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Sample records for prenatal smoking exposure

  1. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  2. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

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    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  3. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

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    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke modulates the development of white matter microstructure.

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    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Picciotto, Marina R; Heath, Christopher J; Frost, Stephen J; Tsou, Kristen A; Dwan, Rita A; Jackowski, Marcel P; Constable, Robert T; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-12-05

    Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been linked to cognitive and auditory processing deficits in offspring. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that exposure to nicotine disrupts neurodevelopment during gestation and adolescence, possibly by disrupting the trophic effects of acetylcholine. Given recent clinical and preclinical work suggesting that neurocircuits that support auditory processing may be particularly vulnerable to developmental disruption by nicotine, we examined white matter microstructure in 67 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. The groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, IQ, years of parent education, or symptoms of inattention. Diffusion tensor anisotropy and anatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired, and auditory attention was assessed, in all subjects. Both prenatal exposure and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in anterior cortical white matter. Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Nicotine-induced disruption of the development of auditory corticofugal fibers may interfere with the ability of these fibers to modulate ascending auditory signals, leading to greater noise and reduced efficiency of neurocircuitry that supports auditory processing.

  5. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified...... with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four...... groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds...

  6. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

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    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  7. Association of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to household smoking with dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children.

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    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Chisato; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between smoking exposure and dental caries are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition in young Japanese children. Study subjects were 6412 children aged 3 years. Information on exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure at home was collected via parent questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with never smoking during pregnancy, maternal smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in children (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.80). Postnatal SHS exposure was also positively associated with dental caries, with a significant positive exposure-response relationship. Compared with children not exposed to prenatal maternal smoking or postnatal SHS at home, those exposed to both prenatal and postnatal smoking had higher odds of dental caries (adjusted odds ratio=1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.11). Our findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure may be associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

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    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

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    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  10. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

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    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  11. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

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    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  13. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...... and midgestation. We identified 139 CP cases including 121 cases of spastic CP (sCP) as confirmed by the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Self-reported vaginal...

  14. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  15. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain.

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    Puig, Carme; Vall, Oriol; García-Algar, Oscar; Papaseit, Esther; Pichini, Simona; Saltó, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R

    2012-04-05

    Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to

  16. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  17. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure...... in utero was evaluated by using a logistic regression model with pregnancy outcome of each cycle in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds ratio. After adjustment for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases in female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual...

  18. Effect of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke on inhibitory control: neuroimaging results from a 25-year prospective study.

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    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence relating maternal smoking during pregnancy to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without elucidating specific mechanisms. Research investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of this disorder has implicated deficits during response inhibition. Attempts to uncover the effect of prenatal exposure to nicotine on inhibitory control may thus be of high clinical importance. To clarify the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (hereafter referred to as prenatal smoking) on the neural circuitry of response inhibition and its association with related behavioral phenotypes such as ADHD and novelty seeking in the mother's offspring. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the offspring at 25 years of age during a modified Eriksen flanker/NoGo task, and voxel-based morphometry was performed to study brain volume differences of the offspring. Prenatal smoking (1-5 cigarettes per day [14 mothers] or >5 cigarettes per day [24 mothers]) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were determined using standardized parent interviews at the offspring's age of 3 months and over a period of 13 years (from 2 to 15 years of age), respectively. Novelty seeking was assessed at 19 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental postnatal smoking, psychosocial and obstetric adversity, maternal prenatal stress, and lifetime substance abuse. A total of 178 young adults (73 males) without current psychopathology from a community sample followed since birth (Mannheim, Germany) participated in the study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging response, morphometric data, lifetime ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking. Participants prenatally exposed to nicotine exhibited a weaker response in the anterior cingulate cortex (t168 = 4.46; peak Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = -2, y = 20, z = 30; familywise error [FWE]-corrected P = .003), the right inferior frontal gyrus (t168 = 3.65; peak MNI

  19. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

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    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and childhood behavioural problems: a quasi-experimental approach.

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    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained retrospectively at 9 years of age via parental recall and children's behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire across separate parent and teacher-report instruments. A quasi-experimental approach using propensity score matching was used to create treatment (smoking) and control (non-smoking) groups which did not differ significantly in their propensity to smoke in terms of 16 observed characteristics. After matching on the propensity score, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 3.5 % (p parent and teacher-report respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was more strongly associated with externalising than internalising behavioural problems. Analysis of the dose-response relationship showed that the differential between matched treatment and control groups increased with level of maternal smoking. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, the promotion of successful cessation in pregnancy may prevent potentially adverse long-term consequences.

  1. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

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    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  2. Prenatal Coke: What's Behind the Smoke?: Prenatal Cocaine/Alcohol Exposure and School-Age Outcomes: The SCHOO-BE Experiencea.

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    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Covington, Chandice; Templin, Tom; Ager, Joel; Martier, Sue; Compton, Scott; Sokol, Robert

    1998-06-01

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgment of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected Perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be composed

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking and Childhood Behavioural Problems: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study.…

  4. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between...... these factors while controlling for the effects of current smoking in young adulthood. METHODS This cross-sectional study (1996-2006) included 3486 Danish men (median age: 19 years), participating in a semen-quality study. Data were obtained from questionnaires, physical examinations, semen analyses...... and assessments of reproductive hormones. The main outcome measures were markers of pubertal onset, BMI, reproductive hormones and semen variables. RESULTS Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with earlier onset of puberty (e.g. early pubic hair development in 25.2 versus 18.9% of unexposed subjects...

  5. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Hits and Long-Term Consequences: Tracking the Lasting Impact of Prenatal Smoke Exposure on Telomere Length in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKasson, Sarah; Mabile, Emily; Dunaway, Lauren F.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between telomere length and prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) in 104 children aged 4 to 14 years. Salivary telomere length (STL) was determined from salivary DNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Of the children, 18% had maternal reported PTE. Mean STL was significantly lower among children with PTE (6.4 vs 7.5, P < .05). Findings extend the literature demonstrating the negative long-term effects of PTE to include a cellular marker of aging linked to multiple negative health outcomes. PMID:23927510

  7. Prenatal smoking predicts non-response to an intervention targeting attention - deficit/hyperactivity problems in elementary schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P.J.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking contributes to the etiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The present study tested an intervention targeting disruptive behavior to establish whether exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy

  8. Prenatal exposure to anticonvulsants and psychosexual development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; vd Poll, N.; Koppe, J. G.; Boer, K.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that prenatal exposure to the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital and phenytoin alters steroid hormone levels which consequently leads to disturbed sexual differentiation. In this study, possible sequelae of prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants on gender development in

  9. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Register Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Susanna; Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Ekblad, Mikael; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Voutilainen, Arja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-02-01

    This is the first nationwide register-based study to examine the relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome. A total of 767 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Each case was matched to four controls. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with Tourette syndrome when comorbid with ADHD (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.5, p = 0.027 for exposure during first trimester, OR 1.7, 95 % CI, 1.05-2.7, p = 0.031 for exposure for the whole pregnancy). There was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and Tourette syndrome without comorbid ADHD (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.3, p = 0.166, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.7-1.3, p = 0.567). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the association between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome with comorbid ADHD.

  10. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  11. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development

  12. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T

  14. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  15. Secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and infantile neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Eun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Chang, Namsoo; Roh, Young-Man; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Yeni; Oh, Se-young; Kim, Young Ju; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2011-05-01

    During prenatal development, the nervous system may be more susceptible to environmental toxicants, such as secondhand smoke. The authors assessed the effects of prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure on the neurodevelopment of 6-month infants. The subjects were 414 mother and infant pairs with no medical problems, taken from the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health study. Prenatal and postnatal exposures to secondhand smoke were determined using maternal self-reports. Examiners, unaware of exposure history, assessed the infants at 6 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Bayley scores were compared for secondhand smoke exposed and unexposed groups after adjusting for potential confounders. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the risk of developmental delay posed by SHS exposure. The multivariate model included residential area, maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education, income, infant sex, parity, birth weight, and type of feeding. After adjusting for covariates, secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy was found to be related to a decrease in mental developmental index score, but not to a decrease in psychomotor developmental index score. In addition, secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy was found to increase the risk of developmental delay (mental developmental index score ≤85) at 6 months. This study suggests that the infants of non-smoking women exposed to secondhand smoke are at risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Hansen, Stefan N; Schendel, Diana E; Parner, Erik T; Reichenberg, Abraham; Grice, Dorothy E

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence rates (IR) per 1,000 person-year for TS/CT and OCD. We then determined crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs associated with prenatal maternal smoking, considering smoking as a dichotomous (yes/no) variable or a stratified variable (no smoking, light smoking, and heavy smoking [≥10 cigarettes/day]). Additional analyses examined the effect of maternal smoking on risk for TS/CT with other comorbid psychiatric conditions. In final adjusted analyses, heavy smoking was associated with a 66% increased risk for TS/CT (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.17-2.35). In addition, heavy smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and both light and heavy smoking were associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with any non-ADHD psychiatric comorbidity. Our parallel analyses of pediatric-onset OCD were likely underpowered but showed similar relationships. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with increased risk for TS/CT as well as TS/CT with comorbid psychiatric conditions, even after adjustment for several important variables, including maternal psychiatric history, socioeconomic status, and partner smoking. Our findings point to a pathway linking prenatal tobacco exposure and altered brain development to TS/CT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  19. Smoke exposure at western wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2000-01-01

    Smoke exposure measurements among firefighters at wildfires in the Western United States between 1992 and 1995 showed that altogether most exposures were not significant, between 3 and 5 percent of the shift-average exposures exceeded occupational exposure limits for carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants. Exposure to benzene and total suspended particulate was not...

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides, and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to nicotine, a major component of tobacco that transverses the placenta, is largely responsible for the development of asthma in children born of mothers who smoke...

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung disease characterized by airway dysfunction. Of the many factors implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, a strong association exists between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS...

  2. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardavas, C. I.; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, Evridiki

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years. I...

  3. The Effect of Local Smokefree Regulations on Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Karla S; Abouk, Rahi

    2016-07-01

    Objectives We assessed the impact of varying levels of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes and prenatal smoking. Methods We exploited variations in timing and regulation restrictiveness of West Virginia's county smokefree regulations to assess their impact on birthweight, gestational age, low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking. We conducted regression analysis using state Vital Statistics individual-level data for singletons born to West Virginia residents between 1995-2010 (N = 293,715). Results Only more comprehensive smokefree regulations were associated with statistically significant favorable effects on birth outcomes in the full sample: Comprehensive (workplace/restaurant/bar ban) demonstrated increased birthweight (29 grams, p workplace/restaurant ban) demonstrated a small decrease in very low birthweight (-0.2 %, p workplace ban) was associated with a 23 g (p < 0.01) decrease in birthweight; Limited (partial ban) had no effect. Comprehensive's improvements extended to most maternal groups, and were broadest among mothers 21+ years, non-smokers, and unmarried mothers. Prenatal smoking declined slightly (-1.7 %, p < 0.01) only among married women with Comprehensive. Conclusions Regulation restrictiveness is a determining factor in the impact of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes, with comprehensive smokefree regulations showing promise in improving birth outcomes. Favorable effects on birth outcomes appear to stem from reduced secondhand smoke exposure rather than reduced prenatal smoking prevalence. This study is limited by an inability to measure secondhand smoke exposure and the paucity of data on policy implementation and enforcement.

  4. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P.; Roeser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  5. Developmental toxicity of prenatal exposure to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Scott E; Hannigan, John H

    2006-01-01

    Organic solvents have become ubiquitous in our environment and are essential for industry. Many women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to solvents such as toluene in occupational settings (ie, long-term, low-concentration exposures) or through inhalant abuse (eg, episodic, binge exposures to high concentrations). The risk for teratogenic outcome is much less with low to moderate occupational solvent exposure compared with the greater potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes, developmental delays, and neurobehavioral problems in children born to women exposed to high concentrations of abused organic solvents such as toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylenes, and nitrous oxide. Yet the teratogenic effects of abuse patterns of exposure to toluene and other inhalants remain understudied. We briefly review how animal models can aid substantially in clarifying the developmental risk of exposure to solvents for adverse biobehavioral outcomes following abuse patterns of use and in the absence of associated health problems and co-drug abuse (eg, alcohol). Our studies also begin to establish the importance of dose (concentration) and critical perinatal periods of exposure to specific outcomes. The present results with our clinically relevant animal model of repeated, brief, high-concentration binge prenatal toluene exposure demonstrate the dose-dependent effect of toluene on prenatal development, early postnatal maturation, spontaneous exploration, and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. The results imply that abuse patterns of toluene exposure may be more deleterious than typical occupational exposure on fetal development and suggest that animal models are effective in studying the mechanisms and risk factors of organic solvent teratogenicity.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Quaak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs. Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5. The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  8. Ependymal alterations in sudden intrauterine unexplained death and sudden infant death syndrome: possible primary consequence of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matturri Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ependyma, the lining providing a protective barrier and filtration system separating brain parenchyma from cerebrospinal fluid, is still inadequately understood in humans. In this study we aimed to define, by morphological and immunohistochemical methods, the sequence of developmental steps of the human ependyma in the brainstem (ventricular ependyma and thoracic spinal cord (central canal ependyma of a large sample of fetal and infant death victims, aged from 17 gestational weeks to 8 postnatal months. Additionally, we investigated a possible link between alterations of this structure, sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and maternal smoking. Results Our results demonstrate that in early fetal life the human ependyma shows a pseudostratified cytoarchitecture including many tanycytes and ciliated cells together with numerous apoptotic and reactive astrocytes in the subependymal layer. The ependyma is fully differentiated, with a monolayer of uniform cells, after 32 to 34 gestational weeks. We observed a wide spectrum of ependymal pathological changes in sudden death victims, such as desquamation, clusters of ependymal cells in the subventricular zone, radial glial cells, and the unusual presence of neurons within and over the ependymal lining. These alterations were significantly related to maternal smoking in pregnancy. Conclusions We conclude that in smoking mothers, nicotine and its derivatives easily reach the cerebrospinal fluid in the fetus, immediately causing ependymal damage. Consequently, we suggest that the ependyma should be examined in-depth first in victims of sudden fetal or infant death with mothers who smoke.

  9. Life course exposure to smoke and early menopause and menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hebatullah; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-10-01

    Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis, and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at the menopausal transition. Using data from two US birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal exposure, childhood exposure to parental smoking, and adult smoke exposure) and menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 to 49 years at follow-up. We used logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age at follow-up) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and the menopausal transition. The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders among (i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke on adult follow-up (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.8-9.4) and (ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.9-9.0). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing earlier natural menopause (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3) compared with women without smoke exposure in either period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 y) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging.

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities

  11. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  12. Prenatal marijuana exposure impacts executive functioning into young adulthood: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andra M; Mioduszewski, Ola; Hatchard, Taylor; Byron-Alhassan, Aziza; Fall, Carley; Fried, Peter A

    Understanding the potentially harmful long term consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure is important given the increase in number of pregnant women smoking marijuana to relieve morning sickness. Altered executive functioning is one area of research that has suggested negative consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure into adolescence. Investigating if these findings continue into young adulthood and exploring the neural basis of these effects was the purpose of this research. Thirty one young adults (ages 18-22years) from the longitudinal Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four tasks; 1) Visuospatial 2-Back, 2) Go/NoGo, 3) Letter 2-Back and 4) Counting Stroop task. Sixteen participants were prenatally exposed to marijuana while 15 had no prenatal marijuana exposure. Task performance was similar for both groups but blood flow was significantly different between the groups. This paper presents the results for all 4 tasks, highlighting the consistently increased left posterior brain activity in the prenatally exposed group compared with the control group. These alterations in neurophysiological functioning of young adults prenatally exposed to marijuana emphasizes the importance of education for women in child bearing years, as well as for policy makers and physicians interested in the welfare of both the pregnant women and their offspring's future success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  14. Risk of impaired cognition after prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, M A; Mathiasen, R; Pagsberg, A K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs may affect the trajectories of brain development. In a register study, we investigated whether such exposure is associated with long-term impaired cognitive abilities. METHOD: Individuals born in Denmark in 1995-2008 were included. As proxies...... of a neurological/mental disorder after prenatal exposure to psychoanaleptics (primarily antidepressants) (OR: 1.86[1.24-2.78). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs affects proxy outcomes of cognitive disabilities at school age. Exposure to psycholeptics carries the largest risk. The role...

  15. Life Course Exposure to Smoke and Early Menopause and Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Heba; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D.; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at menopausal transition. Using data from two U.S. birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal, childhood exposure to parental smoking and adult smoke exposure) with menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 – 49 years at follow-up. Methods We used logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age at follow-up, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and menopausal transition. Results The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar, but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders for i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke at adult follow-up (OR= 2.7 [95% CI 0.8, 9.4]) and ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR= 2.8 [95% CI 0.9, 9.0]). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing natural menopause (adjusted OR=3.4 [95% CI 1.1, 10.3]) compared to women without smoke exposure in either time period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 years) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Conclusion Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging. PMID:25803667

  16. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  17. Exposure to parental smoking and child growth and development: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungmi; Decker, Adriana; Kramer, Michael S

    2013-07-10

    Studies on adverse childhood health and development outcomes associated with parental smoking have shown inconsistent results. Using a cohort of Belarusian children, we examined differences in cognition, behaviors, growth, adiposity, and blood pressure at 6.5 years according to prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking. Using cluster-adjusted multivariable regression, effects of exposure to prenatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose mothers smoked during and after pregnancy with those whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only; effects of postnatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose fathers smoked with those whose fathers did not smoke among children of non-smoking mothers after adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic and family characteristics. After adjusting for confounders, children exposed vs unexposed to prenatal maternal smoking had no differences in mean IQ, teacher-rated behavioral problems, adiposity, or blood pressure. Children exposed to maternal postnatal smoking had slightly increased behavioral problems [0.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.2 for total difficulties], higher body mass index [0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.3], greater total skinfold thickness [0.4, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.71], and higher odds of overweight or obesity [1.4, 95% CI; 1.1, 1.7]. Similar magnitudes of association were observed with postnatal paternal smoking. No adverse cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes were associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking. Observed associations with postnatal smoking of both parents may reflect residual confounding by genetic and family environmental factors.

  18. Seven-year neurodevelopmental scores and prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos, a common agricultural pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Horton, Megan; Perera, Frederica; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B; Whyatt, Robin

    2011-08-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental problems at 3 years of age. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between prenatal CPF exposure and neurodevelopment among cohort children at 7 years of age. In a sample of 265 children, participants in a prospective study of air pollution, we measured prenatal CPF exposure using umbilical cord blood plasma (picograms/gram plasma) and 7-year neurodevelopment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Linear regression models were used to estimate associations, with covariate selection based on two alternate approaches. On average, for each standard deviation increase in CPF exposure (4.61 pg/g), Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) declined by 1.4% and Working Memory declined by 2.8%. Final covariates included maternal educational level, maternal IQ, and quality of the home environment. We found no significant interactions between CPF and any covariates, including the other chemical exposures measured during the prenatal period (environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). We report evidence of deficits in Working Memory Index and Full-Scale IQ as a function of prenatal CPF exposure at 7 years of age. These findings are important in light of continued widespread use of CPF in agricultural settings and possible longer-term educational implications of early cognitive deficits.

  19. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  20. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Emmalee S; Morrow, Connie E; Mansoor, Elana; Accornero, Veronica H

    2010-04-01

    This manuscript provides an overview of the current scientific literature on the impact of maternal drug use, specifically opioids and cocaine, during pregnancy on the acute and long-term outcomes of infants and toddlers from birth through age 3 years. Emphasis with regard to opioids is placed on heroin and opioid substitutes used to treat opioid addiction, including methadone, which has long been regarded as the standard of care in pregnancy, and buprenorphine, which is increasingly being investigated and prescribed as an alternative to methadone. Controlled studies comparing methadone at high and low doses, as well as those comparing methadone with buprenorphine, are highlighted and the diagnosis and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome is discussed. Over the past two decades, attention of the scientific and lay communities has also been focused on the potential adverse effects of cocaine and crack cocaine, especially during the height of the cocaine epidemic in the United States. Herein, the findings are summarized from prospective studies comparing cocaine-exposed with non-cocaine-exposed infants and toddlers with respect to anthropometric growth, infant neurobehavior, visual and auditory function, and cognitive, motor, and language development. The potentially stigmatizing label of the so-called "crack baby" preceded the evidence now accumulating from well-designed prospective investigations that have revealed less severe sequelae in the majority of prenatally exposed infants than originally anticipated. In contrast to opioids, which may produce neonatal abstinence syndrome and infant neurobehavioral deficits, prenatal cocaine exposure appears to be associated with what has been described as statistically significant but subtle decrements in neurobehavioral, cognitive, and language function, especially when viewed in the context of other exposures and the caregiving environment which may mediate or moderate the effects. Whether these early findings may

  2. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  3. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  5. Unjustified prenatal radiation exposure in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)

  6. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...

  7. Playfulness and prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearton, Jordan Louise; Ramugondo, Elelwani; Cloete, Lizahn; Cordier, Reinie

    2014-08-01

    South Africa carries a high burden of alcohol abuse. The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are most pronounced in poor, rural communities. Earlier research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have poor social behaviour; however, to date, no research has investigated their playfulness. This study investigated the differences in playfulness of children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Grade one learners with a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) and a reference group without a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) were filmed engaging in free play at their schools. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure playfulness from recordings. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate interval level measure scores for each participant. The overall measure scores and individual Test of Playfulness social items were subjected to paired samples t-tests to calculate if significant differences existed between the groups. Children with prenatal alcohol exposure had a significantly lower mean overall playfulness score than the reference group (t = -2.51; d.f. = 28; P = 0.02). Children with prenatal alcohol exposure also scored significantly lower than the reference group on 5 of the 12 Test of Playfulness items related to social play. This research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure are more likely to experience poorer overall quality of play, with particular deficits in social play. Considering play is a child's primary occupation, this finding becomes pertinent for occupational therapy practice, particularly in post-apartheid South Africa, where high prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence rates are couched within persistent socio-economic inequalities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  10. Ethnicity, education attainment, media exposure, and prenatal care in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Korinek, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Prenatal care coverage in Vietnam has been improving, but ethnic minority women still lag behind in receiving adequate level and type of care. This paper examines ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization by comparing two groups of ethnic minority and majority women. We examine the roots of ethnic disparity in prenatal care utilization, focusing on how education and media exposure change health behaviours and lessen disparities. We rely on the 2002 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey to draw our sample, predictors and the three dimensions of prenatal care, including timing of onset, frequency of visits, and type of provider. Results from multinomial-, and binary-logistic regression provide evidence that ethnic minority women are less likely to obtain frequent prenatal care and seek care from professional providers than their majority counterparts. However, we find that ethnic minority women are more likely to obtain early care compared to ethnic majority women. Results for predicted probabilities suggest that education and media exposure positively influenced prenatal care behaviours with higher level of education and media exposure associating with accelerated probability of meeting prenatal care requirements. Our results imply the needs for expansion of media access and schools as well as positive health messages being broadcasted in culturally competent ways.

  11. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: a neuropsychologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual-spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies.

  12. Prenatal radiation exposure. Conclusions in the light of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppin, W.

    1987-01-01

    Within 6 years of the appearance of the guideline for action to be taken by doctors in the event of prenatal exposure to radiation, intended as a proposal for discussion, the following has turned out: in no case has termination of pregnancy become necessary following prenatal radiation exposure, prenatal radiation exposure was always low (about 20 mSv), there is no risk below respective threshold doses, teratogenesis is a non-stochastic process, which is why risk assessment was modified, the sensitivity of the human fetus to radiation is highest during the period of neuroblast development (9th to 16th week p.c.), and knowledge about an existing pregnancy can be taken for granted by that time, so radiation exposure is calculable and can be restricted to negligible quantities. (TRV) [de

  13. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  14. Moral maturity and delinquency after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Amy M; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2005-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with cognitive, behavioral and social deficits, including delinquency. Although delinquent populations and those with intellectual and behavioral deficits exhibit impaired moral judgment and reasoning, this area remains unexplored in alcohol-exposed individuals. Moral maturity and delinquency were evaluated in 27 participants with prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC group) and 29 nonexposed controls (CON group) matched on age (range: 10-18), gender, handedness, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Moral maturity was evaluated using the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form, and delinquency was evaluated with the Conduct Disorder (CD) Questionnaire. Additional measures included social desirability and inhibition. The ALC group performed at a lower level of moral maturity than the CON group. Whereas Verbal IQ primarily predicted this difference, a deficit on the moral value judgment having to do with relationships with others was specific to prenatal alcohol exposure. Furthermore, delinquency was higher in the ALC group, and specific sociomoral values were predictive of delinquent behavior. Finally, half of the children and adolescents with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but without fetal alcohol syndrome had probable CD. The results of this study indicate that interventions aimed at reducing delinquency in those with prenatal alcohol exposure are necessary, and targeting moral judgment for this purpose may be beneficial.

  15. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  17. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; Mendez, Michelle A; Richardson, David B; Daniels, Julie L; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S; Herring, Amy H

    2016-04-01

    Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: -5.99, -0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child's sex. Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4-9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM, Wolff MS, Herring AH. 2016. Prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure among non smoking adults in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco control policy can only succeed if the burdens of smoking are known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study from ...

