff height from 50 to >200 meters along the cliffline. We employ terrestrial Cl36 exposure dating on terraces, talus

  12. Human impact on the vegetation of limestone cliffs in the northern Swiss Jura mountains


    Müller, Stefan


    Cliffs provide unique habitats for many specialised organisms, including chamaephytes and slowly growing trees. Drought, high temperature amplitude, scarcity of nutrients and high insolation are general characteristics of exposed limestone cliff faces. The vegetation of limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains consists of plants of arctic-alpine, continental and Mediterranean origin. Several populations exhibit relicts from post- or interglacial warm or cold climatic per...

  13. The impact of solar radiation on vertical ice cliff recession on Kilimanjaro (United States)

    Winkler, M.; Cullen, N.; Kaser, G.; Mölg, T.; Pfeffer, T.


    The glaciers on the summit plateau of Mount Kilimanjaro (5700m a.s.l., 3°04'S, 37°21'E) are characterized by nearly vertical ice cliffs at their margins. Recent studies have shown that glacier retreat on Africa's highest peak is closely linked to the recession of these cliffs. More than one year of distance measurements between an automatic weather station close to a south-facing cliff and the cliff itself reveal a strong linkage of the recession pattern and the annual cycle of solar radiation. As the cliff is not hit by direct shortwave radiation from March to October, not enough energy is provided to raise the cliff's surface temperature to 0°C and make melting possible. Only sublimation occurs and the point measurements indicate recession rates at the order of 0.5cm/month. From November to February - if cloud cover allows - the cliff is hit by direct shortwave radiation all day and its surface temperature can reach the melting point during some hours of the day. Melting occurs, although air temperature is always below freezing point, and the cliff retreats 20-30 times faster, because melting is much more energy-efficient than sublimation. A solar radiation model, using data of a free-standing automatic weather station, is run to find out why the majority of the cliffs is exposed either to the north or to the south, and to extrapolate the point measurements to the whole ice cliff. In addition, the impact of small scale differences in slope and aspect on the cliff recession is investigated using the radiation model. A multi-temporal photogrammetrical survey is carried out to quantify small scale recession differences in order to validate the solar radiation model results.

  14. Molecular scaffolds with high propensity to form multi-target activity cliffs. (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen


    In target-dependent activity landscapes of compound series, cliffs are formed by pairs of molecules that are structurally analogous but display significant differences in potency. The detection and analysis of such activity cliffs is a major task in structure-activity relationship analysis and compound optimization. In analogy to activity cliffs, selectivity cliffs can be defined that are formed by structural analogs having significantly different potencies against two targets. The formation of activity cliffs by analogs is generally a consequence of different R-group patterns; e.g., a specific substitution of a given scaffold might increase and another substitution decrease potency. Therefore, activity (or selectivity) cliffs are typically analyzed for a given scaffold representing an analog series, and it has thus far not been explored whether certain scaffolds might display a general tendency to yield compounds forming activity cliffs against different targets. We have exhaustively analyzed scaffolds and associated compound activity data in the ChemblDB and BindingDB databases in order to compare the availability of target-selective scaffolds in these databases and determine whether multi-target activity and multi-target selectivity cliff scaffolds exist. Perhaps unexpectedly, we have identified 143 scaffolds that are represented by multiple compounds and form activity or selectivity cliffs against different targets. These scaffolds have varying chemical complexities and are in part promiscuous binders (i.e., compounds containing these scaffolds bind to distantly related or unrelated targets). However, analogs derived from these scaffolds form steep activity cliffs against different targets. A catalog of scaffolds with high propensity to form activity or selectivity cliffs against multiple targets is provided to help identify potentially promiscuous candidate scaffolds during compound optimization efforts.

  15. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. 3; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido . 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Matsuzawa, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Vibration characteristics were investigated of the ground in the vicinity of a cliff-like sharp slope. Short-period microtremors were observed in the vicinity of an artificially made cliff-like test ground, height 8m and inclination 90{degree}, and a natural cliff, height approximately 9m and inclination approximately 35{degree}. The artificial cliff was reinforced by a virtually vertical retaining wall of concrete, and the ground was prepared for testing with a belt approximately 20m wide and 50m long along the cliff face. All the vibration components were simultaneously measured at measuring spots that were located 5-40m apart from the cliff end and orientated perpendicular to the cliff face. It was then found that in case of artificial cliff there is a conspicuous 3.1Hz prevalent ground vibration in the component squarely meeting the cliff face, that the prevalent ground vibration is not particularly great near the cliff end because the retaining wall and the ground are artificially prepared, that there is no influence of the cliff-like ground in the ground vibration parallel to or vertical along the cliff face, and that in case of natural ground there are no vibration characteristic proper to a cliff-like ground in any of the vibration components. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Getting on top of the glass cliff : Reviewing a decade of evidence, explanations, and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Morgenroth, Thekla; Rink, Floor; Stoker, Janka; Peters, Kim


    The glass cliff refers to the tendency for women to be more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions that are risky and precarious. This paper reviews the first decade of research into the phenomenon and has three key aims: (a) to summarize and integrate evidence of the glass cliff, (

  17. A physically based 3-D model of ice cliff evolution over debris-covered glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, J.F.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Wagnon, Patrick; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    We use high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) surveys to document the evolution of four ice cliffs on the debris-covered tongue of Lirung Glacier, Nepal, over one ablation season. Observations show that out of four cliffs, three different patterns of

  18. Modelling ice-cliff backwasting on a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, Jakob F.; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Immerzeel, Walter W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Reid, Tim D.


    Ice cliffs have been identified as a reason for higher ablation rates on debris-covered glaciers than are implied by the insulation effects of the debris. This study aims to improve our understanding of cliff backwasting, and the role of radiative fluxes in particular. An energy-balance model is

  19. The Glass Cliff: An Examination of the Female Superintendency in South Carolina (United States)

    Bowles, Blanche Boyd


    South Carolina public school districts are confronted with a series of difficult circumstances and rely more on female superintendents than the national average. The investigation of female South Carolina superintendents was guided by the glass cliff conceptual framework. The glass cliff represents situations where females are promoted over males…

  20. Processes and mechanisms governing hard rock cliff erosion in western Brittany, France (United States)

    Laute, Katja; Letortu, Pauline; Le Dantec, Nicolas


    The evolution of rocky coasts is controlled by the interplay between subaerial, marine as well as biological processes, and the geological context. In times of ongoing climate change it is difficult to predict how these erosional landscapes will respond for example to anticipated sea-level rise or to an increase in storminess. However, it can be expected that changes in the morphodynamics of rocky coasts will have a noticeable effect on society and infrastructure. Recent studies have proven that monitoring cliff micro-seismic ground motion has been very effective in exploring both marine and atmospheric actions on coastal cliffs. But only few studies have focused so far on the effects of wave loading and water circulation (runoff, infiltration, water table variations) on cliff stability and subsequent erosion, considering the interaction between subaerial and marine processes. This project focuses on the identification and quantification of environmental controls on hard rock cliff erosion with an emphasis on discriminating the relative contributions of subaerial and marine processes. We aim at relating different sources of mechanical stress (e.g. wave loading, direct wave impact, hydrostatic pressure, thermal expansion) to cliff-scale strain (cliff-top swaying and shaking) and micro-fracturing (generation, expansion and contraction of micro-cracks) with the objective to unravel and discriminate triggering mechanisms of cliff failure. A four-month monitoring field experiment during the winter period (February-May) of 2017 is carried out at a cliff face located in Porsmilin beach (western Brittany, France). The selected cliff section is exposed to Atlantic swell from the south/southwest with a significant wave height of ca. 1.5 m on average and, reaching up to 4 m during storm events. The cliff rises ca. 20 m above the beach and is mainly formed of orthogneiss with intrusions of granodiorite. The entire cliff is highly fractured and altered, which can promote slope

  1. The national assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector cliff edges and associated cliff erosion data for the California coast (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl; Reid, David; Borrelli, Mark


    The U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector cliff edges and associated rates of cliff retreat along the open-ocean California coast. These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Cliff erosion is a chronic problem along many coastlines of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of coastal cliff retreat. There is also a critical need for these data to be consistent from one region to another. One objective of this work is to a develop standard, repeatable methodology for mapping and analyzing cliff edge retreat so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates of cliff edge position and associated rates of erosion can be made at a national scale. This data compilation for open-ocean cliff edges for the California coast is a separate, yet related study to Hapke and others, 2006 documenting shoreline change along sandy shorelines of the California coast, which is itself one in a series that includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeast Atlantic coast (Morton and others, 2004; Morton and Miller, 2005). Future reports and data compilations will include coverage of the Northeast U.S., the Great Lakes, Hawaii and Alaska. Cliff edge change is determined by comparing the positions of one historical cliff edge digitized from maps with a modern cliff edge derived from topographic LIDAR (light detection and ranging) surveys. Historical cliff edges for the California coast represent the 1920s-1930s time-period; the most recent cliff edge was delineated using data collected between 1998 and 2002. End-point rate calculations were used to evaluate rates of erosion between the two cliff edges. Please refer to our full report on cliff edge erosion along the California

  2. The Influence of Ephemeral Beaches on Alongshore Variability of Hard-rock Cliff Erosion (United States)

    Vann Jones, E. C.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Varley, S. J.


    The role of abrasion of rock cliffs is typically considered in the long-term presence of a beach. During monthly monitoring of hard rock cliff erosion along the North Yorkshire coast, UK, we have observed a number of small ephemeral beaches of highly variable duration and extent. The erosive significance of the temporary presence of sediment at the cliffs is unknown and we set out to examine whether observed alongshore variability in erosion can be linked to the presence of ephemeral beaches. We explore the temporal and spatial variability in sediment deposition and transport along a low-sediment rock coast foreshore, the controlling marine conditions and the effects on cliff erosion. We focus on a 500 m wide embayment set into 70 m high hard rock cliffs consisting of horizontally bedded Jurassic mudstone, shale, siltstone and sandstone. The bay has a wide, shallow gradient foreshore up to 300 m wide with highly variable topography. With the exception of an ephemeral beach (of widths up to approximately 150 m alongshore and 10 m cross-shore) the rock foreshore is typically sand-free, with failed material from the cliffs quickly removed from the cliff toe by the sea leaving only boulders. The high tidal range (6 m) and storm wave environment of the North Sea result in variable marine conditions at the site. We use magnetic sand tracers and a grid of foreshore and cliff face magnets to examine the sand transport across the foreshore and to identify the vertical extent of cliff face impacted by sand. We monitor the driving marine conditions on the foreshore using a network of current meters and wave pressure sensors. Erosion of the cliff face across the whole bay is monitored at high-resolution using terrestrial laser scanning to examine the spatial distribution of abrasion and the influence of the ephemeral beach.

  3. 77 FR 10784 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its application dated October... the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, respectively, located in Calvert County,...

  4. Dynamic self-assembly in living systems as computation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil


    Biochemical reactions taking place in living systems that map different inputs to specific outputs are intuitively recognized as performing information processing. Conventional wisdom distinguishes such proteins, whose primary function is to transfer and process information, from proteins that perform the vast majority of the construction, maintenance, and actuation tasks of the cell (assembling and disassembling macromolecular structures, producing movement, and synthesizing and degrading molecules). In this paper, we examine the computing capabilities of biological processes in the context of the formal model of computing known as the random access machine (RAM) [Dewdney AK (1993) The New Turing Omnibus. Computer Science Press, New York], which is equivalent to a Turing machine [Minsky ML (1967) Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ]. When viewed from the RAM perspective, we observe that many of these dynamic self-assembly processes - synthesis, degradation, assembly, movement - do carry out computational operations. We also show that the same computing model is applicable at other hierarchical levels of biological systems (e.g., cellular or organism networks as well as molecular networks). We present stochastic simulations of idealized protein networks designed explicitly to carry out a numeric calculation. We explore the reliability of such computations and discuss error-correction strategies (algorithms) employed by living systems. Finally, we discuss some real examples of dynamic self-assembly processes that occur in living systems, and describe the RAM computer programs they implement. Thus, by viewing the processes of living systems from the RAM perspective, a far greater fraction of these processes can be understood as computing than has been previously recognized.

  5. An approach to determine pressure profile generated by compression bandage using quasi-linear viscoelastic model. (United States)

    Kumar, Bipin; Das, Apurba; Alagirusamy, R


    Understanding the stress relaxation behavior of the compression bandage could be very useful in determining the behavior of the interface pressure exerted by the bandage on a limb during the course of the compression treatment. There has been no comprehensive study in the literature to investigate the pressure profile (interface pressure with time) generated by a compression bandage when applied at different levels of strain. The present study attempts to describe the pressure profile, with the use of a quasi-linear viscoelastic model, generated by a compression bandage during compression therapy. The quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory proposed by Fung (Fung, 1972, "Stress Strain History Relations of Soft Tissues in Simple Elongation," Biomechanics: Its Foundations and Objectives, Y. C. Fung, N. Perrone, and M. Anliker, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 181-207). was used to model the nonlinear time- and history-dependent relaxation behavior of the bandage using the ramp strain approach. The regression analysis was done to find the correlation between the pressure profile and the relaxation behavior of the bandage. The parameters of the QLV model, describing the relaxation behavior of the bandage, were used to determine the pressure profile generated by the bandage at different levels of strain. The relaxation behaviors of the bandage at different levels of strain were well described by the QLV model parameters. A high correlation coefficient (nearly 0.98) shows a good correlation of the pressure profile with the stress relaxation behavior of the bandage.The prediction of the pressure profile using the QLV model parameters were in agreement with the experimental data. The pressure profile generated by a compression bandage could be predicted using the QLV model describing the nonlinear relaxation behavior of the bandage. This new application of the QLV theory helps in evaluating the bandage performance during compression therapy as scientific wound

  6. Computational uncertainty principle in nonlinear ordinary differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jianping


    [1]Li Jianping, Zeng Qingcun, Chou Jifan, Computational Uncertainty Principle in Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations I. Numerical Results, Science in China, Ser. E, 2000, 43(5): 449[2]Henrici, P., Discrete Variable Methods in Ordinary Differential Equations, New York: John Wiley, 1962, 1; 187.[3]Henrici, P., Error Propagation for Difference Methods, New York: John Whiley, 1963.[4]Gear, C. W., Numerical Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971, 1; 72.[5]Hairer, E., Nrsett, S. P., Wanner, G., Solving Ordinary Differential Equations I. Nonstiff Problems, 2nd ed., Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993, 130.[6]Stoer, J., Bulirsch, R., Introduction to Numerical Analysis, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag (reprinted in China by Beijing Wold Publishing Corporation), 1998, 428.[7]Li Qingyang, Numerical Methods in Ordinary Differential Equations (Stiff Problems and Boundary Value Problems), in Chinese Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1991, 1.[8]Li Ronghua, Weng Guochen, Numerical Methods in Differential Equations (in Chinese), 3rd ed., Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1996, 1.[9]Dahlquist, G., Convergence and stability in the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, Math. Scandinavica, 1956, 4: 33.[10]Dahlquist, G., 33 years of numerical instability, Part I, BIT, 1985, 25: 188.[11]Heisenberg, W., The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930.[12]McMurry, S. M., Quantum Mechanics, London: Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd (reprined in China by Beijing World Publishing Corporation), 1998.

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Tregonning


    Full Text Available - J. Th. Ros-Schrijvers, G.C. Mandersloot, Pakistan. Serie Land-Volk-Cultuur, Het Wereldvenster, Baarn 1968, 219 p., fotomateriaal. - J. Th. Ros-Schrijvers, Cora Vreede-De Stuers, Parda, a study of Muslim women’s life in Northern India. Van Gorcum & Comp. n.v., Assen 1968, 128 pp., fotomateriaal. - Obayashi Taryo, C. Ouwehand, Namazu-e and their themes. An interpretative approach to some aspects of Japanese folk religion. XVI, 271 pp., 10 text figures, 21 plates, 2 maps. E.J. Brill, Leiden 1964. - C. Ouwehand, Chie Nakane, Kinship and economic organization in rural Japan. London School of Economics Monographs on social anthropology No. 32. London 1967, 203 + IX pp. - O.D. van den Muijzenberg, Grant K. Goodman, Four aspects of Philippine-Japanese Relations, 1930-1940. Monograph Series no. 9, Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, 1967. X + 237 pp. - J.M. Pluvier, John Bastin, A history of modern Southeast Asia; Colonialism, nationalism, and decolonization. Englewood Cliffs (N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968, viii + 214 blz., bibliografie, index., Harry J. Benda (eds. - K.G. Tregonning, Journal of Southeast Asian History. Vol. x, No. 1, March 1969. “Singapore Commemorative Issue, 1819-1969. 150th Anniversary.” 191 p. - J.C. Anceaux, Rufus S. Hendon, The phonology and morphology of Ulu Muar Malay (Kuala Pilah District, Negri Sembilan, Malaya. Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven 1966. (Yale University Publications in Anthropology, 70. 176 p. - Stephan A. Gasser, D. Drost, Töpferei in Afrika. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1967. 289 S., 58 fig., 18 Karten, English summary.

  8. Perception and production of facial and prosodic emotions by chronic CVA patients. (United States)

    Charbonneau, S; Scherzer, B P; Aspirot, D; Cohen, H


    Variable etiology, limited testing of emotions and inclusion of patients in acute and chronic phases have made it difficult to specify the extent of right hemisphere involvement in the processing of emotional material. In addition, there is an absence of data concerning CVA patients' long-term abilities to process emotional information. Two groups of subjects with unilateral brain damage (15 RBD, 17 LBD), matched for chronicity (minimum 12 months post-CVA), etiology (ischemic CVA), duration of hospitalization and other variables, and an appropriate control group participated in two experiments to address these concerns. In the first experiment, subjects were given a series of tasks (discrimination, identification, imitation, production on request) to assess their processing of facial expressions of the six universal emotions [P. Ekman, W. Friesen, Unmasking the face, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1975]. The results showed that three emotions (surprise, happiness, fear) discriminate between RBD and LBD patients and controls, with RBD subjects performing worse than the other groups on the identification task only. Using tasks of the same nature, the second experiment investigated the processing of emotional prosody. The results showed that three emotions (fear, sadness, anger) discriminate between RBD and LBD patients and controls, with RBD subjects again performing worse than the others on the discrimination, imitation and production on request tasks. LBD subjects performed as well as normal controls on almost all tasks. The RBD subjects were the only ones who showed relatively consistent impairment in the processing of both facial and prosodic emotional information. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the right hemisphere is preferentially involved in processing emotional information in the chronic phase of brain damage.

  9. Interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job and family domains. (United States)

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia


    This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.

  10. Patent cliff mitigation strategies: giving new life to blockbusters. (United States)

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar


    With several blockbuster drugs on the brink of another significant patent expiry cliff, innovator pharmaceutical firms are at risk of losing billions of dollars in sales to generic competition. With issues such as staggering R&D costs, reduced productivity and increasing governmental emphasis on pharmacoeconomics, timely planning and implementation of product lifecycle management strategies is becoming indispensable. A variety of strategies designed to mitigate the post-patent expiry revenue loss exist. These approaches range from fairly straightforward measures, such as strategic price cuts and launching own or authorized generics, to complex and lengthy ones, such as new formulations and indications that require companies to reinvent their pharmaceuticals. As patent expiries loom and product pipelines continue to remain thin, proactive planning for generic entry will be critical for pharma companies to drive growth and earnings in a sustainable manner.

  11. Bounds on the calving cliff height of marine terminating glaciers (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tripathy, Cory S.; Bassis, Jeremy N.


    Increased calving and rapid retreat of glaciers can contribute significantly to sea level rise, but the processes controlling glacier retreat remain poorly understood. We seek to improve our understanding of calving by investigating the stress field controlling tensile and shear failure using a 2-D full-Stokes finite element model. Using idealized rectangular geometries, we find that when rapidly sliding glaciers thin to near buoyancy, full thickness tensile failure occurs, similar to observations motivating height-above-buoyancy calving laws. In contrast, when glaciers are frozen to their beds, basal crevasse penetration is suppressed and calving is minimal. We also find that shear stresses are largest when glaciers are thickest. Together, the tensile and shear failure criteria map out a stable envelope in an ice-thickness-water-depth diagram. The upper and lower bounds on cliff height can be incorporated into numerical ice sheet models as boundary conditions, thus bracketing the magnitude of calving rates in marine-terminating glaciers.

  12. Shakespeare Cliff, rempart symbolique aux portes du royaume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Price


    Full Text Available Figure 1 : Clarkson STANFIELD, Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1849, 1862« Il est une falaise, dont le front haut et courbeRegarde avec effroi dans l’abîme qu’elle enserre :Conduis-moi jusqu’à son bordEt je remédierai à la misère que tu souffresPar quelque riche objet ; de cet endroitJe n’aurai point besoin de guide. »Les lignes ci-dessus, tirées de l’Acte IV, Scène I du Roi Lear, font allusion aux falaises de Douvres, plus particulièrement à leur point culminant, un grand bloc de calcaire et de cr...

  13. Toppling analysis of the Echo Cliffs precariously balanced rock (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Swetha; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Krishnan, Swaminathan


    Toppling analysis of a precariously balanced rock (PBR) can provide insight into the nature of ground motion that has not occurred at that location in the past and, by extension, can constrain peak ground motions for use in engineering design. Earlier approaches have targeted 2D models of the rock or modeled the rock–pedestal contact using spring‐damper assemblies that require recalibration for each rock. Here, a method to model PBRs in 3D is presented through a case study of the Echo Cliffs PBR. The 3D model is created from a point cloud of the rock, the pedestal, and their interface, obtained using terrestrial laser scanning. The dynamic response of the model under earthquake excitation is simulated using a rigid‐body dynamics algorithm. The veracity of this approach is demonstrated through comparisons against data from shake‐table experiments. Fragility maps for toppling probability of the Echo Cliffs PBR as a function of various ground‐motion parameters, rock–pedestal interface friction coefficient, and excitation direction are presented. These fragility maps indicate that the toppling probability of this rock is low (less than 0.2) for peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) lower than 3  m/s2 and 0.75  m/s, respectively, suggesting that the ground‐motion intensities at this location from earthquakes on nearby faults have most probably not exceeded the above‐mentioned PGA and PGV during the age of the PBR. Additionally, the fragility maps generated from this methodology can also be directly coupled with existing probabilistic frameworks to obtain direct constraints on unexceeded ground motion at a PBR’s location.

  14. Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain. (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D; Rood, Dylan H; Ellis, Michael A; Anderson, Robert S; Dornbusch, Uwe


    Rising sea levels and increased storminess are expected to accelerate the erosion of soft-cliff coastlines, threatening coastal infrastructure and livelihoods. To develop predictive models of future coastal change we need fundamentally to know how rapidly coasts have been eroding in the past, and to understand the driving mechanisms of coastal change. Direct observations of cliff retreat rarely extend beyond 150 y, during which humans have significantly modified the coastal system. Cliff retreat rates are unknown in prior centuries and millennia. In this study, we derived retreat rates of chalk cliffs on the south coast of Great Britain over millennial time scales by coupling high-precision cosmogenic radionuclide geochronology and rigorous numerical modeling. Measured (10)Be concentrations on rocky coastal platforms were compared with simulations of coastal evolution using a Monte Carlo approach to determine the most likely history of cliff retreat. The (10)Be concentrations are consistent with retreat rates of chalk cliffs that were relatively slow (2-6 cm⋅y(-1)) until a few hundred years ago. Historical observations reveal that retreat rates have subsequently accelerated by an order of magnitude (22-32 cm⋅y(-1)). We suggest that acceleration is the result of thinning of cliff-front beaches, exacerbated by regional storminess and anthropogenic modification of the coast.

  15. Recent acceleration in coastal cliff retreat rates on the south coast of Great Britain (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Dornbusch, Uwe


    Rising sea levels and increased storminess are expected to accelerate the erosion of soft-cliff coastlines, threatening coastal infrastructure and livelihoods. To develop predictive models of future coastal change we need fundamentally to know how rapidly coasts have been eroding in the past, and to understand the driving mechanisms of coastal change. Direct observations of cliff retreat rarely extend beyond 150 y, during which humans have significantly modified the coastal system. Cliff retreat rates are unknown in prior centuries and millennia. In this study, we derived retreat rates of chalk cliffs on the south coast of Great Britain over millennial time scales by coupling high-precision cosmogenic radionuclide geochronology and rigorous numerical modeling. Measured 10Be concentrations on rocky coastal platforms were compared with simulations of coastal evolution using a Monte Carlo approach to determine the most likely history of cliff retreat. The 10Be concentrations are consistent with retreat rates of chalk cliffs that were relatively slow (2-6 cmṡy-1) until a few hundred years ago. Historical observations reveal that retreat rates have subsequently accelerated by an order of magnitude (22-32 cmṡy-1). We suggest that acceleration is the result of thinning of cliff-front beaches, exacerbated by regional storminess and anthropogenic modification of the coast.

  16. Identification of Interaction Hot Spots in Structures of Drug Targets on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Activity Cliff Information. (United States)

    Furtmann, Norbert; Hu, Ye; Gütschow, Michael; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Activity cliffs are defined as pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous compounds that share the same specific activity but have large differences in potency. Although activity cliffs are mostly studied in medicinal chemistry at the level of molecular graphs, they can also be assessed by comparing compound binding modes. If such three-dimensional activity cliffs (3D-cliffs) are studied on the basis of X-ray complex structures, experimental ligand-target interaction details can be taken into account. Rapid growth in the number of 3D-cliffs that can be derived from X-ray complex structures has made it possible to identify targets for which a substantial body of 3D-cliff information is available. Activity cliffs are typically studied to identify structure-activity relationship determinants and aid in compound optimization. However, 3D-cliff information can also be used to search for interaction hot spots and key residues, as reported herein. For six of seven drug targets for which more than 20 3D-cliffs were available, series of 3D-cliffs were identified that were consistently involved in interactions with different hot spots. These 3D-cliffs often encoded chemical modifications resulting in interactions that were characteristic of highly potent compounds but absent in weakly potent ones, thus providing information for structure-based design.

  17. Advancing the activity cliff concept [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu


    Full Text Available The activity cliff concept has experienced increasing interest in medicinal chemistry and chemoinformatics. Activity cliffs have originally been defined as pairs of structurally similar compounds that are active against the same target but have a large difference in potency. Activity cliffs are relevant for structure-activity relationship (SAR analysis and compound optimization because small chemical modifications can be deduced from cliffs that result in large-magnitude changes in potency. In addition to studying activity cliffs on the basis of individual compounds series, they can be systematically identified through mining of compound activity data. This commentary aims to provide a concise yet detailed picture of our current understanding of activity cliffs. It is also meant to introduce the further refined activity cliff concept to a general audience in drug development.

  18. Sea cliff instability hazard assessment at regional scale: a case study in the western coast of Portugal (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Taborda, Rui; Carreira, Diogo


    Sea cliff evolution is mainly produced by mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard in coastal areas. For two neighboring counties (Sintra and Cascais) located in the west coast of Portugal, a sea cliff instability statistically based susceptibility assessment was tested in order to analyze the influence of a set of predisposing factors in the prediction of future failures affecting areas located along the cliff top. The coastal areas of Sintra (length of cliffs 24.8km) and Cascais (length of cliffs 22.0km) are examples of contrasting cliff morphology, height (from less than 6m to more than 120m), and rock mass composition and strength (alternating marls and limestones, sandstones, granite, limestones). The inventories of past instabilities were performed by a multitemporal study of aerial photographs from different dates, for the period 1947-2007 (Sintra), and 1947-2008 (Cascais), which enabled the detection and measurement of the local maximum retreat at the cliff top, length of cliff affected and horizontal area lost at the cliff top. The aerial photo based data coupled with field surveys enabled the identification of the type of movements. These are mainly of the rock fall and planar slide types. These aerial photo based studies enabled the identification and measurement of 63 cliff failures at Sintra and 67 at Cascais coasts, with variable spatial density from 0.4 to 20 failures per km of cliff length for the 60/61 years of study period, providing the basis for the division of the cliffs in homogeneous sections in terms of horizontal area lost at the cliff top. Along the different cliff sections, the mean retreat rates varied between 0.0003m/year and 0.025m/year, and the mean values of the maximum local retreat of the cliff top varied between 5m and 17m, with two exceptional cliff failures that caused a net retreat of the cliff top of 70m and 25m. For the assessment of the susceptibility of cliff failures

  19. Connotations of architectural culture transmitted in cliff carvings in the Bashu region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cong-hua; ZHANG Xing-guo; LIU Zhi-yong


    Based on site studies,historical literature investigation and academic communication,this work aims to dig out the cultural significance in architectural and religious aspects conveyed in cliff carvings in the Bashu region.After casting a glance at the origin and evolution of Bashu culture and religion mainly involving Daoism and Buddhism recorded in forms of cliff carvings,we concentrated on discovering the national,regional and folk architectural characters implicated in cliff carvings at different sites within the Bashu region.The cliff carvings in this region vividly depicted the evolution of the architectural culture hereof.The essence of their religious and architectural connotations can be good stuff to be input in today's architectural design philosophy.

  20. Cliff Richard hakkab veini tootma. Marilyn Manson avab isikliku kunstinäituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Cliff Richardi Portugali viinamarjaistandusest pärinevast veinist "Vida Nova". 20. septembril avab oma albumit "The Golden Age Of Grotesque" lõpetav laulja Marilyn Manson oma esimese kunstinäituse Los Angeleses Hollywoodis

  1. Cliff Richard hakkab veini tootma. Marilyn Manson avab isikliku kunstinäituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Cliff Richardi Portugali viinamarjaistandusest pärinevast veinist "Vida Nova". 20. septembril avab oma albumit "The Golden Age Of Grotesque" lõpetav laulja Marilyn Manson oma esimese kunstinäituse Los Angeleses Hollywoodis

  2. Development of Waterfall Cliff Face: An Implication from Multitemporal High-definition Topographic Data (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y. S.; Obanawa, H.