  19. Associations of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rong; Chen, Min-jian; Ding, Guo-dong; Chen, Xiao-jiao; Han, Xiu-mei; Zhou, Kun; Chen, Li-mei; Xia, Yan-kai; Tian, Ying; Wang, Xin-ru

    2013-01-01

    Many phenols are known to mimic or antagonize hormonal activities and may adversely affect fetal growth. A study of 567 pregnant women was conducted to investigate the relationship between prenatal phenol exposure and birth outcomes, including birth weight, length, and gestational age. We measured the concentrations of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, 4-n-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol in maternal urine and examine their association with birth outcomes. Categories of urinary benzophenone-3 concentration were associated with decreased gestational age in all infants (p for trend = 0.03). Between middle and low exposure groups, we also found bisphenol A was negatively associated with gestational duration (β adjusted = −0.48 week; 95% confidence interval: −0.91, −0.05). After stratification by gender, we found the consistent results in infant boys with those in all infants, but we did not observe significant association for girls. In conclusion, we found prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes. -- Highlights: •We examined relationship of prenatal exposure to phenols with birth outcomes. •We determined urinary concentrations of various phenols. •BP-3 and BPA were negatively associated with gestational age. •There was sex-specific association between phenol exposure and birth outcomes. -- Prenatal phenol exposure was sex-specifically related to birth outcomes

  20. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  1. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  2. Prevalence of invehicle smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambi, Laura; Barros, Mary; Parodi, Carolina; Pippo, Antonella; Nunez, Virginia; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Goyeneche, Juan J; Aleman, Alicia

    2018-01-19

    Protection from secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the fundamental principles of the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Objective data on SHS exposure in vehicles in South America is scarce. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of smoking inside vehicles. The point prevalence of smoking in vehicles was observed, and a method for estimating smoking prevalence was piloted. We observed 10 011 vehicles. In 219 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.91 to 2.49) of them, smoking was observed, and in 29.2% of these, another person was exposed to SHS. According to the 'expansion factor' we constructed, direct observation detected one of six to one to nine vehicles in which smoking occurred. The observed prevalence of smoking in vehicles (2.2%) could reflect a real prevalence between 12% and 19%. In 29.2% (95% CI 23.6 to 35.5) and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 8.3) of vehicles in which smoking was observed, another adult or a child, respectively, was exposed to SHS. Smoking was estimated to occur in 12%-19% of vehicles, with involuntary exposure in one of three of vehicles observed. These data underscore a need for new public policies to eliminate SHS in vehicles to protect public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-12-05

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their children reached age seven years, mothers completed a questionnaire regarding the child's health, behaviors, and exposures. We used multivariable adjusted models to relate prenatal only, postnatal only, or both prenatal and postnatal cell phone exposure to whether the child had migraines and headache-related symptoms. Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. Children with cell phone exposure had higher odds of migraines and headache-related symptoms than children with no exposure. The odds ratio for migraines was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.68) and for headache-related symptoms was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.40) for children with both prenatal and postnatal exposure. In this study, cell phone exposures were associated with headaches in children, but the associations may not be causal given the potential for uncontrolled confounding and misclassification in observational studies such as this. However, given the widespread use of cell phones, if a causal effect exists it would have great public health impact.

  4. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  5. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  7. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Disrupts Infant Neural Markers of Orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin; Campbell, Alana; Belger, Aysenil; Grewen, Karen

    2017-08-17

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) from maternal cigarette-smoking is linked to developmental deficits, including impaired auditory processing, language, generalized intelligence, attention and sleep. Fetal brain undergoes massive growth, organization and connectivity during gestation, making it particularly vulnerable to neurotoxic insult. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are extensively involved in growth, connectivity and function of developing neural circuitry and neurotransmitter systems. Thus, PNE may have long-term impact on neurobehavioral development. The purpose of this study was to compare the auditory K-complex, an event-related potential reflective of auditory gating, sleep preservation and memory consolidation during sleep, in infants with and without PNE and to relate these neural correlates to neurobehavioral development. We compared brain responses to an auditory paired-click paradigm in 3 to 5-month-old infants during Stage 2 sleep, when the K-complex is best observed. We measured component amplitude and delta activity during the K-complex. PNE may impair auditory sensory gating, which may contribute to disrupted sleep and to reduced auditory discrimination and learning, attention re-orienting and/or arousal during wakefulness reported in other studies. Links between PNE and reduced K-complex amplitude and delta power may represent altered cholinergic and GABAergic synaptic programming, and possibly reflect early neural bases for PNE-linked disruptions in sleep quality and auditory processing. These may pose significant disadvantage for language acquisition, attention, and social interaction necessary for academic and social success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong

    2017-04-01

    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi

    2014-01-01

    exposure appeared to contribute to neurotoxic effects, in particular in regard to visuospatial processing and memory. Thus, addition in the regression analysis of exposure information obtained at a different point in time was not informative and should be avoided. Further studies with better information......, but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all...

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Fever and Infections and Academic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Kragh Andersen, Per

    2017-01-01

    of academic performance from the 2010–2013 Danish National Tests. Hierarchical multilevel linear regression of 216,350 assessments made in 71,850 children born to 67,528 mothers revealed no differences in academic performance among the children according to prenatal exposure to fever (odds ratio (OR) = 1......Prenatal exposure to fever and infections has been linked to various neurodevelopmental disorders, but it is not yet known whether more subtle effects on neurodevelopment may exist as well. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether these early-life exposures were associated with academic...... performance in childhood and early adolescence. Children and mothers who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002 were included in this study. Information on fever and infections common in pregnancy was prospectively collected in 2 pregnancy interviews and linked with assessments...

  11. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  13. Developmental aspects of anandamide: ontogeny of response and prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fride, E; Mechoulam, R

    1996-02-01

    Recent breakthroughs in cannabinoid research, including the identification of two cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors) and a family of endogenous ligands, the anandamides, may shed new light on the sequelae of pre- and perinatal exposure to cannabinoid receptor ligands and enable the experimental manipulation of the endogenous ligand in the developing organism. In the present study we examined the behavioural response to anandamide (ANA) in developing mice from day 13 into adulthood. We observed that depression of ambulation in an open field and the analgetic response to ANA are not fully developed until adulthood. In a separate set of experiments, we administered five daily injections of ANA (SC, 20 mg/kg) during the last trimester of pregnancy. No effects on birth weight, litter size, sex ratio and eye opening were detected after maternal ANA treatment. Further, no effects on open field performance of the offspring were observed until 4 weeks of age. However, from 40 days of age, a number of differences between the prenatal ANA and control offspring were detected. Thus, the offspring from ANA-treated dams showed impaired responsiveness to a challenge with ANA or delta 0-THC expressed as a lack of immobility in the ring test for catalepsy, hypothermia and analgesia. On the other hand, without challenge, they exhibited a spontaneous decrease in open field activity, catalepsy, hypothermia and a hypoalgetic tendency. These data suggest that exposure to excessive amounts of ANA during gestation alters the functioning of the ANA-CB receptor system. Further experiments investigating responsivity of the immune system suggest an increased inflammatory response to arachidonic acid, and enhanced hypothermic response to lipopolysaccharide in prenatally treated offspring. The results are discussed in relation to other manipulations of the maternal milieu, especially prenatal stress. It is concluded that alterations induced by prenatal exposure to ANA, cannabinoids and other

  14. Major depression and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Woolf, Benjamin; Wang, Jian Li; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently linked smoking to poor mental health. Among non-smokers, some studies have also reported associations between secondhand smoke exposure and psychological symptoms. However, an association between secondhand smoke exposure and depressive disorders has not been well established. This analysis used cross-sectional data from a series of 10 population surveys conducted in Canada between 2003 and 2013. The surveys targeted the Canadian household population, included a brief structured interview for past year major depressive episode (MDE) and included items assessing secondhand smoke exposure. We used two-stage individual-level random-effects meta-regression to synthesize results from these surveys. Over the study interval, about 20% of non-smokers reported substantial exposure to secondhand smoke. In this group, the pooled annual prevalence of MDE was 6.1% (95% CI 5.3-6.9) compared to 4.0% (95% CI 3.7-4.3) in non-smokers without secondhand smoke exposure. The crude odds ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4-1.7). With adjustment for a set of potential confounding variables the odds ratio was unchanged, 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 - 1.6). These results provide additional support for public health measures aimed at reducing secondhand smoke exposure. A causal connection between secondhand smoke exposure and MDEs cannot be confirmed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Five year trends in maternal smoking behaviour reported at the first prenatal appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; McKeating, A; Daly, N; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-11-01

    Maternal smoking is a key modifiable risk factor in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth. This observational study examined annual trends of maternal smoking reported at the first prenatal visit in women who delivered in a large university maternity hospital for the 5 years 2011-2015. We examined clinical and sociodemographic data computerised routinely for women who presented for prenatal care at the hospital between 2011 and 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the maternal characteristics, health behaviours and psychiatric history associated with smoking behaviours. Of the 42,509 women the mean age was 31.4 ± 5.5 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , and 39.5% were nulliparas. Overall, 52.6% reported they had never smoked, 34.9% were ex-smokers, 10.5% smoked ≤10 cigarettes per day, 1.9% smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day and 0.1% smoked e-cigarettes. Between 2011 and 2015 the prevalence of maternal cigarette smoking decreased from 14.3 to 10.9% (P Smoking during pregnancy was most strongly associated with younger age, multiparity, unemployment, unplanned pregnancy, a history of psychiatric problems, alcohol intake and illicit drug usage. The number of women who reported smoking at the first prenatal visit decreased annually. Amongst women who continue to smoke during pregnancy, there is a clustering of adverse lifestyle behaviour and psychological problems that may need to be addressed if smoking cessation interventions are going to succeed in improving fetal programming.

  16. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand sm...

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and sensitisation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, E; Wickman, M; van Hage, M; Bergström, A; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L

    2008-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of respiratory illness in children but data are inconclusive regarding the risk of IgE sensitisation. To elucidate whether exposure to smoking prenatally and/or postnatally is related to IgE sensitisation in children at 4 years of age. As part of a prospective birth cohort study (BAMSE), a total of 4089 families with children answered questionnaires when the child was 2 months, 1, 2 and 4 years old on environmental factors and symptoms of allergic disease. Blood collected at age 4 years from 2614 children was analysed for IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression with adjustments for potential confounders. There was no evident association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of IgE sensitisation. In contrast, a dose-response effect was found for exposure to ETS from parental smoking during the first few months of life and IgE sensitisation. There was an increased risk of sensitisation to inhalant and/or food allergens (OR(adj) 1.28 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.62)) among children exposed to ETS at 2 months of age. The risk appeared particularly elevated for indoor inhalant allergens, such as cat (OR(adj) 1.96 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.99)) and for food allergens (OR(adj) 1.46 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.93)). The IgE sensitising effect of ETS seemed to be confined to infants of parents without allergic diseases and to ETS exposure during early infancy. Our data indicate that exposure in early infancy to ETS increases the risk of IgE sensitisation to indoor inhalant and food allergens.

  18. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  19. Early cannabinoid exposure influences neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in male mice: I. Prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalterio, S; Steger, R; Mayfield, D; Bartke, A

    1984-01-01

    Maternal exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent in marihuana, or to the non-psychoactive cannabinol (CBN) or cannabidiol (CBD) alters endocrine functions and concentrations of brain biogenic amines in their male offspring. Prenatal CBN exposure on day 18 of gestation resulted in decreased plasma FSH levels, testicular testosterone (T) concentrations, and seminal vesicles weights, but increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) post-castration in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to THC significantly enhanced the responsiveness of the testes to intratesticular LH injection in vivo and tended to increase human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated T production by decapsulated testes in vitro. In the CBN-exposed mice, hCG-stimulated T production was enhanced, while CBD exposure had no effect. Prenatal THC exposure altered the negative feedback effects of exogenous gonadal steroids in castrated adults, with lower plasma T and FSH levels after 20 micrograms T than in castrated controls. In contrast, CBD-exposed mice had higher levels of LH in plasma post-castration. In CBN-exposed adults, two weeks post-castration the concentration of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in hypothalamus and remaining brain were reduced, while levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, were elevated compared to that in castrated OIL-controls. Prenatal CBD-exposure also reduced NE and elevated 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but did not affect DA levels post-castration. Concentrations of brain biogenic amines were not influenced by prenatal THC exposure in the present study. A single prenatal exposure to psychoactive or non-psychoactive components of marihuana results in long term alterations in the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Changes in the concentrations of brain biogenic amines may be related to these effects of prenatal cannabinoids on endocrine function in adult male mice.

  20. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and reproductive hormones in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L A; Troisi, R; Hatch, E E; Titus, L J; Rothman, K J; Harlow, B L

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women in the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with reproductive disorders in women, but little is known about its effects on endogenous hormones. We assessed the association between prenatal DES exposure and reproductive hormones among participants from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC), a longitudinal study of premenopausal women aged 36-45 years from Massachusetts (1995-1999). Prenatal DES exposure was reported at baseline (43 DES exposed and 782 unexposed). Early follicular-phase concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured at baseline and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured through 18 months. We used multivariable logistic and repeated-measures linear regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and percent differences in mean hormone values (β), respectively, comparing DES exposed with unexposed women, adjusted for potential confounders. DES-exposed women had lower mean concentrations of estradiol (pg/ml) (β=-15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -26.5%, -3.2%) and inhibin B (pg/ml) (β=-20.3%, CI: -35.1%, -2.3%), and higher mean concentrations of FSH (IU/I) (β=12.2%, CI: -1.5%, 27.9%) and LH (IU/I) (β=10.4%, CI: -7.2%, 31.3%), than unexposed women. ORs for the association of DES with maximum FSH>10 IU/I and minimum inhibin B<45 pg/ml--indicators of low ovarian reserve--were 1.90 (CI: 0.86, 4.22) and 4.00 (CI: 0.88-18.1), respectively. Prenatal DES exposure was associated with variation in concentrations of FSH, estradiol and inhibin B among women of late reproductive age.

  1. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  2. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the association of phthalate exposure with development. Phthalates are chemical compounds used in poly-vinyl chloride, PVC; vinyl flooring, cosmetics, shampoo, air fresheners, soft plastic items, intravenous tubing, food packaging and wraps, textiles, paints, cleaning products and detergents.…

  3. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira SE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandra E Vieira Pediatrics Department, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children’s progress during the first years of life. Keywords: air pollutants, pregnancy, birth weight, lung disease, tobacco, fetal development

  4. Prenatal cannabis exposure - The "first hit" to the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kimberlei A; Hester, Allison K; McLemore, Gabrielle L

    As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there is no phenotypic syndrome associated with PCE. There is also no preponderance of evidence that PCE causes lifelong cognitive, behavioral, or functional abnormalities, and/or susceptibility to subsequent addiction. However, there is compelling circumstantial evidence, based on the principles of teratology and fetal malprogramming, suggesting that pregnant women should refrain from smoking marijuana. The usage of marijuana during pregnancy perturbs the fetal endogenous cannabinoid signaling system (ECSS), which is present and active from the early embryonic stage, modulating neurodevelopment and continuing this role into adulthood. The ECSS is present in virtually every brain structure and organ system, and there is also evidence that this system is important in the regulation of cardiovascular processes. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) undergird a broad spectrum of processes, including the early stages of fetal neurodevelopment and uterine implantation. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive chemical in cannabis, enters maternal circulation, and readily crosses the placental membrane. THC binds to CB receptors of the fetal ECSS, altering neurodevelopment and possibly rewiring ECSS circuitry. In this review, we discuss the Double-Hit Hypothesis as it relates to PCE. We contend that PCE, similar to a neurodevelopmental teratogen, delivers the first hit to the ECSS, which is compromised in such a way that a second hit (i.e., postnatal stressors) will precipitate the emergence of a specific phenotype. In summary, we conclude that perturbations of the

  5. Control beliefs are related to smoking prevention in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  7. Prenatal lignan exposures, pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rong; Chen, Minjian; Zhou, Kun; Chen, Daozhen; Yu, Jing; Hu, Weiyue; Song, Ling; Hang, Bo; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, human exposure to endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens (such as lignans) may comprehensively impact the gestational maintenance and fetal growth. We measured the concentrations of 5 lignans and the profile of 13 estrogen metabolites (EMs) in the urine samples of 328 pregnant women and examined their associations with birth outcomes. We found significantly positive associations between gestational age and urinary matairesinol (MAT), enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. There were consistently positive relationships between END and the 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. The positive relationships of MAT, END and ENL exposures with the length of gestation were mainly in the low exposure strata of the levels of these EMs. This study reveals that MAT, END and ENL as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes, and that there are interactive relationships between lignans and 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs with birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We examined relations between prenatal lignan exposures and birth outcomes. • We examined relations between pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes. • MAT, END and ENL are associated with birth outcomes. • 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes. • There are interactive relationships between ligans and EMs with birth outcomes. - Prenatal lignan exposures and EM levels were interactively related to birth outcomes

  8. Prenatal Androgen Exposure Causes Hypertension and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Shermel; Sarsour, Nadeen; Salehi, Marziyeh; Schroering, Allen; Mell, Blair; Joe, Bina; Hill, Jennifer W

    2018-02-22

    Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant. Therefore, we hypothesized that the hypertension seen in PCOS has early origins in gut dysbiosis caused by in utero exposure to excess androgen. We investigated this hypothesis with a model of prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure and maternal hyperandrogenemia by single-injection of testosterone cypionate or sesame oil vehicle (VEH) to pregnant dams in late gestation. We then completed a gut microbiota and cardiometabolic profile of the adult female offspring. The metabolic assessment revealed that adult PNA rats had increased body weight and increased mRNA expression of adipokines: adipocyte binding protein 2, adiponectin, and leptin in inguinal white adipose tissue. Radiotelemetry analysis revealed hypertension with decreased heart rate in PNA animals. The fecal microbiota profile of PNA animals contained higher relative abundance of bacteria associated with steroid hormone synthesis, Nocardiaceae and Clostridiaceae, and lower abundance of Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium. The PNA animals also had an increased relative abundance of bacteria associated with biosynthesis and elongation of unsaturated short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). We found that prenatal exposure to excess androgen negatively impacted cardiovascular function by increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing heart rate. Prenatal androgen was also associated with gut microbial dysbiosis and altered abundance of bacteria involved in

  9. Impact of Combined Prenatal Ethanol and Prenatal Stress Exposures on Markers of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Miranda C.; Porch, Morgan W.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress can each cause long-lasting deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and disrupt learning and memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying these perturbations following a learning event are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress exposure, either alone or in combination, on the cytosolic expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal (ARC) protein and the synaptosomal expression o...

  10. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  12. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth....

  13. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iszatt, N.; Stigum, H.; Verner, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    prenatal and postnatal effects. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). METHODS: We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p...... growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p'-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels....

  14. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour: analysis of cross sectional data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lis Hentze; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of cross sectional data...... from students in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1515 grade 9 students (mean age 15.8) from 90 classes in 48 Danish schools. Outcome measure: Self reported smoking behaviour; daily smoking and heavy smoking, defined as those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per week. RESULTS: Of the students in this study, 62...... that they had seen other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. Adolescents' perceived exposure to teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises was significantly associated with daily smoking, having adjusted for sex, exposure to teachers smoking indoors at school and pupils smoking outdoors...

  15. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  16. The impact of prenatal exposure to air pollution on childhood wheezing and asthma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehua, Zhang; Qing, Chang; Shanyan, Gao; Qijun, Wu; Yuhong, Zhao

    2017-11-01

    There has been no clear consensus about whether prenatal exposure to air pollution contributes to the development of wheezing and asthma in children. We conducted a systematic review to analyze the association between exposure to different pollutants during pregnancy and the development of childhood wheezing and asthma. We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published through June 6, 2017 available in the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. We included studies that examined the association between prenatal exposure to any air pollutants except tobacco smoke and the incidence or prevalence of "wheezing" or "asthma" from birth to 14 years of age. We extracted key characteristics of each included study using a template of predefined data items. We used the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklists to assess the validity of each included study. We conducted overall and subgroup meta-analyses for each summary exposure-outcome association. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by using a random effects model. Eighteen studies met our eligibility criteria. There was notable variability in exposure assessment methods. The overall random effects risk estimates (95% CI) of different pollutants were 1.04 (0.94-1.15) aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 1.04 (1.01-1.07) NO 2 , 1.4 (0.97-2.03) PM 2.5 for childhood wheeze and 1.07 (1.01-1.14) NO 2 , 1 (0.97-1.03) PM 2.5 , 1.02 (0.98-1.07) SO 2 , 1.08 (1.05-1.12) PM 10 for childhood asthma. Minimal heterogeneity was seen for PAH and SO 2 , while some heterogeneity was observed for PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 . The overall and subgroup risk estimates from the meta-analyses showed statistically significant associations between prenatal exposures to NO 2 , SO 2 , and PM 10 and the risk of wheezing and asthma development in childhood. There is insufficient evidence to show an effect of prenatal exposure to BC, CO, and O 3 on childhood wheezing and asthma. Further studies are needed to

  17. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  19. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among casino dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutan, Chandran; West, Christine; Mueller, Charles; Bernert, John T; Bernard, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    This study quantified casino dealers' occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We measured casino dealers' exposure to ETS components by analyzing full-shift air and preshift and postshift urine samples. Casino dealers were exposed to nicotine, 4-vinyl pyridine, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, solanesol, and respirable suspended particulates. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine increased significantly during an 8-hour work shift both with and without adjustment for creatinine clearance. Creatinine-unadjusted cotinine significantly increased during the 8-hour shift, but creatinine-adjusted cotinine did not increase significantly. Casino dealers at the three casinos were exposed to airborne ETS components and absorbed an ETS-specific component into their bodies, as demonstrated by detectable levels of urinary NNAL. The casinos should ban smoking on their premises and offer employee smoking cessation programs.

  20. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer

  1. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Hung

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior.

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  3. Altered Parietal Activation during Non-symbolic Number Comparison in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri J. Woods

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non

  4. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi 160. © 2017 The College of .... have high population overall rates of household air pollution. The Cooking and ..... Wood smoke exposure, poverty and impaired lung function in ...

  5. Prenatal methadone exposure is associated with altered neonatal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Monnelly

    Full Text Available Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone.20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+2 and 41+1weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA data between exposed and non-exposed neonates.Methadone-exposed neonates had decreased FA within the centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF and the internal and external capsules after adjustment for GA at MRI (p<0.05, TFCE corrected. Median FA across the white matter skeleton was 12% lower among methadone-exposed infants. Mean head circumference (HC z-scores were lower in the methadone-exposed group (−0.52 (0.99 vs 1.15 (0.84, p<0.001; after adjustment for HC z-scores, differences in FA remained in the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule and the ILF. Polydrug use among cases was common.Prenatal methadone exposure is associated with microstructural alteration in major white matter tracts, which is present at birth and is independent of head growth. Although the findings cannot be attributed to methadone per se, the data indicate that further research to determine optimal management of opioid use disorder during pregnancy is required. Future studies should evaluate childhood outcomes including infant brain development and long-term neurocognitive function. Keywords: Prenatal, Methadone, Brain, Neonate, MRI, Opioid

  6. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  7. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  8. Prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs and dental agenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille E Jacobsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to AEDs and the risk of dental agenesis and to differentiate between the possible effects of the different drugs used. METHODS: Data on 214 exposed and 255 unexposed children, aged 12-18 years, were extracted from the Prescription Database of the Central Denmark Region and North Denmark Region and the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The children's dental charts were examined for the presence of dental agenesis. RESULTS: Overall, children exposed to AED in utero had an increased risk of developing dental agenesis, but as a group, the difference was not significant (OR = 1.7; [95% CI: 0.8-3.6]. The risk of developing dental agenesis was three-fold increased (OR = 3.1; [95% CI: 1.3-7.4] in children exposed to valproate in mono- or in poly-therapy with other AEDs than carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. The risk was further increased (OR = 11.2; [95% CI: 2.4-51.9] in children exposed to valproate and carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine in combination. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that dental agenesis is a potential congenital abnormality that is related to prenatal exposure to valproate, and dental agenesis may be considered a sensitive marker for the teratogenicity of valproate.

  9. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and childbirths in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not f......INTRODUCTION: The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies...... Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement. RESULTS: A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3%) were...... of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94-0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04-1.14]), the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12-1.48]) or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01-1.27]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested...

  10. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures

  11. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; pantecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  12. Exposure to smoking imagery in popular films and adolescent smoking in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D

    2008-08-01

    Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; pantecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films.

  13. Exposure to smoking in films and own smoking among Scottish adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence of high exposure of UK youth to images of smoking in films has led to calls for an 18 rating for films with smoking to reduce smoking in youth. However, the only study to date in the UK to test for an association showed no relation between film-smoking exposure and smoking among young adults. Objective To assess whether there is an association between exposure to film images of smoking and own smoking among UK adolescents and whether repeated viewings of films has an impact. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 1999 pupils aged 15–16 years from 13 Scottish schools. Outcome Smoked tobacco in the past year. Exposure measure Film-smoking exposure was assessed using the Beach method; account for repeated viewings of films was then used to modify estimated exposure. Covariates included: media usage, parental restriction on and context of TV/film viewing, family connectedness, parental monitoring and friends' smoking. Results Most (71%) students had not smoked in the past year. About half reported no parental restrictions on TV/film viewing. Many reported repeated viewings of films; accounting for this more than doubled exposure estimates and strengthened the association with smoking. Adolescents with high exposure to film smoking were more likely to have smoked than those with low exposure (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.08, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.55). Additionally, adolescents who reported parental rules about TV/film watching were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.37 (0.27 to 0.52)) than those who did not. Adolescents who mainly watched films with friends had higher exposure to film smoking and were more likely to smoke (AOR 2.19 (1.10 to 4.38)). Conclusions Exposure to film smoking is associated with smoking among Scottish adolescents. These data lend support to calls for an 18 rating for films with images of smoking. PMID:21764893

  14. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model of methylphenidate responsive ADHD-associated cognitive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinmin; Fan, Fangfang; McCarthy, Deirdre M; Zhang, Lin; Cannon, Elisa N; Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to nicotine via cigarette smoke or other forms of tobacco use is a significant environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and ADHD are not well understood. Animal models, especially rodent models, are beginning to bridge this gap in knowledge. Although ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and working memory deficits, the majority of the animal models are based on only one or two ADHD associated phenotypes, in particular, hyperactivity or inattention. We report a PNE mouse model that displays the full range of ADHD associated behavioral phenotypes including working memory deficit, attention deficit and impulsive-like behavior. All of the ADHD-associated phenotypes respond to a single administration of a therapeutic equivalent dose of methylphenidate. In an earlier study, we showed that PNE produces hyperactivity, frontal cortical hypodopaminergic state and thinning of the cingulate cortex. Collectively, these data suggest that the PNE mouse model recapitulates key features of ADHD and may be a suitable preclinical model for ADHD research. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Family environmental and dietary implications for low-level prenatal lead exposure in Wujiang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Gao, Zhenyan; Wang, Ju; Ma, Wenjuan; Ying, Xiaolan; Zhou, Cancan; Yan, Chonghuai

    2018-05-01

    To explore the potential environmental and dietary factors during pregnancy affecting low-level prenatal lead exposure, we conducted a longitudinal study in Wujiang City, China. A total of 1976 mother-infant pairs were included from 2009 to 2010. An interviewed questionnaire was conducted and cord blood samples were collected. The geometric means of cord blood lead level was 30.3 μg/L (95% CI, 29.8-30.8) with 99.24% below 100 μg/L. Maternal age, passive smoking, and living in the countryside were significantly associated with cord blood lead concentrations. Multiple logistic models showed that some family environmental factors including using firewood and electricity as kitchen fuel were positively correlated with increased cord blood lead levels. Among dietary sources recorded in this study, meat consumption (> 3 times/week), fish consumption (1-3 times/week), vegetables consumption (> 1 times/day), and fruit intake (> 1 times/day) had inverse relationship with cord blood lead levels. In general, our findings may have important implications for family environmental and dietary direction during pregnancy to decrease prenatal lead exposure.

  17. No association between prenatal exposure to psychotropics and intelligence at age five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-05-01

    To examine associations between prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/anxiolytics and intelligence assessed with a standard clinical intelligence test at age 5 years. Longitudinal follow-up study. Denmark, 2003-2008. A total of 1780 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Self-reported information on use of SSRI and anxiolytics was obtained from the Danish National Birth Cohort at the time of consent and from two prenatal interviews. Intelligence was assessed at age 5 years, and parental education, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ), maternal smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the child's age at testing, sex, and tester were included in the full model. The IQ of 13 medication-exposed children was compared with the IQ of 19 children whose mothers had untreated depression and 1748 control children. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised. In unadjusted analyses, children of mothers who used antidepressants or anxiolytics during pregnancy had higher verbal IQ; this association, however, was insignificant after adjustment for potentially confounding maternal and child factors. No consistent associations between IQ and fetal exposure to antidepressants and anxiolytics were observed, but the study had low statistical power, and there is an obvious need to conduct long-term follow-up studies with comprehensive cognitive assessment and sufficiently large samples of adolescent or adult offspring. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  19. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  20. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  1. Association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and obesity development at ages 5 and 7 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L; Heitmann, Berit L; Andersen, Helle R

    2014-01-01

    Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life.......Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life....

  2. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and childhood overweight at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Gilbert, Andrew L; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    To investigate a possible association between prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and childhood overweight at 7 years of age.......To investigate a possible association between prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and childhood overweight at 7 years of age....

  3. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  4. Association of prenatal phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure with genital anomalies and menstrual disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; Koppe, J. G.; Poll, N. E.; Boer, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrated that early exposure to phenobarbital decreases reproductive function. This study investigates whether prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants affects human genital tract development. METHODS: Genital anomalies at birth were studied retrospectively in 90

  5. Prenatal ambient air exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms over the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Aleksander; Pac, Agnieszka; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that infants with higher levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from fossil fuel combustion may be at greater risk of developing respiratory symptoms. The study was carried out in a cohort of 333 newborns in Krakow, Poland, followed over the first year of life, for whom data from prenatal personal air monitoring of mothers in the second trimester of pregnancy were available. The relative risks of respiratory symptoms due to prenatal PAHs exposure were adjusted for potential confounders (gender of child, birth weight, maternal atopy, maternal education as a proxy for the socio-economic status, exposure to postnatal environmental tobacco smoke, and moulds in households) in the Poisson regression models. Increased risk related to prenatal PAH exposure was observed for various respiratory symptoms such as barking cough (RR = 4.80; 95% CI: 2.73-8.44), wheezing without cold (RR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.18-12.43), sore throat (RR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.38-2.78), ear infection (RR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), cough irrespective of respiratory infections (RR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and cough without cold (RR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02-2.92). The exposure to PAHs also had impact on the duration of respiratory symptoms. The effect of PAHs exposure on the occurrence of such symptoms as runny nose or cough was partly modified by the simultaneous exposure to postnatal passive smoking. The analysis performed for the duration of respiratory symptoms confirmed significant interaction between PAHs exposure and postnatal ETS for runny or stuffy nose (RR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.57-2.10), cough (RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99-1.40), difficulty in breathing (RR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-1.92) and sore throat (RR = 1.74; 1.26-2.39). Obtained results support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to immunotoxic PAHs may impair the immune function of the fetus and subsequently may be responsible for an increased susceptibility of newborns and

  6. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  7. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  8. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway.

  9. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations: myths and truths; Exposicion Prenatal a Radiaciones Ionizantes: Mitos y Verdades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. R.; Trano, L.; Gisone, P.

    2001-07-01

    In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the gramework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  11. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  12. Association of established smoking among adolescents with timing of exposure to smoking depicted in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Titus, Linda J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-04-04

    It is not known whether exposure to smoking depicted in movies carries greater influence during early or late adolescence. We aimed to quantify the independent relative contribution to established smoking of exposure to smoking depicted in movies during both early and late adolescence. We prospectively assessed 2049 nonsmoking students recruited from 14 randomly selected public schools in New Hampshire and Vermont. At baseline enrollment, students aged 10-14 years completed a written survey to determine personal, family, and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to depictions of smoking in the movies (early exposure). Seven years later, we conducted follow-up telephone interviews to ascertain follow-up exposure to movie smoking (late exposure) and smoking behavior. We used multiple regression models to assess associations between early and late exposure and development of established smoking. One-sixth (17.3%) of the sample progressed to established smoking. In analyses that controlled for covariates and included early and late exposure in the same model, we found that students in the highest quartile for early exposure had 73% greater risk of established smoking than those in the lowest quartile for early exposure (27.8% vs 8.6%; relative risk for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14 to 2.62). However, late exposure to depictions of smoking in movies was not statistically significantly associated with established smoking (22.1% vs 14.0%; relative risk for Q4 vs Q1 = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.89 to 1.44). Whereas 31.6% of established smoking was attributable to early exposure, only an additional 5.3% was attributable to late exposure. Early exposure to smoking depicted in movies is associated with established smoking among adolescents. Educational and policy-related interventions should focus on minimizing early exposure to smoking depicted in movies.

  13. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  14. Smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Adams, Marc A; Sánchez, José de Jesús; Guzmán-Cerda, Gabriela

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in the home and workplace among residents of Tijuana, one of Mexico's largest cities. This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, during 2003 and 2004. A population-based sample of 400 Tijuana adult residents responded to a tobacco survey, and 397 of the surveys were analyzed. About 22.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.7%-27.1%) of Tijuana adults reported current smoking, and 53.9% (95% CI: 48.8%-58.9%) reported chronic exposure to secondhand smoke. Approximately 44.4% (95% CI: 37.9%-50.9%) of Tijuana adults had a nonsmoking policy in their workplace, while 65.8% (95% CI: 61.0%-70.6%) of Tijuana households were smoke-free. The results underline the need for increased tobacco control efforts, particularly stricter enforcement of existing passive smoking regulations, in order to expand protection from secondhand smoke from private settings to public ones and to curb the tobacco epidemic in Tijuana and elsewhere in Mexico.

  15. Prenatal influenza exposure and cardiovascular events in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocoros, Noelle M; Lash, Timothy L; Ozonoff, Al

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza and cardiovascular events in adulthood. Design Using Danish surveillance data to identify months when influenza activity was highest during three previous pandemics (1918, 1957, and 1968), persons were...... defined as exposed/unexposed based on whether they were in utero during peak months of one of the pandemics. Episodes of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were identified in the Danish National Registry of Patients covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. Setting/Sample Information from Danish...... national registries on all persons with a Civil Personal Registry number and birthdates in 1915 through 1922, 1954 through 1960, and 1966 through 1972 was collected. Main outcome measures Crude incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated per pandemic. Generalized linear models were fit to estimate IRRs...

  16. Congenital ventricular septal defects and prenatal exposure to cyclooxygenase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Burdan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defects (VSDs are common congenital abnormalities which have been reported to be associated with maternal fever and various environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors on heart defects. A retrospective statistical analysis was performed using data collected in our laboratory during various teratological studies carried out on albino CRL:(WIWUBR Wistar strain rats from 1997 to 2004. The observations were compared with concurrent and historic control data, as well as findings from other developmental toxicological studies with selective and nonselective COX-2 inhibitors. Despite the lack of significant differences in the frequency of VSDs between drug-exposed and control groups, statistical analysis by the two-sided Mantel-Haenszel test and historical control data showed a higher incidence of heart defects in offspring exposed to nonselective COX inhibitors (30.06/10,000. Unlike other specific inhibitors, aspirin (46.26/10,000 and ibuprofen (106.95/10,000 significantly increased the incidence of the VSD when compared with various control groups (5.38-19.72/10,000. No significant differences in length or weight were detected between fetuses exposed to COX inhibitors and born with VSD and non-malformed offsprings. However, a statistically significant increase of fetal body length and decrease of body mass index were found in fetuses exposed to COX inhibitors when compared with untreated control. We conclude that prenatal exposure to COX inhibitors, especially aspirin and ibuprofen, increased the incidence of VSDs in rat offspring but was not related to fetal growth retardation.

  17. Modifying exposure to smoking depicted in movies: a novel approach to preventing adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Dalton, Madeline A; Heatherton, Todd; Beach, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Most behavioral approaches to adolescent smoking address the behavior directly. We explore an indirect approach: modifying exposure to portrayals of smoking in movies. To describe adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies and to examine factors that could modify such exposure. Occurrences of smoking were counted in each of 601 popular movies. Four thousand nine hundred ten northern New England junior high school students were asked to report which movies they had seen from a randomly generated subsample of 50 films, and responses were used to estimate exposure to the entire sample. Analysis The outcome variable was exposure to movie smoking, defined as the number of smoking occurrences seen. Risk factors for exposure included access to movies (movie channels, videotape use, and movie theater); parenting (R [restricted]-rated movie restrictions, television restrictions, parenting style); and characteristics of the child (age, sex, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, rebelliousness, and self-esteem). We used multiple regression to assess the association between risk factors and exposure to movie smoking. Subjects had seen an average of 30% of the movie sample (interquartile range, 20%-44%), from which they were exposed to 1160 (interquartile range, 640-1970) occurrences of smoking. In a multivariate model, exposure to movie smoking increased (all P values Parent restriction on viewing R-rated movies resulted in a 50% reduction in exposure to movie smoking. There was no association between parenting style and exposure to movie smoking. Much of the protective effect of parent R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking was mediated through lower exposure to movie smoking. Adolescents see thousands of smoking depictions in movies, and this influences their attitudes and behavior. Exposure to movie smoking is reduced when parents limit movie access. Teaching parents to monitor and enforce movie access guidelines could reduce adolescent smoking in an

  18. Prenatal cadmium exposure dysregulates sonic hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the thymus resulting in altered thymocyte development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Tou, Janet C.; Barnett, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is both an environmental pollutant and a component of cigarette smoke. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports in the literature of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways are required for thymocyte maturation. Several studies have demonstrated that Cd exposure affects these pathways in different organ systems. This study was designed to investigate the effect of prenatal Cd exposure on thymocyte development, and to determine if these effects were linked to dysregulation of Shh and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose (10 ppm) of Cd throughout pregnancy and effects on the thymus were assessed on the day of birth. Thymocyte phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. A Gli:luciferase reporter cell line was used to measure Shh signaling. Transcription of target genes and translation of key components of both signaling pathways were assessed using real-time RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Prenatal Cd exposure increased the number of CD4 + cells and a subpopulation of double-negative cells (DN; CD4 - CD8 - ), DN4 (CD44 - CD25 - ). Shh and Wnt/β-catenin signaling were both decreased in the thymus. Target genes of Shh (Patched1 and Gli1) and Wnt/β-catenin (c-fos, and c-myc) were affected differentially among thymocyte subpopulations. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to Cd dysregulates two signaling pathways in the thymus, resulting in altered thymocyte development.

  19. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Interventions on the exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ting-ting; Chen, Xue-yun; Hu, De-wei; Mao, Zheng-zhong

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the extent of exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking; to undertake interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those women toward passive smoking; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 128 non-smoking pregnant women participated in the survey. Their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards passive smoking were measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A sixteen-week intervention was undertaken. The knowledge and attitudes of the non-smoking pregnant women towards passive smoking improved significantly, as well as their attempts to avoid exposure to the passive smoking brought by their smoking husbands or other family members. Telephone counseling, booklets and doctors' advices were the most acceptable approaches of health education. The comprehensive interventions are effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of non-smoking women toward passive smoking.

  1. The fetal programming effect of prenatal smoking on Igf1r and Igf1 methylation is organ- and sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karolin F; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Timens, Wim; Kobzik, Lester; Plösch, Torsten; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) on DNA methylation has been demonstrated in blood samples from children of smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. As the identified differentially methylated genes can be associated with developmental processes, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a critical role in prenatal tissue growth, we hypothesized that PSE induces fetal programming of Igf1r and Igf1. Using a mouse model of smoking during pregnancy, we show that PSE alters promoter methylation of Igf1r and Igf1 and deregulates their gene expression in lung and liver of fetal (E17.5) and neonatal (D3) mouse offspring. By further comparing female versus male, lung versus liver, or fetal versus neonatal time point, our results demonstrate that CpG site-specific aberrant methylation patterns sex-dependently vary per organ and time point. Moreover, PSE reduces gene expression of Igf1r and Igf1, dependent on organ, sex, and offspring's age. Our results indicate that PSE may be a source of organ-specific rather than general systemic fetal programming. This is exemplified here by gene promoter methylation and mRNA levels of Igf1r and Igf1, together with a sex- and organ-specific naturally established correlation of both parameters that is affected by prenatal smoke exposure. Moreover, the comparison of fetuses with neonates suggests a CpG site-dependent reversibility/persistence of PSE-induced differential methylation patterns.

  2. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  3. Prevalence of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse: questionnaire versus biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiandetti, Antonella; Hernandez, Gimena; Mercadal-Hally, María; Alvarez, Airam; Andreu-Fernandez, Vicente; Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in young adults, including women of childbearing age, has experienced significant increase over the past two decades. The use of questionnaires as the only measure to investigate prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse exposure underestimates the real prevalence of exposure and could mislead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compare reported rates of prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption with biomarkers of exposure by ...

  4. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat

  5. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Nelen, Vera [Department of Health, Provincial Institute for Hygiene, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeyens, Willy [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene (Belgium); Van Larebeke, Nicolas [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sioen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.sioen@ugent.be [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); FWO Research Foundation, Egmontstraat 5, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  7. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal stress has been linked to several adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, which may share a common pathophysiology with autism. We aimed to examine whether prenatal stress exposure after maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of autism later in life. METHODS: We...... compared with those in the unexposed group. RESULTS: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was not associated with an increased risk of autism in the offspring. The hazard ratios did not differ by the nature of the exposure (maternal relationship to the deceased or cause of death). The hazard...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  8. Lifetime secondhand smoke exposure and childhood and adolescent asthma: findings from the PIAMA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Edith B; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-02-23

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a modifiable risk factor associated with childhood asthma. Associations with adolescent asthma and the relevance of the timing and patterns of exposure are unclear. Knowledge of critical windows of exposure is important for targeted interventions. We used data until age 17 from 1454 children of the Dutch population-based PIAMA birth cohort. Residential SHS exposure was assessed through parental questionnaires completed at ages 3 months, 1-8 (yearly), 11, 14, and 17 years. Lifetime exposure was determined as; a) time window-specific exposure (prenatal, infancy, preschool, primary school, and secondary school); b) lifetime cumulative exposure; c) longitudinal exposure patterns using latent class growth modeling (LCGM). Generalized estimation equations and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between exposure and asthma at ages 4 to 17 years, adjusting for potential confounders. With all three methods, we consistently found no association between SHS exposure and asthma at ages 4 to 17 years e.g. adjusted overall odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.67 (0.41-1.12), 1.00 (0.66-1.51) and 0.67 (0.41-1.11) for prenatal maternal active smoking, infancy, and preschool school time window exposures, respectively. We assessed lifetime SHS exposure using different methods. Different timing and patterns of SHS exposure were not associated with an increased risk of asthma in childhood and adolescence in our study. More longitudinal studies could investigate effects of lifetime SHS exposure on asthma in adolescence and later life.

  9. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  10. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Susceptibility to Smoking, Perceived Addiction, and Psychobehavioral Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Ickes, Melinda J.; Butler, Karen M.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral effects of exposure among never- and ever-smoking college students. Participants: Participants were 665 college students at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Methods: This study is…

  11. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  12. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to cadmium on neurodevelopment of infants in Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Limei; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yijun; Hu, Yi; Shi, Rong; Tian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although animal studies suggested that prenatal cadmium exposure can cause neurodevelopmental deficits, little is explored in human populations, or its mechanism. We investigated the association between prenatal cadmium exposures and infants' developmental quotients (DQs) based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules (gross motor, fine motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) at 12 months of age and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in prenatal cadmium-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in Shandong, China, by enrolling 300 mothers between September 2010 and December 2011. Maternal blood cadmium concentration (median, 1.24 μg/L) was negatively associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels in cord serum. A 10-fold increase in maternal cadmium levels was associated with a 5.70-point decrease in social domain DQs, a 4.31-point decrease in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. These data suggest that prenatal low-level cadmium exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. BDNF may play an important role in the decline of social domain DQs induced by prenatal low-level cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Cadmium was inversely associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels. • BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. • BDNF may contribute to the decline of DQs induced by prenatal cadmium exposure. - Negative associations were found between prenatal cadmium exposure and social domain DQs as well as BNDF levels in cord serum.

  14. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gendall

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies.Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05. The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18 with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  15. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on social development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Kennedy, Bruce; Katzman, Aaron; Lahvis, Garet P; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in humans and animals has been shown to impair social development. Molecules that mediate synaptic plasticity and learning in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecule, early growth response protein 1 (egr1), have been shown to affect the regulation of social interactions (SI). In this study we determined the effects of PCE on SI and the corresponding ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in developing mice. Furthermore, we studied the PCE-induced changes in the constitutive expression of BDNF, egr1 and their transcriptional regulators in the mPFC as a possible molecular mechanism mediating the altered SI. In prenatal cocaine-exposed (PCOC) mice we identified increased SI and USV production at postnatal day (PD) 25, and increased SI but not USVs at PD35. By PD45 the expression of both social behaviors normalized in PCOC mice. At the molecular level, we found increased BDNF exon IV and egr1 mRNA in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30 that normalized by PD45. This was concurrent with increased EGR1 protein in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30, suggesting a role of egr1 in the enhanced SI observed in juvenile PCOC mice. Additionally, by measuring the association of acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 9 and 14 (acH3K9,14) and MeCP2 at the promoters of BDNF exons I and IV and egr1, our results provide evidence of promoter-specific alterations in the mPFC of PCOC juvenile mice, with increased association of acH3K9,14 only at the BDNF exon IV promoter. These results identify a potential PCE-induced molecular alteration as the underlying neurobiological mechanism mediating the altered social development in juvenile mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  17. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is an important health hazard. This study was designed to assess the sociodemographic risk factors related to women's exposure to secondhand smoke. Materials and Methods A case-control analysis of data collected as part of a prospective cohort study was conducted. Participants were 340 female Tehran residents exposed to cigarette smoke. Women consented to participate in this study and completed a questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, household characteristics and smoking status at home through a face-to-face interview. Factors related to women's exposure to secondhand smoke were assessed using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results The final multivariate logistic regression model showed that lower levels of education (p = 0.002) and social class (p = 0.03) increase the risk of exposure to secondhand smoke in women. Conclusion These results support the effect of women's educational level and social class on their exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:25191461

  18. Effect on intelligence of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of intelligence test scores at 10 - 11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has revealed the following: 1) For those individuals exposed in the first eight weeks after fertilization or after the 25th week, there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence; 2) The mean test scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories for individuals exposed at 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16 - 25 weeks; 3) The regression of intelligence score on estimated fetal tissue dose is linear or linear-quadratic for the 8 - 15 week group and possibly linear for the 16 - 25 week group; 4) The cumulative distributions of test scores suggest a progressive shift downwards in the scores with increasing exposure; and 5) Within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable, severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 to 15 weeks after fertilization, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear-quadratic model is 21 - 27 points at 1 gray (Gy = 100 cGy = 100 rad). The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 33 - 41 points at 1 Gy; but the two estimates are not statistically significantly different. (author)

  19. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; pmovies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  20. Derived reference levels for prenatal exposure in a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuccetelli, C.; Risica, S.; Rogani, A.

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident many countries renewed their radiological emergency plans, also considering the possibility of over boundary accidents. This has been set out by the 96/29/Euratom Directive (Council Directive, 1996), which states that E ach Member State shall ensure that account is taken of the fact that radiological emergencies may occur in connection with practices on or outside its territory and affect it . Moreover, after September 11, 2001, the need to prepare emergency plans for possible terroristic attacks became evident and these plans are now being worked out in many countries for intervention in case of biological, chemical and/or radiological risk. In the event of radiological emergency, all decisions to be taken are based on possible doses to critical groups (European Commission, 1997), which are the population groups most at risk. These critical groups are, in most cases, infants or children, given that dose coefficients for these age groups are generally higher than for adults. However, a new ICRP Recommendation (ICRP, 2001) has recently been published that gives dose coefficients for embryo/foetus due to intake by the mother, by inhalation or ingestion, of 31 radionuclides. Also as a result of the revaluation in the last years of the possible health effects of prenatal exposure to ionising radiation (see e.g. the review in P. Fattibene et al., 1999), the consequences for the embryo/foetus of a possible radiological emergency connected to a nuclear plant and to possible dispersion of Depleted Uranium (DU) in the environment are analysed and discussed in this paper. For the former type of accident, Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) are calculated for prenatal exposure due to acute inhalation by the mother (female member of the public) and an assessment is performed of ingestion doses for the offspring resulting from consumption of foodstuffs by the mother of which 10% of the annual consumption is contaminated at the maximum levels

  1. [Short- and long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, L; Cazas, O; Danel, T; Reynaud, M

    2006-02-01

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly used drugs by pregnant women. The objective of this review of literature was to examine the association between cannabis use during pregnancy and effects upon growth, cognitive development (memory, attention, executive functions...) and behavior of newborns, children and teenagers. We searched for articles indexed in the medline database from 1970 to 2005. The following terms were used in the literature search: cannabis/marijuana, pregnancy, fetal development, newborn, prenatal exposure, neurobehavioral deficits, cognitive deficits, executive functions, cannabinoids, reproduction. Most of the articles were published in English. Cannabis use during pregnancy is related to diverse neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, deficits in learning and memory, and a deficiency in aspects of executive functions. It seems difficult to identify complications, such as lower birth weight, only attributable to cannabis as opposed to the multiple perinatal complications associated with tobacco smoking. In addition to alcohol and cigarettes, information should be given to women about the potentially harmful effects on fetal development, newborns, children and teenagers of smoking cannabis. Therefore, it seems necessary to develop prevention programs on this subject.

  2. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  3. Association between prenatal exposure to bacterial infection and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    . Post hoc analyses showed that upper respiratory tract and gonococcal infections were associated with elevated risk of the disease. An association between risk of schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to bacterial infections might be mediated through transplacental passage of maternally produced cytokines......Recent research suggests that prenatal exposure to nonviral infection may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and we hypothesized an association between maternal bacterial infection during pregnancy and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia. Data on maternal infections from......-34 and 45-47 years, respectively. The effect of prenatal exposure to bacterial infections was adjusted for prenatal exposure to analgesics and parental social status. In a risk set of 7941 individuals, 85 cases (1.1%) of ICD-8 schizophrenia were identified by the age of 32-34 years and 153 cases (1...

  4. Prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials and overweight and obesity in Danish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, A; Antonsen, S; Kahlert, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antibacterials may permanently dysregulate fetal metabolic patterns via epigenetic pathways or by altering maternal microbiota. We examined the association of prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials with overweight and obesity in schoolchildren...... admissions during pregnancy. We defined overweight and obesity among the children using standard age- and sex-specific cutoffs. We computed sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of overweight and obesity associated with exposure to prenatal antibacterials, adjusting for maternal age at delivery....... SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a prevalence study among Danish schoolchildren aged 7-16 years using data from routine school anthropometric evaluations conducted during 2002-2013. Prenatal exposure to antibacterials was ascertained by using maternal prescription dispensations and infection-related hospital...

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure among never-smoking youth in 168 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; Zheng, Shimin; John, Rijo M; Cao, Yan; Kioko, David; Anderson, James; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among never-smoking adolescents and identify key factors associated with such exposure. Data were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 168 countries during 1999-2008. SHS exposure was ascertained in relation to the location-exposure inside home, outside home, and both inside and outside home, respectively. Independent variables included parental and/or peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, attitudes toward smoking ban, age, sex, and World Health Organization region. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 356,414 never-smoking adolescents included in the study, 30.4%, 44.2%, and 23.2% were exposed to SHS inside home, outside home, and both, respectively. Parental smoking, peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, and positive attitudes toward smoke ban were significantly associated with increased odds of SHS exposure. Approximately 14% of adolescents had both smoking parents and peers. Compared with never-smoking adolescents who did not have both smoking parents and peers, those who had both smoking parents and peers had 19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 19.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.86-21.41), eight (aOR, 7.71; 95% CI, 7.05-8.43), and 23 times (aOR, 23.16; 95% CI, 20.74-25.87) higher odds of exposure to SHS inside, outside, and both inside and outcome home, respectively. Approximately one third and two fifths of never-smoking adolescents were exposed to SHS inside or outside home, and smoking parents and/or peers are the key factors. Study findings highlight the need to develop and implement comprehensive smoke-free policies consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Balsevich, G.; Baumann, V.; Uribe, A.; Chen, A.; Schmidt, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used a mouse...