    Bedrock knickpoints (waterfalls) often act as erosional front in bedrock rivers, whose geomorphological processes are various. In waterfalls with vertical cliffs, both fluvial erosion and mass movement are feasible to form the landscape. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatiotemporal distribution have been limited due to poor accessibility to such cliffs. For the clarification of geomorphological processes in such cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution can be advantaged by short-range remote sensing approaches. Here we carry out multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS) for accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a waterfall. The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff and groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock consists of alternate layers of jointed andesite lava and conglomerates. The latest major rockfall in 1986 caused approximately 8-m recession of the waterfall lip. Three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected by multi-temporal measurements by TLS over years, showing the portions of small rockfalls and surface lowering in the bedrock. Erosion was frequently observed in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls were often found in the andesite layers. Wider areas of the waterfall and cliff were also measured by UAS-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry, improving the mapping quality of the cliff morphology. Point clouds are also projected on a vertical plane to generate a digital elevation model (DEM), and cross-sectional profiles extracted from the DEM indicate the presence of a distinct, 5-10-m deep depression in the cliff face. This appears to have been formed by freeze-thaw and

  3. Modeling the cliff retreat response to base-level change in layered rocks, Colorado Plateau, USA (United States)

    Ward, D.; Sheehan, C.


    The retreat of cliffs is an important mode of erosion in layered rocks of variable strength. For example, the iconic Colorado Plateau landscapes of Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Monument Valley owe their unique forms to this process. These landscapes are the end result of incision by trunk streams followed by cliff retreat. Local interactions between stochastic rockfall and first-order channels draining a cliff regulate the cliff retreat response to a base-level fall. However, nonlinear transport dynamics, steep slopes, and variable rock strength challenge the modeling of landscape evolution in these settings. Here, we employ structure-from-motion photogrammetry to generate high-resolution DTMs of a natural experiment site on the Colorado Plateau. The site features a simple, sandstone-over-shale stratigraphy with a continuous gradient in cliffband height and evidence for an ongoing transient response to base level fall. The terrain data inform a high-resolution (dx=5 m), 2D numerical model of cliffband erosion. The model simulates the interaction of three primary processes: fluvial erosion and sediment transport; hillslope transport of regolith, including shallow landsliding; and rockfall from resistant units. Crucially, the model allows us to modify stratigraphy arbitrarily to examine the landscape response to parameters such as thickness, spacing, and dip of resistant units. Results indicate that the contrast in fluvial erodibility sets the pattern of emergence of cliffs as a resistant layer is exhumed, while the difference in weathering rates across rock types sets the rate at which cliffs emerge. Once rockfall begins, erosion rates are modified by the thickness of the resistant layer, which sets the volume of rockfall debris reaching the channels below the cliff. The modeling highlights the need for process-based understanding of the conditions for cliff failure by rockfall and redistribution of the debris in very steep, rapidly-eroding landscapes.

  4. Cliff or Step? Posture-Specific Learning at the Edge of a Drop-Off


    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.


    Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to distinguish a step from a cliff transfers from crawling to walking. Experienced 12-month-old crawlers (n=16) refused to crawl over risky drop-offs but ...

  5. The unsteady nature of sea cliff retreat due to mechanical abrasion, failure and comminution feedbacks (United States)

    Kline, Shaun W.; Adams, Peter N.; Limber, Patrick W.


    Sea cliff retreat is often linked to large waves, heavy precipitation and seismic events, but the specific operative mechanics have not been well constrained. In particular, what is the role of mechanical abrasion by beach sediments in cliff/platform evolution and how does it relate to the episodic nature of cliff retreat observed at certain locations? Here we present a simple, numerical model of sea cliff retreat that incorporates mechanical abrasion of a basal notch, threshold-controlled failure of the cantilevered block, and a feedback mechanism wherein retreat is dependent on the rate of sediment comminution within the surf zone. Using shore platform and cliff characteristics found in two coastal settings (the central California coast and the English North Sea coast), the model produces retreat rates comparable to those observed via field measurements. The highest retreat rates coincide with the steepest shore platforms and increasing wave height. Steeper platforms promote wave access to the cliff toe and, correspondingly, the receding cliff face produces additional accommodation space for the platform beach, preserving the erosive efficacy of the beach sediments. When exposed to energetic wave forcing, the slope of the inner platform segment controls retreat rates for concave platforms, whereas the slope of the outer platform segment exerts greater control for convex platforms. Platform beaches approached a long-term dynamic equilibrium on the concave profiles, leading to more consistent and steady retreat. Platform beaches were ephemeral on convex profiles, mirroring observed sand wave (Ord) migration on the Holderness coast, UK. These findings agree with previous field observations and support mechanical abrasion as a viable cause of temporal heterogeneity in cliff retreat rate for both coastlines.

  6. Sea-cliff erosion at Pacifica, California caused by 1997/98 El Nino storms (United States)

    Snell, Charles B.; Lajoie, K.R.; Medley, Edward W.


    Twelve homes were constructed in 1949 at the top of a sea cliff along Esplanade Drive in the City of Pacifica, located on the northern coast of San Mateo County, California. During the heavy storms of the 1997/98 El Nino winter, a severe episode of cliff retreat undermined seven homes and threatened three others. The geologic, tide, wave, rainfall and wind data were analyzed to determine the causes of this erosion events.

  7. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points


    T. J. B. Dewez


    International audience; Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much ...

  8. Nature of short-period microtremors on the cliff-like ground. Part 4; Gakechi kinbo no tanshuki bido. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T.; Yoshiike, T. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    Microtremors were measured on the cliff-like ground with a height about 10 m, to examine the vibration characteristics. Test field-1 near Akabane, Kita-ku, Tokyo is located in a part of Musashino plateau covered with Kanto loam on its surface, and has relatively sound ground. Test field-2 at Machida is located in the western part of Tama hills, and also has Kanto loam on its surface. For the cliff-like ground with inclined angle 70{degree} at Akabane, remarkably predominant frequency 3.2 Hz was observed for the microtremors in the direction perpendicular to the cliff surface. However, this predominant vibration did not become larger due to the damping effects of the reinforcement walls near the end of cliff and the large trees on the cliff. Influence of the cliff-like ground was scarcely observed in the microtremors spectrum in both the directions parallel and vertical to the cliff-surface. From the observation of microtremors with short period on the cliff-like ground with inclined angle around 32{degree} at Machida, influence of cliff-like ground was not observed in the microtremors spectrum in all of the vibrating directions perpendicular, parallel and vertical to the cliff surface. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  9. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights. (United States)

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird.

  10. Subaerial Chalk Cliff Failures on the English Channel Coast, Based on Field Data From Recent Collapses (United States)



    The chalk cliffs along the English Channel coast are currently retreating at a mean rate of 0.5 m/year. However, the erosion is not constant over time, but occurs by catastrophic collapses. For the last three years, a minimum of 40 collapses have been observed along the French chalk coastline (120 km long) and about 10 collapses along the English chalk coastline (40 km long). The observed collapsed volumes are varying from 150 000 m3 (Beachy Head, UK) to a few m3, whereas the cliff heights are varying from 20 to 200m. Two kinds of scar extension have been observed on the cliff face: either the lower part only with few volumes involved, either the whole cliff height for the largest events. Two main cases of scar shape have been evidenced: (1) scar with a vertical upper part and a curved lower part with large striations and crushed chalk (Puys, France). The rupture process is an overall sliding process, with tearing of the upper part of the cliff and shearing in its lower part. The failure is mainly controlled by rain-fall and occurred by water pressure increase on impervious marl seams of the chalk (Duperret et al., in press, JCR). (2) scar with a regular and rectilinear profile, without any striation (Birling Gap, UK). The rupture propagates along pre-existing joint sets, parallel oriented to the cliff face. Locally, pre-existing large-scale transverse fractures may bound the lateral propagation of the scar. Where the scars extend all over the cliff height, the failure is mainly controlled by continental water infiltration. However the role of water through fractured chalk may differ according to the fracture pattern. Where the scars are restrained to the lower part of the cliff, the upward extension of the scars are bounded by lithological features of the chalk, as horizontal flint bands or stratification. In this case, the role of marine parameters, as wave impact at the toe of the cliff may be invoked as a significant triggering parameter contributing to failure

  11. Automatic Delineation of Sea-Cliff Limits Using Lidar-Derived High-Resolution DEMs in Southern California (United States)

    Palaseanu, M.; Danielson, J.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Barnard, P.; Thatcher, C.; Brock, J. C.


    Seacliff erosion is a serious hazard with implications for coastal management, and is often estimated using successive hand digitized cliff tops or bases (toe) to assess cliff retreat. Traditionally the recession of the cliff top or cliff base is obtained from aerial photographs, topographic maps, or in situ surveys. Irrespective of how or what is measured to categorize cliff erosion, the position of the cliff top and cliff base is important. Habitually, the cliff top and base are hand digitized even when using high resolution lidar derived DEMs. Even if efforts were made to standardize and eliminate as much as possible any digitizing subjectivity, the delineation of cliffs is time consuming, and depends on the analyst's interpretation. We propose an automatic procedure to delineate the cliff top and base from high resolution bare-earth DEMs. The method is based on bare-earth high-resolution DEMs, generalized coastal shorelines and approximate measurements of distance between the shoreline and the cliff top. The method generates orthogonal transects and profiles with a minimum spacing equal to the DEM resolution and extracts for each profile xyz coordinates for cliff's top and toe, as well as second major positive and negative inflections (second top and toe) along the profile. The difference between the automated and digitized top and toe, respectively, is smaller than the DEM error margin for over 82% of the top points and 86% of the toe points along a stretch of coast in Del Mar, CA. The larger errors were due either to the failure to remove all vegetation from the bare-earth DEM or errors of interpretation during hand digitizing. The automatic method was further applied between Point Conception and Los Angeles Harbor, CA. This automatic method is repeatable, takes advantage of the bare-earth high-resolution, and is more efficient.

  12. Recreation impacts to cliff resources in the Potomac Gorge: Final report, June 2011 (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Carr, C.; Davis, C.A.


    Managers of the National Park Service (NPS) are directed by law to accommodate appropriate types and amounts of visitation while ensuring that: any adverse impacts are the minimum necessary, unavoidable, cannot be further mitigated, and do not constitute impairment or derogation of park resources and values. (NPS 2006). The increasing popularity of the national park system presents substantial management challenges. High visitatation may cause unacceptable impacts to fragile natural and cultural resources, and may also cause crowding and other social impacts, which can also degrade the quality of visitor experiences. Responding to these concerns, NPS managers at Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH) and George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP) sponsored this research within the upper Potomac Gorge portions of these parks to investigate visitation-related impacts to the park?s cliff resources. The cliffs and rocky areas within the Great Falls and Mather Gorge areas provide important habitats for numerous sensitive rare plants and plant communities. A recent General Management Planning process for Great Falls Park (GFP), a portion of GWMP, highlighted the potential impacts of cliff-associated recreational activities, including hiking, climbing, and fishing, on sensitive cliff resources. The planning process identified the need for development of a Climbing Management Plan and a Trail Plan to more specifically address site and visitor management actions needed to protect rare and sensitive natural and cultural resources. Good science to assess cliff-associated rare plants and communities and to determine the existing and potential effects of cliff-related recreational activities is required for these new planning efforts. This research is designed to specifically address these informational needs and to assist park managers on both sides of the river with current and future cliff and recreation management decisions.

  13. A floral survey of cliff habitats along Bull Run at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, 2014 (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.


    Isolated patches of native vegetation in human-modified landscapes are important reservoirs of biological diversity because they may be the only places in which rare or native species can persist. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, is an island embedded in a matrix of intensively modified lands; it is becoming increasingly isolated due to growth of the greater Washington, D.C. area. A series of cliffs along Bull Run support an eastern white pine community disjunct from its more typical range in the Appalachian Mountains. Cliffs frequently support vegetation communities that differ from surrounding habitat. In this ecological context, the cliffs along Bull Run are islands of specialized habitat within an island of natural and semi-natural communities (the park), surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. A floral survey of these cliffs was a top priority identified by the National Park Service National Capital Region via the National Resource Preservation Program; in 2014, we completed a floral survey of 11 cliffs in the park. We recorded 282 species in 194 genera and 83 families, including 23 newly documented species for the park.

  14. Os meios justificam os fins: gestão baseada em valores – da ética individual à ética empresarial. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Silva Pereira


    Full Text Available Escrever sobre ética exige, além de muito conhecimento, coragem. Aliar teoria e prática neste campo conturbado torna-se um desafio. A formação e o perfil profissional do psicólogo Ricardo Vargas, autor de Os meios justificam os fins: gestão baseada em valores – da ética individual à ética empresarial, consultor organizacional, pesquisador e conferencista, fazem com que ele tenha uma visão de gestão que integra conhecimentos multidisciplinares na utilização de metodologias inovadoras, para responder aos desafios da Administração. Para dar conta dessa temática, o autor aborda questões sobre valores individuais e universais, que tangenciam moral e cultura, com implicações também na legislação.

  15. Contabilidade Gerencial: novas práticas contábeis para a gestão de negócios São Paulo: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005, de Hong Yuh Ching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Hong Yuh Ching, professor e autor de diversos livros sobre contabilidade e finanças para não-especialistas, aborda a evolução dos sistemas tradicionais de custo para o custeio por atividades (ABC, fazendo correlação com os novos métodos de formação dos preços e orientada aos  clientes ao longo do ciclo de vida dos produtos. Nesta obra, também é proposto um modelo genérico de gestão de negócio para efetiva geração e manutenção de valor, com base na otimização de processo, nas perspectivas de curto, médio e longo prazos.

  16. Analysis of Cliff-Ramp Structures in Homogeneous Scalar Turbulence by the Method of Line Segments (United States)

    Gauding, Michael; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Peters, Norbert; Hasse, Christian


    The local structure of a turbulent scalar field in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS). A novel signal decomposition approach is introduced where the signal of the scalar along a straight line is partitioned into segments based on the local extremal points of the scalar field. These segments are then parameterized by the distance between adjacent extremal points and a segment-based gradient. Joint statistics of the length and the segment-based gradient provide novel understanding about the local structure of the turbulent field and particularly about cliff-ramp-like structures. Ramp-like structures are unveiled by the asymmetry of joint distribution functions. Cliff-like structures are further analyzed by conditional statistics and it is shown from DNS that the width of cliffs scales with the Kolmogorov length scale.

  17. Sea cliff instability susceptibility at regional scale: a statistically based assessment in southern Algarve, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. F. Marques


    along their top. The study was based on the application of the bivariate Information Value and multivariate Logistic regression statistical methods, using a set of predisposing factors for cliff failures, mainly related with geology (lithology, bedding dip, faults and geomorphology (maximum and mean slope, height, aspect, plan curvature, toe protection which were correlated with a photogrammetry based inventory of cliff failures occurred in a 60 yr period (1947–2007. The susceptibility models were validated against the inventory data using standard success rate and ROC curves, and provided encouraging results, indicating that the proposed approaches are effective for susceptibility assessment. The results obtained also stress the need for improvement of the predisposing factors to be used in this type of studies and the need of detailed and systematic cliff failures inventories.

  18. Determining Variation in Flight Speed and Pattern of Cliff Swallow Using Video Frame Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Santosh,


    Full Text Available Ability to fly faster varies from one species of birds to the other. Take off from their nest, settling on the nest or migratory speed of flight is different from one bird to the other, so is also to Cliff Swallows. Many workers have tried different ways to analyze the flight speed of birds using principles of mechanics and physics. Here we have analyzed take off and settling in speeds of Indian Cliff Swallows by applying Video frame analysis technique with fixed focal length.

  19. Soft-Cliff Retreat, Self-Organized Critical Phenomena in the Limit of Predictability? (United States)

    Paredes, Carlos; Godoy, Clara; Castedo, Ricardo


    The coastal erosion along the world's coastlines is a natural process that occurs through the actions of marine and subaerial physico-chemical phenomena, waves, tides, and currents. The development of cliff erosion predictive models is limited due to the complex interactions between environmental processes and material properties over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. As a result of this erosive action, gravity driven mass movements occur and the coastline moves inland. Like other studied earth natural and synthetically modelled phenomena characterized as self-organized critical (SOC), the recession of the cliff has a seemingly random, sporadic behavior, with a wide range of yearly recession rate values probabilistically distributed by a power-law. Usually, SOC systems are defined by a number of scaling features in the size distribution of its parameters and on its spatial and/or temporal pattern. Particularly, some previous studies of derived parameters from slope movements catalogues, have allowed detecting certain SOC features in this phenomenon, which also shares the recession of cliffs. Due to the complexity of the phenomenon and, as for other natural processes, there is no definitive model of recession of coastal cliffs. In this work, various analysis techniques have been applied to identify SOC features in the distribution and pattern to a particular case: the Holderness shoreline. This coast is a great case study to use when examining coastal processes and the structures associated with them. It is one of World's fastest eroding coastlines (2 m/yr in average, max observed 22 m/yr). Cliffs, ranging from 2 m up to 35 m in height, and made up of glacial tills, mainly compose this coast. It is this soft boulder clay that is being rapidly eroded and where coastline recession measurements have been recorded by the Cliff Erosion Monitoring Program (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, UK). The original database has been filtered by grouping contiguous

  20. Erosion of Fluted Cliffs on the Na Pali Coast, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Mohr, S.; Blay, C.


    Precipitous sea cliffs on the northwest side of Kauai, sculpted into deep bedrock gullies and sharp divides, are known as "Na Pali", Hawaiian for "the cliffs", and are commonly referred to as fluted cliffs. Rising 500 m above the coast, they constitute some of the most dramatic scenery on planet Earth and are a world famous tourist attraction. After the discovery of flank collapses on some Hawaiian volcanoes the great Na Pali escarpment was hypothesized to have been generated by a megalandslide, but bathymetric data show the shallow submarine shelf off the Na Pali coast bears no landslide deposits. It is likely that wave erosion at the base of the local thin-bedded lavas, particularly in winter, is responsible for the escarpment. Superimposed on the escarpment are the deep gullies, or grooves, and divides, which constitute drainage networks that happen to be developed on very steep slopes. Networks are poorly developed on relatively young parts of the escarpment and well developed on older parts, which feature coalescing tributaries and very deep gullies. In most cases gullies shallow going upslope, and many fade out completely just below drainage divides, just like in drainage networks developed on more gently sloping landscapes. The drainage networks show that the basalts along this coast are relatively easily eroded by runoff. Rocks easily eroded by runoff generally do not stand in 500-m-high cliffs because they are not mechanically strong enough to resist failure and mass movement. The key to development of high fluted cliffs is a mix of mechanical strength and erodibiity, a combination whose rarity explains why analogs to the Na Pali cliffs are not found outside the Hawaiian Islands. The combination here is provided by basalt which is strong where unweathered but rotten and in some case completely decomposed close to the surface, courtesy of the Hawaiian climate. Weathering must proceed downward at about the same rate as removal of mass by runoff erosion

  1. Discovery of the Ordovician Kinnekulle K-bentonite at the Põõsaspea cliff, NW Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda


    Full Text Available A previously unknown outcrop of the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (metabentonite is reported from the Põõsaspea cliff, NW Estonia. The bed has a sharp lower and a gradational upper contact and comprises ca 28 cm of clay overlain by ca 10 cm of hard K-feldspar-rich variety. The latter contains a layer of breccia, which indicates early onset of recrystallization and hardening of volcanic material. The discovery shows that the Põõsaspea cliff section is younger than previously thought and includes rocks of both Haljala and Keila stages.

  2. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures. (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia


    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  3. Wave-flume experiments of soft-rock cliff erosion under monochromatic waves (United States)

    Regard, Vincent; Astruc, Dominique; Caplain, Bastien


    We investigate how cliffs erode under wave attack. Rocky coast erosion works through cycles, each one corresponding to three successive phases: (i) notch creation at cliff toe by mechanical action of waves, (ii) cliff fracturation leading to collapse, and (iii) evacuation of scree aprons by waves and currents. We performed experiments in a 5m x 14cm x 25cm wave flume (15 cm water depth) to investigate how waves are eroding a rocky coast. The cliff is made of wet sand and models a relatively soft rock. We used 3 different grain size (D50 = 0.28-0.41-0.48 mm), changing the cliff rheology. Waves are monochromatic; their height and period differ for the various experiments. Actual wave parameters are estimated by capacitive probes located offshore. The experiments are monitored by two video cameras both on the side and above the flume. Pictures are taken at a rate of 1Hz during the first 4h and then the rate is decreased to 0.1Hz till the end of experiment (about 1 day). The monitoring ensure a confident characterization of experiments in terms of waves (surf similarity parameter ξ and the incident wave energy flux F) and in terms of sediment (Dean number Ω and Shields number θb at breakers). Experiments begin by an initial phase of quick cliff retreat. Then the system evolves with slower cliff retreat. We focus on bottom morphology which we characterize in function of wave forcing (ξ, F). We show that the bottom morphology mainly depends on ξ. For our reference sediment (Dm = 0.41 mm), we observed: (i) surging breakers on a steep terrace (type T1) for ξ > 0.65; (ii)collapsing breakers on a bared profile attached to the inner platform (type T2) for 0.55< ξ <0.6; (iii) spilling breakers on gentle terrace (type T3) for F < 1.3 W/m and 0.55< ξ <0.6. Another bottom morphology, type T4, displays two sub-systems, an outer system with a double-bar profile where breaking waves are plunging, and an inner system with a T1, T2 or T3 profile. Some of these bottom

  4. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  5. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific) (United States)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo


    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  6. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  7. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and...

  8. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Supraglacial cliffs are a surface feature typical of debris-covered glaciers, affecting surface evolution, glacier downwasting and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface. As a result, melt rates can be very high and ice cliffs may account for a significant portion of the total glacier mass loss. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has rarely been quantified through physically-based models. Most cliff energy balance models are point scale models which calculate energy fluxes at individual cliff locations. Results from the only grid based model to date accurately reflect energy fluxes and cliff melt, but modelled backwasting patterns are in some cases unrealistic, as the distribution of melt rates would lead to progressive shallowing and disappearance of cliffs. Based on a unique multitemporal dataset of cliff topography and backwasting obtained from high-resolution terrestrial and aerial Structure-from-Motion analysis on Lirung Glacier in Nepal, it is apparent that cliffs exhibit a range of behaviours but most do not rapidly disappear. The patterns of evolution cannot be explained satisfactorily by atmospheric melt alone, and are moderated by the presence of supraglacial ponds at the base of cliffs and by cliff reburial with debris. Here, we document the distinct patterns of evolution including disappearance, growth and stability. We then use these observations to improve the grid-based energy balance model, implementing periodic updates of the cliff geometry resulting from modelled melt perpendicular to the ice surface. Based on a slope threshold, pixels can be reburied by debris or become debris-free. The effect of ponds are taken into account through enhanced melt rates in horizontal direction on pixels selected based on an algorithm considering distance to the water surface, slope and lake level. We use the dynamic model to first study the evolution of selected cliffs for which accurate, high resolution DEMs are available

  9. Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture: giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, Steven D.; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    . However, this depositional environment ought to be relatively dynamic with sand body migration and erosions. In addition, along the coastal cliffs, the exposures are mainly on the same strike direction. To better understand the peculiar shore zone system, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary...

  10. Coastal archaeological heritage in relation to geomorphology of cliffs, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    are affected by marine erosion, being acute in areas influenced by direct wave attack. Crumbling cliffs, observed at several places, are evidences of marine erosion. Some forts are presently found at vulnerable edges of precipices, a few being in the process...

  11. Responses to a Modified Visual Cliff by Pre-Walking Infants Born Preterm and at Term (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Shan; Reilly, Marie; Mercer, Vicki S.


    The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their caregivers on a modified visual…

  12. Quantifying ice cliff contribution to debris-covered glacier mass balance from multiple sensors (United States)

    Brun, Fanny; Wagnon, Patrick; Berthier, Etienne; Kraaijenbrink, Philip; Immerzeel, Walter; Shea, Joseph; Vincent, Christian


    Ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers have been recognized as a hot spot for glacier melt. Ice cliffs are steep (even sometimes overhanging) and fast evolving surface features, which make them challenging to monitor. We surveyed the topography of Changri Nup Glacier (Nepalese Himalayas, Everest region) in November 2015 and 2016 using multiple sensors: terrestrial photogrammetry, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry, Pléiades stereo images and ASTER stereo images. We derived 3D point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) following a Structure-from-Motion (SfM) workflow for the first two sets of data to monitor surface elevation changes and calculate the associated volume loss. We derived only DEMs for the two last data sets. The derived DEMs had resolutions ranging from glacier to quantify the contribution of ice cliff melt to the overall glacier mass balance, calculated with the UAV and Pléiades DEMs. This research will provide important tools to evaluate the role of ice cliffs in regional mass loss.

  13. Cliff or Step? Posture-Specific Learning at the Edge of a Drop-Off (United States)

    Kretch, Kari S.; Adolph, Karen E.


    Infants require locomotor experience to behave adaptively at a drop-off. However, different experimental paradigms (visual cliff and actual gaps and slopes) have generated conflicting findings regarding what infants learn and the specificity of their learning. An actual, adjustable drop-off apparatus was used to investigate whether learning to…

  14. An experimental study of the effect of different onshore cliff angles on near shore hydrodynamics (United States)

    Sim, S.; Xu, C.; Huang, Z.


    As a tsunami propagates towards the shore, they will shoal and then break. This will lead to an up rush of water. In scenarios where there are no distinct obstacles that affect the near shore coastal topography, this inundation process will not be halted and the water will travel to its farthest extent without any hindrance. As the water recedes, the return flow will be that of a shallow sheet flow. However, these expected hydrodynamic observations may not be recorded if there are significant alterations to the near shore topographical settings. In this study we investigated the effect of an onshore cliff on near shore hydrodynamics. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted in a wave flume to examine how different onshore cliff angles can affect the near shore hydrodynamics. Key parameters recorded were the run-up and inundation values. The recorded measurements showed that when the cliff angle is very steep, the flow depth in front of the cliff will be amplified significantly. This is evidenced by video recordings of the side profile of the wave flume. The video recording also showed a return plunging breaker wave which entrained air; this could imply that the near shore morphology could also be affected as sediment near shore can be entrained by this turbulence generated and then carried further offshore.

  15. The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts. (United States)

    Bruckmüller, Susanne; Branscombe, Nyla R


    The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.

  16. Cliffs used as communal roosts by Andean condors protect the birds from weather and predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available The quality and availability of resources influence the geographical distribution of species. Social species need safe places to rest, meet, exchange information and obtain thermoregulatory benefits, but those places may also serve other important functions that have been overlooked in research. We use a large soaring bird that roosts communally in cliffs, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus, as a model species to elucidate whether roost locations serve as a refuge from adverse weather conditions (climatic refuge hypothesis, CRH, and/or from predators or anthropogenic disturbances (threats refuge hypothesis, TRH. The CRH predicts that communal roosts will face in the opposite direction from where storms originate, and will be located in climatically stable, low precipitation areas. The TRH predicts that communal roosts will be large, poorly accessible cliffs, located far from human-made constructions. We surveyed cliffs used as communal roosts by condors in northwestern Patagonia, and compared them with alternative non-roosting cliffs to test these predictions at local and regional scales. We conclude that communal roosting places provide refuge against climate and disturbances such as, for instance, the threats of predators (including humans. Thus, it is not only the benefits gained from being aggregated per se, but the characteristics of the place selected for roosting that may both be essential for the survival of the species. This should be considered in management and conservation plans given the current scenario of global climate change and the increase in environmental disturbances.

  17. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, J.S.


    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. The Cliff:A Deconstructive Analysis of The Catcher in the Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Just as the cliff serves as a demarcation between two different worlds,there seems to the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye the dichotomies between innocence and corruption,children and adults.While these dualisms are projected in the story,they are also deconstructed and the characterization of Holden clearly shows the instability of those dualisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. B. Dewez


    Full Text Available Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry, it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France. Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm. Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face’s geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to “high” or “medium”, though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet

  20. Cliff Collapse Hazard from Repeated Multicopter Uav Acquisitions: Return on Experience (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Leroux, J.; Morelli, S.


    Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry), it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France). Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm). Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face's geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to "high" or "medium", though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient) and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet, from a hazard point of

  1. Sea-cliff erosion at Pacifica, California caused by 1997/98 El Niño storms (United States)

    Snell, Charles B.; Lajoie, Kenneth R.; Medley, Edward W.


    Twelve homes were constructed in 1949 at the top of a sea cliff along Esplanade Drive in the City of Pacifica, located on the northern coast of San Mateo County, California. The rear yards of those properties were bounded by an approximately 20-meter (70-foot) high cliff that has retreated episodically at an average rate of 0.5 to 0.6 meter (1.5 to 2 feet) per year over the past 146 years. During the heavy storms of the 1997/1998 El Niño winter, a severe episode of cliff retreat undermined seven homes and threatened three others. All ten homes were condemned and demolished by the City of Pacifica. In this study we analyze geologic, tide, wave, rainfall and wind data in an attempt to determine the causes of this most recent erosion event. We identify the following possible contributory causes of the cliff retreat: 1) wave-induced undercutting of the cliff landward of an old revetment, 2) reduction in beach width over time, 3) reduction in cliff-face stability owing to infiltration from heavy rains, 4) erosion of the cliff face by groundwater piping, and 5) wind-induced erosion of loose dune sand at the top of the cliff. While these factors may explain the retreat of the cliff below the twelve homes along Esplanade Drive, the question remains as to why other geologically similar sites in the region were not severely eroded during the 1997/1998 El Niño winter.

  2. Can the Size Distributions of Talus Particles be Predicted from Fracture Spacing Distributions on Adjacent Bedrock Cliffs? (United States)

    Verdian, J. P.; Sklar, L. S.; Moore, J. R.; Rosenberg, D. J.


    What controls the size of sediments produced on hillslopes and supplied to river channels? This is an important but unanswered question in geomorphology and sedimentology. One hypothesis is that the initial size distribution of rock fragments eroded from bedrock is related to the distribution of spacing between pre-existing fractures in the bedrock. Slopes of talus that accumulate below eroding cliffs provide a simple natural experiment to test this hypothesis. We studied talus slopes and cliff faces at more than 20 locations in California, USA, where cliff retreat rates were previously measured by Moore et al., 2009. Rock types included andesite, basalt, granodiorite and meta-sediment. To quantify fracture spacing we measured fracture frequency and orientation along scan lines at the base of the cliff. We also used scaled photographs of the cliff face to characterize the shape, size and surface area of discrete blocks. We measured talus particle size distributions using surface point counts along transects oriented downslope from the cliff face, and mapped facies of distinct size distributions. To explore the effect of chemical weathering on talus size we sampled cliff faces and talus particles for x-ray fluorescence analysis to test for depletion of labile cations relative to source rock. Preliminary results suggest that talus size distributions are strongly correlated with bedrock fracture spacing, although systematic differences do occur. In some cases, talus sizes are larger than the spacing between fractures because the detached particles still retain truncated fractures. In other cases, talus is smaller than cliff fracture spacing, presumably because particle size is reduced by fragmentation on impact and weathering during transport down the talus slope. Further analysis will explore whether cliff retreat rate and extent of chemical weathering, as well as rock type and local climate, can explain between-site differences in the size of particles produced.