  9. Selenium protects neonates against neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to manganese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn exposure can affect brain development. Whether Selenium (Se can protect neonates against neurotoxicity from Mn exposure remains unclear. We investigated this issue in 933 mother-newborn pairs in Shanghai, China, from 2008 through 2009. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of Mn and Se were measured and Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA tests were conducted. The scores <37 were defined as the low NBNA. The median concentrations of cord serum Mn and Se were 4.0 µg/L and 63.1 µg/L, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, the interaction between Se and Mn was observed. Cord blood Mn levels had different effects on NBNA scores stratified by different cord blood Se levels. With Seexposure group with a low Se level [Mn ≥ P75 (9.1 µg/L and Seexposure group with a high Se level [Mn ≥ P75 (9.1 µg/L and Se ≥ P50 (63.1 µg/L] (38.0 ± 1.6 & 39.5 ± 0.9, p<0.001. Mn/Se ratio and NBNA scores were moderately correlated (r =  -0.41, p<0.001. Our findings suggest that Se has a protective effect on neonates' brain development against neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to Mn. Se supplementation should be considered during pregnancy, especially in areas with low natural Se.

  10. Consequences of prenatal radiation exposure on perinatal and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konermann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Acute and long-term teratogenic effects were studied in X-irradiated mice. There is evidence of a maximum susceptibility for intrauterine irradiation damage during early organogenesis with the accumulation of several processes of organ induction. Dose response curves are compared for the irradiation days 7, 10 and 13 post conceptionem based on the incidence of skeletal defects. Exposures during advanced stages of prenatal development promote the manifestation of long-term maturation defects. Corresponding postnatal phenomena and dose-relationships are described for pre- and perinatally irradiated mice. The data include late proliferative effects on liver and brain, lipid synthesis during the premyelination in brain, cerebral tigroid formation, insulin synthesis (histochemical data) in the Islands of Langerhans cells as well as disorders in the neuronal process formation. It is demonstrated that postnatal teratogenesis manifests itself as an elongated chain of interdependent processes of retardation and stabilization, the predominance of each depending on the irradiation dose and its time of application during development. In view of the generally fluctuating character of long-term maturation defects, an extended period of observation seems to be of great practical importance. (orig.)

  11. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM 2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM 2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM 2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM 2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM 2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM 2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 . Increased prenatal PM 2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize

  12. Community vulnerability to health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying communities vulnerable to adverse health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke may help prepare responses, increase the resilience to smoke and improve public health outcomes during smoke days. We developed a Community Health-Vulnerability Index (CHVI) based on fact...

  13. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  14. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters alpha2 receptor expression in adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvers Janelle M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal cocaine exposure produces attentional deficits which to persist through early childhood. Given the role of norepinephrine (NE in attentional processes, we examined the forebrain NE systems from prenatal cocaine exposed rats. Cocaine was administered during pregnancy via the clinically relevant intravenous route of administration. Specifically, we measured α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR density in adolescent (35-days-old rats, using [3H]RX821002 (5 nM. Results Sex-specific alterations of α2-AR were found in the hippocampus and amygdala of the cocaine-exposed animals, as well as an upregulation of α2-AR in parietal cortex. Conclusion These data suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure results in a persistent alteration in forebrain NE systems as indicated by alterations in receptor density. These neurochemical changes may underlie behavioral abnormalities observed in offspring attentional processes following prenatal exposure to cocaine.

  15. Behavioural outcome of school-age children after prenatal exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Heymans, HSA; Van der Veer, E; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL; Smrkovsky, M

    In utero exposure to coumarin derivatives may affect the development of the central nervous system of the child, irrespective of the period of exposure in pregnancy. Little is known about effects on development in the long term. The aim of the present study was to determine whether prenatal exposure

  16. Behavioural outcome of school-age children after prenatal exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J.; van Driel, D.; Heymans, H. S.; Van der Veer, E.; Sauer, P. J.; Touwen, B. C.; Smrkovsky, M.

    2000-01-01

    In utero exposure to coumarin derivatives may affect the development of the central nervous system of the child, irrespective of the period of exposure in pregnancy. Little is known about effects on development in the long term. The aim of the present study was to determine whether prenatal exposure

  17. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Crone, M.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  18. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Lanting, Caren; Crone, MR; Van Wouwe, JP

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  19. Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-04-01

    Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  3. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Does fetal smoke exposure affect childhood bone mass? The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: We assessed the intrauterine influence of maternal smoking on childhood bone mass by comparing parental prenatal and postnatal smoking habits. We observed higher bone mass in children exposed to maternal smoking, explained by higher body weight. Maternal smoking or related

  5. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian; Tong, Elisa K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harms pregnant women and the fetus. China has the world's largest number of smokers and a high male smoking prevalence rate. To compare exposure to SHS among rural and urban Chinese non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands, and analyze factors associated with the level of SHS exposure and hair nicotine concentration. Sichuan province, China. In all 1,181 non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands recruited from eight district/county Women and Children's hospitals. The women completed a questionnaire in April and May 2008. Based on systematic sampling, 186 pregnant women were selected for sampling the nicotine concentration in their hair. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine correlates with self-reported SHS exposure (total and at home); linear regression was conducted for the sub-sample of hair nicotine concentrations. Secondhand smoking exposure rates, hair nicotine levels. About 75.1% of the non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands reported regular SHS exposure. The major source of exposure was through their husband. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of greater SHS exposure (total and at home) and hair nicotine concentration was increased for women who were rural, had a husband with greater cigarette consumption, less knowledge about SHS, less negative attitudes about SHS, and no smoke-free home rules. The high prevalence rate of SHS exposure suggests that it is important for non-smoking pregnant women, especially rural women, to establish smoke-free home rules and increase knowledge and negative attitudes towards SHS.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  9. Prenatal exposure to environmental factors and congenital limb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G; Clark, Karen L; Tuan, Rocky S

    2016-09-01

    Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact. This is limited by the insufficiencies of currently available models. Specifically, in vivo approaches using guideline animal models have inherently deficient predictive power due to genomic and anatomic differences that complicate mechanistic comparisons. On the other hand, in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, while accessible for cellular and molecular experimentation, do not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenetic events in vivo nor systemic influences. More robust and accessible models based on human cells that accurately replicate specific processes of embryonic limb development are needed to enhance limb teratogenesis prediction and to permit mechanistic analysis of the adverse outcome pathways. Recent advances in elucidating mechanisms of normal development will aid in the development of process-specific 3D cell cultures within specialized bioreactors to support multicellular microtissues or organoid constructs that will lead to increased understanding of cell functions, cell-to-cell signaling, pathway networks, and mechanisms of toxicity. The promise is prompting researchers to look to such 3D microphysiological systems to help sort out complex and often subtle interactions relevant to developmental malformations that would not be evident by standard 2D cell culture testing. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:243-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  11. Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camann, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37 ng/m(3)) amounted to 53 mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m(3)) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71 mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL AIRBORNE PAH EXPOSURE ON VENTILATORY LUNG FUNCTION OF NON-ASTHMATIC PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014

  13. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  14. Prenatal exposure to dental amalgam: evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Study main cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gene E; Lynch, Miranda; Myers, Gary J; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Thurston, Sally W; Zareba, Grazyna; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-11-01

    Dental amalgams contain approximately 50 percent metallic mercury and emit mercury vapor during the life of the restoration. Controversy surrounds whether fetal exposure to mercury vapor resulting from maternal dental amalgam restorations has neurodevelopmental consequences. The authors determined maternal amalgam restoration status during gestation (prenatal exposure to mercury vapor [Hg(0)]) retrospectively in 587 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Seychelles Child Development Study, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the effects of prenatal and recent postnatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on neurodevelopment. They examined covariate-adjusted associations between prenatal maternal amalgam restoration status and the results of six age-appropriate neurodevelopmental tests administered at age 66 months. The authors fit the models without and with adjustment for prenatal and recent postnatal MeHg exposure metrics. The mean number of maternal amalgam restorations present during gestation was 5.1 surfaces (range, 1-22) in the 42.4 percent of mothers who had amalgam restorations. The authors found no significant adverse associations between the number of amalgam surfaces present during gestation and any of the six outcomes, with or without adjustment for prenatal and postnatal MeHg exposure. Results of analyses with the secondary metric, prenatal amalgam occlusal point scores, showed an adverse association in boys only on a letter- and word-identification subtest of a frequently used test of scholastic achievement, whereas girls scored better on several other tests with increasing exposure. This study's results provide no support for the hypothesis that prenatal Hg(0) exposure arising from maternal dental amalgam restorations results in neurobehavioral consequences in the child. These findings require confirmation from a prospective study of coexposure to MeHg and Hg(0).

  15. Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changqing; Gao, Liying; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2017-03-01

    Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200 μg/kg/day, 200 and 500 mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13 months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice. - Highlights: • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture disrupts F1 estrous cyclicity. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 ovarian cysts. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture decreases F1 female fertility-related indices. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 breeding complications.

  16. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  17. The economic burden of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in rural South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; Wu, Xinan

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases attributed to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a given year (2011) in rural southwest China. A prevalence-based, disease-specific attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic burden of chronic diseases attributable to both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 17 158 consenting adults aged ≥18 years was used to derive prevalence of smoking and exposure to SHS, as well as direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases. In the study population, the prevalence rates of smoking and exposure to SHS are 73.1 and 38.2% for males and 1.4 and 43.4% for females, respectively. The total costs of illness are $25.85 million for COPD, $18.80 million for asthma, $37.25 million for CHD, $17.91 million for stroke, $264.35 million for hypertension and $17.11 million for peptic ulcer. The estimated costs attributable to smoking and exposure to SHS are $95.51 million and $79.35 million, accounting for 7.15 and 5.94% of local healthcare costs, respectively. Of the total costs of tobacco, direct costs and indirect costs are $94.66 million and $0.85 million for smoking, and $78.22 million and $1.36 million for exposure to SHS. Smoking contributes more cost of illness than exposure to SHS in men, whereas exposure to SHS contributes more cost of illness than smoking in women. Smoking and exposure to SHS produce substantial economic burden as well as have a considerable public health impact in rural southwest China.

  18. Smoke-Free School Policy and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Kennedy, Ryan David; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco control prevention efforts are important to protect people from exposure to dangerous tobacco smoke, support cessation, and reduce tobacco-use initiation. While smoke-free laws have been a widespread tobacco control strategy, little work has been done to examine the impact of smoke-free school policies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of provincial smoke-free school ground policies on youth-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on school property. This study used a nationally representative sample of 20 388 youth aged 15-18 from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smoke-free school policies on SHS exposure. Approximately over half (52%) of respondents reported SHS exposure on a school property in the past month. Smoke-free school policy had a statistically significant effect on SHS exposure. Specifically, the adoption of smoke-free school reduced the probability of SHS exposure by about 8 percentage points. Respondents who were smokers were more likely to report being exposed to SHS than nonsmokers. Likewise, those living in urban areas had higher probability of being exposed to SHS than those living in rural parts of Canada. Reported exposure to tobacco smoke did decrease after the introduction of smoke-free ground policies; however, almost half of high-school aged youth report exposure in the last month. Across Canada, provincial health authorities as well as school administers may need to assess the implementation of these smoke-free policies and improve enforcement strategies to further reduce exposure to dangerous SHS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  19. Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking patterns on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael S; Shiffman, Saul; Chandra, Siddharth

    2018-05-01

    Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; pbusiness hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peers, tobacco advertising, and secondhand smoke exposure influences smoking initiation in diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n  =  57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.

  1. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  2. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  3. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viabili...... are planned to investigate whether neurobehavioral effects resulting from prenatal xylene exposure can interact with neurophysiological aging processes. (C) 1997 Inter Press, Inc....

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  5. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  6. Increased precipitation of spasms in an animal model of infantile spasms by prenatal stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Juan; Shang, Ning-Xiu; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) represent a serious epileptic syndrome, called West syndrome (WS) that occurs in the early infantile age. Although several hypotheses and animal models have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of IS, the pathophysiology of IS has not been elucidated. Recently, we proposed a hypothesis for IS under prenatal stress exposure (also called Zou's hypothesis) by correlating diverse etiologies and prenatal stresses with IS development. This research aims to determine the mechanism through which prenatal stress affects the offspring and establish the potential underlying mechanisms. Pregnant rats were subjected to forced swimming in cold water. Rat pups exposed to prenatal stress were administered with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Exposure to prenatal stress sensitized the rats against development of NMDA-induced spasms. However, this phenomenon was altered by administering adrenocorticotropin. Prenatal stress exposure also altered the hormonal levels and neurotransmitter receptor expression of the developing rats as well as influenced the tissue structure of the brain. These findings suggest that maternal stress could alter the level of endogenous glucocorticoid, which is the basis of IS, and cerebral dysplasia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), inherited metabolic diseases, and other factors activated this disease in developmental brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender specific differences in neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to very low-lead levels: the prospective cohort study in three-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffery; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Skarupa, Anita; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2009-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between very low-level of prenatal lead exposure measured in the cord blood (cognitive deficits in the course of the first three years of life. The accumulated lead dose in infants over the pregnancy period was measured by the cord blood lead level (BLL) and cognitive deficits were assessed by the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). The study sample consisted of 457 children born to non-smoking women living in the inner city and the outlying residential areas of Krakow. The relationship between prenatal lead exposure and MDI scores measured at 12, 24 and 36 months of age and adjusted to a set of important covariates (gender of child, maternal education, parity, breastfeeding, prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke) was evaluated with linear multivariate regression, and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) longitudinal panel model. The median of lead level in cord blood was 1.21 microg/dL with the range of values from 0.44 to 4.60 microg/dL. Neither prenatal BLL (dichotomized by median) nor other covariates affected MDI score at 12 months of age. Subsequent testing of children at 24 months of age showed a borderline significant inverse association of lead exposure and mental function (beta coefficient=-2.42, 95%CI: -4.90 to 0.03), but the interaction term (BLL x male gender) was not significant. At 36 months, prenatal lead exposure was inversely and significantly associated with cognitive function in boys (Spearman correlation coefficient=-0.239, p=0.0007) but not girls (r=-0.058, p=0.432) and the interaction between BLL and male gender was significant (beta coefficient=-4.46; 95%CI: -8.28 to -0.63). Adjusted estimates of MDI deficit in boys at 36 months confirmed very strong negative impact of prenatal lead exposure (BLL>1.67 microg/dL) compared with the lowest quartile of exposure (beta coefficient=-6.2, p=0.002), but the effect in girls was insignificant (beta coefficient=-0

  8. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  10. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  11. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  12. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Guxens, Monica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  13. Mental retardation after prenatal exposure. Re-analysis indicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    2000-01-01

    The current risk assessment for severe mental retardation after prenatal exposure to the A-bomb radiation is based on 21 cases exposed to more than 0.005 Gy, of which 17 were exposed in the most sensitive period 8-15 weeks p.c. The latest analysis, applying the best fitting model, indicates a threshold with a lower 95% bound of 0.06-0.31 Gy, depending on whether 2 cases with Down's syndrome are included or not. The authors have interpreted this as suggesting a threshold in the low-dose region. In the dose group 0.10-0.49 Gy, except one case with Down's syndrome there is only one other case, exposed 8 weeks p.c. to 0.14 Gy. However, in a RERF report (TR 13-91) concerning brain abnormalities detected by MRI in retarded persons, the same case is described. According to this report he was actually exposed to 0.86 Gy. The distance was 1060 m, and his mother exhibited severe epilation. These details indicate that the higher dose is correct and the lower dose is erroneous. In a small material the misclassification of one case has a deep influence on the result of the data analysis. Reclassification of this case will lead to a considerable change in the estimated threshold, notably in the 95% lower bound of the threshold. There will be no indication of severe retardation after less than 0.5 Gy even in the most sensitive period. This does not preclude a milder effect on intelligence from lower doses. The fraction of severe retardation after exposure to 1 Sv in the period 8-15 weeks p.c. has been estimated at 40%. The effect on intelligence score has been estimated at 30 IQ units per Sv in the same period. These estimates have been combined in ICRP 60 to create a model, based on a presumed normal distribution of IQ scores, according to which the final outcome for an individual is determined by his expected IQ without exposure. Thus the dose required to make an otherwise normal individual retarded would be high, while a much lower dose would be enough to bring an individual

  14. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  15. Prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure and development of asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Karlstad, Øystein; Håberg, Siri E; Nafstad, Per; Davey Smith, George; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-04-01

    Paracetamol exposure has been positively associated with asthma development. The relative importance of prenatal vs infant exposure and confounding by indication remains elusive. We examined the association of prenatal and infant (first 6 months) paracetamol exposure with asthma development while addressing confounding by indication. We used information from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 53169 children for evaluation of current asthma at 3 years, 25394 for current asthma at 7 years and 45607 for dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database. We calculated adjusted relative risks (adj. RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-binomial regression. There were independent modest associations between asthma at 3 years with prenatal paracetamol exposure (adj. RR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.25) and use of paracetamol during infancy (adj. RR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45). The results were consistent for asthma at 7 years. The associations with prenatal paracetamol exposure were seen for different indications (pain, respiratory tract infections/influenza and fever). Maternal pain during pregnancy was the only indication that showed an association both with and without paracetamol use. Maternal paracetamol use outside pregnancy and paternal paracetamol use were not associated with asthma development. In a secondary analysis, prenatal ibuprofen exposure was positively associated with asthma at 3 years but not asthma at 7 years. This study provides evidence that prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure have independent associations with asthma development. Our findings suggest that the associations could not be fully explained by confounding by indication. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of otitis media among Greenlandic Inuit children while exposure to organochlorines remain insignificant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    regression analyses were used with adjustments for passive smoking, crowding, dietary habits, parent's educational level, breast feeding and the use of child-care. RESULTS: The children were 4-10years of age at follow-up and 223 (85%) participated. We found no association between prenatal OC exposure...... and the development of OM. Factors associated with the child's hazard of OM during the first 4years of life were: mother's history of OM (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.59, p=0.01); mother's smoking habits: current (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.45-4.21, p...

  17. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, M; Nonnemaker, J; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K; Bauer, U

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsevich, Georgia; Baumann, Valentin; Uribe, Andres; Chen, Alon; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. In addition, gene expression of a known regulator of the GR, FKBP51, is increased specifically within the paraventricular nucleus. These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant drugs and spatial ability in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.; Mellenbergh, G.; van de Poll, N.; Koppe, J.; Boer, K.

    1998-01-01

    By disturbing steroid hormone balances in the fetus, the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital and phenytoin may affect certain aspects of cognitive functioning. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied hormone related cognitive functioning in 72 men and 75 women who had been prenatally exposed to

  20. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-free Policy in Philadelphia Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Ann C; Lee, Nora L; Pankiewicz, Aaron; Ward, Rikki; Shuster, Michelle; Ogbenna, Bethany Townsend; Wade, Anita; Boamah, Maxwell; Osayameh, Olufunlayo; Rule, Ana M; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Bragg, Virginius; Mallya, Giridhar

    2017-04-01

    Multi-unit housing environments remain significant sources of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, especially for vulnerable populations in subsidized housing. In Philadelphia, the largest US housing authority to implement smoke-free policies, we measured baseline resident smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and longitudinal exposures to airborne nicotine, during policy development and implementation. In 4 communities, we collected data in 2013, 2014, and 2016, before and after introduction of comprehensive smoke-free policies, interviewing persons in 172 households, and monitoring air-borne nicotine in non-smoking homes and public areas. Average nicotine level differences across years were estimated with multi-level models. Fifty-six percent of respondents smoked. Only 37% of households were smoke-free, with another 41% restricting smoking by area or time of day. The number of locations with detectable nicotine did not differ before and after policy implementation, with approximately 20% of non-smoking homes and 70%-80% of public areas having detectable nicotine. However, public area nicotine levels were lower in 2016, after policy implementation, than in 2013 and 2014 (-0.19 μg/m 3 , p = .03). Findings suggest that initial policy implementation was associated with reduced SHS exposure in Philadelphia. As HUD strengthens smoke-free policies, SHS monitoring can be useful to educate stakeholders and build support for policy enforcement.

  1. Place and Policy: Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Bars and Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L

    2018-06-04

    Rural populations have been identified as having tobacco use disparities, with contributing factors including less demand for policy change than in urban areas, resulting in higher age-adjusted death rates related to tobacco use. In 2012, the rural state of North Dakota enacted a statewide comprehensive law requiring all bars and restaurants to be smoke-free. The purpose of this longitudinal study, performed in three phases, was to assess the continued effects of a statewide comprehensive smoke-free law in a primarily rural state, using a stratified random sample. Particulate matter and compliance indicators were assessed in restaurants and bars 21 months after enactment of the comprehensive law. Results were compared with the findings from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 samples, in which venues were assessed before passage of the law and approximately 3 months after enactment, respectively. The comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law led to immediate, sustained, and substantial reductions in secondhand smoke and eliminated previous significant disparities in secondhand smoke exposure in rural communities. Although indoor smoke-free compliance with the law was generally high, compliance in required outdoor smoke-free areas was low. Compliance with signage requirements, both indoors and outdoors, was low. The comprehensive statewide smoke-free law created a just distribution of smoke-free laws statewide, resulting in increased protection of rural populations from secondhand smoke. Targeted public health interventions to address compliance may reduce secondhand smoke levels in outlier venues that continue to have high levels of secondhand smoke.

  2. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal Exposure to DDE and PCB 153 and Respiratory Health in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascon, Mireia; Sunyer, Jordi; Casas, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants may affect the immune and respiratory systems, but available evidence is based on small study populations. We studied the association between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) and children......'s respiratory health in European birth cohorts. METHODS: We included 4608 mothers and children enrolled in 10 birth cohort studies from 7 European countries. Outcomes were parent-reported bronchitis and wheeze in the first 4 years of life. For each cohort, we performed Poisson regression analyses, modeling...... 153 tertiles of exposure, whereas DDE associations were more robust. CONCLUSION: This large meta-analysis suggests that prenatal DDE exposure may be associated with respiratory health symptoms in young children (below 18 months), whereas prenatal PCB 153 levels were not associated with such symptoms....

  4. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  5. Prenatal Lead Exposure Modifies the Impact of Maternal Self-Esteem on Children's Inattention Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Higgins, Rosemary

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.

  7. Prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and associations with child language at five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Alexander, Jan; Lundh, Thomas; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2018-01-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxin and evidence suggests that also low level exposure may affect prenatal neurodevelopment. Uncertainty exists as to whether the maternal MeHg burden in Norway might affect child neurodevelopment. To evaluate the association between prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and child language and communication skills at age five. The study sample comprised 38,581 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal mercury blood concentration in gestational week 17 was analysed in a sub-sample of 2239 women. Prenatal mercury exposure from maternal diet was calculated from a validated FFQ answered in mid-pregnancy. Mothers reported children's language and communications skills at age five by a questionnaire including questions from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), the Speech and Language Assessment Scale (SLAS) and the Twenty Statements about Language-Related Difficulties (language 20). We performed linear regression analyses adjusting for maternal characteristics, nutritional status and socioeconomic factors. Median maternal blood mercury concentration was 1.03μg/L, dietary mercury exposure was 0.15μg/kgbw/wk, and seafood intake was 217g/wk. Blood mercury concentrations were not associated with any language and communication scales. Increased dietary mercury exposure was significantly associated with improved SLAS scores when mothers had a seafood intake below 400g/wk in the adjusted analysis. Sibling matched analysis showed a small significant adverse association between those above the 90th percentile dietary mercury exposure and the SLAS scores. Maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was positively associated with the language and communication scales. Low levels of prenatal mercury exposure were positively associated with language and communication skills at five years. However, the matched sibling analyses suggested an adverse association between mercury and child

  8. Exposure to and risk awareness of environmental tobacco smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many students in higher institutions tend to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. This work was designed to survey the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and awareness of the dangers associated with it among undergraduates of university of Ilorin. Method: It was a cross-sectional study ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adolescents in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Kioko, David M.; Ogwell Ouma, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and determinants of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents in 9 West African countries. Methods. We conducted a pooled analysis with nationally representative 2006 to 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey data. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and inferential statistics using a multivariable logistic regression model to determine factors associated with SHS exposure. We investigated average marginal effect results that show the probability of SHS exposure, adjusting for all other attributes. Results. SHS exposure inside the home ranged from 13.0% to 45.0%; SHS exposure outside the home ranged from 24.7% to 80.1%. Parental or peer smoking behaviors were significantly associated with higher probability of SHS exposure in all 9 countries. Knowledge of smoking harm, support for smoking bans, exposure to antismoking media messages, and receptivity of school tobacco education were significantly associated with higher SHS exposure in most countries. Conclusions. West African policymakers should adopt policies consistent with Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its guidelines and public health education to promote smoke-free households. PMID:26180960

  10. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, W.-K.; Oh, J.-W.; Dong, J.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  11. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    , Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637.......BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS...

  12. Changes in peripheral nervous system activity produced in rats by prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carratu, M.R. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Renna, G. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Giustino, A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); De Salvia, M.A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Cuomo, V. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy))

    1993-06-01

    The present experiments were designed to investigate whether alterations of peripheral nervous system activity may be produced in male Wistar rats by prenatal exposure (from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy) to relatively low levels of CO (75 and 150 ppm). The voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents recorded from sciatic nerve fibres showed that prenatal exposure to CO produced modifications of sodium current properties. In particular, in 40-day-old rats exposed to CO (75 and 150 ppm) during gestation, the inactivation kinetics of transient sodium current were significantly slowed. Analysis of the potential dependence of steady-state Na inactivation, h[sub [infinity

  13. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swan, Shanna H; Main, Katharina M; Liu, Fan

    2005-01-01

    a summary phthalate score to quantify joint exposure to these four phthalate metabolites. The age-adjusted AGI decreased significantly with increasing phthalate score (p-value for slope = 0.009). The associations between male genital development and phthalate exposure seen here are consistent...... States, based on a nationwide sample. These data support the hypothesis that prenatal phthalate exposure at environmental levels can adversely affect male reproductive development in humans....

  14. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  15. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  16. Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes

  17. Exposure to smoking in soap operas and movies: smoking cessation and attempts to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, Zachary J; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Harbertson, Judith; Pérez, Ramona L; Novotny, Thomas

    2017-09-21

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate whether there was an association between seeing an actor smoke in telenovelas, Brazilian films, or international films, and trying to quit and quitting among adult Brazilian smokers. Data from 39,425 participants in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were used. Quit ratio (former smoker/former smoker + ever smoker) and proportions of current, former, and never smokers were calculated. Multivariable weighted regression was used to determine significant associations between quitting smoking and exposure to telenovelas and films. For current smokers, the odds of trying to quit were significantly higher among those who saw an actor smoking in a Brazilian film. Those who believed smoking caused serious illness and had rules in the home prohibiting smoking were significantly more likely to have tried to quit or had quit smoking. Exposure to smoking in the media may be different in adults than adolescents. Influential factors for trying to quit and quitting are rules prohibiting smoking at home, belief that smoking causes serious illness, and hearing about dangers of smoking in media.

  18. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures: workplace exposures, related perceptions of SHS risk, and reactions to smoking in catering workers in smoking and nonsmoking premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sandy Qiuying; Fielding, Richard; Hedley, Anthony J; Wong, Lai-Chin; Lai, Hak Kan; Wong, C M; Repace, James L; McGhee, Sarah M

    2011-05-01

    Smoke-free workplace legislation often exempts certain venues. Do smoking (exempted) and nonsmoking (nonexempted) catering premises' workers in Hong Kong report different perceptions of risk from and reactions to nearby smoking as well as actual exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS)? In a cross-sectional survey of 204 nonsmoking catering workers, those from 67 premises where smoking is allowed were compared with workers from 36 nonsmoking premises in Hong Kong on measures of perceptions of risk and behavioral responses to self-reported SHS exposure, plus independent exposure assessment using urinary cotinine. Self-reported workplace SHS exposure prevalence was 57% (95% CI = 49%-65%) in premises prohibiting and 100% (95% CI = 92%-100%) in premises permitting smoking (p < .001). Workers in smoking-permitted premises perceived workplace air quality as poorer (odds ratio [OR] = 9.3, 95% CI = 4.2-20.9) with higher associated risks (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6-8.6) than workers in smoking-prohibited premises. Workers in smoking-prohibited premises were more bothered by (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5) and took more protective action to avoid SHS (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.4) than workers in smoking-permitted premises. Nonwork exposure was negatively associated with being always bothered by nearby smoking (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.9), discouraging nearby smoking (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2-1.1), and discouraging home smoking (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Urinary cotinine levels were inversely related to workers' avoidance behavior but positively related to their perceived exposure-related risks. Different workplace smoking restrictions predicted actual SHS exposure, exposure-related risk perception, and protective behaviors. Workers from smoking-permitted premises perceived greater SHS exposure-related risks but were more tolerant of these than workers in smoking-prohibited premises. This tolerance might indirectly increase both work and nonwork exposures.

  19. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Impairs Fracture Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Hildemberg A R; Zamarioli, Ariane; Sousa Neto, Manoel D; Volpon, Jose B

    2017-03-01

    Nonsmokers may be affected by environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well studied. To explore the possible effects of passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects fracture healing. A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the femur of 41 female Wistar rats and fixed with an intramedullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for inadequate fractures and five for K wire extrusion). Tobacco exposure was provided by a smoking machine on a daily basis of four cigarettes a day. Each cigarette yielded 10 mg tar and 0.8 mg nicotine, and was puffed by alternating injections of fresh air for 30 seconds and smoke air for 15 seconds. The smoke exposure was previously adjusted to provide serum levels of cotinine similar to human secondhand tobacco exposure. Cotinine is a predominant catabolite of nicotine that is used as a biological biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke. In one group (n = 11), the animals were intermittently exposed to tobacco smoke before sustaining the fracture but not afterward. In another group (n = 7), the exposure occurred before and after the fracture. The control group (n = 9) was sham-exposed before and after the fracture. We evaluated the specimens 28 days after bone fracture. The callus quality was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (bone mineral density [BMD], bone mineral content [BMC], and callus area), μCT (callus volume and woven bone fraction), and mechanical bending (maximum force and stiffness). Tobacco exposure resulted in delayed bone callus formation, which is represented by decreased BMD (Control: 0.302 ± 0.008 g/cm 2 vs Preexposed: 0.199 ± 0.008 g/cm 2 and Pre- and Postexposed: 0.146 ± 0.009 g/cm 2 ; mean difference = 0.103 g/cm 2 , 95% CI, 0.094-0.112 g/cm 2 and mean difference = 0.156 g/cm 2 , 95% CI, 0.147-0.167 g

  1. Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiu Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use adversely affects many aspects of well-being and is disliked by non-smokers. However, its association with family happiness is unknown. We investigated the associations of family unhappiness with smoking in family members and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure at home in Hong Kong children. In a school-based survey in 2012–2013, 1238 primary school students (mean age 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.9; 42.6% boys reported family smoking, SHS exposure at home and whether their families had any unpleasant experience caused by smoking or SHS in the past 30 days (tobacco-related unpleasant experience, and rated the overall level of happiness in their families (family unhappiness. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations of tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness with family smoking and SHS exposure at home. Tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness were reported by 27.5% and 16.5% of students. Unpleasant experience was more strongly associated with family smoking than SHS exposure at home. Family unhappiness was associated with both family smoking (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.51–3.71 and SHS exposure at home (1.82; 1.39–2.40. These results suggest a previously neglected possible impact of tobacco use on family happiness.

  2. Impaired brain development in the rat following prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate at gestational day 17 and neurotrophin distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Grace, AA; Korf, J; Stampachiacchiere, B; Aloe, L

    2004-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are the consequence of a disrupted development of the CNS. Accordingly, intrauterine exposure to toxins may increase the risk for psychopathology. We investigated whether prenatal exposure of rats to the neurotoxin methylaxoxymethanol

  3. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  4. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Casino goes smoke free: a longitudinal study of secondhand and thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Hoh, Eunha; Zakarian, Joy M; Chowdhury, Zohir; Hovell, Melbourne F; Jacob, Peyton; Watanabe, Kayo; Theweny, Teaba S; Flores, Victoria; Nguyen, Anh; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary

    2018-02-08

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed. A casino was visited nine times over a 15-month period to collect dust, surface and air samples in eight locations. Finger wipe and urine samples were collected from non-smoking confederates before and after a 4-hour casino visit. Samples were analysed for markers of SHS and THS pollution and exposure. Exceptionally high levels of THS were found in dust and on surfaces. Although the smoking ban led to immediate improvements in air quality, surface nicotine levels were unchanged and remained very high for the first month of the smoking ban. Surface nicotine decreased by 90% after 1 month (Pcasino creates deep THS reservoirs that persist for months after a smoking ban. A complete smoking ban immediately improves air quality and significantly reduces exposure to SHS and THS. However, THS reservoirs contribute to continued low-level exposure to toxicants. To accelerate the effect of smoking bans, remediation efforts should address specific THS reservoirs, which may require intensive cleaning as well as replacement of carpets, furniture and building materials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  7. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in an Ethiopian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.

  9. Should we bother with second-hand smoke exposure if smoking is on track?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing...... the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective...

  10. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  11. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and self-reported immune-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A. J.; Assies, J.; Goodkin, K.; van Heck, G. L.; Bekker, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    To compare self-reports of immune-related diseases in diethylstilbestrol (DES) daughters and controls. Prenatal exposure to DES has been associated with several malformations in the lower genital tract, a higher prevalence of adenosis, and increased risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma, and

  12. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Casas, M.; Morales, E.; Valvi, D.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.M.; Luque, N.; Rubio, S.; Monfort, N.; Ventura, R.; Martinez, D.; Sunyer, J.; Vrijheid, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing concern that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, which are widely used in consumer products, might affect susceptibility to infections and the development of allergy and asthma in children, but there are currently very few prospective studies. Objective

  13. What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Weaker: Prenatal Pollution Exposure and Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    I examine the impact of prenatal total suspended particulate (TSP) exposure on educational outcomes using county-level variation in the timing and severity of the industrial recession of the early 1980s as a shock to ambient TSPs (similar to Chay and Greenstone 2003b). I then instrument for pollution levels using county-level changes in relative…

  14. Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Language Development in Toddlers from the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Trine Staak; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Helle Raun

    2018-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, diff...

  15. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years. M...

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  17. Effects of prenatal exposure to toluene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    Development and neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to toluene (CAS 108-88-3) were studied after exposing pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) to 1800 ppm of the solvent for 6 h daily on days 7-20 of gestation. Body weights of exposed offspring were lower until day 10 after parturition. Neurobehavio...

  18. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Swaab, Dick F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Majoie, Charles B.; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2016-01-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the

  19. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the

  20. Morphologic and Immunologic effects in the rat after prenatal exposure to Cyclophosphamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel EM; Verhoef A; van Loveren H; Piersma AH

    1993-01-01

    Several teratogens have been shown to alter postnatal immune function after prenatal exposure. Until now, relatively little is known about the perinatal maturation of the immune system and about the effects of teratogens on this process. Therefore, further research is necessary into the field of

  1. When the Right (Drug) Should Be Left : Prenatal Drug Exposure and Heterotaxy Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Nicole R.; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Cobben, Jan-Maarten

    Background: Recent studies reported an association between prenatal propylthiouracil exposure and birth defects, including abnormal arrangement across the left-right body axis, suggesting an association with heterotaxy syndrome. Methods: This case-control and case-finding study used data from 1981

  2. Prenatal exposure to antifungal medication may change anogenital distance in male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung Mogensen, Djamilla; Bergkvist Pihl, Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal candidiasis is frequent among pregnant women and it is treated with anti-fungal medication (conazoles). Conazoles have anti-androgenic properties and prenatal exposure in rodents is associated with a shorter (less masculine) anogenital distance (AGD) in male offspring. To our...

  3. Consequences of prenatal androgen exposure for the reproductive performance of female pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubolini, Diego; Martinelli, Roberta; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Romano, Maria; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Fasola, Mauro; Saino, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Maternal hormones in vertebrate eggs can mediate important forms of maternal effects. However, the function of hormone transfer to the eggs is still debated, especially because long-term fitness consequences have been little studied. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to physiologically

  4. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and child growth during the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garced, Sheyla; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Claudio, Luz; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to its long-term persistence in the environment and its ability to cross the placental barrier, prenatal p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) exposure continues to be a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth, at birth and during the first year of life. Methods: 253 pregnant women were recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 in a prospective cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Serum levels of DDE were measured during each trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Using the generalized mixed-effects models, the association between DDE and child growth parameters (weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, BMI-for-age and head circumference-for-age Z-scores) from birth to 1 year of age was assessed. Maternal dietary intake was considered as covariable among others. Results: DDE levels were 6.3±2.8 ng/mL (first trimester), 6.6±2.9 ng/mL (second trimester), and 7.6±2.9 ng/mL (third trimester). After adjusting for potential confounder variables, no significant associations were observed with prenatal DDE exposure and each of the selected parameters. Conclusions: Our results show no evidence of an association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth during the first year of life.

  5. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 20 years ago, it was hypothesized that exposure to prenatal and early postnatal environmental xenobiotics with the potential to disrupt endogenous hormone signaling might be on the causal path to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm count and testicular cancer. Several con...

  7. Treatment of Challenging Behavior Exhibited by Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…

  8. First year growth in relation to prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors - a Dutch prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, M.; de Boer, M.R.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; van de Bor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth in the first year of life may already be predictive of obesity later in childhood. The objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and child growth during the first year. Dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE),

  9. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns...... because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)-the distance from the anus to the genitals-has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal...

  10. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  11. Prenatal Earthquake Exposure and Midlife Uric Acid Levels Among Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunpeng; Li, Yanping; Cui, Liufu; Cai, Jianfang; Shi, Jihong; Cheng, Feon W; Li, Yuqing; Curhan, Gary C; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-05-01

    To test whether prenatal exposure to earthquake (as a surrogate for acute prenatal stress) could have unfavorable effects on uric acid levels later in life. We included 536 individuals who had been prenatally exposed to the Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and 536 sex- and age-matched individuals without that exposure. Serum uric acid concentrations were measured based on fasting blood samples, which were repeatedly collected in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Mean uric acid concentrations in 2010 and the increasing rate from 2006 to 2010 were compared between the 2 groups, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and other potential confounders. We also used multiple logistic regression to estimate the risk of hyperuricemia (>416 μmole/liter in men or >357 μmole/liter in women) in 2010 by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjustment for the previously mentioned covariates. Participants with prenatal exposure to the earthquake had higher concentrations of serum uric acid (adjusted means 315 μmole/liter versus 296 μmole/liter; P = 0.001) and a higher likelihood of having hyperuricemia (multivariate adjusted OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.09-2.66]) in 2010 relative to those without the exposure. Prenatal exposure to the earthquake was consistently significantly associated with a faster increase in uric acid concentration from 2006 to 2010 (P earthquake was associated with higher serum uric acid and higher odds of hyperuricemia in early adulthood. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Miscarriage, Stillbirth, Preterm Delivery, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Beth A.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposure...

  13. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexy...

  14. Current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jae

    2014-02-06

    To examine the association between cigarette smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents using the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Cross-sectional study. A nationally representative sample of middle and high school students across South Korea. 75 643 eligible participants across the country. Current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression. Data were analysed from a nationally representative survey of 75 643 participants (37 873 men and 37 770 women). Data were gathered on extensive information including current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in adolescence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in Korean adolescents. Among those who had never smoked, secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents in a dose-response relation (OR 1.27, OR 1.52 in males; OR 1.25, OR 1.72 in females). Similar associations were observed among currently smoking men and women in a dose-response manner (OR 1.29, OR 1.55 in males; OR 1.22, OR 1.41 in females). These significant trends were consistently observed even after adjustments. We suggested that current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure were positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents. Efforts to encourage no smoking and no secondhand smoke exposure will be established for adolescents.

  15. Impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium on cognitive development at preschool age and the importance of selenium and iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bottai, Matteo; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Koutra, Katerina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vafeiadi, Marina; Fthenou, Eleni; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vahter, Marie; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding a potential link of low-to-moderate iodine deficiency, selenium status, and cadmium exposure during pregnancy with neurodevelopment is either contradicting or limited. We aimed to assess the prenatal impact of cadmium, selenium, and iodine on children’s neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. The study included 575 mother–child pairs from the prospective “Rhea” cohort on Crete, Greece. Exposure to cadmium, selenium and iodine was assessed by concentrations in the mother’s urine during pregnancy (median 13 weeks), measured by ICPMS. The McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities was used to assess children’s general cognitive score and seven different sub-scales. In multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, elevated urinary cadmium concentrations (≥0.8 µg/L) were inversely associated with children’s general cognitive score [mean change: −6.1 points (95 % CI −12; −0.33) per doubling of urinary cadmium; corresponding to ~0.4 SD]. Stratifying by smoking status (p for interaction 0.014), the association was restricted to smokers. Urinary selenium was positively associated with children’s general cognitive score [mean change: 2.2 points (95 % CI −0.38; 4.8) per doubling of urinary selenium; ~0.1 SD], although the association was not statistically significant. Urinary iodine (median 172 µg/L) was not associated with children’s general cognitive score. In conclusion, elevated cadmium exposure in pregnancy of smoking women was inversely associated with the children’s cognitive function at pre-school age. The results indicate that cadmium may adversely affect neurodevelopment at doses commonly found in smokers, or that there is an interaction with other toxicants in tobacco smoke. Additionally, possible residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

  16. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

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    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke

  17. Prenatal exposure to antipsychotic medication and use of primary health care system in childhood: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Würtz AM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anne Mette Lund Würtz,1,2 Claus Høstrup Vestergaard,1 Dorte Rytter,2 Merete Juul Sørensen,3 Jakob Christensen,4 Mogens Vestergaard,1,5 Bodil Hammer Bech1,2 1Research Unit for General Practice, 2Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, 3Regional Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, 5Section for General Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Antipsychotic (AP medication is increasingly used for many health conditions. Prenatal exposure to AP medication has been associated with several adverse outcomes, but the findings remain inconsistent.Purpose: We aimed to investigate prenatal exposure to AP medication and the use of primary health care system in childhood.Subjects and methods: All live-born singletons in Denmark during 1997–2012 were identified in the nationwide Danish National Patient Register and followed until December 31, 2013 (n = 963,010. Information on prenatal exposure to AP medication was obtained from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. Contacts to the general practitioner (GP were used as a proxy for the overall health of the children. Negative binomial regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between prenatal exposure to AP medication and number and type of GP contacts, excluding routine well-child visits and vaccinations. The models were adjusted for sex and birth date of the child, maternal age, parity, cohabitation status, income, education, smoking status, diagnosis of substance abuse, severe psychiatric disorder, depression and epilepsy as well as the use of antiepileptic drugs, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and insulin.Results: The prenatally AP-exposed children had 7% more GP contacts than unexposed children, IRR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.11. The association was slightly stronger among

  18. Prenatal drug exposure and teratological risk: one-year experience of an Italian Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Straface, Gianluca; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    Concern about exposure to drugs, radiation, or infection during pregnancy occur often because pregnancy is not always planned. A teratology information service offers rapid scientific counseling to all those worried about prenatal exposure. The aim of this study is to present data on the most common pharmaceutical products responsible for teratogenic risk in the one-year experience of a teratology information service in Italy. The survey was conducted among 8664 callers who contacted our Teratology Information Service in Rome between January and December 2006. Data on maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal health status, and details of exposure (dose and timing) were collected and stored in a specific data base. Scientific counseling on prenatal exposure was given to the caller by a specialized service operator, specifying the type of risk and suggesting appropriate tests for prenatal diagnosis. Most of the people called regarding drug exposure; increased risk was present in only 5% of the pregnant women calling during pregnancy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first category that are actually considered of increased risk to the fetus. The second category is represented by antiepileptic drugs. This experience confirms previous data that there is a high teratological risk perception among both women and physicians. The drugs estimated to present increased risk are medications used for chronic neurological diseases, mainly mood disorders and epilepsy. Preconceptional counseling for these women could be an effective strategy to prevent such exposure and to improve maternal and fetal outcome.

  19. Influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on full-term infant neurobehavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C E; Bandstra, E S; Anthony, J C; Ofir, A Y; Xue, L; Reyes, M L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure status through maternal interview and urine and meconium toxicology assays. Infants were assessed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) during the newborn period (0-6 postnatal days). Findings from multivariate profile analyses support a consistent, modest effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on neurobehavioral functioning in full-term neonates. All of the BNBAS cluster scores, with the exception of abnormal reflexes, were similarly affected, sharing a common slope (D=-0.14; 95% CI=-0.27, -0.003; P=.046) representing a -0.14 point difference between cocaine-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed infants after controlling for prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana (ATM); maternal age, education, employment, primigravida status, and prenatal care visits; and infant sex and postnatal age in days. Fetal growth was also related to neurobehavioral functioning and, in part, mediated the relationship between cocaine exposure and the BNBAS cluster scores. Cocaine exposure during each trimester similarly influenced infant neurobehavioral profiles, with cocaine-associated deficits most pronounced in infants with exposure in all three trimesters. Results from qualitative and quantitative urine and meconium bioassay indicators further substantiated these results. Findings, while significant, represent modest effect sizes in full-term infants.

  20. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  1. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  2. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoking Behavior Among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We described frequency of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among young adults patronizing bars and associations between SHS exposure, attitudes, and smoking behavior. Methods. We collected cross-sectional surveys from randomized time–location samples of bar patrons aged 18 to 26 years in San Diego, California, and Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 2010 to 2011. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated associations between SHS exposure, attitudes about dangers of SHS, susceptibility to smoking initiation among nonsmokers, and quit attempts among current smokers. Results. More than 80% of respondents reported past 7-day exposure to any SHS, and more than 70% reported exposure at a bar. Current smokers reported more SHS exposure in cars and their own homes than did nonsmokers. Among nonsmokers, SHS exposure was associated with susceptibility to initiation, but those who believed that SHS exposure is harmful were less susceptible. Belief that SHS is dangerous was associated with quit attempts among smokers. Conclusions. Smoke-free environments and education about the harms of SHS may decrease tobacco use among young adults who frequent bars, where they are heavily exposed to SHS. PMID:24028259

  3. Calls to Poison Centers for hookah smoking exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzky, Sandra S; Spiller, Henry A; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2018-06-01

    Over the past decade, smoking behaviors have changed in the US. Hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing, especially among youth and young adults. Social media sites describe the "hookah high" or "buzz", which may be related to nicotine, carbon monoxide, or other inhalants in hookah smoke. Most important is the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case reports include a high number of victims presenting with loss of consciousness from either syncope or seizures. Anaphylaxis and a very rare respiratory hypersensitivity reaction, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, have also been reported from hookah smoking in previously healthy young adults. This article provides background information on hookah smoking, describes hookah-induced acute injuries that could precipitate poison center calls, and offers suggestions for exposure characterization.

  4. Prenatal exposure to arsenic impairs behavioral flexibility and cortical structure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Htet eAung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to arsenic from well water in developing countries is suspected to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Although it has been demonstrated that exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 suppresses neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in vitro, it is largely unknown how developmental exposure to NaAsO2 impairs higher brain function and affects cortical histology. Here, we investigated the effect of prenatal NaAsO2 exposure on the behavior of mice in adulthood, and evaluated histological changes in the prelimbic cortex (PrL, which is a part of the medial prefrontal cortex that is critically involved in cognition. Drinking water with or without NaAsO2 (85 ppm was provided to pregnant C3H mice from gestational days 8 to 18, and offspring of both sexes were subjected to cognitive behavioral analyses at 60 weeks of age. The brains of female offspring were subsequently harvested and used for morphometrical analyses. We found that both male and female mice prenatally exposed to NaAsO2 displayed an impaired adaptation to repetitive reversal tasks. In morphometrical analyses of Nissl- or Golgi-stained tissue sections, we found that NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant increase in the number of pyramidal neurons in layers V and VI of the PrL, but not other layers of the PrL. More strikingly, prenatal NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant decrease in neurite length but not dendrite spine density in all layers of the PrL. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to NaAsO2 leads to behavioral inflexibility in adulthood and cortical disarrangement in the PrL might contribute to this behavioral impairment.

  5. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, C.; Larsen, H.; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...... does not seem to have long-term harmful effects during childhood, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the child. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.......OBJECTIVES: To perform a neurophysiological follow-up at 48 or 60 months of age in children exposed prenatally to progesterone compared with a placebo and evaluate their medical histories up to 8 years of age. METHODS: In this study, Danish participants of the PREDICT study, including 989 surviving...

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure and neonatal/infant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    Illegal drug use throughout the nation is a problem of epidemic proportion. Of particular concern is drug use among pregnant women. In most cases, these women have little hope of achieving a better life for themselves or their children. Illegal drugs, cocaine in particular, can have devastating effects on the neonate. These effects can last well into childhood and can exhibit themselves in academic, social, and family situations. Challenges for the neonatal nurse include early identification of these infants and use of available resources. This article addresses prenatal cocaine use and support services for drug-dependent women, effects of cocaine during the neonatal period, possible neonatal and infant outcomes, and implications for nursing practice.

  7. Impact of the implementation of a smoke free law in Serbia on exposure to tobacco smoke in different settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosic Bibic Nada

    2017-05-01

    Results indicate that the implementation of the Smoke Free Law in Serbia led to a decrease in exposure to tobacco smoke in all places where smoking is banned. Legislation should be improved to protect customers and workers from exposure to tobacco smoke in the hospitality sector. It is necessary to improve compliance with the law as 23% of the population is exposed to tobacco smoke at work despite the ban. High exposure to tobacco smoke in citizens’ homes calls for implementation of campaigns aimed at the general population.

  8. Smoke-Free Homes and Home Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined home exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS in China. This study aimed to document: (1 the prevalence and correlates of exposure to SHS in homes (in adult non-smokers in Shanghai, and (2 enforcement of rules, harm reduction behaviors, and self-efficacy for maintaining smoke-free homes in Shanghai. A total of 500 participants were recruited using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district to complete a survey. Among the total 355 nonsmokers, 127 (35.8% participants reported being exposed to SHS in the past 7 days. Participants living with smokers in the home, with no smoking restriction at home, and having children younger than 18 were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home. Higher self-efficacy in maintaining a smoke-free home was negatively associated with home SHS exposure. Having visitors who smoke was the greatest policy enforcement challenge. Ineffective measures such as opening windows were more commonly used in homes with partial bans. Educational initiatives to protect against SHS exposure in the home should promote smoke-free homes, address challenges to implementing such policies, and address misconceptions regarding the effectiveness of supposed harm reduction behaviors.

  9. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  10. Association Between Prenatal Acetaminophen Exposure and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Rebecca M; Hayes, V Autumn Gombert; Erramouspe, John

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of prenatal acetaminophen exposure on the future development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Literature searches of MEDLINE (1975 to June 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1975 to June 2015), and Cochrane Database (publications through June 2015) for prospective clinical trials assessing the relationship of prenatal acetaminophen exposure and the development of attention deficit disorders or hyperactivity. Studies comparing self-reported maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy to development of ADHD or ADHD-like behaviors in offspring between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Four studies examining the effects of prenatal acetaminophen exposure on subsequent ADHD behaviors were identified. Of these, one early study found no link to ADHD behaviors while the other studies found statistically significant correlations with the most prominent being a study finding a higher risk for using ADHD medications (hazard ratio = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.15-1.44) or having ADHD-like behaviors at age 7 years as determined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (risk ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27) in children whose mothers used acetaminophen during pregnancy. While there does appear to be a mild correlation between prenatal acetaminophen use and the development of ADHD symptoms in children, current data do not provide sufficient evidence that prenatal acetaminophen exposure leads to development of ADHD symptoms late in life. Acetaminophen is a preferred option for pain management during pregnancy when compared with other medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids for pyretic or pain relief. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel L; Yan, Zhonghai; Maher, Christina; Zhang, Hanjie; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; McDonald, Jacob; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b , and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf . Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males, and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression, but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  12. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression, and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b, and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf. Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH–exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  13. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  14. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...... components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were...