  3. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki


    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  4. Inshore analyse of the morphostructural evolution of the coastal cliffs of Bessin, Basse-Normandie, France (United States)

    Vioget, Alizée; Costa, Stéphane; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Maquaire, Olivier; Michoud, Clément


    The cliffs' retreat is a major issue for the management of coastal territories. Two coastal areas in "Calvados" and "Pays de Caux", French Normandy, are studied by the University of Caen for several years, and more recently assisted by the University of Lausanne. The studied section of the cliffs of Bessin is about 4.3 km long and lies between the World War II artillery batteries of Longues-sur-Mer and Arromanches-les-Bains. The site's lithology is mainly made of two formations: the limestones of Bessin that lie on top of the marls of Port. On the coastline, the cliff's height varies between 10 and 75 meters above sea level. The marl formation acts like an aquitard, as it is semi-impermeable. Therefore, more or less important water outflows are observable at the point of contact between the marls and the limestones. First, the study aims to create an up to date geomorphological map as well as a kinematic classification of the existing instabilities of the different cliff's profiles. This part is realized with on site field measurements. We observe several profiles depending on the type of cliff studied: sinking of limestone panels due to creeping marls at the base, overhang limestone formation, wave-cut notch, detachment, tilt, rotational slide, superficial separation etc. These several behaviours depend on the cliff's exposure to the Channel sea and weathering factors, morphology, presence of pebble beach etc. The coastline section is thus classified depending on the different morphological types observed, which influence the stability and erosion rates. Principal morphological types here are: overhang limestone formation near Cape Manvieux, creeping marls near le Chaos and graben near le Bouffay. Then, the cliffs' condition is compared to the diachronic analyse of the shoreline evolution supported by different photographic documents. This part of the study allows to refine the spatiotemporal occurrence of the different ground movements. However, cliffs

  5. Comparative simulations of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami with MOST and Cliffs

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena


    Wet-dry interface which appreciably increases accuracy of tsunami simulations with the MOST model (Method of Splitting Tsunamis, adapted by the NOAA for tsunami forecasting operations) is highlighted here with a few comparative simulations. The new solution, termed Cliffs, exceeds all MOST versions in accuracy of computing later waves. This is demonstrated with simulation of the Tohoku-2011 tsunami to Monterey Bay, CA, and into fiords, bays, and inlets of southeastern Alaska, followed by comparison with tide gage records.

  6. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Trejo, Bonnie S.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Crayon, John J.


    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  7. Observations of historical sea cliff retreat rates exceed long-term estimates derived from cosmogenic 10Be (United States)

    Hurst, Martin D.; Rood, Dylan H.; Ellis, Michael A.; Anderson, Robert S.


    Historical observation of coastal retreat are limited to relatively short timescales (change may be accelerated in the face of anticipated stormier climates and rising sea level, yet there is little knowledge of rates of coastal change prior to the relatively brief historical records. In order to make predictions about potential future coastal change it is important to establish baseline conditions averaged over longer time periods. Here we present analysis of sea cliff retreat throughout the Holocene averaged for chalk cliffs in south-east England using cosmogenic isotopes. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in-situ flint samples collected from three transects across coastal platforms in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate during the Holocene. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. We find that cliff retreat rates during the Holocene were significantly slower (2-6 cm yr-1) than those derived from recent historical observations (15-25 cm yr-1). Modelled accumulation of 10Be requires retreat rates that increase rapidly in recent times, potentially reflecting human modification of the coastal sediment budget through construction of sea defences, flood defenses and aggregate extraction. Therefore knowledge of past human activity at the coastline may be important in anticipating future rates of coastal retreat.

  8. The visual cliff's forgotten menagerie: rats, goats, babies, and myth-making in the history of psychology. (United States)

    Rodkey, Elissa N


    Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Climate change-driven cliff and beach evolution at decadal to centennial time scales (United States)

    Erikson, Li; O'Neill, Andrea; Barnard, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick


    Here we develop a computationally efficient method that evolves cross-shore profiles of sand beaches with or without cliffs along natural and urban coastal environments and across expansive geographic areas at decadal to centennial time-scales driven by 21st century climate change projections. The model requires projected sea level rise rates, extrema of nearshore wave conditions, bluff recession and shoreline change rates, and cross-shore profiles representing present-day conditions. The model is applied to the ~470-km long coast of the Southern California Bight, USA, using recently available projected nearshore waves and bluff recession and shoreline change rates. The results indicate that eroded cliff material, from unarmored cliffs, contribute 11% to 26% to the total sediment budget. Historical beach nourishment rates will need to increase by more than 30% for a 0.25 m sea level rise (~2044) and by at least 75% by the year 2100 for a 1 m sea level rise, if evolution of the shoreline is to keep pace with rising sea levels.

  10. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.


    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to implement, and if airborne, acquisition of several kilometers of coastline can be done in a matter of minutes. In this paper, the potential of GPS-tagged oblique airborne photographs and SFM techniques is examined to reconstruct chalk cliff dense 3D point clouds without Ground Control Points (GCP). The focus is put on comparing the relative 3D point of views reconstructed by Visual SFM with their synchronous Solmeta Geotagger Pro2 GPS locations using robust estimators. With a set of 568 oblique photos, shot from the open door of an airplane with a triplet of synchronized Nikon D7000, GPS and SFM-determined view point coordinates converge to X: ±31.5 m; Y: ±39.7 m; Z: ±13.0 m (LE66). Uncertainty in GPS position affects the model scale, angular attitude of the reference frame (the shoreline ends up tilted by 2°) and absolute positioning. Ground Control Points cannot be avoided to orient such models.

  11. Rockfall monitoring of a poorly consolidated marly sandstone cliff by TLS and IR thermography (United States)

    Lefeuvre, Caroline; Guérin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    The study area of La Cornalle (Vaud, Switzerland) is a 40 m high south-west facing cliff which is also part of a larger landslide (Bersier 1975 ; Parriaux, 1998). The cliff is formed by an alternation of marls and sandstones. The thicknesses of sandstone layers range from 0.5 to 4 meters. The rockfall activity of this cliff is high, with an average of one event per day. The aim of this study is to better understand the links between rockfall activity, cliff's structures, and weather and thermal conditions. The 3D surface evolution of the Cornalle cliff is monitored approximately every month since September 2012 using a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) data in order to get a monthly inventory of rockfall events. Since November 2013, a weather station located 150 meters away from the cliff collects data such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, rain and solar radiation every 15 minutes. Furthermore, we also fixed a thermic probe in the sandstone at 10 cm deep which measures temperature every 10 minutes. A detailed analysis has been performed during a short period (01/29/2016-04/08/2016) and pointed out a correlation between daily rainfall and rockfall. We found that a fall occurred the day or the day after a cumulative daily rainfall of at least 10 mm/day.In parallel to this monthly monitoring, the northwest part of La Cornalle cliff (the most active part) was monitored for 24 consecutive hours in July 2016 (from 12:30 to 12:30) using infrared thermography and crackmeters with a precision of 0.01mm. We collected a series of thermal pictures every 20 minutes, and measured the opening of a crack in sandstone layers every hour. We observed that marls are more affected by external changes of temperature than sandstones. Their surface temperature rises (resp. falls) more with an increase (resp. decrease) of external temperature than sandstones. Crackmeters measured an opening of the crack with an increase of the rock temperature and the opposite displacement

  12. Evaluation of the dynamics of change of shore cliff located in the vicinity of Pleśna village in the period 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Suchocki


    Full Text Available Climate changes on our planet contribute to the rise in the average level of the seas, oceans, and a greater number of storms. It causes an increasing process of the sea abrasion on the cliffs. The paper presents the research, which determines the rate of retreat of the cliff shore fragment located in the vicinity of Pleśna village. The cliff displacements, which are the effect of erosive factors, were analysed on the basis of observations made in the years 2006-2015. Terrestrial laser scanning technology was applied to periodic measurements of the cliff. In the studies, the methodology of cliff shores monitoring was used, which was the result of five-year research performed by the staff of the Department of Geodesy Technical University of Koszalin. Keywords: abrasion, cliff, terrestrial laser scanner

  13. Retracts, fixed point property and existence of periodic points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI; Jiehua(


    [1]Sarkovskii, A. N. , Coexistence of cycles of a continuous map of a line into itself, Ukrain. Mat. Z. , 1964, 16(1): 61-71.[2]Li, T. Y., Misiurewicz, M., Pianigiani, G. et al., No division implies chaos, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1982, 273(1):191-199.[3]Mai Jiehua, Multi-separation, centrifugality and centripetality imply chaos, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1999, 351 (1):343-351.[4]Block, L., Coppel, W., Dynamics in One Dimension, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.[5]Misiurewicz, M., Periodic points of maps of degree one of a circle, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys. , 1982, 2(2): 221-227.[6]Alseda, L., Llibre, J., Misiurewicz, M., Periodic orbits of maps of Y, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1989, 313(2): 475-538.[7]Baldwin, S. , An extension of Sarkovskii's theorem to the n-od, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys. , 1991, 11(2): 249-271.[8]Alseda, L. , Ye, X. D. , No division and the set of periods for tree maps, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys., 1995, 15(2): 221-237.[9]Leseduarte, M. C., Llibre, J., On the set of periods for σ maps, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1995, 347(12): 4899-4942.[10]Armstrong, M. A., Basic Topology, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983.[11]Dicks, W. , Llibre, J. , Orientation-preserving self-homeomorphisms of the surface of genus two have points of period at most two, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 124(5): 1583-1591.[12]Kolev, B., Peroueme, M. C., Recurrent surface homeonorphisms, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., 1998, 124(1): 161-168.[13]Franks, J., Generalizations of the Poincare-Birkhoff theorem, Ann. Math., 1988, 128(1): 139-151.[14]Hall, G. R. , Some problems on dynamics of annulus maps, Contemporary Mathematics, 1988, 81(1): 135-152.[15]Barge, M., Matison, T., A Poincare-Birkhoff theorem on invariant plane continua, Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys., 1998, 18(1): 41-52.[16]Munkres, J. Pt., Topology, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1975.

  14. Analytical and numerical study of the thermal feedback in Groundwater Heat Pumps (GWHP) (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea


    .J., Tsang C.F., 1980, Ground-water use for cooling: associated aquifer temperature changes, Ground Water 18, pp. 452-458 Luo J., Kitanidis P.K., 2004, Fluid residence times within a recirculation zone created by an extraction-injection well pair, Journal of Hydrology 295, pp. 149-162 Milnes E., Perrochet P., 2013, Assessing the impact of thermal feedback and recycling in open-loop groundwater heat pump (GWHP) systems: a complementary design tool, Hydrogeology Journal 21, pp. 505-514 Strack O.D.L., 1988, Groundwater Mechanics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (USA)

  15. Maximum-entropy clustering algorithm and its global convergence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zhihua


    [1]Bezdek, J. C., Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithm. New York: Plenum, 1981.[2]Krishnapuram, R., Keller, J., A possibilistic approach to clustering, IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, 1993, 1(2): 98.[3]Yair, E., Zeger, K., Gersho, A., Competitive learning and soft competition for vector quantizer design, IEEE Trans on Signal Processing, 1992, 40(2): 294.[4]Pal, N. R., Bezdek, J. C., Tsao, E. C. K., Generalized clustering networks and Kohonen's self-organizing scheme, IEEE Trans on Neural Networks, 1993, 4(4): 549.[5]Karayiannis, N. B., Bezdek, J. C., Pal, N. R. et al., Repair to GLVQ: a new family of competitive learning schemes, IEEE Trans on Neural Networks, 1996, 7(5): 1062.[6]Karayiannis, N. B., Pai, P. I., Fuzzy algorithms for learning vector quantization, IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 1996, 7(5): 1196.[7]Karayiannis, N. B., A methodology for constructing fuzzy algorithms for learning vector quantization, IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 1997, 8(3): 505.[8]Karayiannis, N. B., Bezdek, J. C., An integrated approach to fuzzy learning vector quantization and fuzzy C-Means clustering, IEEE Trans. on Fuzzy Systems, 1997, 5(4): 622.[9]Li Xing-si, An efficient approach to nonlinear minimax problems, Chinese Science Bulletin? 1992, 37(10): 802.[10]Li Xing-si, An efficient approach to a class of non-smooth optimization problems, Science in China, Series A,1994, 37(3): 323.[11]. Zangwill, W., Non-linear Programming: A Unified Approach, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1969.[12]. Fletcher, R., Practical Methods of Optimization,2nd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.[13]. Zhang Zhihua, Zheng Nanning, Wang Tianshu, Behavioral analysis and improving of generalized LVQ neural network, Acta Automatica Sinica, 1999, 25(5): 582.[14]. Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C. D., Vecchi, M. P., Optimization by simulated annealing, Science, 1983, 220(3): 671.[15]. Ross, K., Deterministic annealing for

  16. Cliff stability assessment using electrical resistivity tomography at the historic WWII D-Day invasion site, Pointe du Hoc, France (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; Udphuay, S.; Warden, R.


    The 1944 D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc, Normandy, France is an important WWII battlefield and cultural resource but is at risk from chalk cliff collapse. The American Battle Monuments Commission tasked us to evaluate the geohazard to the observation post and other cliff-side buildings of historical significance. Geophysical multi-electrode resistivity profiling is used to study cliff stability and the condition of the observation- post foundations. Preliminary 2-D geological interpretations are provided of individual profiles. The copious steel, concrete and void spaces at the site renders hydrogeological interpretation challenging but tractable. The cliff face appears to be relatively intact and well-drained. Several routes taken by groundwater into fractures within the chalk were identified mainly on the western side of the site. The eastern side is drier and somewhat sheltered from the Atlantic storms but may contain large void spaces that could efficiently transmit groundwater flow during heavy precipitation events, thereby imperiling the major antiaircraft gun emplacement occupied by Col. Rudder in the early days of the Allied invasion. The forward German observation post perched close to the sea stack, which now hosts the U.S. Ranger memorial, may be moving with the soil and not securely anchored to bedrock. A complex failure mechanism is identified as a combination of groundwater dissolution of the fractured chalk and sea wave attack at the cliff base.

  17. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther


    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  18. Brief communication"Estimating rockfall frequency in a mountain limestone cliff using terrestrial laser scanner"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guerin


    Full Text Available Using terrestrial laser scanner, 344 rockfalls larger than 0.05 m3 have been detected for a period of 1180 days, in a thinly bedded limestone cliff of width 750 m and height 200 m. The complementary cumulative distribution of the rockfall volume is well fitted by a power law, with an exponent b of 0.75 ± 0.04. In order to compare the rockfall frequencies in different geological contexts, a rockfall activity parameter has been defined, which is the number of rockfalls larger than 1 m3, which occur per century and per hm2.

  19. A numerical study of tsunami wave impact and run-up on coastal cliffs using a CIP-based model (United States)

    Zhao, Xizeng; Chen, Yong; Huang, Zhenhua; Hu, Zijun; Gao, Yangyang


    There is a general lack of understanding of tsunami wave interaction with complex geographies, especially the process of inundation. Numerical simulations are performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of gentle submarine slopes and coastal cliffs, using an in-house code, a constrained interpolation profile (CIP)-based model. The model employs a high-order finite difference method, the CIP method, as the flow solver; utilizes a VOF-type method, the tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/slope weighting (THINC/SW) scheme, to capture the free surface; and treats the solid boundary by an immersed boundary method. A series of incident waves are arranged to interact with varying coastal geographies. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained. The influences of gentle submarine slope, coastal cliff and incident wave height are discussed. It is found that the tsunami amplification factor varying with incident wave is affected by gradient of cliff slope, and the critical value is about 45°. The run-up on a toe-erosion cliff is smaller than that on a normal cliff. The run-up is also related to the length of a gentle submarine slope with a critical value of about 2.292 m in the present model for most cases. The impact pressure on the cliff is extremely large and concentrated, and the backflow effect is non-negligible. Results of our work are highly precise and helpful in inverting tsunami source and forecasting disaster.

  20. Processes and rate of retreat of the clay and sandstone sea cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) (United States)

    Pierre, Guillaume


    Retreat of the clay and sandstone cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) has been quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The low retreat rate of this coastal strip — 0.08 m/yr between 1939 and 2003 — is far less than that encountered on chalk and clay-chalk cliffs of either side of the Channel, and even less than a previous estimate of 0.17 m/yr regularly quoted in management studies. The retreat rate is closely related to shore platform morphology and dynamics. The shore platform presents 1) a steeply sloping ramp due to the accumulation of flat calcareous megaclasts that reduce marine erosion; 2) upstanding bare platform surfaces, related to tectonic deformation; and 3) thick platform-beaches trapped in troughs. In all three cases, the reflective behaviour of the nearshore protects the cliff foot from the incoming waves. Two critical eroding segments are the result of changes in the platform sedimentary budget. Around Cran Poulet, and between Plage de la Sirène and Pointe de la Courte Dune, the retreat rate is up to 0.25 and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. At Cran Poulet, recession has been facilitated by the extraction of pebble for more than half a century, whereas erosion of the beach at la Sirène is probably linked to severe erosion of the coastline in the adjacent Wissant Bay. Mass movements on the cliff face are essentially shallow-seated translational slides along with small debris falls and mudflows. The instability of the Argiles de Châtillon is greatly diminished by their sandy and silty texture and by the presence of interstratified solid shelly limestone beds that allow steep slopes to develop in rather weak material. The 'vertical erosion antecedent' is the erosional mode of the cliff, and its reduced efficiency explains the slow recession of the cliff. This study will help to determine the long term evolution of the Boulonnais coast.

  1. Molecular Phylogeny of the Cliff Ferns (Woodsiaceae: Polypodiales) with a Proposed Infrageneric Classification. (United States)

    Shao, Yizhen; Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xianchun; Xiang, Qiaoping


    The cliff fern family Woodsiaceae has experienced frequent taxonomic changes at the familial and generic ranks since its establishment. The bulk of its species were placed in Woodsia, while Cheilanthopsis, Hymenocystis, Physematium, and Protowoodsia are segregates recognized by some authors. Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Woodsiaceae remain unclear because of the extreme morphological diversity and inadequate taxon sampling in phylogenetic studies to date. In this study, we carry out comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Woodsiaceae using molecular evidence from four chloroplast DNA markers (atpA, matK, rbcL and trnL-F) and covering over half the currently recognized species. Our results show three main clades in Woodsiaceae corresponding to Physematium (clade I), Cheilanthopsis-Protowoodsia (clade II) and Woodsia s.s. (clade III). In the interest of preserving monophyly and taxonomic stability, a broadly defined Woodsia including the other segregates is proposed, which is characterized by the distinctive indument and inferior indusia. Therefore, we present a new subgeneric classification of the redefined Woodsia based on phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstructions to better reflect the morphological variation, geographic distribution pattern, and evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses of the cytological character evolution support multiple aneuploidy events that have resulted in the reduction of chromosome base number from 41 to 33, 37, 38, 39 and 40 during the evolutionary history of the cliff ferns.

  2. Molecular Phylogeny of the Cliff Ferns (Woodsiaceae: Polypodiales with a Proposed Infrageneric Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhen Shao

    Full Text Available The cliff fern family Woodsiaceae has experienced frequent taxonomic changes at the familial and generic ranks since its establishment. The bulk of its species were placed in Woodsia, while Cheilanthopsis, Hymenocystis, Physematium, and Protowoodsia are segregates recognized by some authors. Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Woodsiaceae remain unclear because of the extreme morphological diversity and inadequate taxon sampling in phylogenetic studies to date. In this study, we carry out comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Woodsiaceae using molecular evidence from four chloroplast DNA markers (atpA, matK, rbcL and trnL-F and covering over half the currently recognized species. Our results show three main clades in Woodsiaceae corresponding to Physematium (clade I, Cheilanthopsis-Protowoodsia (clade II and Woodsia s.s. (clade III. In the interest of preserving monophyly and taxonomic stability, a broadly defined Woodsia including the other segregates is proposed, which is characterized by the distinctive indument and inferior indusia. Therefore, we present a new subgeneric classification of the redefined Woodsia based on phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstructions to better reflect the morphological variation, geographic distribution pattern, and evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses of the cytological character evolution support multiple aneuploidy events that have resulted in the reduction of chromosome base number from 41 to 33, 37, 38, 39 and 40 during the evolutionary history of the cliff ferns.

  3. Selected coal-related ground-water data, Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area, Utah (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.


    The Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area in east-central Utah consists of about 8,000 square miles within the upper Colorado River drainage system. Coal production in the area is expected to increase from 8 million tons to as much as 30 million tons annually within the next 10 years. Most sources of water supply will be subjected to possible contamination and increased demands by coal-related municipal and industrial growth in the area. The report presents a compilation of coal-related ground-water data from many unpublished sources for the use of local and regional water planners and users. The report includes generalized stratigraphic sections and hydrologic characteristics of rocks in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area , records of selected test holes and water wells, logs of selected test holes and water wells, water levels in selected wells, records of selected springs, records of ground-water discharge from selected mines, and chemical analyses of water from selected test holes, water wells, springs, and mines. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela


    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  5. Rock climbing alters plant species composition, cover, and richness in Mediterranean limestone cliffs. (United States)

    Lorite, Juan; Serrano, Fabio; Lorenzo, Adrián; Cañadas, Eva M; Ballesteros, Miguel; Peñas, Julio


    Rock climbing is among the outdoor activities that have undergone the highest growth since the second half of the 20th century. As a result, cliff habitats, historically one of the least disturbed by human colonization worldwide, are facing more intense human pressure than ever before. However, there is little data on the impact of this activity in plant-communities, and such information is indispensable for adequate manager decision-making. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of rock climbing on plant communities in terms of cover, richness, and composition in relation to climbing intensity on typical Mediterranean limestone cliffs. Three rock-climbing sites were selected in the Baetic range (SE Spain), corresponding to qualitative categories of climbing frequentation: i)"low" (low frequentation with intermittent climbing), ii)"medium" (high frequentation without overcrowding), and iii) "high" (high frequentation with overcrowding). Within each site, we selected climbing routes and adjacent areas free of climbing, then we carried out a photoplot-based sampling by rappelling. We analysed the images to calculate: richness, species cover, and total cover. This study shows that rock climbing negatively affected the cliff plant community at all three study sites. A significant decrease in plant cover, species richness and a shift in the community composition were recorded for climbed areas, the cover being the variable most sensitive to rock climbing. Impact observed proved to be related to the frequentation level. Low-frequentation sites, with usually more specialized climbers, underwent relatively mild damages, whereas at high frequentation sites the impact was severe and the conservation of the species, especially rare ones, became jeopardized. Our study is the first one available to investigate climbing impact on plant communities in Mediterranean areas, but more research on the impact of rock climbing is needed to assess the regulation of this

  6. Analysis of sea cliff slope stability integrating traditional geomechanical surveys and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martino


    Full Text Available An integrated approach to the geomechanical characterization of coastal sea cliffs was demonstrated at Mt. Pucci (Gargano promontory, Southern Italy by performing direct traditional geomechanical and remote geostructural investigations via Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS. The consistency of the integrated techniques allowed us to achieve a comprehensive and affordable characterization of the main joint sets on the sea cliff slope. The observed joint sets were observed to evaluate the susceptibility of the slope to rock falls by attributing safety factors (SFs to the topple- and wedge-prone rock blocks under three triggering conditions: (a filling with static water, (b seismic action, and (c weathering of joint surfaces. The results of the susceptibility analysis for the topple-prone blocks show that the critical height of water filling of the joint is up to 50 cm and that the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.16–0.3 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. For the wedge blocks, the critical height of water filling of the joint is generally up to several centimeters, and the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.05–0.8 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. Moreover, the unstable conditions of the blocks due to weathering generally represent 60% of the joint degradation of the intact rock. The combined action of weathering and static water fill was also considered, resulting in a significant decrease of the SFs. Specifically, unstable conditions are associated with water levels lower than 47% of the water levels observed in intact joints, even if less than 60% of the weathering is attributed to the joints. Furthermore, remote survey analyses via Thermal InfraRed Camera and Terrestrial SAR Interferometry (TInSAR were performed to evaluate the role of the surveyed joint sets in inducing instabilities in the Mt. Pucci sea cliff. The results of

  7. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban. (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  8. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.


    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the implicat

  9. Reactions to the glass cliff - Gender differences in the explanations for the precariousness of women's leadership positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, M.K.; Haslam, S.A.; Postmes, T.


    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the phenomenon of the glass cliff, whereby women are more likely than men to be placed in precarious leadership positions. Men's and women's reactions to this subtle form of gender discrimination are examined, the identity processes involved, and the

  10. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata


    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  11. Influence in Times of Crisis : How Social and Financial Resources Affect Men's and Women's Evaluations of Glass-Cliff Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership

  12. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.


    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  13. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata

    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  14. Influence in Times of Crisis : How Social and Financial Resources Affect Men's and Women's Evaluations of Glass-Cliff Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K.; Stoker, Janka I.


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership positio

  15. Politics and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Contest Hard-to-Win Seats (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Kulich, Clara


    Recent archival and experimental research has revealed that women are more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions when an organization is in crisis. As a result, women often confront a "glass cliff" in which their position as leader is precarious. Our first archival study examined the 2005 UK general election and found…

  16. Politics and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Contest Hard-to-Win Seats (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Kulich, Clara


    Recent archival and experimental research has revealed that women are more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions when an organization is in crisis. As a result, women often confront a "glass cliff" in which their position as leader is precarious. Our first archival study examined the 2005 UK general election and found…

  17. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  18. Think Crisis-Think Female : The Glass Cliff and Contextual Variation in the Think Manager-Think Male Stereotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Hersby, Mette D.; Bongiorno, Renata


    The "think manager think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people

  19. The potential of low-cost RPAS for multi-view reconstruction of rock cliffs (United States)

    Ettore Guccione, Davide; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco


    RPAS, also known as drones or UAVs, have been used in military applications for many years. Nevertheless, the technology has become accessible to everyone only in recent years (Westoby et al., 2012; Nex and Remondino, 2014). Electric multirotor helicopters or multicopters have become one of the most exciting developments and several off-the-shelf platforms (including camera) are now available. In particular, RPAS can provide 3D models of sub-vertical rock faces, which for instance are needed for rockfall hazard assessments along road cuts and very steep mountains. The current work investigates the potential of two low-cost off-the-shelf quadcopters equipped with digital cameras for multi-view reconstruction of sub-vertical rock cliffs. The two platforms used are a DJI Phantom 1 (P1) equipped with a Gopro Hero 3+ (12MP) and a DJI Phantom 3 Professional (P3). The latter comes with an integrated 12MP camera mounted on a 3-axis gimbal. Both platforms cost less than 1.500€ including camera. The study area is a small rock cliff near the Callaghan Campus of the University of Newcastle (Thoeni et al., 2014). The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Several flights were performed with both cameras set in time-lapse mode. Hence, images were taken automatically but the flights were performed manually since the investigated rock face is very irregular which required adjusting the yaw and roll for optimal coverage since the flights were performed very close to the cliff face. The digital images were processed with a commercial SfM software package. Thereby, several processing options and camera networks were investigated in order to define the most accurate configuration. Firstly, the difference between the use of coded ground control targets versus natural features was studied. Coded targets generally provide the best accuracy but they need to be placed on the surface which is not always possible as rock

  20. Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity. (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Ying; Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Hu, Jin-Feng


    Four new (1 - 4) and thirteen known (5 - 17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methanol (1), (3α)-23-(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid (2), 3α,23-(isopropylidenedioxy)olean-12-en-29-oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)-3-hydroxycholest-5-en-15-yl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoyl)glycerol (17) were found to show significant antineuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively.

  1. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, L [ed.


    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  2. The neglect of cliff instability can underestimate warming period melting in Antarctic ice sheet models

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckert, Kelsey L; Pollard, Dave; Guan, Yawen; Wong, Tony E; Forest, Chris E; Keller, Klaus


    The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate changes may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI). These approximations can be well justified and result in more parsimonious and transparent model structures. This raises the question how this approximation impacts hindcasts and projections. Here, we calibrate a previously published AIS model, which neglects the effects of MICI, using a combination of observational constraints and a Bayesian inversion method. Specifically, we approximate the effects of missing MICI by comparing ou...

  3. Cliff top habitats provide important alternative feeding resources for wading birds of conservation importance wintering on non-estuarine coasts (United States)

    Furnell, Julie; Hull, Susan L.


    Rocky shores and beaches are important over-wintering areas for non-estuarine waders but have rarely been studied. We examined cliff top habitat use by 6 species of wader over 75 km of coast to assess their potential value as alternative feeding sites to rocky and sandy shores. Both the regional and local survey showed that waders occurred on golf courses and recreational grasslands in higher frequencies than expected but arable and pasture use was lower than expected. We also compared local wader densities on rocky and sandy shores, pastures, golf courses, caravan parks and recreational grasslands over two winters. Sanderling predominantly fed on the beach whereas Oystercatcher, Dunlin, Turnstone and Redshank numbers significantly increased on golf courses and recreational grasslands over the winter period, with pasture being rarely used. General linear models were used to relate environmental factors to the presence and absence of each species on the cliff top habitats. Redshank was the only species that showed a higher probability of occurrence on cliff top habitats at high tide whereas the probability of Turnstone, Oystercatcher and Redshank occurring increased as temperatures declined. Using core sampling, we determined that invertebrate richness and abundance was significantly higher on the recreational grasslands and golf courses than on the pasture or the beach. Our data demonstrated that cliff top habitats are important alternative feeding areas for over-wintering waders in areas where the intertidal is bounded by cliffs. Current management creates short sward, open field habitats with a diverse and abundant invertebrate food supply exploited by waders. Any alterations to the land use of these areas should be carefully considered by planning authorities in light of the fact that they support species that are of conservation concern.