  15. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  16. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Mullen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors—reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon—gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology.

  17. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  18. Benefits of reducing prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants to children's neurodevelopment in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Li, T.Y.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Rauh, V.A.; Zhang, Y.G.; Tang, D.L. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2008-10-15

    Coal burning provides 70% of the energy for China's industry and power, but releases large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. PAHs are reproductive and developmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. We evaluated the benefit to neurobehavioral development from the closure of a coal-fired power plant that was the major local source of ambient PAHs. The research was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a coal-fired power plant operated seasonally before it was shut down in May 2004. Two identical prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking women and their newborns in 2002 (before shutdown) and 2005 (after shutdown). Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by PAH-DNA adducts (benzo(a)pyrene-DNA) in umbilical cord blood. Child development was assessed by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Prenatal exposure to other neurotoxicants and potential confounders (including lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke) was measured. We compared the cohorts regarding the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Significant associations previously seen in 2002 between elevated adducts and decreased motor area developmental quotient (DQ) (p = 0.043) and average DQ (p = 0.047) were not observed in the 2005 cohort (p = 0.546 and p = 0.146). However, the direction of the relationship did not change. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral development in Tongliang children benefitedby elimination of PAH exposure from the coal-burning plant, consistent with the significant reduction in PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of children in the 2005 cohort. The results have implications for children's environmental health in China and elsewhere.

  19. Impact of Smoke Exposure on Digital Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tina J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Korsah, Kofi; Wood, Richard T.; Antonescu, Christina E.

    2003-01-01

    Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital instrumentation and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The results of previous smoke exposure studies have been reported in various publications. The major immediate effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This paper presents new results from conformal coatings, memory chips, and hard drive tests.The best conformal coatings were found to be polyurethane, parylene, and acrylic (when applied by dipping). Conformal coatings can reduce smoke-induced leakage currents and protect against metal loss through corrosion. However conformal coatings are typically flammable, so they do increase material flammability. Some of the low-voltage biased memory chips failed during a combination of high smoke and high humidity. Typically, smoke along with heat and humidity is expected during fire, rather than smoke alone. Thus, due to high sensitivity of digital circuits to heat and humidity, it is hypothesized that the impact of smoke may be secondary.Low-voltage (3.3-V) static random-access memory (SRAMs) were found to be the most vulnerable to smoke. Higher bias voltages decrease the likelihood of failure. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROMs) and nonvolatile SRAMs were very smoke tolerant. Failures of the SRAMs occurred when two conditions were present: high density of smoke and high humidity. As the high humidity was present for only part of the test, the failures were intermittent. All

  20. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Roseberry, H.; Stevenson, J.L.; Clayton, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA) as an index of alveolar epithelial permeability in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 equal-size groups: control, all smoke exposure (ASE), and limited smoke exposure (LSE). Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 20-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biologic half-life (T 1 / 2 ). Mean T 1 / 2 minimum was significantly lower for ASE and LSE rabbits than by control rabbits. They observed a significant difference at 20 and 30 breath exposures between the control and ASE group mean values for T 1 / 2 , arterial blood pressure, and peak airway pressure. A combination of light and electron microscopy showed focal alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the ASE and LSE groups but no alveolar-capillary membrane damage. In summary, acute cigarette smoke exposure increases alveolar permeability as measured by /sup 99m/TcDTPA clearance, but there was no detectable ultrastructural alteration of the alveolar-capillary membrane

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  4. Postnatal development of rat pups is altered by prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Pometlová, Marie; Charousová, Petra

    2006-01-01

    There are studies showing that drug abuse during pregnancy may have impairing effect on progeny of drug-abusing mothers. Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most common illicit drugs throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MA exposure on postnatal development of rat pups before the time of separation from their mothers. Female rats were injected with MA (5 mg/kg daily) for the duration of their pregnancy. Pups were then tested throughout the lactation period. They were weighed daily and the ano-genital distance was measured on postnatal day (PD) 1. Development of postural motor reaction was tested by righting reflex on surface between PD 1 and 12, and righting reflex in mid-air after PD 12 until successfully accomplished. On PD 15 homing test was examined as a test of pup acute learning. On PD 23 sensory-motor coordination was examined using the rotarod and bar-holding tests. Additionally, the markers of physical maturation, such as eye opening, testes descent in males and vaginal opening in females were also recorded. The birth weight in prenatally MA-exposed pups was lower than in controls or saline-exposed pups regardless of sex. There were no changes induced by prenatal MA exposure in weight gain or in sexual maturation. In righting reflexes, we demonstrated that pups exposed prenatally to MA were slower in righting reflex on surface and that they accomplished the test of righting reflex in mid-air later than controls or saline-exposed pups. The performance of homing test was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. The sensory-motor coordination was impaired in prenatally MA-exposed pups when testing in the rotarod test. Also, the number of falls in the bar-holding test was higher in MA-exposed pups than in controls. There were no sex differences in any measures. Thus, the present study demonstrated that prenatal MA exposure impairs development of postural motor movements of rat pups during the first 3 weeks

  5. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  6. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their

  7. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  8. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes, daily (24 h average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5 with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  9. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Bonne; Burke, Moira; Lassman, William; Pfister, Gabriele; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling) are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes), daily (24 h) average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem) surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5) with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites) than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  10. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Choudhury, Sohel; Mustafa, Zaman; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2011-01-01

    To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9%) (male-58.2% and female-51.7%), in workplace (63%) (male-67.8% and female-30.4%), and in any public place (57.8%) (male-90.4% and female-25.1%) 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3%) and health care facilities (5.8%); however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%), and restaurants (27.6%). SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on protecting the people from hazardous effect of SHS as well as

  11. Prenatal cocaine exposure and its impact on cognitive functions of offspring: a pathophysiological insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioka, Eleana; Korou, Laskarina Maria; Daskalopoulou, Afrodite; Misitzi, Angelica; Batsidis, Eleni; Bakoyiannis, Ioannis; Pergialiotis, Vasilios

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that approximately 0.5%-3% of fetuses are prenatally exposed to cocaine (COC). The neurodevelopmental implications of this exposure are numerous and include motor skill impairments, alterations of social function, predisposition to anxiety, and memory function and attention deficits; these implications are commonly observed in experimental studies and ultimately affect both learning and IQ. According to previous studies, the clinical manifestations of prenatal COC exposure seem to persist at least until adolescence. The pathophysiological cellular processes that underlie these impairments include dysfunctional myelination, disrupted dendritic architecture, and synaptic alterations. On a molecular level, various neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, catecholamines, and γ-aminobutyric acid seem to participate in this process. Finally, prenatal COC abuse has been also associated with functional changes in the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that mediate neuroendocrine responses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal COC abuse, to describe the pathophysiological pathways that underlie these consequences, and to provide implications for future research in the field.

  12. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with subsequent working memory performance in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Kumsta, Robert; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Wüst, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prenatal psychosocial stress exposure and subsequent prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory performance in human adults. Working memory performance was assessed using an item-recognition task under 10 mg hydrocortisone (cortisol) and placebo conditions in a sample of 32 healthy young women (mean age = 25 +/- 4.34 years) whose mothers experienced a major negative life event during their pregnancy (Prenatal Stress, PS group), and in a comparison group of 27 healthy young women (mean age = 24 +/- 3.4 years). The two groups did not differ in the placebo condition, however, subjects in the PS group showed longer reaction times after hydrocortisone administration compared with subjects in the comparison group (p = .02). These findings provide support for an association between prenatal stress exposure and the potential modulatory effect of cortisol on working memory performance in young adults, which may reflect compromised development of the prefrontal cortex in prenatal life. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  15. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  16. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Åsa; Hohmann, Cynthia; Orsini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure.......Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure....

  17. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg −1 , mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles ( 210 Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m −3 , while in smoke-free air 210 Po concentration was about 30 μBq m −3 . The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from 210 Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of 210 Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons

  18. Prenatal exposure to very severe maternal obesity is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, T H; Lahti, M; Drake, A J; Räikkönen, K; Minnis, H; Denison, F C; Norman, J E; Reynolds, R M

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively. Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and

  19. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with smoke-free laws but not urban/rural status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Hahn, Ellen J; Bratset, Hilarie; Robertson, Heather; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with and without smoke-free laws in urban and rural communities. The research hypothesis was that SHS exposure in public places could be improved by smoke-free law regardless of urban and rural status. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in 53 communities (16 urban and 37 rural) before smoke-free laws; 12 communities passed smoke-free laws during the study period. Real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were taken 657 times from 586 distinct venues; about 71 venues had both pre- and post-law measurements. Predictors of log-transformed PM2.5 level were determined using multilevel modeling. With covariates of county-level percent minority population, percent with at least high school education, adult smoking rate, and venue-level smoker density, indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type and their interaction. The geometric means for restaurants, bars, and other public places in communities without smoke-free policies were 22, 63, and 25 times higher than in those with smoke-free laws, respectively. Indoor air quality was not associated with urban status of venue, and none of the interactions involving urban status were significant. SHS exposure in public places did not differ by urban/rural status. Indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free law status and venue type. This study analyzed 657 measurements of indoor PM2.5 level in 53 communities in Kentucky, USA. Although indoor air quality in public places was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type, it did not differ by urban and rural status. The finding supports the idea that population in rural communities can be protected with smoke-free policy. Therefore, it is critical to implement smoke-free policy in rural communities as well as urban areas.

  20. [Exposure of smoking pregnant women to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Ligocka, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter. The most common sources of PAHs are cigarette smoke, coal-fired utilities, steel plants, coke-oven plants, graphite electrode manufacturing plant, Söderberg aluminum electrolysis plant, vehicle exhaust, wood-burning ovens and fireplaces, and charcoal-grilled and smoked food. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of smoking pregnant women to PAHs. The study population consisted of 189 pregnant women from the Lódź voivodeship (province). Smoking status was assessed based on saliva cotinine level analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The cutoff point 10 ng/ml was adopted for saliva cotinine level. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration in urine sample was chosen as the biomarker of exposure to PAHs. The mean concentration of 1-HP in urine of nonsmoking woman was 0.60 microg/g creatinine, whereas in smoking one 1.35 microg/g creatinine. Among the women with saliva cotinine level higher than 10 ng/ml, the mean concentration of 1-HP in urine was over twofold higher than that in women with cotinine level lower than 10 ng/ml after adjustment for the day of urine ample collection (ratio of geometric mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0). The study confirmed a higher risk of exposure to PAHs in the group of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy as compared to nonsmoking women. It should be stressed that cigarette smoking is not the only source of exposure to PAHs.

  1. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  2. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, secondhand smoke (SHS exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL, and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9 and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7 after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054, disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063, and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking.

  3. Secondhand Smoke Exposure 7 Years After an Indoor Smoke-Free Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Claire, Ann W; Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G; Rode, Peter; Kinney, Ann M

    2018-01-01

    To examine locations of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmokers, 7 years after a statewide smoke-free policy. Data collected via statewide, random digit dial telephone survey. Response rates were 64.7% for landline and 73.5% for cell phone. Minnesota, 2014. Representative sample of 7887 nonsmoking adults. Self-reported locations of SHS exposure and opinions on smoke-free restrictions. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression. A total of 35.5% of nonsmokers reported SHS exposure in the past 7 days. The greatest proportion of exposure occurred in community settings (31.7%) followed by cars (6.9%) and in the home (3.2%). Young adults were more likely to be exposed in a home or car than older adults. Nonsmokers living with a smoker were 39.6 (20.6-75.8) times more likely to be exposed to SHS in their home and 5.3 (4.1-6.8) times more likely to be exposed in a car, compared to those who did not live with a smoker. SHS exposure continues after comprehensive smoke-free policies restricted it from public places. Disparities in exposure rates exist for those who live with a smoker, are young, and have low incomes. Findings suggest the need for additional policies that will have the greatest public health benefit.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure and endothelial stress in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Judith A; Huang, Hong; Nagaraja, Haikady; Kuck, Jennifer; Bauer, John Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Links between secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular disease in adults are well established. Little is known about the impact of this exposure on cardiovascular status during childhood. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between secondhand smoke exposure in children and adolescents and cardiovascular disease risk--systemic inflammation, endothelial stress, and endothelial repair. A total of 145 subjects, aged 9 to 18 years, were studied. Tobacco smoke exposure was determined by hair nicotine level. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and adiponectin); by soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (s-ICAM1), which measures endothelial activation after surface vascular injury; and by endothelial repair. This was measured by prevalence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are bone marrow-derived cells that home preferentially to sites of vascular damage. Hair nicotine was directly correlated with s-ICAM1 (r = 0.4090, P Secondhand smoke exposure during childhood and adolescence is detrimental to vascular health because s-ICAM1 is a marker for endothelial activation and stress after vascular surface injury, and EPCs contribute to vascular repair. The fact that body mass index is also a factor in the model predicting s-ICAM1 is concerning, in that 2 risk factors may both contribute to endothelial stress. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  6. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  7. Solid fuel smoke exposure and risk of obstructive airways disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorbani Mostafa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between Obstructive Airways Disease (OAD and indoor exposure to baking home-made bread smoke (BHBS in ground oven at home. In this hospital-based case–control study, 83 patients with OAD (cases were compared with 72 patients without any known pulmonary diseases from the surgical ward (controls who were frequently matched with cases on age. The interview was performed using the modified questionnaire recommended by the "American Thoracic Society". The questionnaire comprised of demographic information, occupational history, cigarette smoking and indoor exposure to BHBS in ground oven at home. The exposure to BHBS was considered both as a dichotomous and quantitative variable (number of years being exposed to smoke and the population attributable fraction (PAF was estimated due to BHBS exposure. The percentage of indoor exposure to BHBS was measured as 51.8% and 30.6% in the cases and the controls, respectively. The average years of exposure to BHBS was 20.46 years (SD: 11.60 for the cases and 15.38 years (SD: 13.20 for the controls. The univariate analysis comparing the cases and the controls showed that exposure to BHBS (as a binary variable and occupational exposure to dust was significantly associated with OAD. In the multivariate model, only exposure to BHBS was associated with OAD (OR=2.22, 95%CI = 1.14-4.35. Duration of exposure to BHBS (as a quantitative variable was significantly associated with OAD in the univariate model. In the multivariate model, only the duration of exposure to BHBS (years showed a significant association with OAD (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. Population attributable risk due to BHBS exposure was equal to 28.5%.

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Damages Brain Signal Transduction Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    This report details our progress during the first year of a three-year proposal. The proposal's overall goal is to uncover biochemical mechanisms that underlie learning and memory deficits resulting from fetal alcohol exposure (FAE...

  9. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  11. Prenatal and childhood exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and child cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bellinger, David C; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2018-06-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but epidemiological evidence on neurodevelopmental effects of PFAS exposure is inconsistent. We examined associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS exposure with performance on assessments of cognition in children. We included mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a longitudinal Boston-area birth cohort enrolled during 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of eight PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), in plasma collected from women during pregnancy (median 9.7 weeks gestation) and from children at a visit in mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). In early childhood (median age 3.2 years) we administered standardized assessments of visual motor skills and vocabulary comprehension, and in mid-childhood we assessed visual motor skills, visual memory, and verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Using multivariable regression, we estimated associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS plasma concentrations with children's cognitive assessment scores, adjusted for relevant covariates including breastfeeding, maternal intelligence, parental education, and household income. Samples sizes ranged from 631 to 971, depending on analysis. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were associated with both better and worse cognitive performance; children with top quartile prenatal concentrations of some PFASs had better visual motor abilities in early childhood and non-verbal IQ and visual memory in mid-childhood, while children with upper quartile prenatal PFOA and PFOS had lower mid-childhood visual-motor scores. In cross-sectional analyses of mid-childhood PFAS concentrations and cognitive assessments, visual-motor scores on the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) (standardized mean = 100, standard deviation = 15) were lower among children with higher PFHxS (fourth quartile (Q4) vs. Q1: -5.0, 95

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Adiposity in Early and Mid-Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Ana María; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Webster, Thomas F.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined whether prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is associated with childhood adiposity. Objective: We examined associations of prenatal exposure to PFASs with adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Methods: We measured plasma PFAS concentrations in 1,645 pregnant women (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts (USA), between 1999 and 2002. We assessed overall and central adiposity in 1,006 children in early childhood (median, 3.2 years) and 876 in mid-childhood (median, 7.7 years) using anthropometric and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. We fitted multivariable linear regression models to estimate exposure-outcome associations and evaluated effect modification by child sex. Results: Median (25–75th percentiles) prenatal plasma perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations in children assessed in early childhood were 5.6 (4.1–7.7), 24.8 (18.4–33.9), 2.4 (1.6–3.8), and 0.6 (0.5–0.9) ng/mL, respectively. Among girls, each interquartile range increment of prenatal PFOA concentrations was associated with 0.21 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.05, 0.48) higher body mass index, 0.76 mm (95% CI: –0.17, 1.70) higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, and 0.17 kg/m2 (95% CI: –0.02, 0.36) higher DXA total fat mass index in mid-childhood. Similar associations were observed for PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA. We observed null associations for boys and early-childhood adiposity measures. Conclusions: In this cohort, prenatal exposure to PFASs was associated with small increases in adiposity measurements in mid-childhood, but only among girls. Citation: Mora AM, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Webster TF, Gillman MW, Calafat AM, Ye X, Sagiv SK. 2017. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and adiposity in early and mid-childhood. Environ Health

  13. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  14. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M [Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark); Larsen, Poul Bo [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  15. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to active and passive smoking among Greek pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria G. Vivilaki

    2016-04-01

    Of 300 women recruited to the study 48 % reported tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amongst participants who were tobacco users, 83.3 % reported making an attempt to quit but less than half (45.1 % were successful. Among women who continued to smoke during pregnancy the majority (55.8 % reported that they felt unable to quit, and 9.3 % reported that they considered smoking cessation was not an important health issue for them. Participants who continued to smoke during pregnancy were more likely to report fetal (χ2 = 11.41; df = 5; p < 0.05 and newborn complications (χ2 = 6.41; df = 2; p < 0.05, including preterm birth and low birth weight. Participants who reported that their partners were smokers were more likely to smoke throughout their pregnancy (χ2 = 14.62; df = 1; p < 0.001. High rates of second-hand smoke exposure were reported among both smoking and non-smoking women. Pregnant smokers had significantly higher levels of postnatal depressive and anxiety symptomatology, as measured using the EPDS, than non-smokers.

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  18. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  19. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. [b]Objectives. [/b]The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. [b]Results[/b]. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05. Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9. Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.8. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  20. Prenatal paracetamol exposure is associated with shorter anogenital distance in male infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B.G.; Thankamony, A.; Hughes, I.A.; Ong, K.K.; Dunger, D.B.; Acerini, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the relationship between maternal paracetamol intake during the masculinisation programming window (MPW, 8–14 weeks of gestation) and male infant anogenital distance (AGD), a biomarker for androgen action during the MPW? SUMMARY ANSWER Intrauterine paracetamol exposure during 8–14 weeks of gestation is associated with shorter AGD from birth to 24 months of age. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN The increasing prevalence of male reproductive disorders may reflect environmental influences on foetal testicular development during the MPW. Animal and human xenograft studies have demonstrated that paracetamol reduces foetal testicular testosterone production, consistent with reported epidemiological associations between prenatal paracetamol exposure and cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study (Cambridge Baby Growth Study), with recruitment of pregnant women at ~12 post-menstrual weeks of gestation from a single UK maternity unit between 2001 and 2009, and 24 months of infant follow-up. Of 2229 recruited women, 1640 continued with the infancy study after delivery, of whom 676 delivered male infants and completed a medicine consumption questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD Mothers self-reported medicine consumption during pregnancy by a questionnaire administered during the perinatal period. Infant AGD (measured from 2006 onwards), penile length and testicular descent were assessed at 0, 3, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, and age-specific Z scores were calculated. Associations between paracetamol intake during three gestational periods (14 weeks) and these outcomes were tested by linear mixed models. Two hundred and twenty-five (33%) of six hundred and eighty-one male infants were exposed to paracetamol during pregnancy, of whom sixty-eight were reported to be exposed during 8–14 weeks. AGD measurements were available for 434 male infants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Paracetamol exposure during 8–14

  1. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  2. Joint Effects of Exposure to Prenatal Infection and Peripubertal Psychological Trauma in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debost, Jean-Christophe P G; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Meyer, Urs; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences have both been linked with schizophrenia, but none of these factors seem sufficient to cause the disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that these environmental insults act in synergy to increase schizophrenia risk. To estimate the independent and joint effects of exposure to prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma on the risk of schizophrenia. Danish nationwide registers were linked in this prospective cohort study. We used survival analysis to report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were adjusted for age and calendar period and stratified by sex. A total of 979701 persons born between 1980 and 1998 were followed up from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2013, with 9656 having a hospital contact for schizophrenia. Females exposed to prenatal infection had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.30-2.00), but not males (IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.28). Peripubertal trauma was associated with increased risk in both sexes. Males, however, had a significantly higher risk of schizophrenia after exposure to both prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma (IRR: 2.85, 95% CI: 2.32-3.51), with significant interaction between infection and peripubertal trauma on the multiplicative scale (P = .007). Our study demonstrated for the first time that prenatal infection and psychological trauma in peripubertal life can act in synergy to increase the risk of schizophrenia, with a potentially stronger susceptibility in males. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). We studied 1,131 mother-infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, area pre-birth cohort. We calculated average exposures by trimester and during the 2 to 90 days before birth for temporally resolved fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide measured at stationary monitoring sites, and for spatiotemporally resolved estimates of PM2.5 and BC at the residence level. We measured SBP at a mean age of 30 ± 18 hr with an automated device. We used mixed-effects models to examine associations between air pollutant exposures and SBP, taking into account measurement circumstances; child's birth weight; mother's age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and third-trimester BP; and time trend. Estimates represent differences in SBP associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. Higher mean PM2.5 and BC exposures during the third trimester were associated with higher SBP (e.g., 1.0 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.8 for a 0.32-μg/m3 increase in mean 90-day residential BC). In contrast, O3 was negatively associated with SBP (e.g., -2.3 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.4, -0.2 for a 13.5-ppb increase during the 90 days before birth). Exposures to PM2.5 and BC in late pregnancy were positively associated with newborn SBP, whereas O3 was negatively associated with SBP. Longitudinal follow-up will enable us to assess the implications of these findings for health during later childhood and adulthood.

  4. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure increases adiposity and disrupts pancreatic morphology in adult guinea pig offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, C C; Mongillo, D L; Brien, D C; Stepita, R; Poklewska-Koziell, M; Winterborn, A; Holloway, A C; Brien, J F; Reynolds, J N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a range of adverse developmental outcomes in children, termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Central nervous system injury is a debilitating and widely studied manifestation of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE). However, CPEE can also cause structural and functional deficits in metabolic pathways in offspring. Objectives and Methods: This study tested the hypothesis that CPEE increases whole-body adiposity and disrup...

  6. Caudate Asymmetry: A Neurobiological Marker of Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willford, Jennifer; Day, Richard; Aizenstein, Howard; Day, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This study identified structural changes in the caudate nucleus in offspring of mothers who drank moderate levels of alcohol during pregnancy. In addition, the effect of duration of alcohol use during pregnancy was assessed. Young adults were recruited from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Three groups were evaluated: prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) during all three trimesters (3T), PAE during the first trimester only (1T), and controls with no PAE (0T). Magnetic r...

  7. Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Functioning in School-Aged Children With Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Connie E.; Culbertson, Jan L.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler,1991) shortform, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler,1993) Screener by e...

  8. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hay-Schmidt , Anders; Finkielman , Olivia T. Ejlstrup; Jensen , Benjamin A. H.; Høgsbro , Christine F.; Bak Holm , Jacob; Johansen , Kristoffer Haurum; Jensen , Tina Kold; Andrade , Anderson Martino; Swan , Shanna H.; Bornehag , Carl-Gustaf; Brunak , Soren; Jégou , Bernard; Kristiansen , Karsten; Kristensen , David Møbjerg

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and the brain. Genitals and nervous system of male mammals are actively masculinised during foetal development and early postnatal life by the combined actions of prostaglandins a...

  9. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, John H; Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-08-18

    During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. We conducted a pretest-posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers' indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F1,144 = 22.69, P exposure to secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing.

  10. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  12. Effect of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on the placental transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruchová, H.; Vašíková, A.; Merkerová, M.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Balaščak, I.; Pastorková, Anna; Šrám, Radim; Brdička, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2010), s. 186-191 ISSN 0143-4004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : placenta * gene expression * tobacco smoke exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2010

  13. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  14. Social gradients in responsiveness to messages on children's tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakimova, Luiza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health communication campaigns aimed to diminish morbidity and mortality caused by smoking are expected to impact a complicated causal pathway starting from attracting the attention of the target audience, increasing knowledge, changing behaviors, and finishing with a lower risk of death at the end. The purpose of this pilot study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the posters covering issues related to tobacco smoke exposure of small children and to explore who are those people who pay more attention to the posters. METHODS: Observation was conducted in the underground carriages in Kazan city, Russian Federation, where posters were placed on the walls. Registered characteristics of passengers included whether the passenger was looking at the poster (outcome; gender, age, clothing of the passenger, whether a passenger is accompanied by somebody else and communicates with this person, whether a passenger holds gadgets, books or newspapers, whether a passenger looks at the screen of the monitor in the carriage. Some of the posters were also discussed in interviews. RESULTS: The proportion of those who paid attention to the poster was on average 19%, ranging from 13% to 25%. The only variable associated with the outcome was passenger's clothing considered as a proxy for SES collapsed into three categories: (1 poorly dressed, (2 commonly dressed, (3 well-dressed. All the posters where this association was found were covering prenatal and little children's secondhand smoke exposure. CONCLUSION: This pilot study has generated a hypothesis, which can be used and tested in further social marketing campaigns. Lower SES passengers were paying more attention to the posters than those better off. If mothers of small children who live in families of low SES with smoking fathers or grandfathers are the primary target group for addressing this problem, metro could be the proper place for such campaigns.

  15. Changes in Secondhand Smoke Exposure After Smoke-Free Legislation (Spain, 2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Sureda, Xisca; López, María J

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, the Spanish partial smoke-free legislation was extended to affect all enclosed settings, including hospitality venues and selected outdoor areas. This study evaluated the change in self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult, nonsmoking population. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted on nationally representative samples of the adult (≥18 years) nonsmoking Spanish population. One was conducted in 2006 (6 months after the first ban) and the other in 2011, 6 months after the new ban was implemented. We assessed the prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke in various settings, and the corresponding adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs. Overall, the self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke fell from 71.9% (95% CI: 70.1%-73.7%) in 2006 to 45.2% (95% CI: 43.1%-47.3%) in 2011 (PR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.39-0.47). Specifically, self-reported exposure significantly decreased from 29.2% to 12.7% (PR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.31-0.42) in the home, from 35.0% to 13.0% (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.33-0.49) at work/education venues, from 56.2% to 32.2% (PR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.39-0.48) during leisure time (mainly hospitality venues, but also venues other than work/education venues and home), and from 40.6% to 12.7% (PR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.21-0.29) in transportation vehicles/stations. The prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers decreased after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in Spain. In addition to the expected reduction in exposure during leisure time, we observed reductions in settings that were not subject to the new legislation, such as homes, outdoor bus stops, and train stations. Exposure to secondhand smoke in selected outdoor settings may be further reduced by extending smoke-free legislation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. Chronic prenatal caffeine exposure impairs novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soellner, Deborah E; Grandys, Theresa; Nuñez, Joseph L

    2009-12-14

    In this report, we demonstrate that chronic prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of caffeine disrupts novel object recognition and radial arm maze behaviors in adult male and female rats. Pregnant dams were administered either tap water or 75 mg/L caffeinated tap water throughout gestation. Oral self-administration in the drinking water led to an approximate maternal intake of 10mg/kg/day, equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee/day in humans based on a metabolic body weight conversion. In adulthood, the offspring underwent testing on novel object recognition, radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Prenatal caffeine exposure was found to impair 24-h memory retention in the novel object recognition task and impair both working and reference memory in the radial arm maze. However, prenatal caffeine exposure did not alter Morris water maze performance in either a simple water maze procedure or in an advanced water maze procedure that included reversal and working memory paradigms. These findings demonstrate that chronic oral intake of caffeine throughout gestation can alter adult cognitive behaviors in rats.

  17. Psychopathology and special education enrollment in children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Higgins, Rosemary; Hammond, Jane; Roberts, Mary B

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated how enrollment in special education services in 11-year-old children relates to prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), psychopathology, and other risk factors. Participants were 498 children enrolled in The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study examining outcomes of children with PCE. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of PCE and psychopathology on enrollment in an individualized education plan (IEP; a designation specific to children with special education needs), with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates. PCE, an interaction of PCE and oppositional defiant disorder, child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, parent-reported internalizing behaviors, and teacher-reported externalizing behaviors, predicted enrollment in an IEP. Other statistically significant variables in the model were male gender, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, white race, caregiver change, low socioeconomic status, low child intelligence quotient, caregiver depression, and prenatal marijuana exposure. PCE increased the likelihood of receiving an IEP with adjustment for covariates. Psychopathology also predicted this special education outcome, in combination with and independent of prenatal cocaine exposure.

  18. Prenatal Heavy Metal Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Myanmar: A Birth-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi Mar Wai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known environmental contaminants, and their toxicity at low concentration is the target of scientific concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential effects of prenatal heavy metal exposure on the birth outcomes among the Myanmar population. This study is part of a birth-cohort study conducted with 419 pregnant women in the Ayeyarwady Division, Myanmar. Face-to-face interviews were performed using a questionnaire, and maternal spot urine samples were collected at the third trimester. Birth outcomes were evaluated at delivery during the follow up. The median values of adjusted urinary arsenic, cadmium, selenium and lead concentration were 74.2, 0.9, 22.6 and 1.8 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that prenatal cadmium exposure (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.043, gestational age (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.95; p = 0.009 and primigravida mothers (adjusted OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.31–13.65; p = 0.016 were the predictors of low birth weight. The present study identified that Myanmar mothers were highly exposed to cadmium. Prenatal maternal cadmium exposure was associated with an occurrence of low birth weight.

  19. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  20. Prenatal Heavy Metal Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Myanmar: A Birth-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Kyi Mar; Mar, Ohn; Kosaka, Satoko; Umemura, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-11-03

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known environmental contaminants, and their toxicity at low concentration is the target of scientific concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential effects of prenatal heavy metal exposure on the birth outcomes among the Myanmar population. This study is part of a birth-cohort study conducted with 419 pregnant women in the Ayeyarwady Division, Myanmar. Face-to-face interviews were performed using a questionnaire, and maternal spot urine samples were collected at the third trimester. Birth outcomes were evaluated at delivery during the follow up. The median values of adjusted urinary arsenic, cadmium, selenium and lead concentration were 74.2, 0.9, 22.6 and 1.8 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that prenatal cadmium exposure (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.21; p = 0.043), gestational age (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.95; p = 0.009) and primigravida mothers (adjusted OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.31-13.65; p = 0.016) were the predictors of low birth weight. The present study identified that Myanmar mothers were highly exposed to cadmium. Prenatal maternal cadmium exposure was associated with an occurrence of low birth weight.

  1. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice

  2. Behavioural effects of prenatal exposure to carbon disulphide and to aromatol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Szeberényi, J M; Ungváry, G; Kiss, A

    1985-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of prenatal organosolvent inhalation were studied in rats, because of the expectation that a developing organism may be more sensitive than the adult to the induction of functional deficits. The aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to the new organosolvent mixture, Aromatol, and the well known neurotoxic carbon disulphide, would impair reflex ontogeny or produce neurobehavioural dysfunctions in the offspring. Development of gait, motor coordination, and activity, avoidance learning and swimming were tested in the offspring of CFY rat mothers, exposed to CS2 inhalation (0, less than 10, 700 and 2000 mg/m3) and to Aromatol (0, 600, 1000 and 2000 mg/m3) on days 7-15 gestation. Prenatal CS2 inhalation induced dose related perinatal mortality of pups. Eye opening and the auditory startle were retarded. There were immature gait, motor incoordination, diminished open field activity and altered behavioural patterns on day 21 and 36 but they were nearly age-appropriate on day 90. As signs of disturbed learning ability, there were diminished performance and lengthened latency of the conditioned avoidance response, related to the concentrations administered. Contrary to expectations, prenatal Aromatol inhalation had no effect on maturation of gait, behaviour patterns, or learning ability.

  3. Interaction of radon Exposure and cigarette smoking on cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Maoxiang; Wei, Han; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Xiujie; Cao, Zhenshan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Environmental radon and its progenies is important lung carcinogen both in occupational underground miners and in the general population. Exposure to radon often occurs combined with smoking, another most important lung carcinogen. The join biological effects of alpha- particle radiation and cigarette smoke condense (CSC) were investigated here in order to provide experimental base for medical protection from lung cancer inducing by joint exposure of radon and smoking. Immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D) were divided into 5 groups, namely normal control group (NC), alpha particles irradiation group (0.25 Gy,α), CSC administration group (1μg/ml, CSC), CSC administration (1μg/ml) before (CSC + α) and after (α + CSC) alpha particles irradiation (0.25 Gy) group. On the 35 th passage after treated by alpha particles irradiation and CSC singly or jointly, only α + CSC cells showed malignant transformation characteristics, representing anchor growing independently, losing contact inhibition, and cell cycle disordering, whereas, there were no distinct difference between cells of other groups and normal cells. Moreover, comparison to the groups treated alone with alpha particles radiation or CSC administration, in the groups of joint exposure to alpha particles radiation and CSC treatment, cell survival fractions markedly decreased, intracellular ROS levels, frequencies of comet cell generation significantly increase, and could found that cell survival fractions of group CSC administration after α particle radiation was significantly higher than that of group CSC administration before alpha particles irradiation, suggesting that interaction of radon and smoking associated with their exposure sequence. In summary, interaction of radon and smoking was synergistic effect, and which was impacted by the order of exposure. (author)

  4. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. Methods We conducted a pretest–posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers’ indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F 1,144 = 22.69, P secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F 1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F 1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Conclusions Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing. PMID:27536903

  5. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  6. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka; Eggesbø, Merete

    2015-07-01

    Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p'-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted β = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (β = -0.10; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.01). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p'-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels.

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Theresa W.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensiv...

  8. Impact of barbecued meat consumed in pregnancy on birth outcomes accounting for personal prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Birth cohort study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Stigter, Laura; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Spengler, John; Budzyn-Mrozek, Dorota; Kaim, Irena; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported an association between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and lower birth weight, birth length, and head circumference. The main goal of the present analysis was to assess the possible impact of coexposure to PAH-containing barbecued meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes. The birth cohort consisted of 432 pregnant women who gave birth at term (>36 wk of gestation). Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18-35 y of age, and who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, were included in the study. Detailed information on diet over pregnancy was collected through interviews and the measurement of exposure to airborne PAHs was carried out by personal air monitoring during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of barbecued meat consumption on birth outcomes (birth weight, length, and head circumference at birth) was adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs, child's sex, gestational age, parity, size of mother (maternal prepregnancy weight, weight gain in pregnancy), and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke. The multivariable regression model showed a significant deficit in birth weight associated with barbecued meat consumption in pregnancy (coeff = -106.0 g; 95%CI: -293.3, -35.8). The effect of exposure to airborne PAHs was about the same magnitude order (coeff. = -164.6 g; 95%CI: -172.3, -34.7). Combined effect of both sources of exposure amounted to birth weight deficit of 214.3 g (95%CI: -419.0, -9.6). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference showed similar trends but the estimated effects were of borderline significance level. As the intake of barbecued meat did not affect the duration of pregnancy, the reduced birth weight could not have been mediated by a shortened gestation period. In conclusion, the study results provided epidemiologic

  9. Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzek, Ernst J; Sprangers, Niels; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van De Wetering, Ben J M

    2008-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to severe famine has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders. We studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to famine during the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45 and addiction later in life. A case-control study. The Rotterdam city area during the Dutch hunger winter lasting from mid-October 1944 to mid-May 1945. From February 1945 to mid-May 1945 the hunger winter was characterized by a famine peak. Patients are native Dutch addicted patients from the Rotterdam Addiction Treatment Program and controls are native Dutch inhabitants of Rotterdam, born between 1944 and 1947. Exposure to the whole hunger winter (treatment for an addictive disorder [OR = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.64]. Stratification by sex shows that the odds of exposure during the first trimester was significantly higher only among men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72), but not among women (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.88-1.81). The odds of exposure to the peak of the hunger winter during the first trimester of gestation were also significantly higher among addiction treatment patients (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). We did not find any significant differences for the second and third trimesters of gestation. First-trimester prenatal exposure to famine appears to be associated with addiction later in life. The study confirms the adverse influence of severe malnutrition on brain development and maturation, confirms the influence of perinatal insults on mental health in later life and gives rise to great concern about the possible future consequences for the hunger regions in our world.

  10. Prenatal and childhood perfluoroalkyl substances exposures and children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Dietrich, Kim N; Xu, Yingying; Xie, Changchun; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may impact children's neurodevelopment. To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood serum PFAS concentrations with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8years. We used data from 167 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, OH, quantified prenatal serum PFAS concentrations at 16±3weeks of gestation and childhood sera at ages 3 and 8years. We assessed children's reading skills using Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III at age 5years and Wide Range Achievement Test-4 at age 8years. We used general linear regression to quantify the covariate-adjusted associations between natural log-transformed PFAS concentrations and reading skills, and used multiple informant model to identify the potential windows of susceptibility. Median serum PFASs concentrations were PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA in prenatal, 3-year, and 8-year children. The covariate-adjusted general linear regression identified positive associations between serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA concentrations and children's reading scores at ages 5 and 8years, but no association between any PFHxS concentration and reading skills. The multiple informant model showed: a) Prenatal PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Reading Composite (β: 4.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.4 per a natural log unit increase in exposure) and Sentence Comprehension (β: 4.2, 95% CI: 0.5, 8.0) at age 8years; b) 3-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's scores in Brief Reading (β: 7.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.8), Letter Word Identification (β: 6.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 12.0), and Passage Comprehension (β: 5.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.2) at age 5years; c) 8-year PFOA was positively associated with higher children's Word Reading scores (β: 5.8, 95% CI: 0.8, 10.7) at age 8years. Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were positively associated with children's reading abilities at age 5years, but not at age 8years; 3-year PFOS and PFNA were positively associated

  11. Prenatal exposure to bereavement and type-2 diabetes: a Danish longitudinal population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in

  12. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... of action. Dams inhaled 20 mg/m(3) of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h/day on day 7-19 during pregnancy. Male offspring were killed on day 170 after birth. The dams that had inhaled SRM2975 delivered offspring, which in adulthood had reduced daily sperm...

  13. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    distribution of wood smoke particles, essentially all will be contained in the PM2.5 fraction. In Denmark, recent results indicate that about 10,000 tonnes PM2.5 per year, about half of the total particle emission in Denmark, come from residential wood combustion. Based on a few measurement campaigns conducted...... in Denmark in selected residential areas with different kinds of heating, the annual average PM2.5 exposure from wood smoke can be estimated at 0.4–2 mg/m3 as a preliminary estimate for the whole Danish population. Epidemiological studies evaluating adverse health effects from ambient air pollution...

  14. Cumulative effects of prenatal-exposure to exogenous chemicals and psychosocial stress on fetal growth: Systematic-review of the human and animal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Hanna M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Sen, Saunak; Zeise, Lauren; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2017-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal stress or environmental chemical exposures on fetal growth are well described, yet their combined effect remains unclear. To conduct a systematic review on the combined impact and interaction of prenatal exposure to stress and chemicals on developmental outcomes. We used the first three steps of the Navigation Guide systematic review. We wrote a protocol, performed a robust literature search to identify relevant animal and human studies and extracted data on developmental outcomes. For the most common outcome (fetal growth), we evaluated risk of bias, calculated effect sizes for main effects of individual and combined exposures, and performed a random effects meta-analysis of those studies reporting on odds of low birthweight (LBW) by smoking and socioeconomic status (SES). We identified 17 human- and 22 animal-studies of combined chemical and stress exposures and fetal growth. Human studies tended to have a lower risk of bias across nine domains. Generally, we found stronger effects for chemicals than stress, and these exposures were associated with reduced fetal growth in the low-stress group and the association was often greater in high stress groups, with limited evidence of effect modification. We found smoking associated with significantly increased odds of LBW, with a greater effect for high stress (low SES; OR 4.75 (2.46-9.16)) compared to low stress (high SES; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.53-2.48)). Animal studies generally had a high risk of bias with no significant combined effect or effect modification. We found that despite concern for the combined effects of environmental chemicals and stress, this is still an under-studied topic, though limited available human studies indicate chemical exposures exert stronger effects than stress, and this effect is generally larger in the presence of stress.

  15. Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-05-27

    Smoking bans or restrictions can assist in eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to the dangers of secondhand smoke and can reduce tobacco consumption amongst smokers themselves. Evidence exists identifying the impact of tobacco control regulations and interventions implemented in general workplaces and at an individual level. However, it is important that we also review the evidence for smoking bans at a meso- or organisational level, to identify their impact on reducing the burden of exposure to tobacco smoke. Our review assesses evidence for meso- or organisational-level tobacco control bans or policies in a number of specialist settings, including public healthcare facilities, higher education and correctional facilities. To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. We contacted authors to identify completed or ongoing studies eligible for inclusion in this review. We also checked websites of state agencies and organisations, such as trial registries. Date of latest searches was 22nd June 2015. We considered studies that reported the effects of tobacco bans or policies, whether complete or partial, on reducing secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence and other health outcomes, in public healthcare, higher educational and correctional facilities, from 2005 onwards.The minimum standard for inclusion was having a settings-level policy or ban implemented in the study, and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included quasi-experimental studies (i.e. controlled before-and-after studies), interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. Two or more review authors independently

  16. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Limei; Wang, Caifeng; Cui, Chang; Ding, Guodong; Zhou, Yijun; Jin, Jun; Gao, Yu; Tian, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential association between maternal PBDEs and birth outcomes, including birth weight (g), length (cm), head circumference (cm) and gestational age (week). 215 mothers were recruited from a prospective birth cohort in rural northern China between September 2010 and February 2012. Serum PBDE congeners were detected and their association with birth outcomes were examined. The median maternal serum concentrations of BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153 were 2.27, 2.26, 3.58, 2.13, 4.87 ng/g lipid, respectively. Maternal LgBDE-28 and LgBDE-100 were negatively associated with birth length (β = −0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.82, −0.02; β = −0.97, 95% CI: −1.83, −0.08). A negative association was found between LgBDE-28 and birth weight among male infants (β = −253.76, 95% CI: −438.16, −69.36). PBDE congeners were not associated with head circumference, or gestational age. Our results contribute to growing evidence suggesting that PBDEs have adverse effects on birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We examined the relations between maternal exposure to PBDEs and birth outcomes. • BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, and -153 were detected in serum from 215 pregnant women. • There was a negative association between BDE-28, -100 and birth length. • BDE-28 showed a negative association with birth weight among male infants. - Negative associations were found between BDE-28, -100 exposure and birth length as well as between BDE-28 exposure and birth weight in male infants.

  17. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  18. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Impairs the Proliferation of Neuronal Progenitors, Leading to Fewer Glutamatergic Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yuki; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hattori, Tomoya; Ueda, Eriko; Shimato, Akane; Sakakibara, Nami; Soh, Yuka; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nagai, Taku; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with various disabilities in the offspring such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and persistent anxiety. We have reported that nicotine exposure in female mice during pregnancy, in particular from embryonic day 14 (E14) to postnatal day 0 (P0), induces long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, the mechanism by which prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) affects neurodevelopment, resulting in behavioral deficits, has remained unclear. Here, we report that PNE disrupted the proliferation of neuronal progenitors, leading to a decrease in the progenitor pool in the ventricular and subventricular zones. In addition, using a cumulative 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine labeling assay, we evaluated the rate of cell cycle progression causing the impairment of neuronal progenitor proliferation, and uncovered anomalous cell cycle kinetics in mice with PNE. Accordingly, the density of glutamatergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (medial PFC) was reduced, implying glutamatergic dysregulation. Mice with PNE exhibited behavioral impairments in attentional function and behavioral flexibility in adulthood, and the deficits were ameliorated by microinjection of D-cycloserine into the PFC. Collectively, our findings suggest that PNE affects the proliferation and maturation of progenitor cells to glutamatergic neuron during neurodevelopment in the medial PFC, which may be associated with cognitive deficits in the offspring. PMID:26105135

  19. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  20. Children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home before and after smoke-free legislation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Chang, Po-Yin

    2017-11-01

    In January 2009, Taiwan broadened smoke-free legislation, requiring mass transportation systems, indoor public areas and indoor workplaces with 3 or more people, to become smoke-free. We investigated the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home for children aged 3-11 years in Taiwan before and after the implantation of the legislation. We studied 7911 children from the 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (cross-sectional, nationally representative household surveys). Logistic regression modelling estimated adjusted ORs (AOR) and 95% CIs for children's SHS exposure at home in 2009 and 2013 (2005 as reference) for the overall sample and for each category of household socioeconomic status (SES) and household composition. Prevalence of children SHS exposure at home decreased from 51% (2005) to 32% (2009) and 28% (2013). Compared to 2005, children in 2009 and 2013 had lower likelihoods of SHS exposure at home with AOR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.51) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.46), respectively. All children had reduced SHS exposure at home after the legislation, irrespective of household SES and compositions. Low household income, low parental education level, living with grandparents or living with other adults was individually associated with increased SHS exposure. The proportion of children exposed to SHS at home in Taiwan declined substantially from 2005 to 2009 after smoke-free legislation, and fell further by 2013, irrespective of SES and household compositions. Still, inequality in SHS exposure at home by SES and household composition warrants future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Prenatal methylmercury exposure affects spatial vision in adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Mayfield, David B.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Rice, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can have both early and long-term neurobehavioral consequences in exposed offspring. The present study assessed visual functioning in adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed in utero to 0, 50, 70, or 90 μg/kg/day of MeHg hydroxide. Twenty-one full-term, normal birth weight offspring (9 controls, 12 exposed) were tested at approximately 11-14.5 years of age on a visual contrast sensitivity task. A forced-choice tracking procedure was utilized with spatial frequencies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle. On each test session, a single spatial frequency was presented across five levels of contrast, each differing by 3 dB. Methylmercury-exposed monkeys exhibited reduced contrast sensitivity thresholds, particularly at the higher spatial frequencies. The degree of visual impairment was not related to MeHg body burden or clearance and almost half of the exposed animals were unimpaired. The results from this study demonstrate that chronic in utero MeHg exposure, at subclinical levels, is associated with permanent adverse effects on spatial vision in adult monkeys

  2. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities.

  3. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurocognitive correlates of inhibitory control success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Berkman, Elliot T; Capaldi, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17). The fMRI results indicated multiple IC processing differences consistent with a more immature developmental profile for exposed adolescents (Exposed  >  Nonexposed: NoGo > Go: right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right cuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe; NoGo > false alarm: occipital lobe; Go > false alarm: right anterior prefrontal cortex). Simple effects suggest exposed adolescents exhibited exaggerated correct trial but decreased incorrect trial activation. Results provide initial evidence that prenatal exposure across substances creates similar patterns of atypical brain activation to IC success and failure.

  4. Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Maccalman, Laura; Naji, Audrey Atherton; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Miller, Brian G; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-10-01

    To examine changes in bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) over a 12-month period before and after the introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation on the 26 March 2006. A total of 371 bar workers were recruited from 72 bars in three cities: Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh and small towns in two rural regions (Borders and Aberdeenshire). Prior to the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, we visited all participants in their place of work and collected saliva samples, for the measurement of cotinine, together with details on work patterns, self-reported exposure to SHS at work and non-work settings and smoking history. This was repeated 2 months post-legislation and again in the spring of 2007. In addition, we gathered full-shift personal exposure data from a small number of Aberdeen bar workers using a personal aerosol monitor for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the baseline and 2 months post-legislation visits. Data were available for 371 participants at baseline, 266 (72%) at 2 months post-legislation and 191 (51%) at the 1-year follow-up. The salivary cotinine level recorded in non-smokers fell from a geometric mean of 2.94 ng ml(-1) prior to introduction of the legislation to 0.41 ng ml(-1) at 1-year follow-up. Paired data showed a reduction in non-smokers' cotinine levels of 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-92%]. For the whole cohort, the duration of workplace exposure to SHS within the last 7 days fell from 28.5 to 0.83 h, though some bar workers continued to report substantial SHS exposures at work despite the legislation. Smokers also demonstrated reductions in their salivary cotinine levels of 12% (95% CI 3-20%). This may reflect both the reduction in SHS exposure at work and falls in active cigarette smoking in this group. In a small sub-sample of bar workers, full-shift personal exposure to PM(2.5), a marker of SHS concentrations, showed average reductions of 86% between baseline and 2 months after implementation of the

  5. Prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in toddlers from the Odense Child Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Trine Staak; Bleses, Dorthe; Andersen, Helle Raun; Grandjean, Philippe; Frederiksen, Hanne; Trecca, Fabio; Bilenberg, Niels; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Dalsager, Louise; Jensen, Inge Kjær; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina Kold

    Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, different ages and varying timing of exposure. To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20-36months. In the Odense Child Cohort, we analyzed 3rd trimester urine samples of 518 pregnant women for content of metabolites of diethyl, di-n-butyl, diisobutyl, butylbenzyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), and diisononyl phthalate, adjusted for osmolality. Language development was addressed using the Danish version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories "Words and Sentences". Associations were assessed using logistic regression models comparing children below and above the 15th percentile while stratifying by sex and adjusting for maternal age and educational level. Phthalate metabolites were detectable in all samples although in lower levels than previous studies. Among boys, increased prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with lower scores in language development; odds ratios for vocabulary score below the 15th percentile with doubling in monoethyl phthalate, and summed di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites were respectively 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.05,1.46), and 1.33 (1.01,1.75). Similar associations were found for language complexity. No associations were found for girls. Our findings are notable, as adverse associations were suggested even in this low-level exposed population, with only one spot urine sample for exposure assessment and control for confounders. Lower scores in early language development are of relevance to health as this test predicts later educational success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Diez, Midory Higa; Kado, Yoko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies suggest positive associations between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and neurodevelopment of children, but evidence on the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution on child neurobehavioral development remains limited. We thus examined associations between prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where participants were recruited in 2001 and are continuously followed. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at municipality level and assigned to those participants born in the corresponding municipality. We analyzed data from singleton births with linked pollution data available (e.g., n=33,911 for SPM). We used responses to survey questions about behavioral problems at age 8years. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Air pollution exposure during gestation was positively associated with risk for behavioral problems related to attention and delinquent or aggressive behavior. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following a one-interquartile-range increase in SPM were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11) for interrupting others, 1.09 (1.03, 1.15) for failure to pay attention when crossing a street, 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) for lying, and 1.07 (1.02, 1.13) for causing public disturbance. Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with behavioral problems related to attention and delinquent or aggressive behavior at age 8years in a nationally representative sample in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alterations in prostacyclin and thromboxane formation by chronic cigarette smoke exposure: temporal relationships and whole smoke vs. gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubawy, W.C.; Culpepper, B.T.; Valentovic, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chronic cigarette smoke exposure in vivo causes decreased conversion of (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) to prostacyclin (PGI2) by isolated aortic tissue and increased conversion to thromboxane (TXA2) by isolated platelets from rats. Alterations in the PGI2/TXA2 balance may be part of the mechanism through which smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. To study the influence of smoke exposure duration on this response, male rats were exposed daily to 10 puffs of freshly generated cigarette smoke. Animals were killed after 1, 4, 14, 28 and 57 days of smoke exposure and 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after cessation of the 57-day of smoke-exposure regimen. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels during the smoke-exposure sessions verified smoke (gas phase) inhalation. Statistically significant alterations in prostacyclin synthesis preceded those of thromboxane. A decrease of 20-25% (P less than 0.05) in PGI2 production from (/sup 14/C)AA in isolated aortic tissue was found beginning 28 days after smoke was initiated and quickly rebounded when smoke exposure was terminated. Increased production of TXA2 from (/sup 14/C)AA by isolated platelets became statistically significant (P less than 0.05) on the 57th day and returned to normal 7-14 days after cessation of smoke exposure. To determine the effect of gas phase constituents on the PGI2/TXA2 balance a second series of experiments divided male and female Sprague-Dawley rats into sham, whole smoke and gas phase groups. Gas phase was produced by passing whole smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove particulate matter. Per cent COHb averaged 1.4 for sham, 7.8 for whole smoke and 9.4 for gas phase groups.