  4. The 50s cliff: a decline in perceptuo-motor learning, not a deficit in visual motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ren

    Full Text Available Previously, we measured perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan and found a sudden drop in learning rates between ages 50 and 60, called the "50s cliff." The task was a unimanual visual rhythmic coordination task in which participants used a joystick to oscillate one dot in a display in coordination with another dot oscillated by a computer. Participants learned to produce a coordination with a 90° relative phase relation between the dots. Learning rates for participants over 60 were half those of younger participants. Given existing evidence for visual motion perception deficits in people over 60 and the role of visual motion perception in the coordination task, it remained unclear whether the 50s cliff reflected onset of this deficit or a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning. The current work addressed this question. Two groups of 12 participants in each of four age ranges (20s, 50s, 60s, 70s learned to perform a bimanual coordination of 90° relative phase. One group trained with only haptic information and the other group with both haptic and visual information about relative phase. Both groups were tested in both information conditions at baseline and post-test. If the 50s cliff was caused by an age dependent deficit in visual motion perception, then older participants in the visual group should have exhibited less learning than those in the haptic group, which should not exhibit the 50s cliff, and older participants in both groups should have performed less well when tested with visual information. Neither of these expectations was confirmed by the results, so we concluded that the 50s cliff reflects a genuine decline in perceptuo-motor learning with aging, not the onset of a deficit in visual motion perception.

  5. Numerical investigation of topographic effects in seismic wave amplification: Northern Chile Coastal Cliff as study case. (United States)

    García-Pérez, T.; Ferreira, A. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Cembrano, J. M.


    The Coastal Cliff (CC) of Northern Chile is a first-order Andean geomorphological feature running parallel to trench. With an average elevation of 1 km and a length of 800 km, it represents the western limit of the Coastal Range. Several cities and industrial facilities are located in the vicinity of the CC. Site effects were documented in Alto Hospicio, Huara and Pozo Almonte towns during the Mw 8.2 Pisagua earthquake on the 1st April of 2014, all of which are located close or at the CC. These site effects were not predicted by the Vs30 seismic microzonation previously carried out in the area. Topographic effects arising from the CC topography could be responsible for these site effects. To understand the role of the topography on seismic amplification during an earthquake, we will simulate seismic wave propagation in an elastic media with complex topography using the spectral element method (SPECFEM3D Cartesian package). Preliminary results obtained from simple 2D models, show amplifications related to the topography in the three seismic components, but with more significant amplifications in the vertical component, for high frequencies. To assess the possible topographic amplification in the Coastal Cliff in Northern Chile, improvements to the simple models considered will be discussed. Through the inclusion of a more detailed mesh including relevant geological observations and geophysically-derived petrophysical and depth-projected features, we shall analyses high frequency waveform (up to 1.5 Hz), to more accurately represent the complexity of the effects of topography and distinguish it from those of subsurface structure.

  6. Identifying unstable rock blocks by measuring micro-tremors and vibration on cliffs (United States)

    Tanaka, H.; Fujisawa, K.; Asai, K.


    It is important to identify unstable rock blocks and take countermeasures to prevent sudden rock fall disasters. However, identifying such blocks visually is extremely difficult, so an identification method using peculiar features of unstable blocks must be developed. The method reported here uses a vibrometer, which is inexpensive and easy to operate. In order to assess the feasibility of the method, a field experiment was carried out on rock cliffs in three regions of Japan where unstable blocks are likely to exist. Vibrometers were set up on the cliffs to capture two types of vibration waves in three dimensions, i.e., micro-tremor and reactive vibration. The former type naturally exists all the time, while the latter is generated only by applying stimulation waves. At least one of the vibrometers was installed on stable baserock to compare the results with the wave patterns of unstable rock blocks. In addition to conventional items (amplitude, frequency spectrum, vibration particle trace), trace accumulation length, that is the accumulation of the trace length of a vibrating particle for ten seconds, was introduced to analyze the patterns for both types of wave. As a result, unstable rock blocks were found to generate higher amplitudes of vibration waves than stable rock blocks, and different patterns of frequency spectrum, direction of vibration particle trace, and trace accumulation length. Hence, vibrators were shown to be useful for identifying unstable rock blocks. In particular, by using trace accumulation length as an indicator, the stability of a block can be evaluated without generating stimulative waves, providing a direction for developing a cost-effective simple method for identifying unstable blocks in future.

  7. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  8. Cliff-nesting seabirds influence production and sediment chemistry of lakes situated above their colony. (United States)

    Hargan, K E; Michelutti, N; Coleman, K; Grooms, C; Blais, J M; Kimpe, L E; Gilchrist, G; Mallory, M; Smol, J P


    Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we assess the degree to which seabird nutrients and metals have been delivered to coastal lakes near Hudson Strait (Nunavut, Canada) over the past century. Three lakes located at a higher elevation and increasing distance from a thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) colony (~400,000 breeding pairs) were sampled for surface water chemistry. In addition, algal assemblages, nitrogen isotopes, and metal/metalloids were analyzed in four dated sediment cores. Elevated nutrients and major ions, as well as an enriched δ(15)N signature in the sediment cores, were measured in the lake lakes >1km from the seabird colony. In contrast, similar oligotrophic and benthic diatom assemblages were identified in all three lakes, suggesting that diatoms were not influenced by enhanced nutrient inputs in this Arctic environment. Chemical tracers (e.g., total mercury) and algal assemblages in the lake near the colony suggest climate warming since ~1950 was the most likely driver of limnological changes, but this effect was muted in the more distant lakes. These pronounced changes in the seabird-impacted lake suggest that, with warming air temperatures and diminished lake ice cover, longer growing seasons may allow for aquatic organisms to more fully exploit the seabird nutrient subsidies.

  9. Role of shore platforms on coastal cliffs protection in Algarve (South Portugal): First approach (United States)

    Gabriel, Selma; Moura, Delminda; Ferreira, Óscar; Pacheco, André; Matias, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Jacob, José


    The complex interaction between morphogenetic processes acting on rocky coasts and substrate characteristics difficult the assessment of its evolution at different time scales. In opposition to other coastal environments such as beaches, where variations on substrate's attributes are constrained to a few possibilities, rocky coasts expose substrates having large amount of variables, among them, lithology, mechanical and chemical strength, density and orientation of faults and joints and, rocks' texture and structure (e.g., Trenhaile, 2003). Waves represent the most important energetic source on coastal areas and, abrasion, hammer effect and air compression in rocks discontinuities are the main mechanisms responsible for mechanical weathering induced by wave impact (e.g., Trenhaile, 1987, Sunamura, 1992). Shore platforms are the most conspicuous testimony of rocky cliffs recession. However, as shore platforms widen, cliffs foot rests out of the direct influence of breaking waves when sea level rise is slower than cliff retreat. Shore platforms have been reported as protective features against marine erosion by dissipating waves energy, its efficacy depending on height and slope (e.g., Porter et al., 2009; Trenhaile, 2010). The main objective of this work is to determine the role of shore platforms on cliffs protection at the Algarve (South Portugal) as monitored in two coastal sectors differently exposed to dominant waves. Coastal cliffs in the study area expose Miocene carbonate rocks with vertical facies variation between sub horizontal layers of calcarenites and siltstones, which represents a favourable geological context to the shore platform development. Waves height and period was measured along 12 months during spring tides and in some storm events by using pressure transducers. For that, pressure transducers were fixed into the rock in two coastal sectors positioned in both places at similar heights above mean sea level respectively for outer and inner edges

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  12. Investigating a rock instability. Exemple of the "Bornes du Diable" cliff, Switzerland (United States)

    Franz, Martin; Michoud, Clément; Güell Pons, Maria; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    The « Bornes du Diable » cliff is located in the Val de Bagnes in south western Valais. In September 2008, a block of about 2000 m3 has fallen down causing damages to a small alpine road. This event shows the potential instability of the whole cliff which represents a larger volume. Indeed it measures 160 m high and about 100 m width. Several back-cracks are visible hundred meters back to the actual crest. The road, the reservoir of Mauvoisin and the related dam could be reached by the rockfalls. The goal of this study is to characterize the structural settings and to quantify the previous displacements that occurred in the area in order to assess the present day stability. Structural, geomorphological and geomechanical characterization have been carried by field investigations and completed by orthophotos and digital elevation model analysis. The unstable area was scanned in fall 2009 using terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in order to have a very detailed topography and to perform a structural analysis using the home made software Coltop3D. Differential GPS campaign was initiated in July 2009 and will be continued for the next years to assess the potential movement affecting the entire area. Moreover, a photogrammetric analysis of two aerial photographs of 1979 and 2000 is performed to identify if previous movements occurred in the area. The potential unstable volume is estimated performing the Sloping Local Base Level method and geometrical analysis. Finally a model is performed with the UDEC™ and FLAC® softwares. The movement, the discontinuity sets, the rockfall mechanisms and the triggering factors are analyzed to define the deep structures and the mechanisms of a potential complete collapse. The preliminary results indicate an important rock fracturing in the area of the instability. The persistence schistosity and the highly weathered rock surface indicating a fair-poor rock mass quality. TLS point cloud analysis using Coltop3D highlights six

  13. Ground-based LiDAR application to characterize sea cliff instability processes along a densely populated coastline in Southern Italy (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Semaan, Fouad; Salvini, Riccardo; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco


    Sea cliff retreatment along the coastline of the Campi Flegrei volcanic area (Southern Italy) is becoming a threat for public and private structures due to the massive urbanization occurred in the last few decades. In this area, geological features of the outcropping rocks represent one of the most important factors conditioning the sea cliff retreatment. In fact, pyroclastic deposits formed by pumices, scoria, ashes and lapilli are arranged in weakly to moderately welded layers of variable thicknesses, resulting very erodible and prone to landslide processes. Available methods to evaluate topographic changes and retreat rates of sea cliffs include a variety of geomatic techniques, like terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). By means of such techniques, it is in fact possible to obtain high resolution topography of sea cliffs and perform multi-temporal change detection analysis. In this contribution, we present an application of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS or ground-based LiDAR) aimed to identify and quantify instability processes acting along the Torrefumo coastal cliff, in the Campi Flegrei area. Specifically, we acquired a series of 3D point clouds on the years 2013 and 2016, and compared them through a cloud-to-cloud distance computation. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was applied to the change detection results. In this way, an inventory of the cliff failures occurred along the Torrefumo cliff in the 2013-2016 time span was created, as well as the spatial and volumetric distribution of these failures was evaluated. The volumetric analysis shows that large collapses occurred rarely, whereas the spatial analysis shows that the majority of failures occurred in the middle and upper parts of the cliff face. Results also show that both rock fall and surficial erosion processes contribute to the cliff retreatment, acting in turn according to the geological properties of the involved pyroclastic deposits. The presented

  14. Sea-cliff erosion as a function of beach changes and extreme wave runup during the 1997-1998 El Nino (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Krabill, W.; Brock, J.; Swift, R.; Manizade, S.; Stockdon, H.


    Over time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, the net longshore sand transport direction along the central California coast has been driven to the south by North Pacific winter swell. In contrast, during the El Nin??o winter of 1997-1998, comparisons of before and after airborne lidar surveys showed sand was transported from south to north and accumulated on the south sides of resistant headlands bordering pocket beaches. This resulted in significant beach erosion at the south ends of pocket beaches and deposition in the north ends. Coincident with the south-to-north redistribution of sand, shoreline morphology became prominently cuspate with longshore wavelengths of 400-700 m. The width and elevation of beaches were least where maximum shoreline erosion occurred, preferentially exposing cliffs to wave attack. The resulting erosional hotspots typically were located in the embayments of giant cusps in the southern end of the pocket beaches. The observed magnitude of sea cliff retreat, which reached 14 m, varied with the number of hours that extreme wave runup exceeded certain thresholds representing the protective capacity of the beach during the El Nin??o winter. A threshold representing the width of the beach performed better than a threshold representing the elevation of the beach. The magnitude of cliff erosion can be scaled using a simple model based on the cross-shore distance that extreme wave runup exceeded the pre-winter cliff position. Cliff erosion appears to be a balance between terrestrial mass wasting processes, which tend to decrease the cliff slope, and wave attack, which removes debris and erodes the cliff base increasing the cliff slope. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of dust bands from blue ice fields in the Lewis Cliff (Beardmore) area, Antarctica: A progress report


    Koeberl, Christian; Yanai,Keizo; Cassidy, William A.; Schutt,John W.


    Blue ice fields in Antarctica are well known for their high areal meteorite concentrations. The exact type of accumulation model and the age of the ice is still not well known. Dust bands on blue ice fields may help to clarify some of these problems. Dust, which has been isolated from dust band samples from blue ice areas in the Lewis Cliff/Walcott Neve area (Beardmore region), Antarctica, was studied to determine petrographic characteristics and chemical compositions. One sample has an avera...

  16. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

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    Guillermo Macbeth


    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  17. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  18. The 50s cliff: perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan. (United States)

    Coats, Rachel O; Wilson, Andrew D; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Bingham, Geoffrey P


    We recently found that older adults show reduced learning rates when learning a new pattern of coordinated rhythmic movement. The purpose of this study was to extend that finding by examining the performance of all ages across the lifespan from the 20 s through to the 80 s to determine how learning rates change with age. We tested whether adults could learn to produce a novel coordinated rhythmic movement (90° relative phase) in a visually guided unimanual task. We determined learning rates to quantify changes in learning with age and to determine at what ages the changes occur. We found, as before, that learning rates of participants in their 70 s and 80 s were half those of participants in their 20 s. We also found a gradual slow decline in learning rate with age until approximately age 50, when there was a sudden drop to a reduced learning rate for the 60 though 80 year olds. We discuss possible causes for the "50 s cliff" in perceptuo-motor learning rates and suggest that age related deficits in perception of complex motions may be the key to understanding this result.

  19. The invisible cliff: abrupt imposition of Malthusian equilibrium in a natural-fertility, agrarian society. (United States)

    Puleston, Cedric; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Winterhalder, Bruce


    Analysis of a natural fertility agrarian society with a multi-variate model of population ecology isolates three distinct phases of population growth following settlement of a new habitat: (1) a sometimes lengthy copial phase of surplus food production and constant vital rates; (2) a brief transition phase in which food shortages rapidly cause increased mortality and lessened fertility; and (3) a Malthusian phase of indefinite length in which vital rates and quality of life are depressed, sometimes strikingly so. Copial phase duration declines with increases in the size of the founding group, maximum life expectancy and fertility; it increases with habitat area and yield per hectare; and, it is unaffected by the sensitivity of vital rates to hunger. Transition phase duration is unaffected by size of founding population and area of settlement; it declines with yield, life expectancy, fertility and the sensitivity of vital rates to hunger. We characterize the transition phase as the Malthusian transition interval (MTI), in order to highlight how little time populations generally have to adjust. Under food-limited density dependence, the copial phase passes quickly to an equilibrium of grim Malthusian constraints, in the manner of a runner dashing over an invisible cliff. The three-phase pattern diverges from widely held intuitions based on standard Lotka-Verhulst approaches to population regulation, with implications for the analysis of socio-cultural evolution, agricultural intensification, bioarchaeological interpretation of food stress in prehistoric societies, and state-level collapse.

  20. Don'T fall off the adaptation cliff: when asymmetrical fitness selects for suboptimal traits.

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    Elodie Vercken

    Full Text Available The cliff-edge hypothesis introduces the counterintuitive idea that the trait value associated with the maximum of an asymmetrical fitness function is not necessarily the value that is selected for if the trait shows variability in its phenotypic expression. We develop a model of population dynamics to show that, in such a system, the evolutionary stable strategy depends on both the shape of the fitness function around its maximum and the amount of phenotypic variance. The model provides quantitative predictions of the expected trait value distribution and provides an alternative quantity that should be maximized ("genotype fitness" instead of the classical fitness function ("phenotype fitness". We test the model's predictions on three examples: (1 litter size in guinea pigs, (2 sexual selection in damselflies, and (3 the geometry of the human lung. In all three cases, the model's predictions give a closer match to empirical data than traditional optimization theory models. Our model can be extended to most ecological situations, and the evolutionary conditions for its application are expected to be common in nature.

  1. Performance of Deep and Shallow Neural Networks, the Universal Approximation Theorem, Activity Cliffs, and QSAR. (United States)

    Winkler, David A; Le, Tu C


    Neural networks have generated valuable Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR) models for a wide variety of small molecules and materials properties. They have grown in sophistication and many of their initial problems have been overcome by modern mathematical techniques. QSAR studies have almost always used so-called "shallow" neural networks in which there is a single hidden layer between the input and output layers. Recently, a new and potentially paradigm-shifting type of neural network based on Deep Learning has appeared. Deep learning methods have generated impressive improvements in image and voice recognition, and are now being applied to QSAR and QSAR modelling. This paper describes the differences in approach between deep and shallow neural networks, compares their abilities to predict the properties of test sets for 15 large drug data sets (the kaggle set), discusses the results in terms of the Universal Approximation theorem for neural networks, and describes how DNN may ameliorate or remove troublesome "activity cliffs" in QSAR data sets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The 50s cliff: perceptuo-motor learning rates across the lifespan.

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    Rachel O Coats

    Full Text Available We recently found that older adults show reduced learning rates when learning a new pattern of coordinated rhythmic movement. The purpose of this study was to extend that finding by examining the performance of all ages across the lifespan from the 20 s through to the 80 s to determine how learning rates change with age. We tested whether adults could learn to produce a novel coordinated rhythmic movement (90° relative phase in a visually guided unimanual task. We determined learning rates to quantify changes in learning with age and to determine at what ages the changes occur. We found, as before, that learning rates of participants in their 70 s and 80 s were half those of participants in their 20 s. We also found a gradual slow decline in learning rate with age until approximately age 50, when there was a sudden drop to a reduced learning rate for the 60 though 80 year olds. We discuss possible causes for the "50 s cliff" in perceptuo-motor learning rates and suggest that age related deficits in perception of complex motions may be the key to understanding this result.

  3. The perfect storm: Unusual synchronisation of the components of wave energy spectra dominates episodic soft-cliff erosion. (United States)

    Hackney, Christopher; Darby, Stephen


    Between December 2013 and February 2014 the United Kingdom experienced the stormiest winter on record. The persistent low pressure systems arriving from the North Atlantic during this period resulted in some of the most energetic maritime conditions ever recorded along the English Channel. The unprotected soft cliffs which comprise the south west Isle of Wight coastline were highly exposed to these conditions, facing the full force of extreme sea-levels and significant wave heights. Although long term rates of soft-cliff erosion have previously been defined for this coastline, the role of such extreme forcings on rates of soft-cliff erosion has not previously been document, and is therefore relatively poorly understood. We employed pre-event LIDAR and post-event RTK-GPS shoreline surveys in tandem with hourly sea-levels and significant wave height records from the English Channel to build an unprecedented data set that we use here to determine the response of this soft-cliff coastline to the extreme forcings of the 2013/2014 winter. It was found that the between October 2013 and March 2014, the south west Isle of Wight eroded, on average 4.25 m (σ = 3.6m). Such a high degree of erosion is approximately a factor of nine times greater than the long term average retreat rate of ~0.5 m/yr for this coastline and is the largest recorded erosion event since the start of reliable records began. The extreme erosion observed is shown to be a result of the synchronisation between sea-levels and wave heights. Indeed, we show that a 7-hour lag of the wave height record relative to background sea-level would have resulted in only half (2.1 m) of the observed erosion. An analysis of the historical record implies that previous extreme erosion events were a function of similar synchronisation between sea-levels and wave heights, thus it is likely that future changes in the timing of peak sea-levels and wave heights have the potential to outweigh changes in magnitude in terms of

  4. Characteristics and hydrodynamic interpretation of storm-emplaced cliff-top boulder ridges on Inishmore, Aran Islands, Ireland (United States)

    Zentner, D. B.; Cox, R.


    Dramatic boulder ridges are widespread on cliff-top platforms of Ireland's Aran Islands, emplaced by storm waves at elevations up to 50 m. In places the ridges have overridden 19th-century field walls, and recent movement of large blocks is attested to by modern debris--including nylon ropes, aerosol cans, and plastic bottles--pinned under megaclasts of up to 40 tons. Large waves are common off Ireland's west coast, as revealed by the short records available from recently-deployed buoy systems. The Irish Marine Weather Buoy Network measured wave heights (≥10 m on 29 days between 2001 and 2007, and waves up to 18 m high were recorded in December 2007. Blocks quarried by such waves from the upper few m of the cliffs are transported inland to form semi-continuous boulder ridges parallel to the coastline, which therefore offer a record of hydrodynamics during high-energy wave events. On Inishmore, boulder ridges occur at elevations up to 28 m, separated from the cliff edge by wave-scoured platforms 1-70 m wide. The ridges consist of imbricated, highly angular slabs, ranging from small gravel to 5 m megaclasts. They are 1-4.6 m high, 10-48 m wide (Ripple Index 5-17), and strongly asymmetric, with steep narrow stoss faces (10- 35°), and long gentle lee slopes (<14°). With increasing cliff height, ridges are smaller, narrower, made of smaller blocks, and sit closer to the edge; but ridges 20 m wide and 2 m high, with half-ton clasts, occur as high as 28 m OD. The deposits are moderately to well sorted, predominantly unimodal, and fine skewed. Median clast size ranges from fine to coarse boulders (0.5-2 m). Clasts show strong seaward imbrication on both stoss and lee sides (dipping up to 85° with average 25°). "Blowout" features on the lee sides, with boulders imbricated radially around central depressions of 1-2 m diameter, suggest turbulent flow separation, as does the common occurrence of 1-3 smaller secondary ridges landward of the main crest. The uniformity of

  5. Life and death of ice cliffs and lakes on debris covered glaciers - insights from a new dataset from the Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Numerous studies suggest that supraglacial ice cliffs and lakes could be one contributing factor to relatively high overall ablation rates on debris covered glaciers. While some studies have quantified backwasting rates, developments over the larger scale have not yet been assessed. Field work and earlier studies during three seasons in the Langtang catchment in the Nepalese Himalaya has given some insights into how these landforms develop, from initial emergence to persistence and disappearance. From 6 sets of concurrent high-resolution satellite imagery and DEMs between 2006 and 2015 and an additional image from 1974, we assembled an extensive dataset of these landforms on all glaciers in the catchment, including nearly 4000 individual lakes and cliffs. We show that ice cliffs appear in combination with lakes or without and there are lakes that are not bordered by a cliff. Numbers vary strongly between seasons, especially as lakes show strong seasonal variability. There are furthermore different types of cliff forms - circular, lateral and longitudinal - that give an indication of their formation process. Circular cliffs form with either collapsing subglacial channels or overdeepenings caused by water accumulating on the surface, while lateral cliffs are likely associated with underlying crevasses. Some of the cliff and lake systems remain at the same location on-glacier over a number of years, while most move with the whole glacier body down valley. From the DEMs determine preferential slopes and expositions of the cliffs in the catchment which have been shown to be essential aspects in explaining the backwasting process. In combination with field observations from one glacier, where most of these types were present, we can infer development processes of a number of systems over the whole catchment. It is also apparent that densities of these landforms vary greatly over the glacier surface, which can be explained with velocities or underlying bed topography in

  6. Holocene evolution of coastal chalk cliffs in Normandy (NW France) as evidenced by onshore-offshore high resolution geomorphology (United States)

    Duguet, Timothée; Duperret, Anne; Costa, Stéphane; Regard, Vincent; Maillet, Grégoire


    Key words: erosion, rocky coast, cliffs, shore platform, watersheds, cosmogenic dating The chalk cliffs coastline extends to 120 km long in Normandy. It suffers from high erosion rates with a mean of about 0.15 m/y. The shore platforms extending from the cliff base to the sea, keep structural marks of the cliff erosion during long periods, i.e. the Holocene. Therefore it is essential to take an active interest in their morphology and their evolution to better understand cliff erosion timing. A land-sea Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been produced for Mesnil-Val and Criel-sur-Mer sites (Seine Maritime), with the merge of topographic data (RGE alti, IGN) and shallow bathymetric data from three oceanographic Cruises, CROCOLIT-1 and 3 (Duperret, 2013) and SPLASHALIOT-2 (Maillet, 2014). Valleys that have more or less incised Turonian-Coniacian chalk cliffs occupy the landward part of study sites. The N130E V-shaped incised Mesnil-Val dry valley is elevated at 29 m high above the shore platform level, whereas the N175E Criel-sur-Mer flat valley, extending on 700 m wide and occupied by the Yères river, is directly connected to the shore platform. Offshore, the shore platform morphology varies from Criel-sur-Mer (North) to Mesnil-Val (South). Northern part of the study site is characterized by 1 km wide shore platform made of an overlay of flat steps controlled by normal faults. Southern part highlights a shore platform with a seaward edge located at about 500 m from the cliff face and strictly parallel oriented to the present-day coastline over a minimum distance of 5 km, without fracture control. The shore platform seaward edge is more or less steep and is always localized below the limit of the lowest tide level. Its origin could be related to the in-depth waves influence or to a past sea level stagnation. We aim to identify the origin of this seaward edge, using cosmogenic 10Be dating in order to develop a chalky shore platform evolution model. It is necessary to

  7. Comprehensive knowledge base of two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs for medicinal and computational chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Ye Hu


    Full Text Available Activity cliffs are formed by pairs or groups of structurally similar or analogous active compounds with large differences in potency. They can be defined in two or three dimensions by comparing graph-based molecular representations or compound binding modes, respectively. Through systematic analysis of publicly available compound activity data and ligand-target X-ray structures we have in a series of studies determined all currently available two- and three-dimensional activity cliffs (2D- and 3D-cliffs, respectively. Furthermore, we have systematically searched for 2D extensions of 3D-cliffs. Herein, we specify different categories of activity cliffs we have explored and introduce an open access data deposition in ZENODO (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.18490 that makes the entire knowledge base of current activity cliffs freely available in an organized form.

  8. A contribution for predicting Tsunami inundation induced by rock fall along the Gaeta cliff (Central Italy) (United States)

    di Manna, P.; Vittori, E.; Comerci, V.; Amanti, M.; Cesi, C.


    Many sectors of Italian coasts are characterized by tall scarps, close to large or pocket beaches that display ramp shape with moderate to low acclivity profile. During the summer, all these beaches are densely populated by sunbathers. Moreover, Italian coastal areas are often intensely urbanized even at a short distance from the sea and very close to sea level. Being cliffs often affected by gravity processes, the impact on the water of a falling volume of rock, depending on size and height of fall, may represent a potential source of tsunami-type hazard for adjacent beaches and boats. In this work we present an attempt to evaluate the run-up and ingression values in the Serapo beach (Gaeta, Tyrrhenian Sea coast of Central Italy) of an anomalous wave induced by a potential rock fall along the contiguous more than 100 meters high limestone cliff (the so-called Montagna Spaccata, "cleft mountain"). Detailed geological and geomorphological field analyses are being carried out, including geomechanical analyses and geodetic monitoring, in order to recognize the sectors with the most critical stability conditions. Preliminarily, the major potential volume of instable block and its most likely kinematics have been estimated with the purpose of characterizing the rock fall process. The first water rise produced by the impact of the rock on the sea surface has been estimated according to two approaches: a) the Murty (2003) equation, that gives the relation between water elevation and volume of fallen material; b) the Glasstone and Dolan method (Hills & Mader, 1997), comparing the carbonate rock fall to a meteoritic impact on the sea surface. The rockfall kinematics suggests that the Glasstone and Dolan equation, despite it was developed for a different environment, is better applicable than Murty's (valid for slides) to the case under discussion. On the basis of the Green's law (1837) we defined the shoaling component of the run-up values. Our results show that the impact

  9. Influence of meteorological factors on rockfall occurrence in a middle mountain limestone cliff

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    J. D'Amato


    Full Text Available The influence of meteorological conditions on rockfall occurrence has been often highlighted, but its knowledge is still not sufficient due to the lack of exhaustive and precise rockfall data bases. In this study, rockfalls have been detected in a limestone cliff by annual terrestrial laser scanning, and dated by photographic survey during 2.5 years. A near-continuous survey (1 photo each 10 mn with a wide-angle lens have allowed dating 214 rockfalls larger than 0.1 m3, and a monthly survey with a telephoto lens, dating 854 rockfalls larger than 0.01 m3. The analysis of the two data bases shows that the rockfall frequency can be multiplied by a factor as high as 7 during freeze–thaw episodes and 26 when the mean rainfall intensity (since the beginning of the rainfall episode is higher than 5 mm h−1. Based on these results, a 4-level scale has been proposed for predicting the temporal variations of hazard. The more precise data base and freeze–thaw episode definition make it possible to distinguish different phases in freeze–thaw episodes: negative temperature cooling periods, negative temperature warming periods and thawing periods. It appears that rockfalls occur more frequently during warming and thawing periods than during cooling periods. It can be inferred that rockfalls are caused by thermal ice dilatation rather than by dilatation due to the phase transition. But they may occur only when the ice melt, because the cohesion of the ice–rock interface can be sufficient to hold the rock compartment which has been cut.

  10. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species. (United States)

    Silva, Jose L; Brennan, Adrian C; Mejías, José A


    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6-1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1-0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group.

  11. Modeling granular material flows: The angle of repose, fluidization and the cliff collapse problem (United States)

    Holsapple, Keith A.


    I discuss theories of granular material flows, with application to granular flows on the earth and planets. There are two goals. First, there is a lingering belief of some that the standard continuum plasticity Mohr-Coulomb and/or Drucker-Prager models are not adequate for many large-scale granular flow problems. The stated reason for those beliefs is the fact that the final slopes of the run-outs in collapse, landslide problems, and large-scale cratering are well below the angle of repose of the material. That observation, combined with the supposition that in those models flow cannot occur with slopes less than the angle of repose, has led to a number of researchers suggesting a need for lubrication or fluidization mechanisms and modeling. That issue is investigated in detail and shown to be false. A complete analysis of slope failures according to the Mohr-Coulomb model is presented, with special attention to the relations between the angle of repose and slope failures. It is shown that slope failure can occur for slope angles both larger than and smaller than the angle of repose. Second, to study the details of landslide run-outs, finite-difference continuum code simulations of the prototypical cliff collapse problem, using the classical plasticity models, are presented, analyzed and compared to experiments. Although devoid of any additional fluidization models, those simulations match experiments in the literature extremely well. The dynamics of this problem introduces additional important features relating to the run-out and final slope angles. The vertical free surface begins to fall at the initial 90° and flow continues to a final slope less than 10°. The detail in the calculation is examined to show why flow persists at slope angles that appear to be less than the angle of repose. The motions include regions of solid-like, fluid-like, and gas-like flows without invoking any additional models.

  12. Conceptual model for the origin of the Olympus Mons cliffs, Mars: An essential influence of water? (United States)

    De Blasio, Fabio Vittorio


    With a height of 21 km above the mean Martian altitude and a diameter of 600 km, the Olympus Mons of Mars is the highest and one of the largest volcanoes in the Solar System. It is a distinctive shield volcano, formed by stacked sequences of low-viscosity magma. Whereas the central part of the Olympus Mons exhibits slope angles of less than 1-5°, the periphery of the edifice terminates with steep cliffs sloping 12-15° up to 28°. Another remarkable feature is the aureole, a chain of crown-like deposits surrounding the edifice of Olympus Mons from an average distance of 400 km. The aureole deposits, which lack any obvious analogue on the Earth, have been variously interpreted as volcanic products, pyroclastic or ash flows, slow deep-seated deformation, or catastrophic landslides. Numerical simulations and a comparative study of similar volcanic structures on Earth suggest that a volcanic edifice with the characteristics of Olympus Mons cannot be formed without the presence of water at the base. Because of the low cooling rate of lava in sub-aerial conditions, the superposition of purely subaerial lava flows would contribute with gentle slope to the topography. In contrast, the presence of a medium like water increases the convective heat exchange rate by nearly three orders of magnitude, thus stopping the lava flow and causing a slope increase at the borders of the edifice, which subsequently collapses. A model for the evolution of the Olympus Mons is consequently suggested in analogy with the Canary and the Hawaii island on Earth.

  13. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

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    J.-L. Got


    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  14. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del


    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Mobile Laser Scanning along Dieppe coastal cliffs: reliability of the acquired point clouds applied to rockfall assessments (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Carrea, Dario; Augereau, Emmanuel; Cancouët, Romain; Costa, Stéphane; Davidson, Robert; Delacourt, Chirstophe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Letortu, Pauline; Maquaire, Olivier


    Dieppe coastal cliffs, in Normandy, France, are mainly formed by sub-horizontal deposits of chalk and flintstone. Largely destabilized by an intense weathering and the Channel sea erosion, small and large rockfalls are regularly observed and contribute to retrogressive cliff processes. During autumn 2012, cliff and intertidal topographies have been acquired with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS), coupled with seafloor bathymetries realized with a multibeam echosounder (MBES). MLS is a recent development of laser scanning based on the same theoretical principles of aerial LiDAR, but using smaller, cheaper and portable devices. The MLS system, which is composed by an accurate dynamic positioning and orientation (INS) devices and a long range LiDAR, is mounted on a marine vessel; it is then possible to quickly acquire in motion georeferenced LiDAR point clouds with a resolution of about 15 cm. For example, it takes about 1 h to scan of shoreline of 2 km long. MLS is becoming a promising technique supporting erosion and rockfall assessments along the shores of lakes, fjords or seas. In this study, the MLS system used to acquire cliffs and intertidal areas of the Cap d'Ailly was composed by the INS Applanix POS-MV 320 V4 and the LiDAR Optech Ilirs LR. On the same day, three MLS scans with large overlaps (J1, J21 and J3) have been performed at ranges from 600 m at 4 knots (low tide) up to 200 m at 2.2 knots (up tide) with a calm sea at 2.5 Beaufort (small wavelets). Mean scan resolutions go from 26 cm for far scan (J1) to about 8.1 cm for close scan (J3). Moreover, one TLS point cloud on this test site has been acquired with a mean resolution of about 2.3 cm, using a Riegl LMS Z390i. In order to quantify the reliability of the methodology, comparisons between scans have been realized with the software Polyworks™, calculating shortest distances between points of one cloud and the interpolated surface of the reference point cloud. A Mat

  16. Rockfall frequency and influence of meteorological factors on a limestone cliff of the urban area of Grenoble. (United States)

    D'Amato, Julie; Hantz, Didier; Baillet, Laurent; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    The spatial temporal frequency of rockfall events helps to quantify diffuse rockfall hazard. The influence of meteorological factors can also be studied in order to better know the failure triggering factors, and to predict dangerous periods of the year. Detection and dating of some hundreds of rockfalls has been carried out for the Saint Eynard cliff, which towers above a residential area of the town of Grenoble (French Alps), and which consists of a thinly bedded limestone cliff. The rockfalls have been detected by a diachronic comparison of digital models of the cliff, obtained from annual terrestrial laser scanning. They have been dated by means of a continuous photographic and seismic survey of the cliff. Meteorological data are given by local temperature and rain stations. These data allowed to study the influence of meteorological factors in the failure process. Six hundreds rockfalls (volume 0.005m3 to 1500m3) have been dated by periods of 2 to 11 weeks. The average frequency of the detected rockfalls for the 18 months of survey is 1.0 rockfall per day. The winter periods (with freeze-thaw cycles) clearly show a higher rockfall frequency, up to 1.9 rockfall per day for the most active winter periods. Summer periods show a lower rockfall frequency, between 0.1 and 0.5 rockfall per day. The frequency is close to 0.5 for periods with more rainfall. 126 rockfalls were dated with a precision of 10 min to several hours. For these rockfalls, the average frequency is 0.010 rockfall/h. The frequency is 0.015 rockfall/h for the freezing days (days with negative minimal temperature), 0.029 rockfall/h for the days without freeze but following a freezing day, 0.011 rockfall/h for the days with a rainfall and 0.002 rockfall/h for the other days. Rainfall and freeze-thaw events have also been determined hourly. A rainfall event begins with the beginning of a rainfall, and ends at the beginning of the next 24 hours period without rain. The 24h period has been chosen

  17. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia (United States)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana


    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  18. Cliff collapses in the Alps, some fundamentals and a case study. Mineralogical aspects of the 1991 Randa Rockfall (Wallis, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, P.; Girod, F. [Lausanne Univ., Lausanne (Switzerland). Institut de Mineralogie et de Geochimie


    The study of risks related to geochemical contamination of soil, water and atmosphere caused by the human activity seems to have become the priority as far as the environment is concerned. However among many other challenges which Earth Sciences must take up at the end of the 20. century, research into natural risks needs to be made a priority. Among the latter, in addition to the volcanic and seismic risks, the instability of hills lopes, potentially leading to landslides and cliff collapses, is to be considered with the greatest attention, in particular in the context of climatic reheating and excessive deforestation.

  19. Unusual death of millipedes (Diplopoda towards the north of the Varkala Cliff section near Papanasam, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Sarkar


    Full Text Available The cliff section at Varkala, Kerala consisting of clay, lignite band, clay, sandy-clay, sandstone of Mio-Pliocene age. This sedimentary sequence is overlain by a thick laterite. Above the lower lignite band, in the exposed clay beds several struggling and dead millipedes can be observed. Their death is probably due to the action of dehydration related to the sulphuric water infiltration in the sediments. However, it still remains a mystery why these millipedes choose such a toxic environment to create their habitat?

  20. Geophysical methods to investigate and survey unstable volumes along a cliff (United States)

    Levy, Clara; Baillet, Laurent; Jongmans, Denis; Mourot, Philippe; Hantz, Didier


    We successively instrumented 2 unstable sites along the 300 m high Urgonian cliff of the southern Vercors massif, French Alps. The first site, a rock column of 21000 m3, collapsed in November 2007, 5 months after the beginning of measurements. The experiment showed that information contained in seismic noise can be used for hazard assessment when considering the potential failure of an overhanging rock column. Indeed, the study of seismic noise recorded prior the rock fall revealed that low resonance frequencies follow a precursory pattern, as they decrease significantly, from 3.4 Hz to 2.6 Hz, before the collapse. We successfully reproduced this phenomenon with 2D numerical modelling of rock falls. Numerical simulation results pointed out that this decrease depends on the column-to-mass contact stiffness, which is controlled by the remaining rock bridges. Impulsive signals, which could be attributed to rock fracturing, have also been studied. P and S waves were identified for 40 events, allowing wave polarisation analysis and preliminary event location. Seismic sources able to trigger the vibration of the rock column were located along the broken plane and probably resulted from micro-cracks along rock bridges. From this first site study, we tried to closely follow the evolution of the natural frequencies at the second site, which also consists of a rock column decoupling from the mass with an open fracture in the rear. The value of the first eigenfrequency (about 7.6 Hz in June 2008) shows that the unstable volume is probably much smaller than for the first site. This evaluation is consistent with the estimated volume using DEM derived from LIDAR scan (about 1000 m3). A detailed investigation of the first eigenfrequency shows that its variation is also correlated with temperature and frost. After one year of a rough stability, the average value of the first eigenfrequency clearly shows a drift with the temperature variation pattern and an irreversible decrease of

  1. 76 FR 5399 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest (United States)


    ...., Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; SANYO Electric Co. Ltd., of Osaka, Japan; SANYO North America Corp. of... welfare in the United States, competitive conditions in the United States economy, the production of like...

  2. Influence in times of crisis: how social and financial resources affect men's and women's evaluations of glass-cliff positions. (United States)

    Rink, Floor; Ryan, Michelle K; Stoker, Janka I


    In two scenario-based studies, we found that women and men evaluate glass-cliff positions (i.e., precarious leadership positions at organizations in crisis) differently depending on the social and financial resources available. Female and male participants evaluated a hypothetical leadership position in which they would have both social and financial resources, financial resources but no social resources, or social resources but no financial resources. Women evaluated the position without social resources most negatively, whereas men evaluated the position without financial resources most negatively. In study 2, we found that women and men considered different issues when evaluating these leadership positions. Women's evaluations and expected levels of influence as leaders depended on the degree to which they expected to be accepted by subordinates. In contrast, men's evaluations and expected levels of acceptance by subordinates depended on the degree to which they expected to be influential in the position. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the glass-cliff phenomenon and gendered leadership stereotypes.

  3. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.


    The Surtsey Test Facility is used to perform scaled experiments simulating High Pressure Melt Ejection accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The experiments investigate the effects of direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load. The results from Zion and Surry experiments can be extrapolated to other Westinghouse plants, but predicted containment loads cannot be generalized to all Combustion Engineering (CE) plants. Five CE plants have melt dispersal flow paths which circumvent the main mitigation of containment compartmentalization in most Westinghouse PWRs. Calvert Cliff-like plant geometries and the impact of codispersed water were addressed as part of the DCH issue resolution. Integral effects tests were performed with a scale model of the Calvert Cliffs NPP inside the Surtsey test vessel. The experiments investigated the effects of codispersal of water, steam, and molten core stimulant materials on DCH loads under prototypic accident conditions and plant configurations. The results indicated that large amounts of coejected water reduced the DCH load by a small amount. Large amounts of debris were dispersed from the cavity to the upper dome (via the annular gap). 22 refs., 84 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. From grazing marks to collapsed cliffs - intertidal bioerosion on all scales (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Taboroši, Danko; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Shafeea Leman, Mohd; Aziz Ali, Che; Roslan Mohamed, Kamal; Choowong, Montri


    Rocky shores - particularly in limestone areas of tropical, subtropical, and some temperate regions - are subject to intense bioerosion. Detailed field studies along the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman coast of Thailand, Langkawi Islands of Malaysia, southern Java and Bali in Indonesia, Palau Islands, and Okinawa revealed the presence of rich populations of bioeroding organisms in the intertidal zone. Molluscs capable of damaging rock (the chiton Acanthopleura, limpets, and whelks) leave grazing traces as they feed on bacterial and algal biofilms and chasmolithic and endolithic microorganisms. Boring sponges (Entobia), bivalves (Gastrochaenolites and others), boring sipunculid worms (Caulostrepsis), and sea urchins (Echinometra) drill deeper to hide from predators beneath the rock surface. Individually, members of these taxa leave marks ranging from sub-millimetre to the metre scale, but collectively, their erosion creates marine notches, several-metres-deep features extending between low and high tide marks. When cliffs overhanging these notches collapse, landscape-scale scars are left behind. The various bioeroders display a clear vertical zonation between low and high tide. These are dictated by environmental stress, food availability, competition, and predation. Typical inhabitants of present-day zones include - from top to bottom - littorinid snails, patellid limpets, chitons, boring bivalves, and boring sea urchins. Each organism leaves a characteristic mark in the bedrock. Trace fossils found in the 'wrong place' - either too high or too low compared to the present-day occurrence of the animals - suggest changes in relative sea level. Similarly, sea level changes are suggested by the presence of compound markings produced through overprinting by organisms that live in different ecological zones. Preservation and obliteration of traces depends on the rates of sea level change and coastal denudation. Morphology of bioerosional markings and their vertical zonation

  5. High frequency seismic monitoring of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs (CO), USA (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Kean, Jason; Smith, Joel; Coe, Jeffrey; Arattano, Massimo; McCoy, Scott


    A growing number of studies adopt passive seismic monitoring techniques to investigate slope instabilities and landslide processes. These techniques are attractive and convenient because large areas can be monitored from a safe distance. This is particularly true when the phenomena under investigation are rapid and infrequent mass movements like debris flows. Different types of devices are used to monitor debris flow processes, but among them ground vibration detectors (GVDs) present several, specific advantages that encourage their use. These advantages include: (i) the possibility to be installed outside the channel bed, (ii) the high adaptability to different and harsh field conditions, and (iii) the capability to detect the debris flow front arrival tens of seconds earlier than contact and stage sensors. Ground vibration data can provide relevant information on the dynamics of debris flows such as timing and velocity of the main surges. However, the processing of the raw seismic signal is usually needed, both to obtain a more effective representation of waveforms and to decrease the amount of data that need to be recorded and analyzed. With this objective, the methods of Amplitude and Impulses are commonly adopted to transform the raw signal to a 1-Hz signal that allows for a more useful representation of the phenomenon. In that way, peaks and other features become more visible and comparable with data obtained from other monitoring devices. In this work, we present the first debris flows seismic recordings gathered in the Chalk Cliffs instrumented basin, central Colorado, USA. In May 2014, two 4.5-Hz, three-axial geophones were installed in the upper part of the catchment. Seismic data are sampled at 333 Hz and then recorded by a standalone recording unit. One geophone is directly installed on bedrock, the other one mounted on a 1-m boulder partially buried in colluvium. This latter sensor integrates a heavily instrumented cross-section consisting of a 225 cm2

  6. Sources of Sulfate Found in Mounds and Lakes at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic (United States)

    Socki, Richard; Sun, Tao; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric; Bao, Huiming; Niles, Paul B.


    Massive but highly localized Na-sulfate mounds (mirabilite, Na2SO4.10H2O) have been found at the terminal moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT), Antarctica. (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values of LCIT mirabilite range from +48.8 to +49.3% (CDT), and -16.6 to -17.1% (V-SMOW), respectively, while (Delta)17O average -0.37% (V-SMOW). LCIT mirabilite mounds are isotopically different from other mirabilite mounds found in coastal regions of Antarctica, which have isotope values close to seawater compositions. (Sigma)18O and (Delta)17O values suggest the incorporation of isotopically light glacial water. Data point to initial sulfate formation in an anoxic water body, either as a stratified anoxic deep lake on the surface, a sub-glacial water reservoir, or a sub-glacial lake. Several surface lakes of varying size are also present within this region of the LCIT, and in some cases are adjacent to the mirabilite mounds. O and D isotope compositions of surface lakes confirm they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent moderate evaporation. (Sigma)18O and (Sigma)D (V-SMOW) values of snow, ice, and lake water range from -64.2 to -29.7%, and -456.0 to -231.7%, respectively. However, the isotope chemistry of these surface lakes is extremely different from the mounds. Dissolved SO4-2 (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values range from +12.0 to +20.0% and -12.8 to -22.2% (the most negative (Sigma)18O of terrestrial sulfate ever reported), respectively, with sulfate (Delta)17O ranging from +0.93 to 2.24%. Ion chromatography data show that lake water is fresh to brackish in origin, with TDS less than 1500 ppm, and sulfate concentration less than 431 ppm. Isotope and chemical data suggest that these lakes are unlikely the source of the mirabilite mounds. We suggest that lake water sulfate is potentially composed of a mixture of atmospheric sulfate and minor components of sulfate of weathering origin, much like the sulfate in the polar plateau soils of the Mc

  7. RICARDO, Eleonora J. (Org.. Gestão da educação corporativa - cases, reflexões e ações em educação a distância. 1. ed. São Paulo : Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Venelli Costa


    Full Text Available A educação corporativa vem ganhando espaço nas estratégias de gestão de pessoas, à medida que se percebe como o talento humano faz a diferença competitiva no mundo empresarial. A obra organizada por Eleonora Jorge Ricardo é uma coletânea de casos de implantação e consolidação de programas educacionais em grandes empresas e grupos, relatadas por pesquisadores, consultores e também pelos próprios responsáveis pela gestão de talentos e seu desenvolvimento nas empresas.

  8. Three-dimensional resistivity tomography in extreme coastal terrain amidst dense cultural signals: application to cliff stability assessment at the historic D-Day site (United States)

    Udphuay, Suwimon; Günther, Thomas; Everett, Mark E.; Warden, Robert R.; Briaud, Jean-Louis


    Pointe du Hoc overlooking the English Channel in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important military engagements of World War II but is vulnerable to cliff collapses that threaten important German fortifications including the forward observation post (OP) and Rudder's command post. The objective of this study is to apply advanced 3-D resistivity tomography towards a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to the two at-risk buildings. 3-D resistivity tomography data sets at Pointe du Hoc in the presence of extreme topography and dense cultural clutter have been successfully acquired, inverted and interpreted. A cliff stability hazard assessment scheme has been designed in which regions of high resistivity are interpreted as zones of open, dry fractures with a moderate mass movement potential. Regions of low resistivity are zones of wet, clay-filled fractures with a high mass movement potential. The OP tomography results indicate that the highest mass movement hazard appears to be associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff that are positioned at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns likely occupy the future site of development of a sea arch that will threaten the OP building. The mass movement potential at the Rudder's command post area is low to moderate. The greatest risk there is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  9. The outcrop and area underlain by the Upper Cretaceous Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaikdtg) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon file of the outcrop and area underlain by the Drip Tank Mb. of the Straight Cliffs Fm. (Upper Cretaceous) east of 112 degrees of longitude in the...

  10. Pluripotency of embryo-derived stem cells from rodents, lagomorphs, and primates: Slippery slope, terrace and cliff. (United States)

    Savatier, Pierre; Osteil, Pierre; Tam, Patrick P L


    The diverse cell states and in vitro conditions for the derivation and maintenance of the mammalian embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells raise the questions of whether there are multiple states of pluripotency of the stem cells of each species, and if there are innate species-specific variations in the pluripotency state. We will address these questions by taking a snapshot of our knowledge of the properties of the pluripotent stem cells, focusing on the maintenance of pluripotency and inter-conversion of the different types of pluripotent stem cells from rodents, lagomorphs and primates. We conceptualize pluripotent stem cells acquiring a series of cellular states represented as terraces on a slope of descending gradient of pluripotency. We propose that reprogramming pluripotent stem cells from a primed to a naive state is akin to moving upstream over a steep cliff to a higher terrace. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller (United States)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.


    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  12. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.


    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.

  13. New techniques to measure cliff change from historical oblique aerial photographs and structure-from-motion photogrammetry (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan; Ritchie, Andy; Adelman, Gabrielle; Adelman, Ken; Limber, Patrick W


    Oblique aerial photograph surveys are commonly used to document coastal landscapes. Here it is shown that adequate overlap may exist in these photographic records to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques. Using photographs of Fort Funston, California, from the California Coastal Records Project, imagery were combined with ground control points in a four-dimensional analysis that produced topographic point clouds of the study area’s cliffs for 5 years spanning 2002 to 2010. Uncertainty was assessed by comparing point clouds with airborne LIDAR data, and these uncertainties were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses. With six or more ground control points, the root mean squared errors between the SfM and LIDAR data were less than 0.30 m (minimum 1⁄4 0.18 m), and the mean systematic error was less than 0.10 m. The SfM results had several benefits over traditional airborne LIDAR in that they included point coverage on vertical- to-overhanging sections of the cliff and resulted in 10–100 times greater point densities. Time series of the SfM results revealed topographic changes, including landslides, rock falls, and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach. Thus, it was concluded that SfM photogrammetric techniques with historical oblique photographs allow for the extraction of useful quantitative information for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change. The new techniques presented here are likely applicable to many photograph collections and problems in the earth sciences.

  14. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico (United States)

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.


    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monument Visitor Center at the confluence of the West and Middle Forks of the Gila River in the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. Both quadrangles are within the Gila National Forest and the Gila Wilderness except for a narrow corridor that provides access to the National Monument and the small ranching and residential community at Gila Center in the Gila River valley. The caves in Cliff Dweller Canyon were developed in the Gila Conglomerate of probable Miocene? and Pleistocene? age in this area by processes of lateral corrosion and spring sapping along the creek in Cliff Dweller Canyon. The hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben, which cuts diagonally northwest-southeast across the central part of the quadrangle. Some of the springs provide domestic hot water for space heating and agriculture in the Gila River valley and represent a possible thermal resource for development at the Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center in the southwestern part of the quadrangle is a colorful area of altered and mineralized rocks that is satellitic to the larger Copperas Canyon eruptive center, both being

  15. Hydrogeology of the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah (United States)

    Dam, William L.; Kernodle, J.M.; Thorn, C.R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.


    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. The purposes of the study (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams, and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. Previous reports in this series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Kirtland Shale and Fruitland Formation (Kernodle and others, 1990), Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990), Cliff House Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990), and Ojo Alamo Sandstone (Thorn and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the RASA study or derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN database. Although all data available for the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic and younger age; therefore, the study area is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary

  16. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 projections of coastal cliff retreat due to 21st century sea-level rise (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Summary: This dataset contains projections of coastal cliff-retreat rates and positions for future scenarios of sea-level rise (SLR). Projections were made using...

  18. 52例坠崖自杀案例分析%Fifty-two Cases Analysis of Cliff Suicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉勇; 王剑; 邾立庆


    Objective To analyze suicide scene, damage morphology and case investigation of mountain type scenic spot for giving the references to determine the nature of cliff suicide cases. Methods The suicide cases collected from 2002 to 2012 in scenic spot of Mount Huangshan. The age, gender, native place, case location, damage inspection and behavior were analyzed. Results In the 52 suicide cases, the suicide rate of male was higher than that of female. The numbers from other provinces were higher than that of local province. The age was mainly range from 19 to 50. The time of suicide cases mostly happened between 16:00 to 24:00. The major damage was compound injury with varying degrees of traumatic brain injury, organic injury of pleuroperitoneal cavity and surface bruise and scratch. Conclu-sion In order to determine the nature of cliff suicide cases, it needs to work synthetically in the investi-gation of crime scene and interview.%目的:通过对山岳型景区高坠自杀案件的现场分析、损伤形态及案情调查情况进行分析,为高坠死亡案件的定性提供参考。方法收集52例黄山景区2002—2012年内坠崖自杀案例的资料,从年龄、性别、籍贯、事发时段、坠落地点、损伤检验、行为方式等方面进行分析。结果52例坠崖自杀案例中,男性的自杀率明显高于女性,外省籍比例明显高于本省籍,年龄分布于19~50岁,案发时间段多在16:00~24:00,损伤形态以复合伤为主,均不同程度伴有颅脑损伤、胸腹腔器官损伤及体表划擦伤。结论高坠死亡案件的定性需要进行现场勘验、案情调查走访等综合分析。

  19. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.


    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  20. The growth of solutions of f

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; zongxuan(


    :Science Press, 1988.[17]Valiron, G., Lectures on the General Theory of Integral Functions, New York: Chelsea, 1949.[18]Chen Zong-Xuan, The growth of solutions of a class of second order differential equations with entire coefficients, Chin. Ann. of Math. (in Chinese), 1999, 20A(1): 7-14.[19]Markushevich, A. I., Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, Vol.2 translated by R. A, Silverman (Englewood Cliffs, N. J: Prentice-Hall, 1965).

  1. Interactions between glycine derivatives and mineral surfaces: Implications for the origins of life on planetary surfaces (United States)

    Marshall-Bowman, K. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.


    to mineral surface area. Catalysis was found to be saturable, suggesting the presence of discrete catalytic sites on the mineral surface. These and other results will be presented and discussed. References Bernal, J. D. (1951) The Physical Basis of Life (Routledge, London). Cleaves, H.J., Aubrey, A.D., Bada, J.L. (2009) An evaluation of the critical parameters for abiotic peptide synthesis in submarine hydrothermal systems. Origins of Life Evol Biosph. 39:109-26. Kauffman, S.A. (1971) Cellular homeostasis, epigenesis and replication in randomly aggregated macromolecular systems. Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal 1: 71 - 96. Lambert, J. (2008) Adsorption and polymerization of amino acids on mineral surfaces: A review. Origins of Life Evol. Biosph. 38: 211-42. Miller, S.L. and Orgel, L.E. (1974) The Origins of Life on the Earth, Prentice Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ) Yao, Y., Ghosh, I., Zutshi, R., Chmielewski, J. (1998) Selective amplification by auto- and cross-catalysis in a replicating peptide system. Nature 396, 447 - 450.

  2. Occurrence of morphological and anatomical adaptive traits in young and adult plants of the rare Mediterranean cliff species Primula palinuri Petagna. (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna


    Cliffs worldwide are known to be reservoirs of relict biodiversity. Despite the presence of harsh abiotic conditions, large endemic floras live in such environments. Primula palinuri Petagna is a rare endemic plant species, surviving on cliff sites along a few kilometres of the Tyrrhenian coast in southern Italy. This species is declared at risk of extinction due to human impact on the coastal areas in question. Population surveys have shown that most of the plants are old individuals, while seedlings and plants at early stages of development are rare. We followed the growth of P. palinuri plants from seed germination to the adult phase and analysed the morphoanatomical traits of plants at all stages of development. Our results showed that the pressure of cliff environmental factors has been selected for seasonal habitus and structural adaptive traits in this species. The main morphoanatomical modifications are suberized cell layers and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell structures. These features are strictly related to regulation of water uptake and storage as well as defence from predation. However, we found them well established only in adult plants and not in juvenile individuals. These findings contribute to explain the rare recruitment of the present relict populations, identifying some of the biological traits which result in species vulnerability.

  3. The impact of rotary lobe blower seal upgrades at INCO's Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corless, C; Costigan, J. [INCO Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery, Copper Cliff, ON (Canada)


    INCO's Pressure Carbonyl (IPC) plant at Copper Cliff is unique in the world in that it utilizes the same basic chemistry, but forms the nickel carbonyl at high pressure to accelerate the reaction and utilize less pure refinery feeds. Two main process gases are used, namely carbon monoxide and nickel carbonyl which are transported throughout the plant using various compressors and blowers depending on whether the gas is at high pressure or at low pressure. The high-pressure transport is accomplished by three five-stage reciprocating compressors. There are numerous low pressure gas blowers; all of them must have seals to ensure that the gas does not escape into the plant atmosphere, and just as importantly, to prevent the lubricating oil from entering the process gases. This paper describes an incident in 1997 when Castrol R40, a lubricant, entered the IPC plant carrier gas stream, adversely affecting equipment availability and process control. The main source of the Castrol R40 was determined to be the carrier gas and low pressure gas blowers. The entry of Castrol R40 into the carrier gas stream was successfully prevented when the mechanical shaft seals were replaced with Ferrofluidics seals. Details of the resulting new sealing arrangements, the status of blower upgrade project and results achieved to date are reviewed.

  4. A RETRAN model of the Calvert Cliffs-1 pressurized water reactor for assessing the safety implications of control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, J P.A.; Smith, O L


    The failure mode and effects analysis of Calvert Cliffs-1 identified sequences of events judged sufficiently complex to merit further analysis in detailed dynamic simulations. This report describes the RETRAN model developed for this purpose and the results obtained. The mathematical tool was RETRAN2/Mod3, the latest version of a widely used and extensively validated thermal-hydraulics production code obtained by license agreement with the developer, Electric Power Research Institute, and installed on the ORNL BM-3033 computers. RETRAN2 is based on a first-principles methodology that treats two-phase flow with slip. Thermal equilibrium of phases is assumed except in the pressurizer, where non-equilibrium processes are important and special methodology is used. Heat transfer in solids is obtained from the conventional conduction equation. Point or 1-D kinetics is available for the reactor core. The fundamental methodology is supplemented with a broad list of process submodels that calculate heat transfer coefficients, fluid and metal state properties, choked flow, form and wall friction losses, and other parameters. Also supplied are component submodels for various types of valves and pumps, the latter of which incorporate four-quadrant characteristics for components in which two-phase or reverse flow may be expected, and head versus flow curves for others. Extensive input allows the code to be highly particularized to a specific plant. The major investment in time and manpower occurs in setting up the base case; changes are comparatively easy to implement.

  5. Think crisis-think female: the glass cliff and contextual variation in the think manager-think male stereotype. (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander; Hersby, Mette D; Bongiorno, Renata


    The "think manager-think male" (TMTM) association underlies many gender inequalities in the workplace. However, research into the "glass cliff" has demonstrated that the suitability of male and female managers varies as a function of company performance such that in times of poor performance people may "think female" (Ryan & Haslam, 2005, 2007). Three studies examined gender and managerial stereotypes in the context of companies that are doing well or doing badly. Study 1 reproduced TMTM associations for descriptions of managers of successful companies but demonstrated a reversal for managers of unsuccessful companies. Study 2 examined the prescriptive nature of these stereotypes. No TMTM relationship was found for ideal managers of successful companies, but ideal managers of unsuccessful companies were associated with the female stereotype. Study 3 suggested that women may be favored in times of poor performance, not because they are expected to improve the situation, but because they are seen to be good people managers and can take the blame for organizational failure. Together, the studies illustrate the importance of context as a moderator of the TMTM association. Practical and theoretical implications for gender discrimination in the workplace are discussed.

  6. KANTBP: A program for computing energy levels, reaction matrix and radial wave functions in the coupled-channel hyperspherical adiabatic approach (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Abrashkevich, A. G.; Amaya-Tapia, A.; Kaschiev, M. S.; Larsen, S. Y.; Vinitsky, S. I.


    approach [J. Macek, J. Phys. B 1 (1968) 831-843; U. Fano, Rep. Progr. Phys. 46 (1983) 97-165; C.D. Lin, Adv. Atom. Mol. Phys. 22 (1986) 77-142], a multi-dimensional Schrödinger equation for a two-electron system [A.G. Abrashkevich, D.G. Abrashkevich, M. Shapiro, Comput. Phys. Comm. 90 (1995) 311-339] or a hydrogen atom in magnetic field [M.G. Dimova, M.S. Kaschiev, S.I. Vinitsky, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 2337-2352] is reduced by separating the radial coordinate ρ from the angular variables to a system of second-order ordinary differential equations which contain potential matrix elements and first-derivative coupling terms. The purpose of this paper is to present the finite-element method procedure based on the use of high-order accuracy approximations for calculating approximate eigensolutions for such systems of coupled differential equations. Solution method: The boundary problems for coupled differential equations are solved by the finite-element method using high-order accuracy approximations [A.G. Abrashkevich, D.G. Abrashkevich, M.S. Kaschiev, I.V. Puzynin, Comput. Phys. Comm. 85 (1995) 40-64]. The generalized algebraic eigenvalue problem AF=EBF with respect to pair unknowns ( E,F) arising after the replacement of the differential problem by the finite-element approximation is solved by the subspace iteration method using the SSPACE program [K.J. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1982]. The generalized algebraic eigenvalue problem (A-EB)F=λDF with respect to pair unknowns (λ,F) arising after the corresponding replacement of the scattering boundary problem in open channels at fixed energy value, E, is solved by the LDL factorization of symmetric matrix and back-substitution methods using the DECOMP and REDBAK programs, respectively [K.J. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1982]. As a test desk, the program is applied to the calculation

  7. Hydrogeology of the Cliff House Sandstone in the San Juan structural basin, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Utah (United States)

    Thorn, Conde R.; Levings, G.W.; Craigg, S.D.; Dam, W.L.; Kernodle, J.M.


    This report is one in a series resulting from the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) study of the San Juan structural basin that began in October 1984. Previous reports in the series describe the hydrogeology of the Dakota Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1989), Point Lookout Sandstone (Craigg and others, 1990), Morrison Formation (Dam and others, 1990), Gallup Sandstone (Kernodle and others, 1989), and Menefee Formation (Levings and others, 1990) in the San Juan structural basin. The purposes of the RASA (Welder, 1986) are to: (1) Define and evaluate the aquifer system; (2) assess the effects of past, present, and potential ground-water use on aquifers and streams; and (3) determine the availability and quality of ground water. This report summarizes information on the geology and the occurrence and quality of water in the Cliff House Sandstone, one of the primary water-bearing units in the regional aquifer system. Data used in this report were collected during the study or were derived from existing records in the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized National Water Information System (NWIS) data base, the Petroleum Information Corporation's data base, and the Dwight's ENERGYDATA Inc. BRIN data base. Although all data available for the Cliff House Sandstone were considered in formulating the discussions in the text, not all those data could be plotted on the illustrations. The San Juan structural basin is in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah and has an area of about 21,600 square miles (fig. 1). The structural basin is about 140 miles wide and about 200 miles long. The study area is that part of the structural basin that contains rocks of Triassic or younger age and, therefore, is less extensive than the structural basin. Triassic through Tertiary sedimentary rocks are emphasized in this study because the major aquifers in the basin are present in these rocks. The study area is about 140 miles wide (about the same as the

  8. Limestone cliff - face and cave use by wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta in southwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Sauther


    Full Text Available Ring-tailed lemurs live in a range of habitats in southwestern Madagascar. To date, much of the knowledge of ring-tailed lemur ecology, biology and behavior come from riverine gallery forests sites. Recent years have seen an expansion of comprehensive research on this resilient species, including areas of limestone spiny forest along Madagascar’s southwestern coast. This work is documenting newly discovered behaviors by this species. The regular use of cliff-faces and embedded crevices and caves by ring-tailed lemurs in southwestern Madagascar are reported here. Cave use by several anthropoid primates has been explained as a thermoregulatory behavior. It is suggested that cliff-face and cave use by these ring-tailed lemurs serves several purposes, including resource acquisition, thermoregulation, and as an anti-predator avoidance strategy in the absence of suitable large sleeping trees. Observations indicate that the limestone boundaries of the Mahafaly Plateau and their associated xerophytic scrub forests warrant further conserva­tion attention, given the presence of behavioral variation and increasing threats to this endangered primate species. RÉSUMÉLemur catta occupe divers habitats dans le Sud-ouest de Madagascar. L’écologie, la biologie et le comportement de Lemur catta sont actuellement mieux connus des populations vivant dans les forêts riveraines et les zones environnantes. Pour mieux comprendre cette espèce de lémurien, les recherches ont été étendues à d’autres habitats dont les forêts épineuses du plateau calcaire qui est situé le long du littoral Sud-ouest de Madagascar. Dans cette étude nous rapportons les comportements récemment découverts de Lemur catta qui utilise les falaises et les grottes dans le Sud-ouest de Madagascar. L’utilisation des grottes par la plupart des primates hominoïdes est liée à un avantage thermorégulateur offert par ce milieu. Dans notre cas, l’exploitation de falaises et de

  9. Stream of Consciousness and Symbolism, the“Magic”Used by Heming-way to Characterize Harry as A Dying Man on the Cliff of Kilimanjaro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Snows of Kilimanjaro was written in the 20th century when the realism was still the main stream in the field of litera-ture. However, Hemingway broke the cocoon of realism and flew into a new literary kingdom—modernism, where many new theories such as stream of consciousness and archetypal symbol blossomed and were used in literature. This paper mainly ana-lyzed how stream of consciousness and symbolism were used in the Snows of Kilimanjaro to characterize Harry as a dying man on the cliff of Kilimanjaro.

  10. Dendrobium officinale cliff epiphytic cultivation method%铁皮石斛悬崖附生栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯金平; 陈梓云; 刘京晶; 朱玉球; 蔡国见; 黄柄荣; 章焜一; 金传高


    以铁皮石斛设施栽培投入大、药材功效不如野生等问题为导向,通过水分调控、崖壁坡度选择,研究悬崖附生铁皮石斛生长情况、农艺性状、产量、多糖及醇溶性浸出物含量.结果表明,将铁皮石斛附生于85 ~ 90°悬崖表面,在生长季节喷水1 ~2 h·d-1的条件下,即使在裸露的环境中,不用基质,不施肥料也能够较好的生长,获得较高的产量,其形态与悬崖上野生铁皮石斛无异;多糖与醇溶性浸出物含量显著高于设施基质栽培,并与萌蘖生理年龄密切相关,逆境有利于铁皮石斛多糖与醇溶性浸出物等功效成分的积累.%To solve the issues of costly planting of facility cultivation method and inferior efficacy than wild herbs of Dendrobium officinale,the cliff epiphytic cultivation method was studied.To research the growth,agronomic traits,yield,polysaccharide and alcohol-soluble extract contents were measured on the D.officinale from different water regulation and cliff slope gradients treatments.The results showed that D.officinale epiphytic at 85°-90° cliff and sprayed water 1-2 h · d-1 at the growing season can get better growth and obtain high yield,and the morphology has no different from wild cliff D.officinale,even in the environments without shade.The contents of polysaccharide and alcohol-soluble extract are closely related to the physiological ages,but significantly higher than the facility cultivation.It is possible that environmental stresses benefit the accumulation of polysaccharides,alcohol-soluble extract and other efficient ingredients.

  11. The solid-phase controls on the mobility of heavy metals at the Copper Cliff tailings area, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    McGregor, R. G.; Blowes, D. W.; Jambor, J. L.; Robertson, W. D.


    The Copper Cliff Tailings Disposal Area, located near Sudbury, Ontario, covers an area of approximately 2200 ha and constitutes more than 10% of the total area of all mine tailings in Canada. The area has been utilized since 1936, receiving sulphide-containing tailings from the Inco Sudbury operations. Field measurements of pore-gas oxygen and carbon dioxide in the vadose zone indicate that sulphide oxidation has progressed to depths of 1.6 m to 1.7 m within the tailings. The oxidation of sulphide minerals within the vadose zone, and the accompanying dissolution of carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals within these tailings releases SO 4, Fe(II) and other metals to the pore water. In the vadose and saturated zones, concentrations of Fe and Ni exceed 10100 mg/l and 2210 mg/l, respectively. These high concentrations of dissolved metals are attenuated by a series of precipitation, coprecipitation and adsorption reactions. The precipitation of secondary sulphate and hydroxide phases also create hardpan layers at or near the oxidation front. Geochemical modelling of the pore-water chemistry suggests that pH-buffering reactions are occurring within the shallow oxidized zones, and that secondary-phase precipitation is occurring at or near the underlying hardpan and transition zones. Mineralogical study of the tailings confirmed the presence of jarosite, gypsum and goethite within the shallow tailings, suggesting that these phases are controlling the dissolved concentrations of Fe, SO 4 and Ca. Extraction experiments conducted on the tailings solids indicate that the constituents contained in the water-soluble fraction of the shallow, weathered tailings are derived from the original pore water and the dissolution of highly soluble phases such as gypsum. The acid-leachable fraction of the weathered tailings accounts for up to 25% of the heavy metals, and the reducible fraction may contain up to 100% of the heavy metals within the shallow, weathered tailings. Based on the

  12. Reply to comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., and Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22 (United States)

    Lawrence, James A.; Mortimore, Rory N.


    We are grateful to Dornbusch (2014) for the opportunity to clarify the role we propose for salt water weakening of the chalk and its potential importance as a mechanism contributing to cliff instability. Dornbusch's argument is based largely on a single comment "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse" (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). This was not intended as a "conclusion" as suggested by Dornbusch (2014) but is rather a qualitative introductory statement highlighting the potential importance of the salt water weakening process in coastal cliff instability. The actual conclusions of the work are not challenged by Dornbusch (2014).

  13. Edge of a cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Yusuke


    We discuss the neutrino flavor structures in the Occam's razor approach for the Dirac neutrino mass matrices. We assume that the charged lepton mass matrix takes a diagonal base, while the right-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrix is also diagonal and we consider nine patterns of the four zero textures for the Dirac neutrinos mass matrices. We numerically analyze the left-handed Majorana neutrino mass matrices for nine patterns of the Dirac neutrino mass matrices and we found two interesting patterns where both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies can be realized. We also found if the neutrino mass is normal hierarchy, this scenario will be likely to be excluded by the measurements of the Dirac CP violating phase in the T2K and NO$\

  14. Estimating rates of coastal cliff erosion in a small island using terrestrial laser scanning and RPAS-based SfM-MVS photogrammetry (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki


    Rapid erosion of coastal cliffs has been historically observed to be more than 1 m/y in the outer Boso Peninsula area, eastern Japan. However, due to the modern work of coastal protection, the erosion rates of the coastal cliffs have significantly decreased. This caused coastal erosion in the nearby sand beach, to which sands had been supplied from the formerly eroded rocky coast. In order to assess the relationships between erosion and protection in both rocky and sandy coasts, quantitative evaluation of erosion rates by natural processes would be necessary. The Suzume-jima Island, a small coastal island in the outer Boso Peninsula area, is an ideal site, which is located outside of the coastal protection and natural processes of erosion can still be observed. Here we carried out multiple measurements of the entire shape of the island using remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS) and structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry. Terrestrial laser scanning is also performed for the accuracy assessment. The high-frequency (3 times a year) and high-resolution (cm) measurements of the small island for 3 years revealed spatially variable rockfalls and wave erosion, whose volume of mass has been quantitatively revealed from the 3-D point cloud obtained. The relatively short-term measurements are also compared with the long-term 2-D topographic changes in the island by aerial photographs for 50 years.

  15. Investigating controls on debris-flow initiation and surge frequency at Chalk Cliffs, USA: initial results from monitoring and modeling (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J. A.


    Recent monitoring of a small (0.3 km2) bedrock-dominated catchment in central Colorado, USA, has revealed distinct differences in debris-flow surge dynamics relative to rainfall intensity. Moderate bursts of rainfall (15-40 mm/hr) typically trigger a set of coarse-grained surges with depths that can exceed 1.0 m. High-intensity bursts of rainfall (40-150 mm/hr), in contrast, often generate only a single moderate-amplitude coarse-grained surge (> 0.5 m depth), followed by several minutes of water-rich flow having comparable or greater peak depth. In both cases, debris flows are observed within minutes of rain bursts due to the rapid concentration of runoff from bedrock cliffs to channels loaded with sediment from dry ravel and rockfall. Video observations have shown that the runoff can initiate debris flows both at a steep (~40 degree) bedrock-colluvium interface, and in a lower gradient (~15 degree) section of channel. This latter style of initiation, which has only been observed at moderate rainfall intensity, involves the formation and failure of a highly porous sediment dam created by bedload transport. We speculate that this process may be responsible for the creation of the consistent surge patterns we observe with moderate intensity rainfall, and may explain the relative lack of granular surges with high-intensity rainfall. To investigate this possibility, we have developed a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of the formation and failure of sediment dams in an undulating bedrock channel filled with loose bed sediment. The model consists of a coupled surface-subsurface water flow model, which is used to drive bed-sediment topographic adjustments based on the mathematical divergence of the sediment transport rate. Under certain topographic and water-flow conditions, the shear stress in a section of the channel can fall below the critical shear stress, resulting in local deposition of sediment. Consistent with field observations, the modeled deposit

  16. Study of cliff activity dominating the gas and dust comae of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early phase of the Rosetta mission using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data (United States)

    Marschall, Raphael; Su, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Ying; Rubin, Martin; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Thomas, Nicolas; altwegg, kathrin; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS, ROSINA


    The study by [1] has proposed the idea that the cometary dust jets in the northern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko arise mainly from rough cliff like terrain. Using our 3D gas and dust dynamics coma model [2] we have run simulations targeting the question whether areas with high gravitational slopes alone can indeed account for both the ROSINA/COPS and the OSIRIS data obtained for mid August to end October 2014.The basis of our simulations is the shape model "SHAP4S" of [3]. Surface temperatures have been defined using a simple 1-D thermal model (including insolation, shadowing, thermal emission, sublimation but neglecting conduction) computed for each facet of the shape model allowing a consistent and known description of the gas flux and its initial temperature. In a next step we use the DSMC program PDSC++ [4] to calculate the gas properties in 3D space. The gas solution can be compared with the in situ measurements by ROSINA/COPS. In a subsequent step dust particles are introduced into the gas flow to determine dust densities and with a column integrator and Mie theory dust brightnesses that can be compared to OSIRIS data.To examine cliff activity we have divided the surface into two sets. One with gravitational slopes larger than 30° which we call cliffs and one with slopes less than 30° which we shall call plains. We have set up two models, "cliff only" and "plains only" where the respective set of areas are active and the others inert. The outgassing areas are assumed to be purely insolation driven. The "cliffs only" model is a statistically equally good fit to the ROSINA/COPS data as the global insolation driven model presented in [2]. The "plains only" model on the other hand is statistically inferior to the "cliffs only" model. We found in [2] that increased activity in the Hapi region (called inhomogeneous model) of the comet improves the fit of the gas results significantly. We can show in this study that a "cliffs + Hapi" model fits the

  17. Adaptive Control and Parameter Identification of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator for Wind Power (United States)


    Ioannou and J. Sun, Robust Adaptive Control, Prentice Hall, 1996. [23] K. J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, Second Edition, Dover...1989. [25] J. J. E. Slotline and W. Li, Applied Nonlinear Control, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1991. 79 [26] K. J. Astrom and B. Wittenmark

  18. Effect of High Doses of Chemical Admixtures on the Freeze-Thaw Durability of Portland Cement Concrete (United States)


    volume (Neville 1988). The hydrated cement is often referred to as cement gel, which has a characteristic porosity of about 28% ( Mindess and Young...Structure, Properties, and Materials. New York: Prentice-Hall. Mindess , S., and J.F. Young (1981) Concrete. New York: Prentice-Hall. Neville, A.M

  19. American Actions in the Dominican Republic and Grenada. (United States)


    platform, organized strikes, 3Anthony P. Maingot , The United States in the Caribbean, Tad Szulc, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1971, p. 53-66. 54Jiiri Valenta...Harvard University Press, 1972. Maingot , Anthony P., The United States in the Caribbean, Tad Szulc, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1971. Meeting Notes, 4/30-5

  20. The Filtration Method of Cliff Point Cloud Vegetation Based on the Surface Orthographic Projection%基于物体表面正射投影的悬崖点云植被过滤方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩林; 陈文贺; 王江妹; 田鹏艳; 姚吉利


    Cliff and steep slope are important landscape elements of topographic map, and these elements play a very important role in the construction of the ecological environment and prevention of geological disasters, etc. However, it is unfavorable to observe and process data because of vegetation occlusion on cliff. In this paper, we present a cliff vegetation filtration method based on the principle of surface orthographic projection. Firstly, transform the original three dimensional point cloud of cliff to the spatial cartesian coordinate system, whose xy plane is the cliff face and z-axis is perpendicular to the direction of the cliff surface. Then the grid on the xy plane is divided to establish local grid Digital Terrain Model ( DTM) by fitting surface, and the vegeta-tion points can be extracted through setting a reasonable distance threshold. Finally, after inverse projection transformation, cliff rocky points preserved are mapped to the original spatial coordinate system. The experi-mental analysis using actual cliff point cloud data shows that the cliff point cloud vegetation filtering method based on the surface orthographic projection is feasible and effective.%悬崖陡坡是地形图重要的地貌要素,该要素在生态环境工程建设和地质灾害的防治等方面具有非常重要的作用,而悬崖植被的遮挡不利于悬崖观测和数据处理。提出一种悬崖植被过滤方法,该方法主要基于物体表面正射投影原理,首先将原始采集的悬崖三维点云转换到以悬崖表面为xy平面、垂直于悬崖面的方向作为z轴的空间直角坐标系中;然后在xy平面上划分格网,分格网拟合曲面建立局部数字地面模型( DTM),通过设置合理的距离阈值剔除植被点;最后将过滤保留下来的悬崖岩石点经过投影反变换,映射到原始空间坐标系中。对实际悬崖点云数据进行实验分析,结果表明,基于物体表面正射投影的悬崖点云植

  1. Adverse Programming:Operation Mechanism whereby Environment Slipping into Cliff%逆向编程:环境滑向悬崖的运行机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The environment cliff is formed in the adverse programming of environment. There are four causes promoting the adverse programming of environment, namely, disappearance of environment spatial tense region, serious lack of resources nourishing the environment, imbalance of population density, and sharp fall of the variety of life failing to support the environment authigenesis. The adverse environment begins in the community, develops into the cosmoscopic region, and then returns to the community, so as to reach the ad⁃verse symbiotic circulation with the cosmoscopic environment, with the orderly change of community constant and community variable as the basic operating mechanism. Its implicit mechanism refers to timely amplification of mutual sensitive dependence among the constitutional issues of community, while the original driving force promoting the timely amplification of the small changes among the sensitive dependence of the community ele⁃ments is the unlimited human desires for material well-being. Therefore, the ultimate hope to change the envi⁃ronment adverse programming and stop the environment cliff is to control or give up selfish human desires.%环境悬崖形成于环境逆向编程。环境空间张力域度消失、滋养环境自身的资源严重匮乏、种群密度高度失调、生命种类多样性锐减到不能支撑环境自生,此四者以涌现方式推动环境展开逆向编程。环境逆向编程始于群落,达于宇观领域,其后回复于群落而形成与宇观环境达成逆向共生循环,其根本运作机制是群落常量与群落变量序变,其内隐机制乃群落之构成要素相向敏感依赖性的时间化放大。推动其群落要素的敏感依赖性将微小变化予以时间尺度上的无限放大的原动力,却是无限度追求物质幸福的人类私欲。因而,改变环境逆向编程、中止环境悬崖之最终希望,是人类对私欲的节制或放弃。

  2. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (United States)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling


    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  3. Geologic controls on transgressive-regressive cycles in the upper Pictured Cliffs sandstone and coal geometry in the lower Fruitland Formation, Northern San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W.A.; Ayers, W.B. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Three upper Pictured Cliffs Sandstone tongues in the northern part of the San Juan Basin record high-frequency transgressive episodes during the Late Cretaceous and are inferred to have been caused by eustatic sea level rise coincident with differential subsidence. Outcrop and subsurface studies show that each tongue is an amalgamated barrier strand-plain unit up to 100 ft (30 m) thick. Upper Pictured Cliffs barrier strand-plain sandstones underlie and bound thickest Fruitland coal seams on the seaward side. Controls on Fruitland coal-seam thickness and continuity are a function of local facies distribution in a coastal-plain setting, shoreline positions related to transgressive-regressive cycles, and basin subsidence. During periods of relative sea level rise, the Pictured Cliffs shoreline was temporarily stabilized, allowing thick, coastal-plain peats to accumulate. Although some coal seams in the lower Fruitland tongue override abandoned Pictured Cliffs shoreline deposits, many pinch out against them. Differences in the degree of continuity of these coal seams relative to coeval shoreline sandstones are attributed to either differential subsidence in the northern part of the basin, multiple episodes of sea level rise, local variations in accommodation and progradation, stabilization of the shoreline by aggrading peat deposits, or a combination of these factors. Fruitland coalbed methane resources and productivity are partly controlled by coal-seam thickness; other important factors include thermal maturity, fracturing, and overpressuring. The dominant production trend occurs in the northern part of the basin and is oriented northwestward, coinciding with the greatest Fruitland net coal thickness.

  4. Several Grottos at the Southern Foot of Taihang Mountains and Cliff Rock Inscriptions and other Related Issues%太行山南麓几处石窟与摩崖石刻及相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    位于太行山南麓的河南省焦作市,佛教历史源远流长,基础深厚,在北魏隋唐时期,是平城与洛都、洛阳与邺城的重要通道。该地区青天河摩崖线刻观音经像、悬谷山太平寺石窟及摩崖造像和石佛滩摩崖石刻造像三处佛教遗迹,有珍贵的史料价值,对研究西域和中原佛教艺术的融合与交流有着重要的意义。%Jiaozuo City, located at the southern foot of Taihang Mountains in Henan Province, has a long history and deep foundation of Buddhism. During the Northern Wei, Sui and Tang dynasties, here was an important transportation channel between Ping Cheng and Luo Du, Luoyang and Ye Cheng. Its three most famous Buddhist relics, namely the cliff rock inscriptions of Guanyin Scripture in Qingtianhe, the Taiping Temple grottos and cliff rock statues in Xuangu Mountain, the cliff rock inscriptions and statues in Shifo Beach, have significant historical

  5. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 2, changes in surface morphometry from terrestrial laser scanning in the summer of 2009 (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Greg E.


    High resolution topographic data that quantify changes in channel form caused by sequential debris flows in natural channels are rare at the reach scale. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques are utilized to capture morphological changes brought about by a high-frequency of debris-flow events at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the topographic response of a natural channel to the documented debris-flow events. TLS survey data allowed for the generation of high-resolution (2-cm) digital terrain models (DTM) of the channel. A robust network of twelve permanent control points permitted repeat scanning sessions that provided multiple DTM to evaluate fine-scale topographic change associated with three debris-flow events. Difference surfaces from the DTM permit the interpretations of spatial variations in channel morphometry and net volume of material deposited and eroded within and between a series of channel reaches. Each channel reach experienced erosion, deposition, and both net volumetric gains and losses were measured. Analysis of potential relationships between erosion and deposition magnitudes yielded no strong correlations with measures of channel-reach morphometry, suggesting that channel reach-specific predictions of potential erosion or deposition locations or rates cannot be adequately derived from statistical analyses of pre-event channel-reach morphometry.

  6. Environment Cliff:Social Transformation Development and Ecological Civilization Construction-Main Academic Viewpoint Review of Environment Cliff and Social Transformation Development Academic Forum%环境悬崖:社会转型发展与生态文明建设--“环境悬崖与社会转型发展学术论坛”主要学术观点述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽杰; 包庆德


    When we exchange academic conversation with international environmental philosophy, China's environmental philosophy has to highlight our own academic point of view, creates our own concept catego⁃ry, and constructs the academic discourse system with the Chinese culture characteristics. As a localized cate⁃gory, environment cliff is a cautionary alarmism with Chinese characteristics. It aims to state a self-collapse condition, which breaks through ecological point by persistent super strong external pressure. This concept gets attention by environmental philosophy and environmental ethics world. The academic forum centered the theme on environment cliff and social transformation development, exchanged academic thoughts about environment cliff concept, introspected multiple dimensions about environment cliff category, and discussed the inherent relevance among environment cliff, social transformation and ecological civilization construction.%中国环境哲学要与国际环境哲学界同行进行学术对话,就应该突出中国自己的学术观点,创新中国自己的概念范畴,建构符合中国文化特色的学术话语体系。作为中国本土化的“环境悬崖”范畴,是富有中国特色的新世纪警世危言,旨在指陈环境因持续超强外部压力推动突破生态临界点而滑向自我崩溃的状态。这一概念的适时提出,引起环境哲学与环境伦理学界的学术关注。成都·2015年环境哲学学术论坛围绕“环境悬崖与社会转型发展”主题,就“环境悬崖”概念进行深层对话交流,对“环境悬崖”范畴进行多维度深度反思,并就环境悬崖、社会转型与生态文明建设的内在关联进行深入研讨。

  7. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio


    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  8. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps. (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael


    smaller than TLS effective resolution (0.01 to 0.1 m³ at 400 to 800 m range) using an inverse power law function. However, the effect of secondary and primary rockfall on the results is still subject of discussion. Also, locally unique stress fields and the history of local rock slope evolution is an issue. Here we have chosen a well-established test site to (i) systematically analyse the structural geological imprint on rockfall activity in limestone cliffs and (ii) to validate the explanatory power of the incomplete rockfall size coverage of TLS at sites with frequent small fragmental rockfall. Krautblatter, M., Moser, M., Schrott L., Wolf, J. & Morche, D., 2012. Significance of rockfall magnitude and carbonate dissolution for rock slope erosion and geomorphic work on Alpine limestone cliffs (Reintal, German Alps). In: Geomorphology, 167-168: 1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.04.007

  9. High Genetic Diversity and Insignificant Interspecific Differentiation in Opisthopappus Shih, an Endangered Cliff Genus Endemic to the Taihang Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmin Guo


    Full Text Available Opisthopappus Shih is endemic to the Taihang Mountains, China. It grows in the crevice of cliffs and is in fragmented distribution. This genus consists of two species, namely, O. taihangensis (Ling Shih and O. longilobus Shih, which are both endangered plants in China. This study adopted intersimple sequence repeat markers (ISSR to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure from different levels (genus, species, and population in this genus. A total of 253 loci were obtained from 27 primers, 230 of which were polymorphic loci with a proportion of polymorphic bands (PPB of up to 90.91% at genus level. At species level, both O. taihangensis (PPB=90.12%, H=0.1842, and I=0.289 and O. longilobus (PPB=95.21%, H=0.2226, and I=0.3542 have high genetic diversity. Their respective genetic variation mostly existed within the population. And genetic variation in O. longilobus (84.95% was higher than that in O. taihangensis (80.45%. A certain genetic differentiation among populations in O. taihangensis was found (Gst=0.2740, Φst=0.196 and genetic differentiation in O. longilobus was very small (Gst=0.1034, Φst=0.151. Gene flow in different degrees (Nm=1.325 and 4.336, resp. and mating system can form the existing genetic structures of these two species. Furthermore, genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst=0.0453 between species and the clustering result based on the genetic distance showed that interspecific differentiation between O. taihangensis and O. longilobus was not significant and could occur lately.

  10. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.


    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  11. Thermal Dissociation of Halogen Azides (United States)


    LA, private oam- (37) Weston , R. E.; Schwartz, H. A. Chemical Kinetics; Prentice-t4all: munication. Englewood Cliffs, Ni, 1972; SectioT, 5.2. 4796 The...Herbelin, Aerospace Corporation (El Segundo, CA) private communication. 40. D. Copeland , Rocketdyne (Canoga Park, CA) private communication. 41. D.R

  12. Two cases of contact dermatitis resulting from use of body wash as a skin moisturizer. (United States)

    Miller, Michael A; Borys, Doug; Riggins, Michele; Masneri, David C; Levsky, Marc E


    The use of liquid skin cleanser or body wash has become common in the United States. We report 2 cases of contact dermatitis secondary to the application of Dove Body Wash (Unilever US, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ) with the consumer misconception that the product was a skin moisturizing cream.

  13. Enhanced Management Consulting. (United States)


    December, 1982. m23. Hersey , Paul , Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, Englewood Cliffs, N.J...situation objectively requires, and deal with the real client." (11-6) Hersey and Blanchard amplify by saying, "effective OD interventions depend on

  14. Array Signal Processing Under Model Errors With Application to Speech Separation (United States)


    Acoust. Speech Sig. Proc., pp. 1149-1152, Alburqueque NM, 1990. [37] E. A. Patrick , Fundamentals of Pattern Recognition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972...Proc., Toronto, pp. 1365-1368, 1991. [411 S. U. Pillai , Array Signal Processing, Springer Verlag, NY, 1989. [42] B. Porat and B. Friedlander

  15. 77 FR 515 - Certain Portable Communication Devices; Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... (United States)


    ... Electronics, Inc. of South Korea; LG Electronics U.S.A. Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, NJ; LG Electronics MobileComm U.S.A. Inc. of San Diego, CA; Motorola Mobility Holdings, Inc. of Libertyville, Illinois; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of South Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey...

  16. The Leadership Improvement Modules of the Precommissioning Leadership Assessment Program (United States)


    learning as originally developed by Miller and Dollard (1941) and as elaborated more recently by Bandurs (1969, 1977). Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977...1977). Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Mall. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. (1961). Transmission of aggression through

  17. Developing and Testing a Self-Regulated Learning Assessment Methodology Combined with Virtual-Patient Simulation in Medical Education (United States)


    Educational Psychologist, 40, 199-209. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action : A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ... reasoning , motivation, self-regulated learning (SRL), SRL microanalysis, undergraduate medical education, virtual patients Unclassified Unclassified...outcomes,4 but they also can be used to document shifts in students’ motivational beliefs and SRL during clinical reasoning activities.5 Further, recent

  18. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.


    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  19. Individual Attitudes and Social Influences on College Students' Intent to Participate in Study Abroad Programs (United States)

    Wang, Liz C.; Gault, John; Christ, Paul; Diggin, Patricia A.


    Participation in study abroad programs (SAPs) is widely viewed as offering important professional and personal benefits for college students. This study applies the "Theory of Reasoned Action" [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980) and "Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior," Englewood Cliffs, NJ:…

  20. 77 FR 34285 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson River, Fort Lee, NJ (United States)


    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship Swim, Hudson... vicinity of Englewood Cliffs and Fort Lee, NJ for the 2012 Ironman U.S. Championship swim event....

  1. Study of geomorphological changes by high quality DEMs, obtained from UAVs-Structure from Motion in highest continental cliffs of Europe: A Capelada (Galicia, Spain) (United States)

    Muñoz Narciso, Efrén; García, Horacio; Sierra Pernas, Chema; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto


    This study analyses the geomorphological evolution of a highly dynamic coastal environment, one of the higher cliffs in Continental Europe (A Capelada, NW Spain), using Structure from Motion-Multi View Stereoscan techniques (hereafter referred to as SfM-MVS). Comparing orthoimages from the last 10 years we observed several topographical changes in one specific valley (Teixidelo). Interestingly, these changes were caused by 2 different processes: (i) heavy coastal erosion and (ii) slow complex landslides, working in opposite directions. The main challenge was obtaining high quality topographical data for quantifying the changes during the last few years using low cost-high quality techniques in remote areas. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle platforms (drones, hereafter referred to as UAVs) and SFM-MVS offer ultrahigh-density topographical data. Furthermore, the use of drones and SfM-MVS close range images requires new applications in geomorphology for understanding the workflow and limitations. In this paper we present the 2 main results: (i) a centimeter spatial resolution DEM from august 2016 was obtained using a @DJI Phantom 3 advanced model drone. The pictures were processed in Agisoft PhotoScan Pro 1.2.6 version by SfM-MVS techniques, generating a high-density point cloud (i.e. ˜2000 points/m2) with 3mm of RMSE (i.e. the point cloud was georeferenced in a geographical coordinates system using ˜40 Ground Control Points obtained from differential RTK-GPS and a Total Station network) and (ii) a DEM of Differences, which compares official freely available 2010 LiDAR data (i.e. ˜2 points/m2) with a 2016 DEM derived by UAVs-SfM, where we have observed meter-scale elevation changes (i.e. sediment and erosion processes). During this time, 75% of the sediment has been mobilized. The novel UAVs and SfM-MVS techniques prove to be great for advancing the study of geomorphological processes in remote areas.

  2. A Study on the Main Functional Regions Space Governance to Circumvent the Environment Cliff%主体功能区空间管治规避环境悬崖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜黎明; 孙晓雅


    Environmental cliff is the geographical space, in which the environmental risk accumulates for a long time. As a result, the environmental capacity drops steeply, the environmental issues outbreak, the en⁃vironmental system�s ability of self⁃repairing and self⁃restoring suffers from devastating destruction and the pop⁃ulation carrying capacity of the environment is almost zero. Environmental cliff is the result of long⁃term im⁃proper exploitation and over exploitation in the special space, and its reality is that the regional economic soci⁃ety is unsustainable development. Environmental cliff is the problem of human civilization, the problem of space, also the selection problem of economic and social development model, and it forced the human produc⁃tion and lifestyle to change and the social transformation and development to take place. With the differentiated supply of people's livelihood to guide the population flow and rational behavior choice, with the differentiated land policy to control the type and intensity of the regional economic activity and with the differentiated envi⁃ronmental protection policies to eliminate the existing risk of environmental cliff, the main functional regions'space governance constructs the triune hedging mechanism of environmental cliff, including environmental risk dispersion, the incremental control and stock solution of environmental problem.%环境悬崖是环境风险长时期积累,环境容量陡然下降,环境问题集中爆发,环境系统的自我修复、恢复能力遭受毁灭性破坏,环境的人口承载能力近乎为零的地理空间。环境悬崖是特定空间长时期不当开发、过度开发的结果,现实表现为区域经济社会不可持续发展。环境悬崖是人类的文明问题,也是一个空间问题,还是一个经济社会发展模式选择问题;环境悬崖倒逼人类生产生活方式转变,倒逼社会转型发展。主体功能区空间管治

  3. Evaluation of the short-term sea cliff retreat along the Tróia-Sines Embayed Coast (Costa da Galé sector), using stereo digital aerial images and Bayesian inference (United States)

    Gama, C.; Jalobeanu, A.


    Monitoring the sediment budget of coastal systems is essential to understand the costal equilibrium, and is an important aspect to be considered in coastal management. Thus, the identification and the quantitative evaluation of sedimentary sources and sinks are the first steps towards a better understanding of the dynamics of coastal morphology. The Tróia-Sines Embayed Coast (TSEC) in the southwest Portuguese coast corresponds to a continuous sandy beach that extends for approximately 65 km. It is limited at north by the Sado river estuary and at south by the Sines cape. Beaches are discontinuously limited landward by dunes (≈42 km) and by sea cliffs (≈18 km) made of poorly consolidated Plio-Plistocene detrital deposits. Cliff erosion by subaerial processes or gullying is a continuous phenomenon that contributes a significant amount of sediment to the TSEC coastal system, which is what we want to measure. Mainly due to winter rainfall, sea cliffs develop debris fans at the backshore inner limit, therefore we chose to make morphological measurements at one year interval. Thus, two series digital aerial images at 20 cm resolution were acquired in Oct 2008 and July 2009, supported by a collection of ground control points (GCP) to constrain the sensor orientation. Digital aerial stereo image pairs are used as main data source to reconstruct digital surface models (DSM). A new stereo photogrammetric method is used, based on dense disparity maps and Bayesian inference (Jalobeanu et al, 2010 and Jalobeanu, 2011). The originality of this method is in the computation of the spatial distribution of elevation errors in the DSM using stochastic modelling and probabilistic inference, which helps to detect the statistically significant changes in the estimated topography. The difference between the two generated DSMs is used to characterize the variability of the main subaerial beach morphodynamics parameters, such as: i) the alongshore beach configuration; ii) the beach

  4. [Book review] Green engineering: environmentally conscious design, by David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard (United States)

    Boustany, R.G.


    Review of: Green engineering: Environmentally conscious design / David T. Allen and David R. Shonnard / Prentice-Hall, Inc., One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. 2002. 552 pages. ISBN 0-13-061908-6.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Finally, though the reviewer‟s claim about the nature of academic–practitioner relations may be limited ..... It seems that intermediaries (media planners, consultancies, research services and products .... India: Prentice Hall. Thorson, E. (2006).

  6. Impact of Granite Quarrying on the Health of Workers and Nearby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The data collected from hospital records of quarry workers portrayed .... 10,000 deaths and 16,000 hospital admissions. ... public health to reducing the burden of ..... Edition) McGraw-Hill Medical. Publishing. Prentice-Hall Int. Edition. Canada.

  7. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions (United States)


    Fishbein , 1980; Koenan, Goodwin, Struening, Hellman, & Guardino, 2003; Salzer & Bickman, 1999; Vogel & Wester, 2003; Vogel, Wade, Wester, Larson...III. BIBLIOGRAPHY & REFERENCES CITED Ajzen I. & Fishbein M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. NJ: Prentice-Hall

  8. Risk and Uncertainty in Production Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 26, 2012 ... not be separated because where there is uncertainty, there is risk. The ... uncertainty. Thus, all business decisions are taken under the condition of risk ..... Economic theory and Operation Analysis, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 17, 2005 ... development He further states that language enables people to express ideas, feelings and thoughts. ..... New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. Iraki, Fredrick (2005) ... and print media elicit similar responses? Figley (2005) ...

  10. IJAJ 3(4), S/No 12, September, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 12, 2014 ... language to approximately three to five million people in Nigeria and it is a second language (L2) for .... in the media, business circles, social life, informal conversations, church ..... New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2008. Print.

  11. Using Machine Learning to Determine United States Army Readiness at the Battalion Level (United States)


    Unit Performance. US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA, July, 1994. Norvig , Peter, Paradigms of...Russell, Stuart, and Norvig , Peter, Artificial Intelligence, A Modern Approach, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1995. Schaffer

  12. Excavation of Cliff-side Tombs in Three Gorges Reservoir Construction Area within Fengjie County,Chongqing%重庆奉节县三峡工程库区崖墓的清理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In 1994, 20 cliff-side tombs were excavated at Santang and Tuoban villages in Fengjie County, Chongqing. They are small-sized single-chambered pits mostly with a tomb-passage, a rectangular chamber and, in some cases, a niche, except for Tomb 7 at Tuoban village, which has double passages and double chambers. No coffins were found. The tombs are mostly robbed. The unearthed objects include mainly pottery, and also bronzes, porcelain, iron artifacts and a number of copper coins.The burials belong to five stages: the middle Eastern Han, late Eastern Han, early Shu Han, final years of the Western Jin to the beginning of the Eastern Jin, and the earlier Southern Dynasties period. Between these phases distinct changes are not seen in tomb form, but distinctive features occur in the aspect of funeral objects.

  13. The Rise of Robots: The Military’s Use of Autonomous Lethal Force (United States)


    argument compelling, citing the fact that robots themselves do not necessarily change the calculus of the individual Jus ad Bellum requirements.26...3rd ed. (New Jersey, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004), 81-98. 21 Michael A. Guetlein, “Lethal Autonomous Weapons - Ethical and Doctrinal Implications...NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Computer History Museum., (accessed 25 Oct 2014

  14. Engineering design of an environmental management system: A transdisciplinary response to the rhino poaching problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, H


    Full Text Available takes fight to poachers." Times LIVE, 30 November 2012. Neapolitan, Richard E. 2004. Learning Bayesian Networks. Edited by Stuart Russel and Peter Norvig, Prentice Hall... Series in Artificial Intelligence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson imprint of Prentice Hall. Pidd, Michael. 1996. Tools for Thinking - Modelling in Management Science. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Pieters, Kees. 2010. "Patterns, Models, Complexity: Notes...

  15. Non-Orthogonal Iris Segmentation (United States)


    Gonzalez , Rafael C., R. E. Woods, and Steven L. Eddins. Digital Image Processing using MATLAB. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2004... images . Over the last ten years, algorithms used to digitize and process biometric signals have been enhanced to increase both accuracy over repeated...Steven L. Eddins. “ Digital Image Processing using MATLAB.” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 20044. [15] A. J. Bron, R. C. Tripathi, and B. J

  16. “2014年青岛世园会”百果山园区岩壁景观的生态恢复与重建%Ecological Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Countermeasures of Rock Cliff Landscape in Baiguoshan Garden of World Park and Garden Fair in 2014 of Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    由于长期开采花岗岩建筑石材,“2014年青岛世园会”百果山园区的花岗岩丘陵上遗留有6处开采石材形成的岩石崖壁.在园区建设过程中,将这6处岩石崖壁分为坡度70°以下的岩石崖壁和坡度70°以上的岩石崖壁2类,并遵循可行性原则、地域性原则和美学原则,分别提出了2类岩石崖壁景观的生态恢复与重建措施.其中,坡度70°以下的岩石崖壁可采取底层采石坑回填、“钻孔植绿”与“筑巢复绿”等措施进行生态恢复与重建;坡度70°以上的岩石崖壁可采取布鲁特罩面网垂直绿化技术、人工植生槽与顶部筑营养槽相结合,建造人工流水景观,建造人造雾喷景观,融入雕塑艺术等措施进行生态恢复与重建.%There are 6 rock cliffs of granite on hills in Baiguoshan garden of world park and garden fair of Qingdao in 2014, the rock cliffs are formed by long-term granite exploiting for construction. When constructing the Baiguoshan garden, the 6 rock cliffs are divided into 2 types, one type is the rock cliffs with slope less than 70°, the other type is the rock cliffs with slope more than 70°. The author put forwards different ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction countermeasures of the 2 kinds of rock cliff landscape by following the principles of feasibility, locality and aesthetics. The ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction countermeasures of the rock cliff with slope less than 70° include backfilling hew stone holes, planting green by drilling, renewing green by nesting, and so on. While the ecological rehabilitation and reconstruction countermeasures of the rock cliff with slope more than 70° include vertical greening by using bulut veil-mat, constructing man-made planting groove combining nourishment groove on upside of slope, constructing man-made falling water landscape, constructing man-made spray landscape, using sculpture technique, and so on.

  17. Nutrientes (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe em sedimentos (solos aluviais e cultivares (feijão e milho de praias e barrancos de rios de água branca: a bacia do purus no estado do Acre, Brasil Nutrients in sediment (alluvial soils and cultivates (bean and corn developed in beaches and cliffs found along loam water: the purus basin in state Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milta Mariane da Mata Martins


    Full Text Available The present research highlights the macronutrient abundance in the sediments of beaches and cliffs and cultivates in the river Purus and flowing, southwest of Amazon. The concentrations found in leaves and bean seeds and corn leaves reflect the mineralogical and chemical nature of those rich sediments in K2O and Na2O, which are formed by smectite, illite and K-feldspar. The factors of transfer of the elements in the corn leaves and bean (Ca>K>Na and bean seeds (Na>K>Ca demonstrate that the nutrient needs of the cultivate were found appropriately in the sediments (soils of the beaches and cliffs.

  18. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian


    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of Polymeric Materials (United States)


    maize ) starch produced by CPC International (Englewood Cliffs. NJ). with approximately 30% amylose and 70% amylopectin. The glycerol was purchased...on the flow behavior by use of an in-line rheometer. The Rheopac is a slit die rheometer which has been used to measure the viscosity of maize and...appearance of an orange peel . At high shear rates (500-1(KX) I/sec), the cracks were not evident and the surface was smoother. A smooth surface also

  20. National Socialist Ideology: Impact on Strategy and Operational Art (United States)


    Jackson J Spielvogel, Second Edition, Hitler and NAZI Germany, A History. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Simon & Shuster Company), 49-50. 8 James Taylor and...W.W. Norton and Company, 2000), 135. 11 Spielvogel, Second Edition, Hitler and NAZI Germany, A History, 97. 12 Ibid., 28. 13 Ibid., 41. 14...Translated by Krista Smith. New York, NY: Enigma Books, 2003. Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Translated by Ralph Manheim. Boston, Mass: Houghton Mifflin

  1. Understanding Predicting and Supporting Leader Self-Development (United States)


    of the participants’ uniformly high levels of cognitive ability, with an average Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) score of 29.25. The average score for...Applied Psychology, 80(2), 239-252. Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: John Wiley. Wonderlic Personnel Test. (1992). Wonderlic Personnel...Test user’s manual. Libertyville, IL: Wonderlic Personnel Test, Inc. 35 Yukl, G. A. (1998). Leadership in organizations (4h ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ

  2. Workforce Motivation in 1983: A Review for DoD Policy Implication. (United States)


    greater, subordinates knew the goals and what was expected of them, and the team spirit was higher. 10. Expectancy Victor H . Vroom developed his...34Productivity and Job Satisfaction," Personnel Psychology, Autumn 1960. 16. Vroom , Victor H . and Mann, Floyd C., "Leader Authoritarianism and Employee...Attitudes," Personnel Psychology, Summer 1960. 17. Vroom , Victor H ., Some Personality Determinants of the Effects of Participation, Englewood Cliffs

  3. Measurement of Air Force Environmental Protection Program Performance. (United States)


    Environmental Improvement. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1974. 36. Seneca, Joseph J. and Michael K. Taussig . Environmental Economics. Englewood Cliffs NJ...Responsibility. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980. 18. Deland, Michael R. "Environmental Auditing," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 509...November 1982). 19. Deland, Michael R. "EPA’s New Management Approach," Environmental Science and Technology, 16: 605 (November 1982). 20. DeMarco, Anthony

  4. The Concept of Fit in Contingency Theory. (United States)


    approach contains a logical error that severely limits its utility. Bateson (1979) has called this an error of logical typing. By reducing or...Environments, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-11all. Alexander, C. 1964 Notes on the Synthesis ot form, Boston: lijrvjid. Bateson , g. 1979 Mind and Nature, New...Robert Gregory USAFA/DFBL U.S. Air Force Academy, CO 80840 AFOSR/NL Building 410 Bolling AFB Was’.ngton, LC 23332 Department of the Air Force HOUSAF ,’N

  5. Deep Null Antennas and Their Applications to Tactical VHF Radio Communications (United States)


    simulations must be carried out over less than perfect grounds. Reviev; of the Antenna Engineering Handbook . Vol. I [Ref. 6] provided the needed...means of getting the desired phase and magnitude relationships was not found, and as mentioned in the ARRL Antenna Book [Ret: 3: pp. 8-l-l], a number of...Englewood Cliffs, ::\\J, 1968. 3. American Radio Relay League, The ARRL Antenna Book, 15th ed., American Ra- dio Relay League, ~e,Yington, CT, 1988. 4

  6. Describing Surfaces. (United States)


    York. Do Carmo , Manfredo P, [1976], Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, Prent- ice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Faugeras, 0. D., et. al, [1982...lightbulb. It is well-known (for exam~ple, do Carmo "" "..-’,.’.V .. .V...i ra I s ; ul ing-.. "’. Figure 11. The helicoid of a single blade. (Reproduced from [do Carmo 1976, Figure 2-27 Page 94]) where m and 1 are assumed

  7. The Dilemma Over Medical Command and Control (United States)


    6 Writings by Henri Fayol , Lyndall Urwick, and Fredrick Taylor, among others have led to the line and staff model. The definitions for line...and staff here are influenced by Robert McLaren, Organizational Dilemmas (London: John Wiley and Sons, 1982), 24; and Henry Mintzberg, Structure in...Dilemmas (London: John Wiley and Sons, 1982), 25; and Henry Mintzberg, Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice

  8. Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir, Missouri, Holocene Adaptations Within the Lower Pomme de Terre River Valley, Missouri. Volume 2. (United States)


    in lithic analysis . IN Culture Change and Continuity: Essays in Honor of James Bennett Griffin, edited by C. E. Cleland, pp. 19-33. Academic Kim...Voytek, A. Whitman 1974 Experimentation in the formation of edge damage: a new approach to lithic analysis . Journal of Field Archaeology 1(1&2):171-196...Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Wilmsen, E. H. 1970 Lithic analysis and cultural inference: a Paleo-Indian case. University of Arizona

  9. Prospects for Reenlistment of Prior-Service Personnel. (United States)


    abilities and characteris- tics in common ( Kotler 1980, Chapter 10). The several segments, in turn, should be distinguishable from one another...Klecka, W. R. Discriminant Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publica- tions, 1980. Kotler , P. Principles of Marketing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice...Library Naval War College Newport, RI 02940 Mr. Philip Bernard B-K Dynamics, Inc. 15825 Shady Grove Road Rockville, MD 20850 Dr. Bruce M. Meglino College of

  10. Verification and Planning for Stochastic Processes with Asynchronous Events (United States)


    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 38, no. 7: 1040–1059. Bartlett, M. S. 1966. An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Special Reference to...Artificial Intelligence, 875–881, Madison, Wisconsin. AAAI Press. Çinlar, Erhan. 1975. Introduction to Stochastic Processes . Englewood Cliffs, New... to Stochastic Processes . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Hoey, Jesse, Robert St-Aubin, Alan Hu, and Craig Boutilier. 1999. SPUDD: Stochastic

  11. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 1, in-situ measurements of flow dynamics, tracer particle movement and video imagery from the summer of 2009 (United States)

    McCoy, Scott W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Tucker, Greg E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.


    Debris flows initiated by surface-water runoff during short duration, moderate- to high-intensity rainfall are common in steep, rocky, and sparsely vegetated terrain. Yet large uncertainties remain about the potential for a flow to grow through entrainment of loose debris, which make formulation of accurate mechanical models of debris-flow routing difficult. Using a combination of in situ measurements of debris flow dynamics, video imagery, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders (PIT) and pre- and post-flow 2-cm resolution digital terrain models (terrain data presented in a companion paper by STALEY et alii, 2011), we investigated the entrainment and transport response of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, CO, USA. Four monitored events during the summer of 2009 all initiated from surface-water runoff, generally less than an hour after the first measurable rain. Despite reach-scale morphology that remained relatively constant, the four flow events displayed a range of responses, from long-runout flows that entrained significant amounts of channel sediment and dammed the main-stem river, to smaller, short-runout flows that were primarily depositional in the upper basin. Tracer-rock travel-distance distributions for these events were bimodal; particles either remained immobile or they travelled the entire length of the catchment. The long-runout, large-entrainment flow differed from the other smaller flows by the following controlling factors: peak 10-minute rain intensity; duration of significant flow in the channel; and to a lesser extent, peak surge depth and velocity. Our growing database of natural debris-flow events can be used to develop linkages between observed debris-flow transport and entrainment responses and the controlling rainstorm characteristics and flow properties.

  12. A View from the Sea-cliff. (United States)

    McKenzie, Hope Bussey

    Intended for college teachers and students of Anglo-Saxon literature, this paper provides an overview of the sophisticated poetic devices used by the "Beowulf" poet. The paper examines how old English words for color range in hues in a way that modern English words do not, and how these words for color are used in "Beowulf."…

  13. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for EPO (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Llamas, J.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers pertinent to our work. When launched, EduBites will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and will welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience. EduBites is still currently under development but, when launched, it will be found at

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. van Emst


    Full Text Available - S.L. van der Wal, Eunice Thio, British policy in the Malay Peninsula 1880-1910. Volume I, The Southern and Central states, University of Malaya Press, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur 1969. - D.K. Bassett, C.M. Turnbull, The Straits Settlements 1826-67: Indian Presidency to Crown Colony. The Athlone Press, London 1972. pp. x, 428. - L. Sluimers, B.R. O’G. Anderson, Java in a time of revolution: Occupation and resistance 1944-1946. Ithaca enz., Cornell University Press, 1972. - C. van Dijk, Margo L. Lyon, Bases of conflict in rural Java. Research Monograph Series, Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies. University of California, Berkeley, California, December 1970. 79 p. - Brian L. Foster, H.L. Shorto, A dictionary of the Mon inscriptions from the sixth to the sixteenth centuries. London: Oxford University Press (London Oriental Series. Volume 24, 1971. 406 p. - E. Jansen Schoonhoven, Philip van Akkeren, Sri and Christ. A study of the indigenous church in East Java. Lutterworth Press, London 1970. 229 p. - P. van Emst, S.H. Udy, Work in traditional and modern society. Modernization of traditional societies series. Prentice Hall, Inc. Engelwood Cliffs, N.J., 1970. Pp. IX & 134, tables, figs. - J. van Baal, Marilyn Strathern, Women in between. Female roles in a male world: Mount Hagen, New Guinea. Seminar Press, London & New York 1972, 372 p. - P. van Emst, David Lewis, We, the navigators. The ancient art of landfinding in the Pacific. Australian National University Press, Canberra 1972. XVIII & 345 pp., 63 figs., 13 plates, 7 maps.

  15. KANTBP 2.0: New version of a program for computing energy levels, reaction matrix and radial wave functions in the coupled-channel hyperspherical adiabatic approach (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Abrashkevich, A. G.


    (1983) 97-165. [5] C.D. Lin, Adv. Atom. Mol. Phys. 22 (1986) 77-142. [6] A.G. Abrashkevich, D.G. Abrashkevich, M. Shapiro, Comput. Phys. Commun. 90 (1995) 311-339. [7] M.G. Dimova, M.S. Kaschiev, S.I. Vinitsky, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 2337-2352. [8] O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, V.L. Derbov, M.S. Kaschiev, L.A. Melnikov, V.V. Serov, S.I. Vinitsky, J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 11485-11524. [9] O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, V.P. Gerdt, V.A. Rostovtsev, S.I. Vinitsky, A.G. Abrashkevich, M.S. Kaschiev, V.V. Serov, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178 (2007) 301 330; [10] H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke, C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A 327 (1987) 461-468. [11] V. Melezhik, Nucl. Phys. A 550 (1992) 223-234. [12] L. Bracci, G. Fiorentini, V.S. Melezhik, G. Mezzorani, P. Pasini, Phys. Lett. A 153 (1991) 456-460. [13] A.G. Abrashkevich, D.G. Abrashkevich, M.S. Kaschiev, I.V. Puzynin, Comput. Phys. Commun. 85 (1995) 40-64. [14] K.J. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1982.

  16. Social Context and Resources Available to Iranian Foreign Language Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi


    , 359–386. Palfreyman, D. (2006. Social Context and Resources for Language Learning. System, 34, 352-370. Palfreyman, D., (2003. Expanding the discourse on learner development: a reply to Anita Wenden. Applied Linguistics (24/2, 243–248. Pica, T., Doughty, C., (1988. Variation in classroom interaction as a function of participation pattern and task. In: Fine, J. (Ed., Second Language Discourse (pp. 82–105. Ablex, Norwood, NJ. Shayer, M., (2002. Not just Piaget, not just Vygotsky, and certainly not Vygotsky as an alternative to Piaget. In: Shayer, M., (Ed. Learning intelligence, cognitive acceleration across the curriculum from 5 to 15 years. UK: Open University Press. Spolsky, B., Gem, J.B. and Read, J. (1974. A Model for the Description, Analysis, and Perhaps Evaluation of Bilingual Education. Navajo Reading Study Progress Report No. 23. Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico. Stern, H.H. (1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. Tudge, J., Gray, J. T., & Hogan, D. M. (1997. Ecological perspectives in human development: A comparison of Gibson and Bronfenbrenner. In J. Tudge, M. J. Shanahan, & J. Valsiner (Eds., Comparisons of human development: Understanding time and context (pp. 72–105. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tudor, I., (2003. Learning to live with complexity: towards an ecological perspective on language teaching. System 31, 1–12. Turuk, M, C. (2008. The Relevance and Implications of Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory in the Second Language Classroom. ARECLS, 5, 244-262. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962. Thought and Language. Cambridge, Massachusetts, the M.I.T. Wenden, A., (1991. Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. Wertsch, J., (1985. Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. UK: Harvard University Press. Wertsch, J., (1985. Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. UK: Harvard University Press. Willing, K., (1988. Learning Strategies in Adult Migrant Education. National

  17. The Payun-Matru lava field: a source of analogues for Martian long lava flows (United States)

    Giacomini, L.; Pasquarè, G.; Massironi, M.; Frigeri, A.; Bistacchi, A.; Frederico, C.


    'Accademia dei Lincei, 9, 16 (3), 127-135.[2]Pasquaré G., Bistacchi A., Francalanci L.. Gigantic self-confined pahoehoe inflated lava flows in Argentina. Submitted to Terra Nova. [3]Self, S., Keszthelyi, L., Thordarson, Th., 1998. The Importance of Pahoehoe. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science, 26, 81-110. [4]Anderson T., 1910. The volcano of Matavanu in Savaii. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal, 66, 621-639. [5] Walker, G.P.L., 1991. Structure and origin by injection of lava under surface crust, of tumuli, "lava rises", "lava rise pits", and "lava inflation clefts" in Hawaii. Bulletin of Volcanology, 53, 546-558. [6] Hon, K, Kauahikaua, J., Denlinger, R., Mackay, K., 1994. Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: Observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 106, 351-370. [7] Llambias, E., 1966. Geología y petrográfica del Volcán Payún-Matru. Acta Geológica Lill., VIII: 265-310. Instituto Lillo, Universidad Nacional Tucumán. Tucumán. [8] Zimbelman, J. R., 1998. Emplacement of long lava flows on planetary surface. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 27503- 27516. [9] Smith, D. E. et al., 1999. The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution. Science, 284, 1495-1503. [10] Glaze L.S., Anderson S.W., Stofan E.R., Baloga S., Smrekar S. E, 2005. Statistical distribution of tumuli on pahoehoe flow surfaces: analysis of examples in Hawaii and Iceland and potential application to lava flows on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 110, B08202, doc: 10.1029/2004JB003564. [11] MacDonald, 1972. Volcanoes. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs. 510 pp.

  18. Analyse géotechnique et évaluation du risque lié à l’instabilité le long de la falaise du quartier Hassan (Rabat-Maroc Geotechnical analysis and evaluation of the instability risk along the Hassan district cliff (Rabat-Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahedi Kh.


    Full Text Available Située à l’intérieur du domaine urbain, la falaise du quartier Hassan montre des instabilités de terrain matérialisées par des chutes et écroulements de blocs. Ces phénomènes constituent un grand risque sur des enjeux humains, économiques, culturels et environnementaux. L’intensité de cette instabilité dépend des effets conjugués des différents aspects analysés dans ce travail à savoir : la lithologie, le contexte géotectonique, les surfaces de discontinuités notamment la fracturation. Les essais géotechniques effectués au laboratoire permettent l’identification et la caractérisation du comportement mécanique des formations superficielles constituant la falaise ainsi que son substratum marneux. Le degré d’activité de ce phénomène, plus ou moins remarquable, est mis en évidence par l’analyse et l’observation de terrain et par l’étude comparative des photos aériennes de différentes missions. La combinaison de ces différentes études permet d’établir une carte de synthèse qui donne une évaluation du risque dans ce secteur. The studied area is a case inside the urban domain that shows instabilities of ground along the cliff of Hassan district (Rabat- Morocco, materialized by rock falls and block collapses. These phenomena constitute a great risk on human, economic, cultural and environmental stakes. The intensity of this instability depends on the combined effects of different factors analyzed in this work such as the lithology nature, the geotectonic context, and the surfaces of discontinuities in particular those of fracturing. Geotechnical tests carried at the laboratory allow the identification and the characterization of the mechanical behaviour of the superficial formations constituting this cliff as well as its marly bedrock. The degree of activity of this phenomenon is highlighted by analysis and direct observation on the field and by a comparative study of the multi-dated aerial photos. The

  19. 古典诗词的现代接受效应——以《念奴娇·赤壁怀古》对电影《赤壁》的影响为例%Modern Adaptation of Classic Poems --On the Influence of Niart Nu Jiao Chi Bi Huai Gu on the Film Chi Bi Cliff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    自古以来关于赤壁的诗词歌赋吟咏颇多,苏东坡的《念奴娇·赤壁怀古》是其中最具有代表性的作品。词中隐括的故事元素、情绪和史观早已深入人心,成为吴宇森电影《赤壁》剧本改编的重要精神依据。诗意表达的充分利用提升了影片《赤壁》的表现张力,使古典意味更浓重,并使影片在人物塑造、故事构思、声画效果、主题思想上都得到了更为便捷有力且深刻的阐释,同时也开拓了新时代对于词境活用的新领域和词学接受的新范畴。%There are a lot of poems on po~ray Chi Bi Cliff since ancient times. Nian Nu Jiao Chi Bi Huai Gu Written by SU Dongpo is one of the most representative works. Story elements, emotions and history hidden in this poem enjoy popular support, and they has become the important spiritual basis of screenplay adaptation of Chi Bi Cliff made by WU Yusen. The full use of poetic expressions makes the film more expressive and bear classic style, which not only makes all the characters, sto- ries, sound and picture effects, and the themes of the film more expressive, but also expands the new field of use and enjoyment of the Chinese classic poetry in new era.

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    sourced from Paul Leedy and Jeanne Ornrod, Practical Research: Planning and Design, 8th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Merrill , Prentice each distinct area 173 Adam Crowe , “National Strike Teams: An Alternative Approach to work really Gets Done in Organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006. Crowe , Adam. “National Strike Teams: An Alternative

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    From Theory to Implementation, Pearson /Addison-Wesley (2004) B.W. Boehm, Software Engineering Economics, Prentice Hall (1981) 70% Requirements...transformations – Fault propagation and Transformation Calculus (FPTC) from York U. • Focus on fault behavior of components – Probabilistic typed error

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    calculus to determine the maximum and minimum points for functions that are unconstrained and constrained. The theory does provide the basis for most...Operations Research - An Introduction, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Thompson, M. (2002, December 23). Iraq: The Great Scud

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    IEEE, Bogota , Colombia, 2011. [10] Bertsekas, Dimitri P. “Nondifferentiable optimization via approximation”. Mathematical Programming Studies, 3:1...and Differnetial Forms. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River , NJ, 1999. [40] Isaacson, Douglas and J.E. Robinson III. “A knowledge-based conflict

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    Wickens, & Chudy, 2000), in battlefield displays (Wickens, Thomas, Merlo , & Hah, 1999), and in data visualization (McCormick et al., 1998). Select ing...human performance (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Wickens, C. D., Thomas, L., Merlo , J., & Hah, S. (1999). Immersion and battlefield

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    Snell , Dean, & Lepak, 1996). The ability to manage human capital and convert it into useful productivity is a critical skill for executive management...Performance measurement and control systems for implementing strategy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Youndt, S. A., Snell , A. S., Dean, J. W

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    level tasks as reading comprehension ( Perfetti & Lesgold, 1977) or even the amount of Information estimated to be represented in primary or secondary...Prentice-Hall. II ~ Perfetti , C.A. &Lesgold, A.M. (1977). Discourse comprehension and sources of individual differences. In M. A. Just & P. A. Carpenter

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    Logistics Engineering and Management , Prentice Hall, Fourth Edition, 1992 Heizer , J.H. and Render, B., Production and Operations Management ; Strategic...production, inventory managers , purchasing, schedulers, and customers to plan their activities based on the same master schedule. The operating and...material usage by operation or activity as defined by production management ; • Review and negotiate workloads and establish budgets for forecasted

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    346. 5. Op. cit., Hoel and Jessen, p. 226. 6. Stremler , F. G., Introduction to Communications Systems, p. 30, Addison-Wesley, 1977. 7. Ibid., p. 32...8. Oppenheim, A. V. and Schafer, R. W., Digital Signal Pro- cessing, p. 29, Prentice-Hall, 1975. 9. Op. cit., Stremler , p. 130. 77 *m - * .] INITIAL

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    the Southern California Bight: bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ), short- and long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and D. capensis...architectures used in the PAM boards of each instrument. 8 REFERENCES Haykin, S. 2002. Adaptive Filter Theory. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River

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    Droppo, J., Acero , A., 2005. Dynamic compensation of HMM variances using the feature enhancement uncertainty computed from a parametric model of speech...analysis. IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 15, 396–405. Huang, X., Acero , A., Hon, H., 2001. Spoken Language Processing. Prentice Hall

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    vocalizations, including minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), blue (B. musculus), and humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) whales. Odontocete clicks. The...ASSP Magazine: 4-16. Rabiner, L.R., and B.H. Juang. (1993). Fundamentals of Speech Recognition. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River , New Jersey

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    this, described in detail by Askeland [Ref. 5:p. 2813 are: 1) Solution treatment 2) Quenching 3) Aging. Dispersion strengthening is accomplished...Prentice-Hall, 1984. 4. Dieter, G.E., Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill, 1976. 5. Askeland , D.R., The Science and Engineering of Materials, Brooks/Cole

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    SimSat I provided a solid platform for research, by 2007 it was beginning to show its age. To quote Roach, Rohe, and Welty : 12 SIMSAT (I) did have...Katsuhiko Ogata. Modern Control Engineering. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 4th edition, 2002. 172 25. Neal R. Roach, Wayne C. Rohe, and Nathan F. Welty . A

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    oxygen [ Colmenares , 1984]. This oxidation rate has been reported in the time frame of minutes to hours. During the preparation of the UO2 powder...Science (Seventh Edition). Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1997. Colmenares , C., Oxidation Mechanisms and Catalytic Properties of the Actinides, Progress in

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    beam could be aligned to the module ( Tipler , 1987). Recommendations Preliminary research has indicated that in the long run the laser band ECM...Communications and Networks, Second Edition. Prentice Hall, September 2010. Tipler , P. A. College Physics. New York: Worth, 1987. 42 THIS PAGE

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    and the characteristic length is 44.45 mm. Finally, the convection coefficient is calculated to be 298 W/m2*K. Incropera and Dewitt note that...Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity (4th ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2003. [11] F. P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt

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    The higher the price of a product, the better its quality. 0,59. 0,74. 0,50. 0,27 ...... brand sensitivity among adolescents. Journal of ... 5th ed. Upper. Saddle River, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall. LYONSKI, S, DURVASULA, S & ZOTOS, Y. 1996.

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    Physical Chemistry, vol, 64, pp, 1643-1648, 1960. 49. Prausnitz, J. M., E. Azevedo and R. Litchenthaler, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase E ,uilibri 2nd edition, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1986, I•8 "’•86 N1

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    hydration process proceeds after the initial contact of water and binder material ( Mindess and Young 1981). The designated values of initial and final... Mindess , S., and J. F. Young 1981. Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey. Mr. Patrick Watson. 2006. Communication. Stroup, T., D. Reed, and G. M

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    concepts that provide cohesion and focus. Second, 9James Brian Quinn, "Strategies for Change," in Readings in the Strategy Process, ed. Henry Mintzberg Henry Mintzberg and James Brian Quinn, 3-10. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1998. Schifferle, Peter J. America’s School for War: Fort

  1. Radar detection

    CERN Document Server

    DiFranco, Julius


    This book presents a comprehensive tutorial exposition of radar detection using the methods and techniques of mathematical statistics. The material presented is as current and useful to today's engineers as when the book was first published by Prentice-Hall in 1968 and then republished by Artech House in 1980. The book is divided into six parts.

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    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

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    Varun Lalchandani, Prasanna Sukumar, and Alejandro Talavera at OPNET in Bethesda, Maryland. They provided exceptional support, debugging the network...Communication –9th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice-Hall Publishing, 2011. [39] Meeting at OPNET Bethesda April 2011: Alejandro Talavera ...Prasanna Sukumar OPNET Bethesda, Maryland 11. Varun Lalchandani OPNET Bethesda, Maryland 90 12. Alejandro Talavera OPNET Bethesda, Maryland

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    IDEMILI (a film by Earnest Obi) has violated the character called woman, in its guise to ... the cable television networks or as a digital versatile disc/the digital video disc (DVD) .... In another development, where the king insists the prince take certain ..... Psychology: Eleventh Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private. Limited, New ...

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    Dr. Alan W. Johnson (Chairman) date ____________________________________ Lieutenant Colonel...faculty advisor, Dr. Alan W. Johnson, for his guidance and support throughout the course of this thesis effort. His insight and experience was...Prentice Hall, 2005. Berkowitz, D., Gupta, J.N.D., Simpson, J.T., and McWilliams , J. “Defining and Implementing Performance Based Logistics in

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    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

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    concept of multiple resources is easily adept to account for new data simply by adding another dimension ( Kantowitz , 1987). 11 Manual Vocal R eponses...D. (1973). Attention and effort. New Jersey; Prentice Hall. Kantowitz , B. H. (1987). Mental workload. In P. A. Hancock (Ed.), Human Factors

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    ed. 2004, Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. 13. Grady, J.O., System Requirements Analysis. 1993, Boston: McGraw -Hill. 14. Leedy , P.D. and J.E... Ormrod , Practical Research: Planning and Design. 7th ed. 2001, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. 15. Defence White Paper 2009. 2009

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    archive, University of St Andrews. [8] Cengel Yunus A., Cimbala John M., “Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, McGraw-Hill”, 2006 [9...Gas Dynamics”, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006 [25] Dynalene Inc., HC series data sheet, accessed 2014 [26] Cengel Y. A., “Heat and Mass Transfer


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    societies is replaced with a culture of non-violence and peace. This requires ..... This attitude engenders many of the cases of domestic violence or micro-level ..... 28 William K. Frankena, Ethics, New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India. Ltd., 1995, p.

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    1994, "Extracting Culture through Textual Analysis." Poetics, 22: 291-312. Kathleen M.Carley and David Kaufer , 1993, "Semantic Connectivity: An...Speech and Language Processing. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. David Kaufer and Kathleen M.Carley, 1993, "Condensation Symbols: Their

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    34Extracting Culture through Textual Analysis." Poetics, 22: 291-312. Kathleen M.Carley and David Kaufer , 1993, "Semantic Connectivity: An Approach for...Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. David Kaufer and Kathleen M.Carley, 1993, "Condensation Symbols: Their Variety and Rhetorical Function in

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    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

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    compliments like ―you are beautiful‖, ―this food is appetizing‖- ―I love .... Ambakederemo, E. T. (2005): Assessment of Factors Responsible ... Benokraitis, N. V. (1996) Marriage and Families: Changes, Choice and Constraints. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Birdwhistell in Fast, J. (1970); Bodily Language, New York. Evans.

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    Publishing Company, Inc., 1984. Bathe, Klaus -Jurgen, Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analy- sis, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1982. deckurts, K.H...Hall, 1969. Oden, J. T., Finite Elements of NonLinear Continua. New York: Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1972. Oden, J.T., "Theory of Conjugate Projections

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    determinant +1, -1 or 0, which holds for the assignment problem ( Bazaraa et al., 1990). The Unimodularity Theorem states for an integer matrix A with...Prentice-Hall, 1993. 2. Air Force Instruction 36-2110, Assignments, 20 April 2005. 3. Bazaraa , Mokhtar S., Jarvis, John J. and Sherali, Hanif D

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    Jersey: Prentice Hall . Bourgeois, Paul, Bradley Kelley, John Petrusky, John Williamson, and Jonathan Yi. 2015. “Transportation Analysis Exploring... Stuart . 2004. “Seabasing and Ship-to-Objective-Maneuver An Analysis of These Concepts and Their Implications for the Joint Commander.” USAWC

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    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ (A Philosophy of Music Education: Advancing the Vision) (第3版),[美]贝内特·雷默(Bennett Reimer)著上萨德尔河,新泽西;梅黑尔/普伦蒂斯-霍尔出版社(Upper Saddle River,NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall)/2003.

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    Woods and Stark [26], Leon-Garcia [27], and Papoulis and Pillai [28]. A more detailed treatment of the noise analysis for analog modulation provided in...Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering. Prentice Hall, 1993. [28] A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and

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    were calculated from finite element output [16]. Principal Plane Stresses. A summary of the principal stresses as explained by Hibbeler ...Aerospace Research and Development, Advisory Report 8, 1967. 11 Hibbeler , R. C., Mechanics of Materials. Upper Saddle River N.J., Prentice Hall, pp

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    objectives, and because of their 26 Kotler Philip and Keller Kevin Lane, Marketing Management 12e...pp. 143-156. Kotler , Philip and Keller, Kevin Lane. Marketing Management 12e, Prentice Hall, 2005. NPS Academic Catalog 2007. NPS Registrar Office


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    been described as a financial market for long-term maturity financial assets such as ... 7 H.E. Dougali, Capital Market and Institutions (New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. 1975) p 3. .... (cc) advise the minister on all matters relating to the securities.

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    York: Academic, 1974. (201 J. Dugundji , Topology. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 1966. [31 S. L. Campbell and N. J. Rose, "Singular perturbation of...Linear Systems over Comutative Rings, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1986. (18] J. R. Munkres, Topology: A First Course, Prentice-Hall. 1975. (19] James Dugundji

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  6. ODPEVP: A program for computing eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and their first derivatives with respect to the parameter of the parametric self-adjoined Sturm-Liouville problem (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Abrashkevich, A. G.


    accompanies this paper took 2 s with calculation of matrix potentials on the Intel Pentium IV 2.4 GHz. References:O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, A.G. Abrashkevich, A. Amaya-Tapia, M.S. Kaschiev, S.Y. Larsen, S.I. Vinitsky, Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 649-675 O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, S.I. Vinitsky, A.G. Abrashkevich, Comput. Phys. Comm. 179 (2008) 685-693. W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986. O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, S.I. Vinitsky, V.L. Derbov, L.A. Melnikov, V.V. Serov, Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 034702-1-4. E.M. Kazaryan, A.A. Kostanyan, H.A. Sarkisyan, Physica E 28 (2005) 423-430. Yu.N. Demkov, J.D. Meyer, Eur. Phys. J. B 42 (2004) 361-365. P.M. Krassovitskiy, N.Zh. Takibaev, Bull. Russian Acad. Sci. Phys. 70 (2006) 815-818. V.S. Melezhik, J.I. Kim, P. Schmelcher, Phys. Rev. A 76 (2007) 053611-1-15. F.M. Pen'kov, Phys. Rev. A 62 (2000) 044701-1-4. M. Born, X. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954. L.V. Kantorovich, V.I. Krylov, Approximate Methods of Higher Analysis, Wiley, New York, 1964. U. Fano, Colloq. Int. C.N.R.S. 273 (1977) 127;A.F. Starace, G.L. Webster, Phys. Rev. A 19 (1979) 1629-1640. C.V. Clark, K.T. Lu, A.F. Starace, in: H.G. Beyer, H. Kleinpoppen (eds.), Progress in Atomic Spectroscopy, Part C, Plenum, New York, 1984, pp. 247-320. O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, V.L. Derbov, M.S. Kaschiev, L.A. Melnikov, V.V. Serov, S.I. Vinitsky, J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 11485-11524. A.G. Abrashkevich, D.G. Abrashkevich, M.S. Kaschiev, I.V. Puzynin, Comput. Phys. Comm. 85 (1995) 40-64. K.J. Bathe, Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1982. O. Chuluunbaatar, A.A. Gusev, M.S. Kaschiev, V.A. Kaschieva, A. Amaya-Tapia, S.Y. Larsen, S.I. Vinitsky, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 243-269. Yu.A. Kuperin, P.B. Kurasov, Yu.B. Melnikov, S.P. Merkuriev, Ann. Phys. 205

  7. Golden Peaks and Perilous Cliffs: Rethinking Ohio's Teacher Pension System (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael


    In response to a journalist inquiry regarding research on funding of Ohio's teacher retirement system and its effect on school district finances, this analysis by the Thomas B. Fordham Institute points to serious questions and profound concerns about the health of Ohio's teacher pension system, and that similar time bombs may be ticking in other…

  8. From Red Cliffs to Chosin: The Chinese Way of War (United States)


    Mandarin language, based on the phonetic pronunciation of its words, and provides the approved modern spellings for Mandarin Chinese using the Roman...the Authentic Tao Te Ching and the Inner Teachings of Chuang Tzu, (New York: Castle Books, 1992), 10. 17 would be victorious is like water. Now...Secret Teachings described strategic patience as essential to military excellence. According to T’ai Kung, “One who excels at warfare will await events

  9. Cliff nesting raptors of the Kisaralik River, western Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For three consecutive years (1977 - 79), about 79 km (49 mi) of Alaskan river canyons were surveyed for raptors by helicopter. Occupation of eight breeding...

  10. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  11. The End of an Era...Falling off a Cliff (United States)

    Zmuda, Allison


    This article is an adaptation of a speech, "Leading the Transformation of Education for the 21st-Century," given by Allison Zmuda at the American Library Association National Conference in Washington D.C. on June 26, 2010, for the American Association of School Librarian's President's Program. In her speech, Allison poses a challenge to school…

  12. CliffsNotes Algebra II QuickReview

    CERN Document Server

    Kohn, Edward


    Delivers the appropriate amount of expert coverage on Algebra II topics for consumers who need a supplement to a standard Algebra II text; who need to prepare for exams; or who need to brush up on the fundamentals of Algebra II; Chapter Check-In gives readers an overview of what they'll learn in the chapter; Chapter Check-Out reviews the chapter to enforce the items learned and help with comprehension; Review section is a summary test on all chapter topics in the book -- great tool for teachers and students; Resource Center directs reader to additional information available for the subject suc

  13. Extreme wave run-up on a vertical cliff

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Francesco; Dudley, John M; Dias, Frédéric


    Wave impact and run-up onto vertical obstacles are among the most important phenomena which must be taken into account in the design of coastal structures. From linear wave theory, we know that the wave amplitude on a vertical wall is twice the incident wave amplitude with weakly nonlinear theories bringing small corrections to this result. In this present study, however, we show that certain simple wave groups may produce much higher run-ups than previously predicted, with particular incident wave frequencies resulting in run up heights exceeding the initial wave amplitude by a factor of 5, suggesting that the notion of the design wave used in coastal structure design may need to be revisited. The results presented in this study can be considered as a note of caution for practitioners, on one side, and as a challenging novel material for theoreticians who work in the field of extreme wave - coastal structure interaction.

  14. Funding Survival Toolkit: 3 Fiscal Cliff Myths, Debunked (United States)

    House, Jenny


    In the face of annual budget deficits, sequestration means automatic, across-the-board spending cuts to all federal agencies. This drastic step allows Congress to limit the size of the budget and gives it the right to make mandatory cuts if the cost of running the government exceeds the cap. On March 1, we all watched as Congress was unable to…

  15. Cooperation and competition in a cliff-dwelling people. (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I


    In animals that breed cooperatively, adult individuals will sometimes delay reproduction to act as helpers at the nest who raise young that are not their genetic offspring. It has been proposed that humans are also a cooperatively breeding species because older daughters, grandmothers, and other kin and nonkin may provide significant childcare. Through a prospective cohort study of children's (n = 1,700) growth and survival in the Dogon of Mali, I show that cooperative breeding theory is a poor fit to the family dynamics of this population. Rather than helping each other, siblings competed for resources, producing a tradeoff between the number of maternal siblings and growth and survival. It did not take a village to raise a child; children fared the same in nuclear as in extended families. Of critical importance was the degree of polygyny, which created conflicts associated with asymmetries in genetic relatedness. The risk of death was higher and the rate of growth was slower in polygynous than monogamous families. The hazard of death for Dogon children was twofold higher if the resident paternal grandmother was alive rather than dead. This finding may reflect the frailty of elderly grandmothers who become net consumers rather than net producers in this resource-poor society. Mothers were of overwhelming importance for child survival and could not be substituted by any category of kin or nonkin. The idea of cooperative breeding taken from animal studies is a poor fit to the complexity and diversity of kin interactions in humans.

  16. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for E/PO (United States)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers relevant to our work. EduBites is a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database is small, but growing, and will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience.

  17. STEMdex: CliffsNotes for Education and Public Outreach (United States)

    Bartolone, L.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Brinkworth, C.; Hurt, R. L.; Llamas, J.; Squires, G. K.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.


    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community's knowledge and understanding of the educational research pertinent to our work. STEMdex will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by educators and researchers, and posted for the entire community to use. While we know we should base our EPO work on a solid research foundation, many people have limited time when it comes to staying on top of the literature. STEMdex aims to reduce that workload. Our database will summarize papers across the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, pedagogy, evaluation, and other topics.

  18. Geophysical monitoring of coastal erosion and cliff retreat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    figures were determined for sediment erosion and accretion, the rate of .... system where a GPS antenna height is used to define the shape of shore .... east with the beach composition grading from a more rocky undulose substrate to the sandy.

  19. Peaks, Cliffs and Valleys: The Peculiar Incentives of Teacher Pensions (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael


    Pensions have long been an important part of compensation for teachers in public schools. However, the incentive structures of teacher pension systems are not widely understood, even though they can have powerful effects on the composition of the teaching force and on public finance. In their research, the authors have found that teacher pension…

  20. BigVocab® A Dictionary-Based Guide to Metrologically Authoritative Vocabulary Testing and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oliphant


    Full Text Available ABOUT THE AUTHOR...Currently a columnist with, Oliphant is a Stanford PhD whose best known book is A Piano for Mrs. Cimino (Prentice Hall, Reader’s Digest USA, Canada, and Australia, which was also (same title an award winning film (Monte Carlo starring Bette Davis.His journalistic articles have appeared in the New York Times, New York Review of Books, Christian Science Monitor, and Los Angeles Times; his academic articles have appeared in Antioch Review, Virginia Quarterly, Midwest Quarterly, and other journals. Earlier works include The Harley Glossary (Mouton and the novel A Trumpet for Jackie (Prentice Hall.Ebooks currently available without charge from Nonpartisan Education Review:

  1. Games of Strategy: Theory and Applications (United States)


    34 Games of Strategy : Theory and Applications," originally published by Prentice Hall in 1961, was written by Melvin Dresher, a RAND research...paperback and digital formats. The author presents in an elementary and formal manner the mathematical theory of games of strategy and some of its...universities. The book starts in Chapter 1 with an exposition of games of strategy , with examples taken from parlor games as well as from military games

  2. Intrusion Detection for Defense at the MAC and Routing Layers of Wireless Networks (United States)


    Prentice-Hall, 1995. [19] A. Wald and J. Wolfowitz , “Optimum character of the sequential probability ratio test,” Ann. Math. Statist., vol. 19, pp. 326...false alarm and miss respectively. This mathematical setup was first proposed by Wald in [17], where he also introduced the Sequential Probability Ratio...getieee802/ [17] A. Wald , Sequential Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1947. [18] C. W. Helstrom, Elements of signal detection and estimation

  3. 评"Fundamentals of Vibrations"(Meirovitch 著)%Comment on Meirovitch's "Fundamentals of Vibrations"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Leonard Meirovitch教授的(Fundamentals of Vibrations,McGraw-Hill,2001)近年来被多所国外高校采纳为研究生的教材.Meirovitch教授撰写过多部不同层次的振动教材,除将评介的书外,还包括(Macmillan,1967),(McGraw-Hill,1970,1985),(PrenticeHall,1997).

  4. Development of Adaptive Tilt Tracker that Utilizes QUAD-cell Detector to Track Extended Objects (United States)


    21] K. Ogata , Discrete-Time Control Systems 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995 [22] R. McGuigan, “Effect of Coudé...Tracker/QUAD-cell Control Problem ..................................132 5.1.5 Recommending Adaptive Tracker Capabilities...detector’s frame rate and the control loop gain to reduce tracker error in real-time [2]. In 2010, the SOR upgraded its tilt tracker system along with the

  5. Assessment of Governor Control Parameter Settings of a Submarine Diesel Engine (United States)


    University of Technology 15. Ogata , K. (1997) Modern control engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall 16. DiStephano, J., Stubberud, A. and...UNCLASSIFIED Assessment of Governor Control Parameter Settings of a Submarine Diesel Engine Peter Hield and Michael Newman...generators to provide power for propulsion and the hotel load. The governor, often a proportional-integral controller , attempts to maintain a constant

  6. Passive Autonomous Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals with Seagliders (United States)


    odontocetes recorded in the Southern California Bight: bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ), short- and long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis...Bell, Julie Rivers ) about deploying this acoustically-equipped Seaglider for marine mammal monitoring at sites of interest to the Navy, particularly...Haykin, S. 2002. Adaptive Filter Theory. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River . Hu, Y. and Loizou, P. 2002. A subspace approach for enhancing speech

  7. Automatic Detection of Beaked Whales from Acoustic Seagliders (United States)


    the Southern California Bight: bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ), short- and long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and D. capensis...behavioral observation, and other applications that we have not yet anticipated. We are in contact with Navy personnel (Sean Hanser, Joel Bell, Julie Rivers ...REFERENCES Haykin, S. 2002. Adaptive Filter Theory. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River . Hu, Y. and Loizou, P. 2002. A subspace approach for enhancing

  8. Rapid Fatigue Life Projection for Thermal and Acoustic Loads (United States)


    histories of displacement and stresses. These time histories correspond to the response of a single well Duffing oscillator , the displacements and stresses...Applications, Prentice Hall, 1987. 4. Yang, B., Mignolet, M.P., and S.M. Spottswood, “Modeling of Damage Accumulation for Duffing Oscillator validated using a set of 57 time histories of displacement and stresses. These time histories correspond to the response of a single well Duffing

  9. Staying Prepared for the Joint Commission: Restructuring for Continuous Accreditation, Reynolds Army Community Hospital (United States)


    Joint Commission Information Book. Robbins, S.P. (1998). Organizational Behavoir . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Shortell, S.M. and Kaluzny...Management Project May 17, 2001 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this

  10. Homeland Security Collaboration: Catch Phrase or Preeminent Organizational Construct? (United States)


    Thesis Advisor Glen Woodbury Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chairman, Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE...Barry Berman and Joel R. Evans define gap analysis as the tool that “Enables a company to compare its actual performance against its potential...Management: A Strategic Approach 7/E, Barry Berman and Joel R Evans,” Prentice Hall, (accessed

  11. A Model for Understanding the Relationship Between Transaction Costs and Acquisition Cost Breaches (United States)


    become a research sponsor, or to print additional copies of reports, please contact any of the staff listed on the Acquisition Research Program...the Root Cause: Nunn-McCurdy Breaches in Major Defense Acquisition Programs Bill Shelton, RAND Corporation Irv Blickstein, RAND Corporation Jerry...and Wolter J. Fabrycky. 2010. Systems Engineering and Analysis. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Blickstein, Irv , Michael Boito

  12. Geometric Modeling Application Interface Program (United States)


    Manual IDEF-Extended ( IDEFIX ) Integrated Information Support System (IISS), ICAM Project 6201, Contract F33615-80-C-5155, December 1985. Interim...Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, M. P. de Carmo, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976. IDEFIX Readers Reference, D. Appleton Company, December 1985...Modeling. IDEFI -- IDEF Information Modeling. IDEFIX -- IDEF Extended Information Modeling. IDEF2 -- IDEF Dynamics Modeling. IDSS -- Integrated Decision

  13. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs (United States)


    P. (2001). Supply chain management: Strategy, planning, and operation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Desai, P., Kekre, S., Radhakrishnan, S...from commonality costs. We then propose a unique cost-effectiveness model to assess value in joint programs from a broader portfolio perspective ...We then propose a unique cost-effectiveness model to assess value in joint programs from a broader portfolio perspective . Finally, we apply our

  14. Development of High Quality 4H-SiC Thick Epitaxy for Reliable High Power Electronics Using Halogenated Precursors (United States)


    1967). [9] James E. Huheey, Inorganic Chemistry Principles of structure and reactivity, Prentice Hall, p.694 (1972). [10] Collins, W. 2000. Silicon...summary of the most significant information. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS. Key words or phrases identifying major concepts in the report. 16. SECURITY...1) above. Therefore, an objective of this research is to conduct in-depth research on the development of new CVD concepts based on new gas

  15. A Comparative Assessment of Knowledge Management Education Across the United States Department of Defense (United States)


    Organizational Elements Conducive to KM (Holsapple and Joshi, 1998) ... 8 Table 3 – Qualitative Approach Characteristics ( Leedy and Ormrod , 2005...addressing KM education could be located. 13 Table 3 – Qualitative Approach Characteristics ( Leedy and Ormrod , 2005) Question Qualitative...Research report, New York, NY. Leedy , P.D. and Ormrod , J.E. (2005), Practical Research: Planning and Design (8th ed.), Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall

  16. Choice and Change of Measures in Performance-Measurement Models (United States)


    reliability ( Miles & Huberman , 1994). Coding discrepancies were reconciled by consensus. The consensus coding supports the reported qualitative analyses...For a complete discussion of insuring coding reliability, see Malina and Selto (2001). 11 Miles and Huberman (1994) provide extensive control systems: Text and cases. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Miles , M.B. & Huberman , A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis

  17. A Pareto Approach to Lossy Matching (United States)


    provided by Pozar [16, Eq. 11.13]: GT = |s21|2 (1− |sG|2)(1− |sL|2) |1− sGs1|2|1− s22sL|2 . (3) The transducer power gain is tightly linked to the power...York, NY. [16] Pozar , David M. [1998] Microwave Engineering, third edition, Prentice- Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. [17] Schwartz, David F. and J. C

  18. Understanding Market Segments and Competition in the Private Military Industry (United States)


    Kotler , 2008, p . 249). Item 2 and Items 8-10 of the questionnaire attempted to capture the market niche/s that the respondents’ reportedly...Institute Press. Kotler , P ., & Keller, K.L. (2009). Marketing management (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Kruse, K. (2009...Likert scale, and importance scale) and “open-end” (unstructured) questions ( Kotler , 2009, p .137). We applied parts of the Tailored Design Method

  19. The Software Maintenance Spectrum: Using More than Just New Toys (United States)


    Deitel & Deitel , How to Program Java , Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998. Bjarne Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, ATT Bell Labs, New...languages such as Ada, Java , and C++ provide the programmer with many more tools for abstraction.8 If the application being modeled is an airplane, the Object- 20 Oriented Paradigm with such languages as Ada, Java , and C++.3 Recently, restructuring tools have been developed to convert modules

  20. An Interactive Decision Support System for Scheduling Fighter Pilot Training (United States)


    151. 7. Deitel , H.M. and Deitel , P.J. C: How to Program, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, 1994. 8. Deitel , H.M. and Deitel , P.J. How to Program Java suited to be utilized. The three object-oriented programming languages considered are C++, Java , and MS Visual Basic. The most compelling...reasons to use Visual Basic over Java and C++ are ease of application integration, relatively quick learning time, and availability of host environment