  8. Smoking habits, exposure to passive smoking and attitudes to a non-smoking policy among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Gambi, A; Bergamaschi, A; Gentilini, F; De Luca, G; Monti, C; Stampi, S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was carried out into the smoking habits and exposure to passive smoking among health staff in the hospitals of Faenza, Forli and Rimini (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy), 2453 subjects answered anonymously a 41 question questionnaire. 53% of the subjects were professionals nurses, 16% doctors, 15% maintenance staff, 10% ancillary staff, 1% non-medical graduates, 2% were administrators and 3% were assigned to the category ¿other'. Of the subjects answering the questionnaire 39% were smokers, 19% ex-smokers and 42% non smokers. The highest number of smokers was found among women (41%) compared to men (37%) and among ancillary staff (48%) compared to nurses (41%) and doctors (31%). The males were mostly heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/d) and smoked strong cigarettes (> or = 12 mg/cig condensate content). The females were mostly light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/d) and smoked light cigarettes (1-6 mg/cig condensate content). A high percentage of subjects (87%) smoked at work especially in areas reserved for staff. 43% and 26% of shift workers and non-shift workers tended not to modify their habit when on morning or afternoon shifts. During night shifts the majority of them increased their tobacco consumption. Around 87% of hospital employees stated they were exposed to passive smoking inside the hospital especially in cooking areas, at information desks and corridors. Nurses, ancillaries and maintenance staff were those most exposed and for a greater number of hours per day compared to doctors. Almost all subjects were aware of the harm caused by passive smoking. 56% of smokers, 65% of ex-smokers and 72% of non smokers said they were willing to participate in future campaigns to limit smoking in their hospitals.

  9. Prenatal VPA exposure and changes in sensory processing by the superior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eDendrinos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behaviors including startle response, prepulse inhibition and nociceptive responses. Some deficits reversed with age. Stereological analyses revealed that colliculi of VPA-treated rats had significantly fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons, a subset of GABAergic cells. These results suggest that prenatal VPA treatment affects the development of the superior colliculus and leads to persistent anatomical changes evidenced by aberrant behavior in tasks that require sensory processing.

  10. Passive cannabis smoke exposure and oral fluid testing. II. Two studies of extreme cannabis smoke exposure in a motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, R Sam; Kardos, Keith W; Fritch, Dean F; Kunsman, Kenneth P; Blum, Kristen A; Newland, Gregory A; Waga, Joe; Kurtz, Lisa; Bronsgeest, Matth; Cone, Edward J

    2005-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if extreme passive exposure to cannabis smoke in a motor vehicle would produce positive results for delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid. Passive exposure to cannabis smoke in an unventilated room has been shown to produce a transient appearance of THC in oral fluid for up to 30 min. However, it is well known that such factors as room size and extent of smoke exposure can affect results. Questions have also been raised concerning the effects of tobacco when mixed with marijuana and THC content. We conducted two passive cannabis studies under severe passive smoke exposure conditions in an unventilated eight-passenger van. Four passive subjects sat alongside four active cannabis smokers who each smoked a single cannabis cigarette containing either 5.4%, 39.5 mg THC (Study 1) or 10.4%, 83.2 mg THC (Study 2). The cigarettes in Study 1 contained tobacco mixed with cannabis; cigarettes in Study 2 contained only cannabis. Oral fluid specimens were collected from passive and active subjects with the Intercept Oral Specimen Collection Device for 1 h after smoking cessation while inside the van (Study 1) and up to 72 h (passive) or 8 h (active) outside the van. Additionally in Study 1, Intercept collectors were exposed to smoke in the van to assess environmental contamination during collection procedures. For Study 2, all oral fluid collections were outside the van following smoking cessation to minimize environmental contamination. Oral samples were analyzed with the Cannabinoids Intercept MICRO-PLATE EIA and quantitatively by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). THC concentrations were adjusted for dilution (x 3). The screening and confirmation cutoff concentrations for THC in neat oral fluid were 3 ng/mL and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for THC in the GC-MS-MS assay were 0.3 and 0.75 ng/mL, respectively. Urine specimens were collected, screened (EMIT, 50

  11. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria J; Nebot, Manel; Albertini, Marco; Birkui, Pierre; Centrich, Francesc; Chudzikova, Monika; Georgouli, Maria; Gorini, Giuseppe; Moshammer, Hanns; Mulcahy, Maurice; Pilali, Maria; Serrahima, Eulalia; Tutka, Piotr; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-11-01

    Although in the last few years some European countries have implemented smoking bans in hospitality venues, the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in this occupational sector could still be extremely high in most countries. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to SHS in hospitality venues in 10 European cities. We included 167 hospitality venues (58 discotheques and pubs, 82 restaurants and cafeterias, and 27 fast-food restaurants) in this cross-sectional study. We carried out fieldwork in 10 European cities: Vienna (Austria), Paris (France), Athens (Greece), Florence and Belluno (Italy), Galway (Ireland), Barcelona (Spain), Warsaw and Lublin (Poland), and Bratislava (Slovak Republic). We measured vapor-phase nicotine as an SHS marker. We analyzed 504 samples and found nicotine in most samples (97.4%). We found the highest median concentrations in discos/pubs [32.99 microg/m(3); interquartile range (IQR), 8.06-66.84 microg/m(3)] and lower median concentrations in restaurants/cafeterias (2.09 microg/m(3); IQR, 0.49-6.73 microg/m(3)) and fast-food restaurants (0.31 microg/m(3); IQR, 0.11-1.30 microg/m(3)) (p Hospitality venues from European cities without smoking regulations have very high levels of SHS exposure. Monitoring of SHS on a regular basis as well as a total smoking ban in hospitality sector would be needed.

  13. Tobacco smoking, occupational exposure and bladder cancer in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Castelletto, R; Estève, J; Muñoz, N; Colanzi, R; Coronel, A; Deamezola, I; Tassi, V; Arslan, A

    1987-12-15

    The highest rate for bladder cancer in Latin America has been reported from La Plata, Argentina. A case-control study was carried out to investigate the reasons for this high rate. A total of 117 cases, 117 hospital controls and 117 neighbourhood sex- and age-matched controls were interviewed regarding their smoking and drinking habits and occupational exposures. Cigarette smoking and coffee drinking were identified as the major risk factors, and a significant association was also found for truck and railway drivers and for oil refinery workers. The relative risks for male smokers who ever smoked cigarettes vs. non-smokers was 4.3 (95% Cl: 1.9-10.3). The risk associated with black tobacco cigarettes was 2-3 times higher than that of blond cigarettes. For male ex-smokers the risk after 5 years of no smoking is less than one third of that of current smokers. The RR for drinking coffee was 2.4 (95% Cl: 1.4-4.4) after adjusting for the effects of tobacco smoking, and the risk increased with the number of cups per day. No association was found with the use of saccharin.

  14. Prenatal nonylphenol exposure, oxidative and nitrative stress, and birth outcomes: A cohort study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei-Wei; Chen, Mei-Lien; Huang, Li-Wei; Yang, Winnie; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Huang, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to nonylphenol (NP) and oxidative stress on neonatal birth outcomes from human studies are limited. A total of 146 pregnant women were studied (1) to investigate the association between prenatal NP exposure and maternal oxidative/nitrative stress biomarkers of DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO 2 Gua)) and lipid peroxidation (8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-isoPF 2α ), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)) and (2) to explore the associations among oxidative stress biomarkers, NP exposure, and neonatal birth outcomes, including gestational age, birth weight, length, Ponderal index, and head and chest circumferences. NP significantly increased the 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels. All infants born to mothers with urinary 8-OHdG levels above the median exhibited a significantly shorter gestational duration (B adjusted  = −4.72 days; 95% CI: −8.08 to −1.36 days). No clear association was found between NP levels and birth outcomes. Prenatal 8-OHdG levels might be a novel biomarker for monitoring fetal health related to NP exposure. - Highlights: • A cohort of pregnant women was established and followed until delivery. • NP significantly increased 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels. • Maternal 8-OHdG levels were associated with significantly decreased gestational duration. • No clear association was observed between NP and birth outcomes. - NP increased 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels; high 8-OHdG levels significantly decreased gestation length.

  15. Learning disabilities and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E; Culbertson, Jan L; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991) short form, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler, 1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95% CI = 1.05, 7.67; p = .038; IQ >/= 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and caregiver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers.

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression in the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Keishi; Saiki, Takashi; Umeda, Kanae; Miyara, Masatsugu; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru; Kotake, Yaichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a common environmental contaminant, is widely used as an antifouling agent in paint. We previously reported that exposure of primary cortical neurons to TBT in vitro decreased the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) expression and subsequently increased neuronal vulnerability to glutamate. Therefore, to identify whether GluR2 expression also decreases after TBT exposure in vivo, we evaluated the changes in GluR2 expression in the mouse brain after prenatal or postnatal exposure to 10 and 25 ppm TBT through pellet diets. Although the mean feed intake and body weight did not decrease in TBT-exposed mice compared with that in control mice, GluR2 expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus decreased after TBT exposure during the prenatal period. These results indicate that a decrease in neuronal GluR2 may be involved in TBT-induced neurotoxicity, especially during the fetal period.

  17. Prenatal and Early Life Exposure to Traffic Pollution and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Coull, Brent A.; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Gold, Diane R.; Oken, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution has been associated with faster infant weight gain, but implications for cardiometabolic health in later childhood are unknown. Methods Among 1,418 children in Project Viva, a Boston-area pre-birth cohort, we assessed anthropometric and biochemical parameters of cardiometabolic health in early (median age 3.3 years) and mid- (median age 7.7 years) childhood. We used spatiotemporal models to estimate prenatal and early life residential PM2.5 and black carbon exposure as well as traffic density and roadway proximity. We performed linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographics Results Children whose mothers lived close to a major roadway at the time of delivery had higher markers of adverse cardiometabolic risk in early and mid-childhood. For example, total fat mass was 2.1kg (95%CI: 0.8, 3.5) higher in mid-childhood for children of mothers who lived < 50 m vs. ≥ 200m from a major roadway. Black carbon exposure and traffic density were generally not associated with cardiometabolic parameters, and PM2.5 exposure during the year prior was paradoxically associated with improved cardiometabolic profile Conclusions Infants whose mothers lived close to a major roadway at the time of delivery may be at later risk for adverse cardiometabolic health. PMID:26843357

  18. The Impact of Prenatal Organophosphate Pesticide Exposures on Thai Infant Neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpimol Kongtip

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A birth cohort was begun to investigate the levels and sources of pesticide exposure in pregnant women living in Thailand, and to examine the effects of pesticide exposure on infant neurodevelopment at five months of age. Subjects were interviewed using questionnaires regarding their demographic characteristics, educational background, and work and home activities related to pesticide exposures. Spot urine samples were collected at 28 weeks gestation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine maternal metabolite levels of organophosphate pesticides including dimethyl phosphate (DMP; total DEP (diethyl phosphate (DEP, diethyl thiophosphate (DETP, and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP, and total DAP (the sum of all metabolite levels. At five months of age, infant development was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III. Higher total DEP and total DAP metabolite levels from the mother at 28 weeks’ gestation were significantly associated with reduced motor composite scores on the Bayley-III at five months of age. The total DEP levels were also significantly associated with reduced cognitive composite scores. Prenatal concentrations of maternal urinary metabolites were associated with infant cognitive and motor development. The results of several studies now suggest the need for public health intervention to reduce prenatal pesticide exposures from both agricultural and domestic use.

  19. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mojska

    2016-07-01

    Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  1. Prenatal exposure to atomic radiation and brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to evaluate the risks to the developing human embryonic and fetal brain of exposure to ionizing radiation using the new DS86 doses; to compare the estimate of risk so derived with those based on the earlier T65DR doses; and to present the evidence bearing on a threshold in the low dose region under the two systems of dosimetry, especially for the data on clinically recognized severe mental retardation (SMR) and seizure. Regarding dose-related SMR, IQ scores, school performance and seizures, there was a high temporal correspondence between the T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems. A linear no-threshold model with both dosimetry systems also revealed that a significant increase in SMR was observed when the subjects were exposed in the uterus during the periods both 8-15 and 16-25 weeks after fertilization. A threshold in the low dose region was not suggested with the T65DR fetal absorbed doses, but suggested with the DS86 uterine absorbed doses. However, the location or even the existence of a threshold during both periods after fertilization was difficult to demonstrate statistically with the DS86 uterine absorbed doses. When two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome were excluded, a threshold with a lower bound was suggested to be observed in the 0.10-0.20 Gy region. Both dosimetries indicated a threshold in the dose-response function for mental retardation in the 16-25 week period, probably within the range from 0.23 to 0.70 Gy. The seizure data provided no persuasive evidence of a threshold during the 8-15 week period after fertilization; the 95% lower bound of the estimate of the threshold included zero. Finally, although the mean IQ scores and the mean school performances in the low dose region were similar to the values in the control group, particularly with doses under 0.10 Gy, evidence for a threshold is not compelling. (N.K.)

  2. Disposition of phencyclidine in mice after smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, A.S.; Martin, B.R.

    Mice were exposed to the smoke from placebo marihuana cigarettes treated with phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP . HCl). A dose-related decrement in motor performance was observed after exposure to the smoke from cigarettes containing 10-15 mg of PCP . HCl. Tissue levels of /sup 3/H-PCP, /sup 3/H-PC (pyrolysis product), and /sup 3/H-metabolites were measured in several tissues up to 7 days after exposure to 50 mg of /sup 3/H-PCP . HCl. /sup 3/H-PCP levels were highest in liver followed by lung, brain, fat, and plasma for the first 10 min after exposure. The /sup 3/H-PCP concentration in all tissues, except fat, declined during the subsequent 50 min. Liver and lung contained the highest levels of /sup 3/H-metabolites during this hour, followed by plasma, fat, and brain. Brain levels of /sup 3/H-PCP correlated well with the magnitude and duration of behavioral effects observed (r . 0.98). /sup 3/H-PC was also well absorbed from smoke as evidenced by initial tissue levels comparable to those of /sup 3/H-PCP, but they declined more rapidly than /sup 3/H-PCP levels. Excellent correlations were obtained between /sup 3/H-PCP and /sup 3/H-PC concentrations in plasma and those in liver, lung, and brain. /sup 3/H-PCP was not detected in any tissue 3 days after smoke exposure. At 1 and 3 days, radioactivity corresponding to metabolites persisted in liver and lung, but had largely disappeared by 7 days.

  3. Disposition of phencyclidine in mice after smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.S.; Martin, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mice were exposed to the smoke from placebo marihuana cigarettes treated with phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP . HCl). A dose-related decrement in motor performance was observed after exposure to the smoke from cigarettes containing 10-15 mg of PCP . HCl. Tissue levels of 3 H-PCP, 3 H-PC (pyrolysis product), and 3 H-metabolites were measured in several tissues up to 7 days after exposure to 50 mg of 3 H-PCP . HCl. 3 H-PCP levels were highest in liver followed by lung, brain, fat, and plasma for the first 10 min after exposure. The 3 H-PCP concentration in all tissues, except fat, declined during the subsequent 50 min. Liver and lung contained the highest levels of 3 H-metabolites during this hour, followed by plasma, fat, and brain. Brain levels of 3 H-PCP correlated well with the magnitude and duration of behavioral effects observed (r . 0.98). 3 H-PC was also well absorbed from smoke as evidenced by initial tissue levels comparable to those of 3 H-PCP, but they declined more rapidly than 3 H-PCP levels. Excellent correlations were obtained between 3 H-PCP and 3 H-PC concentrations in plasma and those in liver, lung, and brain. 3 H-PCP was not detected in any tissue 3 days after smoke exposure. At 1 and 3 days, radioactivity corresponding to metabolites persisted in liver and lung, but had largely disappeared by 7 days

  4. The healthcare costs of secondhand smoke exposure in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Sung, Hai-Yen; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei; Max, Wendy

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the healthcare costs attributable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking adults (age ≥ 19) in rural China. We analysed data from the 2011 National Rural Household Survey which was conducted among adults in five provinces and one municipality in China (N=12,397). Respondents reported their smoking status, health conditions and healthcare expenditures. Relative risks were obtained from published sources. Healthcare costs included annual outpatient and inpatient hospitalisation expenditures for five SHS-related diseases: asthma, breast cancer (female only), heart disease, lung cancer and tuberculosis. SHS-attributable healthcare costs were estimated using a prevalence-based annual cost approach. The total healthcare costs of SHS exposure in rural China amounted to $1.2 billion in 2011, including $559 million for outpatient visits and $612.4 million for inpatient hospitalisations. The healthcare costs for women and men were $877.1 million and $294.3 million, respectively. Heart disease was the most costly condition for both women ($701.7 million) and men ($180.6 million). The total healthcare costs of SHS exposure in rural China accounted to 0.3% of China's national healthcare expenditures in 2011. Over one-fifth of the total healthcare costs of SHS exposure in rural China were paid by health insurance. The out-of-pocket expenditures per person accounted for almost half (47%) of their daily income. The adverse health effects of SHS exposure result in a large economic burden in China. Tobacco control policies that reduce SHS exposure could have an impact on reducing healthcare costs in China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Casas, Maribel; Morales, Eva; Valvi, Damaskini; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Luque, Noelia; Rubio, Soledad; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Martínez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, which are widely used in consumer products, might affect susceptibility to infections and the development of allergy and asthma in children, but there are currently very few prospective studies. We sought to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates increases the risk of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children at various ages from birth to 7 years. We measured BPA and metabolites of high-molecular-weight phthalates, 4 di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (Σ4DEHP) and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and 3 low-molecular-weight phthalate (LMWP) metabolites (Σ3LMWP) in urine samples collected during the first and third trimesters in pregnant women participating in the Infancia y Medio Ambiente-Sabadell birth cohort study. The occurrence of chest infections, bronchitis, wheeze, and eczema in children was assessed at ages 6 and 14 months and 4 and 7 years through questionnaires given to the mothers. Atopy (specific IgE measurement) and asthma (questionnaire) were assessed at ages 4 and 7 years, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) of wheeze (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .02), chest infections (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32; P = .05), and bronchitis (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .04) at any age increased for each doubling in concentration of maternal urinary BPA. Σ4DEHP metabolites were associated with the same outcomes (wheeze: RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50, P = .02; chest infections: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.35; P = .11; bronchitis: RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43; P = .04). MBzP was associated with higher risk of wheeze (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.33; P = .05). The risk of asthma at age 7 years was also increased with increasing prenatal BPA, Σ4DEHP, and MBzP exposure. There were no other exposure-outcome associations. Prenatal exposure to BPA and high-molecular-weight phthalates might increase the risk of asthma symptoms and respiratory tract

  6. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-03-13

    The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the

  7. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olufajo, Olubode; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Methods: Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-f...

  8. Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Zou, Runyu; Muetzel, Ryan L; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal maternal depression has been associated with multiple problems in offspring involving affect, cognition, and neuroendocrine functioning. This suggests that prenatal depression influences neurodevelopment. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism remains unclear. We prospectively assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and at the child's age 3 years are related to white matter microstructure in 690 children. The association of paternal depressive symptoms with childhood white matter microstructure was assessed to evaluate genetic or familial confounding. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory. In children aged 6-9 years, we used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure characteristics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and to lower FA and higher MD in the cingulum bundle. No associations of maternal depressive symptoms at the child's age of 3 years with white matter characteristics were observed. Paternal depressive symptoms also showed a trend toward significance for a lower FA in the cingulum bundle. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum bundle. These structures are part of the limbic system, which is involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. As paternal depressive symptoms were also related to lower FA in the cingulum, the observed effect may partly reflect a genetic predisposition and shared environmental family factors and to a lesser extent a specific intrauterine effect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: a sibling-controlled cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Ystrom, Eivind; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracetamol is used extensively during pregnancy, but studies regarding the potential neurodevelopmental sequelae of foetal paracetamol exposure are lacking. Method Between 1999 and 2008 all pregnant Norwegian women were eligible for recruitment into the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The mothers were asked to report on their use of paracetamol at gestational weeks 17 and 30 and at 6 months postpartum. We used data on 48 631 children whose mothers returned the 3-year follow-up questionnaire by May 2011. Within this sample were 2919 same-sex sibling pairs who were used to adjust for familial and genetic factors. We modelled psychomotor development (communication, fine and gross motor development), externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems, and temperament (emotionality, activity, sociability and shyness) based on prenatal paracetamol exposure using generalized linear regression, adjusting for a number of factors, including febrile illness, infections and co-medication use during pregnancy. Results The sibling-control analysis revealed that children exposed to prenatal paracetamol for more than 28 days had poorer gross motor development [β 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.51], communication (β 0.20, 95% CI 0.01–0.39), externalizing behaviour (β 0.28, 95% CI 0.15–0.42), internalizing behaviour (β 0.14, 95% CI 0.01–0.28), and higher activity levels (β 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.38). Children exposed prenatally to short-term use of paracetamol (1–27 days) also had poorer gross motor outcomes (β 0.10, 95% CI 0.02–0.19), but the effects were smaller than with long-term use. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Children exposed to long-term use of paracetamol during pregnancy had substantially adverse developmental outcomes at 3 years of age. PMID:24163279

  11. Effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-07-01

    While there is increasing support for restricting smoking in restaurant and bar patios, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of this policy. This study examined the effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on adult second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Data were drawn from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=89,743), a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth and adult. Regression analysis, a quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of provincial smoke-free patio policy on self-reported exposure to SHS. Analyses suggest that exposure to SHS on patios of bars and restaurants declined following the adoption of provincial smoke-free patio policy. Relative to pre-policy SHS exposure, regression results showed a reduction in the probability of SHS exposure of up to 25% in Alberta. Similarly, in Nova Scotia, the probability of SHS exposure declined by up to 21%. Analyses stratified by smoking status found similar significant effect on both smokers and non-smokers. Findings suggest that provincial patio smoking ban on bars and restaurants had the intended effect of protecting non-smokers from SHS exposure. This study is consistent with a large body of evidence showing that a strong smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM. In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neuronal glutamatergic functions. nPMs are collected continuously for one month from a local freeway and stored as an aqueous suspension, prior to re-aerosolization for exposure of mice under controlled dose and duration. This paradigm was used for a pilot study of prenatal nPM impact on neonatal neurons and adult behaviors. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to re-aerosolized nPM (350 µg/m(3 or control filtered ambient air for 10 weeks (3×5 hour exposures per week, encompassing gestation and oocyte maturation prior to mating. Prenatal nPM did not alter litter size, pup weight, or postnatal growth. Neonatal cerebral cortex neurons at 24 hours in vitro showed impaired differentiation, with 50% reduction of stage 3 neurons with long neurites and correspondingly more undifferentiated neurons at Stages 0 and 1. Neuron number after 24 hours of culture was not altered by prenatal nPM exposure. Addition of exogenous nPM (2 µg/ml to the cultures impaired pyramidal neuron Stage 3 differentiation by 60%. Adult males showed increased depression-like responses in the tail-suspension test, but not anxiety-related behaviors. These pilot data suggest that prenatal exposure to nPM can alter neuronal differentiation with gender-specific behavioral sequelae that may be relevant to human prenatal exposure to urban vehicular aerosols.

  13. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation

  14. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  15. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  16. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...

  17. Hyperconnectivity of local neocortical microcircuitry induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Tania; Silberberg, Gilad; Markram, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during embryogenesis can cause several teratogenic effects, including developmental delays and in particular autism in humans if exposure occurs during the third week of gestation. We examined the postnatal effects of embryonic exposure to VPA on microcircuit...... properties of juvenile rat neocortex using in vitro electrophysiology. We found that a single prenatal injection of VPA on embryonic day 11.5 causes a significant enhancement of the local recurrent connectivity formed by neocortical pyramidal neurons. The study of the biophysical properties...... of these connections revealed weaker excitatory synaptic responses. A marked decrease of the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons was also observed. Furthermore, we demonstrate a diminished number of putative synaptic contacts in connection between layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Local hyperconnectivity may render...

  18. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruzieva, O.; Xu, C.J.; Breton, C.V.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Antó, J.M.; Auffray, C.; Ballereau, S.; Bellander, T.; Bousquet, J.; Bustamante, M.; Charles, M.A.; de Kluizenaar, Y.; Den Dekker, H.T.; Duijts, L.; Felix, J.F.; Gehring, U.; Guxens, M.; Jaddoe, V.V.W.; Jankipersadsing, S.A.; Merid, S.K.; Kere, J.; Kumar, A.; Lemonnier, N.; Lepeule, J.; Nystad, W.; Page, C.M.; Panasevich, S.; Postma, D.; Slama, R.; Sunyer, J.; Söderhäll, C.; Yao, J.; London, S.J.; Pershagen, G.; Koppelman, G.H.; Melén, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly