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Sample records for prenatal marital quality

  1. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

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    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Marital Quality and Marital Stability: Resolving a Controversy.

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    Schumm, Walter R.; Bugaighis, Margaret A.

    1985-01-01

    Clarifies the models of marital quality and marital stability proposed by Spanier and Lewis (1979, 1980) and by Thomas and Kleber (1981). Explains how both models are valid under different conditions but do not represent irreconcilable views of the marital relationship. (Author/NRB)

  3. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

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    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  4. Determinants of marital quality in an arranged marriage society.

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    Allendorf, Keera; Ghimire, Dirgha J

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a uniquely large number of items on marital quality, this study explores the determinants of marital quality in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Marital quality is measured with five dimensions identified through exploratory factor analysis, comprising satisfaction, communication, togetherness, problems, and disagreements. Gender, education, spouse choice, and marital duration emerge as the most important determinants of these dimensions of marital quality. Specifically, men, those with more schooling, those who participated in the choice of their spouse, and those who have been married longer have higher levels of marital quality. By contrast, caste, occupation, age at marriage, and number of children have little to no association with marital quality. However, while we identify key determinants of marital quality in this context, the majority of variation in marital quality remains unexplained.

  5. Understanding marital conflict 7 years later from prenatal representations of marriage.

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    Curran, Melissa; Ogolsky, Brian; Hazen, Nancy; Bosch, Leslie

    2011-06-01

    We examine how representations of marriage, assessed prenatally, predict different types of marital conflict (cooperation, avoidance/capitulation, stonewalling, and child involvement in parental conflict) at 7 years postpartum (N=132 individuals). We assessed representations of marriage prenatally by interviewing spouses about their own parents' marriage, and then rated the content and insightfulness of their memories. Results show that marital representations characterized by higher insight predict higher cooperation and lower child involvement in parental conflict, whereas content of marital representations was not a significant predictor of marital conflict. Further, individuals who remember negative memories from their parents' marriage with high insight were lowest on child involvement in parental conflict, whereas those who remember negative memories with low insight were highest on child involvement in parental conflict. Finally, women who remember negative content with high insight report the highest cooperation, whereas women who remember negative content with low insight report the lowest cooperation. For men, however, marital representations were less effective in predicting later cooperation. We conclude that marital representations, even when assessed prenatally, influence certain types of marital conflict 7 years later. Using such findings, therapists could help spouses gain insight into how the memories of their parents' marriage relate to the use of specific conflict strategies in their marriage.

  6. The transition to parenthood and marital quality.

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    White, L K; Booth, A

    1985-12-01

    An extensive literature demonstrates a negative correlation between the presence of children and marital quality. Few of these studies are designed to test the reasons for this relationship. This study examines 2 possible paths: that people who choose to have children differ from those who do not in ways that affect marital quality, and that having a child changes marital structure and process. This research is based on a nationwide sample interviewed 1st in 1980 and again in 1983. In 1980, telephone interviews were conducted with 2,033 married individuals. The analysis of the effects of transition to parenthood is restricted to the 220 individuals who met the following conditions: childless in 1980, wife under 35 in 1980, successfully reintterviewed in 1983, and marriage intact between 1980-3. The results of the analysis support neither hypotheses. Prior to the birth of the child, parents and nonparents do not differ in marital interaction, happiness, disagreements, problems, or traditionalism in the division of labor, though future parents are already somewhat more likely to believe that the division of household labor is unfair. In regard to the argument that a new baby causes negative changes in marital structure and process, these data give only weak support. The sharpest difference found in this analysis is in the propensity to divorce or permanently separate, a propensity substantially greater among the nonparents. The greater willingness of childless couples to divorce means that a continuing sample of childless couples is more highly selected for marital happiness than a continuing sample of parents. This selectivity in divorce rather than the direct effect of children seems to be the major reason that cross-sectional comparisons show parents to be somewhat less happy than nonparents.

  7. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

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    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  8. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

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    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  9. Conceptualizing and Validating Marital Quality in Beijing: A Pilot Study.

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    Zhang, Huiping; Xu, Xiaohe; Tsang, Sandra K M

    2013-08-01

    Since the inception of the economic reform, marital relationship in urban China has undergone dramatic transformations. Though the burgeoning body of scholarly research has demonstrated that marital quality has increasingly become an important aspect of family life among married persons in urban China, both the conceptualization and measurement of marital quality remain underdeveloped. The purpose of this pilot study is to develop and validate a comprehensive and culturally appropriate marital quality scale, namely the Chinese Marital Quality Scale (CMQS). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) conducted on a sample of 387 married persons from Beijing indicate that the CMQS can be conceptualized as a two-factorial and multidimensional construct, encompassing marital happiness, marital interaction, marital disagreement, marital problem, and marital instability. Additional statistical analyses also indicate that the CMQS has exhibited satisfactory reliability and concurrent validity. It is thus concluded that the CMQS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital quality in contemporary Beijing and possibly in other Chinese cities.

  10. Marital violence and coparenting quality after separation.

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    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Crossman, Kimberly A; Khaw, Lyndal; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    Research has identified multiple predictors of coparenting quality, but few studies have investigated how intimate partner violence (IPV) affects divorcing couples' coparenting relationships. We addressed this question in a sample of 154 mothers with different marital IPV experiences. Mothers were recruited within 4 months of a divorce filing and completed two interviews 3 months apart. At Time 1, mothers reported on violence and coercive control during marriage, and postseparation behavioral (e.g., parental communication), emotional (e.g., anger), and intrusion (e.g., harassment) dynamics; at Time 2, they reported on coparenting quality (i.e., levels of support and conflict). In the overall sample, divorce and violence variables independently predicted coparenting quality. Mothers were then classified into three groups: no violence (NV; n = 74), situational couple violence (SCV; n = 46), or coercive controlling violence (CCV; n = 34). Of the 3, coparenting quality was lowest in the CCV group. While the SCV group was similar to the NV group on most divorce-related variables, the CCV group reported more hostility at separation and placed less importance on father-child relationships. Finally, patterns of association between study variables and coparenting quality showed some parallels between the SCV and NV groups. For CCV, postseparation harassment and fear were negatively associated with coparenting quality. Findings contribute to understanding predictors of coparenting quality and support the need for individualized assessments of divorce cases with attention to IPV dynamics.

  11. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

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    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  12. Marital Quality, Gender, and Markers of Inflammation in the MIDUS Cohort

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    Donoho, Carrie J.; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Marital quality is an important factor for understanding the relationship between marriage and health. Low-quality relationships may not have the same health benefits as high-quality relationships. To understand the association between marital quality and health, we examined associations between two indicators of marital quality (marital support…

  13. Match quality, new information, and marital dissolution.

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    Weiss, Y; Willis, R J

    1997-01-01

    "This article investigates the role of surprises in marital dissolution [in the United States]. Surprises consists of changes in the predicted earning capacity of either spouse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 is used. We find that an unexpected increase in the husband's earning capacity reduces the divorce hazard, while an unexpected increase in the wife's earning capacity raises the divorce hazard. Couples sort into marriage according to characteristics that are likely to enhance the stability of the marriage. The divorce hazard is initially increasing with the duration of marriage, and the presence of children and high levels of property stabilizes the marriage."

  14. Economic pressure, cultural adaptation stress, and marital quality among Mexican-origin couples.

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    Helms, Heather M; Supple, Andrew J; Su, Jinni; Rodriguez, Yuliana; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Hengstebeck, Natalie D

    2014-02-01

    Based on data from a sample of 120 first-generation Mexican immigrant couples collected at the start of the Great Recession in the United States, this study tested an actor-partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) in which spouses' perceptions of stress related to economic pressure and cultural adaptation were linked to their own and their partners' reports of marital satisfaction through spouses' depressive symptoms and marital negativity. As hypothesized, results supported indirect links between economic and cultural adaptation stressors and spouses' marital negativity and satisfaction: (1) contextual stress was associated with depressive symptoms, (2) depressive symptoms were positively associated with marital negativity for both husbands and wives and negatively associated with marital satisfaction for wives only, and (3) marital negativity was inversely associated with marital satisfaction for both spouses. Two partner effects emerged: (a) husbands' depressive symptoms were positively associated with wives' reports of marital negativity and (b) husbands' marital negativity was inversely related to wives' marital satisfaction. From these findings, we can infer that the psychological distress that arises for Mexican-origin spouses as they respond to the challenges of making ends meet during difficult economic times while they simultaneously navigate adapting to life in a new country is evidenced in their marital quality. Specifically, this study found that contextual stress external to the marital relationship was transmitted via spouses' psychological distress and negative marital exchanges to spouses' marital satisfaction. Wives' marital satisfaction was shown to be uniquely vulnerable to their own and their husbands' depressive symptoms and marital negativity.

  15. Quantitative Research on Marital Quality in the 1980s: A Critical Review.

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    Glenn, Norval D.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses theoretical, conceptual, and methodological issues in research on marital quality and then selectively reviews research findings. Concludes that, although quantitative research on marital quality in the 1980s produced only a modest increment in understanding the causes and consequences of marital success, it laid foundation for greater…

  16. Cohabitation and Marital Stability: Quality or Commitment.

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    Thomson, Elizabeth; Colella, Ugo

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to examine cohabitation. Couples who cohabited before marriage reported lower quality marriages, lower commitment to institution of marriage, more individualistic views of marriage (wives only), and greater likelihood of divorce than couples who did not cohabit. Effects were generally…

  17. Happy Marriage, Happy Life? Marital Quality and Subjective Well-Being in Later Life.

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    Carr, Deborah; Freedman, Vicki A; Cornman, Jennifer C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    The authors examined associations between marital quality and both general life satisfaction and experienced (momentary) well-being among older husbands and wives, the relative importance of own versus spouse's marital appraisals for well-being, and the extent to which the association between own marital appraisals and well-being is moderated by spouse's appraisals. Data are from the 2009 Disability and Use of Time daily diary supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 722). One's own marital satisfaction is a sizable and significant correlate of life satisfaction and momentary happiness; associations do not differ significantly by gender. The authors did not find a significant association between spouse's marital appraisals and own well-being. However, the association between husband's marital quality and life satisfaction is buoyed when his wife also reports a happy marriage, yet flattened when his wife reports low marital quality. Implications for understanding marital dynamics and well-being in later life are discussed.

  18. The quantity and quality of marital interaction related to marital satisfaction: A behavioral analysis

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    Williams, Ann Marie

    1979-01-01

    An assessment instrument is presented for the evaluation of the quantity and quality of dyadic interaction, as well as for the daily recording of behaviors presented and omitted which influence marital satisfaction. Comparison of data from ten happy couples and from ten couples entering therapy indicated two distinct dysfunctional patterns among distressed couples, with significantly different patterns of time-together and positive/negative ratios differentiating the happy versus therapy groups. Independent behavioral recording for 14 consecutive days significantly increased husband-wife agreement on a traditional adjustment questionnaire without significantly increasing or decreasing the level of satisfaction being assessed. There was no difference between groups as to interspousal agreement on amount of time together. However, the happy couples agreed on daily quality ratings of the 72 15-minute segments significantly more often than did the distressed couples. Couples at the extremes of the happy-distressed continuum reported rewarding and punishing, respectively, in response to the partners presence, regardless of behaviors emitted. Midrange happy couples defined “pleasant” as positive behaviors presented; midrange distressed couples defined “pleasant” as negative behaviors omitted. Theoretical and clinical implications of behavioral analysis of sequential patterns are discussed. PMID:16795620

  19. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

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    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  20. Marital Quality in Interracial Relationships: The Role of Sex Role Ideology and Perceived Fairness

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    Forry, Nicole D.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    African American/White interracial couples are a rapidly growing segment of the population. However, little is known about factors related to marital quality for these couples. The authors examine the relationships between sex role ideology, perception of relationship unfairness, and marital quality among a sample of 76 married African…

  1. The Dynamics of Divorce: Marital Quality, Alternative Attractions and External Pressures.

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    Green, Robert G.; Sporakowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested Lewis and Spanier's theory of marital quality and marital stability using a sample of 131 married and 166 divorced social survey respondents. Examined the relationship between the quality and stability of their marriages and assessed the influence of alternative attractions and external pressures to remain married. (JAC)

  2. Does Viewing Pornography Reduce Marital Quality Over Time? Evidence from Longitudinal Data.

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    Perry, Samuel L

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have examined the connection between pornography viewing and marital quality, with findings most often revealing a negative association. Data limitations, however, have precluded establishing directionality with a representative sample. This study is the first to draw on nationally representative, longitudinal data (2006-2012 Portraits of American Life Study) to test whether more frequent pornography use influences marital quality later on and whether this effect is moderated by gender. In general, married persons who more frequently viewed pornography in 2006 reported significantly lower levels of marital quality in 2012, net of controls for earlier marital quality and relevant correlates. Pornography's effect was not simply a proxy for dissatisfaction with sex life or marital decision-making in 2006. In terms of substantive influence, frequency of pornography use in 2006 was the second strongest predictor of marital quality in 2012. Interaction effects revealed, however, that the negative effect of porn use on marital quality applied to husbands, but not wives. In fact, post-estimation predicted values indicated that wives who viewed pornography more frequently reported higher marital quality than those who viewed it less frequently or not at all. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  3. Marital quality and attachment: The mediator role of conflict resolution styles

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    Patrícia Scheeren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain variables can act as mediators between marital quality, social and emotional aspects of the individuals and their context. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of conflict resolution styles as mediators between attachment styles and marital quality. A total of 214 couples participated in the present study aged between 18 and 75 years, residents in Southern Brazil. Three scales were administered: The Conflict Resolution Style Inventory, Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State and Adult Attachment Scale. Results indicate that the styles of conflict resolution (positive problem solving, conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance mediate the relationship between attachment and marital quality. A difference between husbands and wives was observed. These findings suggest the importance of expanding the repertoire of positive strategies of conflict resolution of the couples for the promotion of marital quality.

  4. Incremental Validity of Spouse Ratings versus Self-Reports of Personality as Predictors of Marital Quality and Behavior during Marital Conflict

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    Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.

    2012-01-01

    The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…

  5. Incremental Validity of Spouse Ratings versus Self-Reports of Personality as Predictors of Marital Quality and Behavior during Marital Conflict

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    Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.

    2012-01-01

    The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…

  6. The Influence of Divorce Prediction Variables on Divorce Adjustment: An Expansion and Test of Lewis' and Spanier's Theory of Marital Quality and Marital Stability.

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    Green, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Tested the usefulness of Lewis's and Spanier's theory of marital quality and marital stability for the prediction of divorce adjustment, in a study of 216 recently divorced persons. The quality of the marriage, external pressure to remain married, and level of alternative attractions were all useful predictors. (JAC)

  7. The Effect of Shift Work on Quality and Stability of Marital Relations.

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    White, Lynn; Keith, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed a national panel of 1,668 married women and men in 1980 and 1983 to assess effects of shift work on 6 measures of marital quality (marital happiness, interaction, disagreements, general problems, sexual problems, and child-related problems) and probability of divorce. Results suggested that shift work has a modest but general adverse…

  8. Stability and Developmental Change in Marital Quality: A Three-Wave Panel Analysis.

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    Johnson, David R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Drew on national sample of married persons interviewed three times over eight years. Found marital quality to be stable phenomenon. Marital happiness and interaction were both found to decline over time whereas divorce proneness, problems, and disagreements did not exhibit significant developmental change. Found no sex or duration differences in…

  9. Cultural dynamics and marital relationship quality in Mexican-origin families.

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    Cruz, Rick A; Gonzales, Nancy A; Corona, Marissa; King, Kevin M; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F; Conger, Rand D

    2014-12-01

    Prior research suggests that acculturation may influence relationship outcomes among Mexican-origin married couples, including marital adjustment and distress. Despite much theory and research on parent-child cultural differences and disruptions in the parent-child relationship, no previous research has investigated possible associations between husband-wife cultural differences and marital relationship quality. With a sample of Mexican-origin married couples (N = 398), the current study investigated the relations between husband-wife differences in acculturation (American orientation) and enculturation (Mexican orientation) with husband and wife reports of positive marital qualities (warmth and relationship satisfaction). To clarify and extend previous research, the current study also investigated within-person models of cultural orientation domains as related to positive marital quality. Results provide partial evidence showing that dyadic cultural differences are associated with lower positive marital quality while cultural similarity is associated with higher positive marital quality; however, the relations are complex and suggest that the associations between wife cultural orientation and positive marital quality may depend on husband cultural orientation (and vice versa). Findings also implicate the importance of assessing spouse bidimensional cultural orientation by showing that the relation between spouse acculturation level and relationship quality may depend on his or her enculturation level. Additional nuances in the findings illustrate the importance of assessing multiple domains of cultural orientation, including language use and cultural values. We highlight several future directions for research investigating nuances in spouse cultural dynamics and relationship processes.

  10. Reality Therapy Effect on Marital Satisfaction and Women’s Quality of Life

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    F Dizjani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Marriage means common life wedlock with relative independency protection. It could be one of the most complex human relationships.  Its stability could be strongly dependent on satisfaction and its quality. Using different psychological techniques and approaches, a lot of studies have been conducted to increase these marital indexes. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the role of choice theory training to couple and its effects on marital life satisfaction and quality of marital life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reality therapy on marital satisfaction of married women employed at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences quality. Methods: The present study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control group. The study population consisted of all employees married women of Yasuj university of Medical Sciences in 2014, which by random sampling 30 participants were selected and randomly assigned into two experimental groups for 2 months (8 sessions of 2 hours of reality therapy training. Enrich marital satisfaction scale and Fletcher quality of marital life scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23 and P value of 0.05. Results: The results indicated that the total mean scores in marital satisfaction in experimental groups (129.07±4.2 significantly increased compared to the control group (113.4±6.8. The mean differences   in all subscales (with except of leisure time and relative sub scales were significantly different. In quality of marital life, mean scores were significantly different between two groups (120.32±5.3 in experimental group against 101.2±7.28 for control group. Conclusion: The results indicated that training of reality therapy based on choice theory to couples could increase marital satisfaction and quality of life.  

  11. Variation in marital quality in a national sample of divorced women.

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    James, Spencer L

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has compared marital quality between stably married and divorced individuals. Less work has examined the possibility of variation among divorcés in trajectories of marital quality as divorce approaches. This study addressed that hole by first examining whether distinct trajectories of marital quality can be discerned among women whose marriages ended in divorce and, second, the profile of women who experienced each trajectory. Latent class growth analyses with longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample were used to "look backward" from the time of divorce. Although demographic and socioeconomic variables from this national sample did not predict the trajectories well, nearly 66% of divorced women reported relatively high levels of both happiness and communication and either low or moderate levels of conflict. Future research including personality or interactional patterns may lead to theoretical insights about patterns of marital quality in the years leading to divorce.

  12. Sexual satisfaction, perceived availability of alternative partners, and marital quality in newlywed African American couples.

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    Stanik, Christine E; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2012-01-01

    The goal for this project was to examine the manner in which husbands' and wives' sexual satisfaction was related to their perceptions of the availability of alternative partners and overall marital quality. Participants were 470 newlywed African American couples residing in the southern region of the United States. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine actor (individuals' sexual satisfaction on their own outcomes) and partner (individuals' sexual satisfaction on their partners' outcomes) effects. Wives' and husbands' sexual satisfaction was strongly and positively associated with their own reports of marital quality, although it was not associated with their partners' reports of marital quality. For both wives and husbands, higher sexual satisfaction was associated with lowered perceptions that they would be able to find other acceptable partners should their current relationship end. Perceived availability of alternative partners was, in turn, negatively associated with reports of marital quality.

  13. The relationship between sexual dysfunction and quality of marital relationship in genital and breast cancers women.

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    Fahami, Fariba; Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Savabi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sexual dysfunction is dysfunction in desire and emotional - social that it is Impact on the sexual response cycle and can cause stress and interpersonal difficulties. Quality of marital relationship is one of the important factors predicting sexual function disorders, which varies among different cancers. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between sexual dysfunction and quality of marital relationship in genital and breast cancers in women. This correlational study was conducted on 150 breast and genital cancers in women referred to Sayedoshohada and Milad hospitals in Isfahan city through a two-stage sampling method. Participants completed questionnaires about demographic/disease and sexual function questionnaire (44 questions) and quality of marital relationship (11 questions). Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 software, statistical test such as, Pearson correlation coefficient tests independent t- student, one way ANOVA. The results showed that 70.7% of women had breast cancer and 29.3% had gynaecological cancer. 60% of patient had good quality of marital relationship and 19.3% sexual dysfunction. There was a significant correlation between sexual function and quality of marital relationship (P = relationship. The inclusion of patients educational programs and couple therapy in cancer disease rehabilitation program is important in order to improve the quality of marital relationship and subsequent sexual dysfunction in cancer patients.

  14. Marital satisfaction and quality of father-child interactions: the moderating role of child gender.

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    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Véronique; Lacharité, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the prospective links between normative variation in fathers' marital satisfaction and the observed quality of father-toddler interactions, as well as the moderating role of child gender in these associations. Sixty-three fathers reported on their marital satisfaction when their children were 15 months of age, and were observed interacting with their child at 18 months. The results suggested that marital satisfaction was positively associated with the quality of father-son interactions, while no relations emerged among fathers of girls. These findings reiterate the importance of marital relationships for the quality of fathers' parenting, while reaffirming previous suggestions that the role of child gender in the marriage-parenting connections requires further investigation.

  15. Reassessing the Link between Women's Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

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    James, Spencer L.; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and…

  16. Differentiating Between Attachment Styles and Behaviors and their Association with Marital Quality.

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    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Bradford, Angela B; Brown, Andrew P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish between the influence of attachment styles and behaviors on marital quality for couples. Data were gathered from 680 couples in a married relationship. Results showed attachment style and behaviors predicted marital quality for both men and women, with higher levels of attachment related to greater quality. Attachment behaviors predicted more of the variance in quality than did styles. Specific implications regarding how therapists may wish to foster behaviors that promote attachment security in marriages are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  17. The influence of parents' marital quality on adult children's attitudes toward marriage and its alternatives: main and moderating effects.

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    Cunningham, Mick; Thornton, Arland

    2006-11-01

    Drawing on a panel study of parents and children, we investigate linkages between parents' marital quality and adult children's attitudes toward a range of family issues, including premarital sex, cohabitation, lifelong singlehood, and divorce. We hypothesize that parents' marital quality will be negatively related to children's support for these behaviors in adulthood and that parents' marital quality will condition the intergenerational transmission of attitudes toward these issues. We find some evidence that parents' marital quality influences children's support for divorce and premarital sex. More important, our analyses show that parents' marital quality facilitates the intergenerational transmission of attitudes. Parents' attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, and being single are more strongly linked to those same attitudes among their young adult children when parents' marital quality is high than when it is low.

  18. Alexithymia and marital quality: the mediating roles of loneliness and intimate communication.

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    Frye-Cox, Nick E; Hesse, Colin R

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the mediating roles of loneliness and intimate communication in the association between alexithymia and marital quality. Guided by a personality-behavioral approach to loneliness and affection exchange theory (AET), two actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) were examined to test the associations among the variables. Path models (N = 155 couples) indicated that, for both spouses, loneliness and intimate communication fully mediated the association between alexithymia and marital quality. More specifically, higher alexithymia was associated with greater loneliness, which predicted lower intimate communication, which was related to lower marital quality. Multiple specific indirect effects were also significant, suggesting that the association between alexithymia and marital quality may be explained through divergent intrapersonal and interpersonal pathways. Although the magnitude of the intrapersonal associations was similar for both spouses, the results revealed gender differences in spousal interpersonal associations. For husbands, consistent differences were found between intrapersonal and interpersonal associations. Conversely, for wives, no significant differences were found between intrapersonal and interpersonal associations, suggesting that their marital quality was most strongly predicted by their own and their spouse's alexithymia, loneliness, and perceptions of intimate communication. Theoretical implications and future directions for research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Links between Marital Quality, the Mother-Child Relationship and Child Behavior: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M.; Pike, Alison

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between marital quality and child behavior, assessing mother-child relationship quality as a potential mediator. The sample included 78 mothers with two target children (mean ages = 9.82 and 12.05 years, respectively). Mothers reported on their children's behavior as well as their marital quality, while each child…

  20. Links between Marital Quality, the Mother-Child Relationship and Child Behavior: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M.; Pike, Alison

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between marital quality and child behavior, assessing mother-child relationship quality as a potential mediator. The sample included 78 mothers with two target children (mean ages = 9.82 and 12.05 years, respectively). Mothers reported on their children's behavior as well as their marital quality, while each child…

  1. Conflict Resolution in Mexican-Origin Couples: Culture, Gender, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between Mexican-origin spouses' conflict resolution strategies (i.e., nonconfrontation, solution orientation, and control) and (a) gender-typed qualities and attitudes, (b) cultural orientations, and (c) marital quality in a sample of 227 couples. Results of multilevel modeling revealed that Mexican cultural…

  2. Compassionate love as a mechanism linking sacred qualities of marriage to older couples' marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Allen K; Rauer, Amy J; Jensen, Jakob F

    2014-10-01

    Previous work has underscored the robust links between sanctification of marriage and marital outcomes, and recent developments in the literature suggest that compassionate love, which is important for intimate relationships, may act as a mediator of that relationship. Accordingly, the current study used actor-partner interdependence models to examine the relationship between a spiritual cognition (i.e., perceived sacred qualities of marriage) and marital satisfaction, and to determine whether that relationship is mediated by compassionate love, in a sample of older married couples (N = 64). Results revealed that wives' greater sacred qualities of marriage were significantly and positively linked to marital satisfaction on the part of both spouses, and that these links were partially mediated by couples' reports of compassionate love. These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond simply establishing the existence of the link between global markers of involvement of religion and marriage to understanding how specific spiritual cognitions may foster better relationship quality, especially among older couples.

  3. Maternal and paternal perceptions of coparenting as a link between marital quality and the parent-toddler relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Ashley S; McElwain, Nancy L

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coparenting perceptions of support and trust as a link between marital quality and parent-child relationship quality. Mothers and fathers with 33-month-old children (n = 122, 61 girls) independently reported on coparenting support and trust, marital quality, and attachment-relevant aspects of the parent-child relationship. Additionally, child-mother attachment security was assessed observationally. Marital quality was related to higher quality mother-son relationships (self-reported and observed) via more positive maternal coparenting perceptions, and marital quality was related to greater father-son and father-daughter relationship quality via more positive paternal coparenting perceptions. For partner effects, marital quality was related to higher mother-son relationship quality via fathers' perceptions of coparenting. Results highlight perceptions of coparenting of both mothers and fathers as a link between marital quality and mother-child relationship quality for families with toddler-aged boys. Further, findings suggest that marital quality fosters more positive paternal coparenting trust and support, which in turn has positive implications for father-son and father-daughter relationships during toddlerhood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Quality of Prenatal Care Services in Karabuk Community Health Center

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    Binali Catak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care services according to gestastional week in Karabuk Community Health Center (CHC. Methods: In this descriptive study 365 pregnant women was selected as sample among 753 pregnant women registered at Karabuk CHC in 18/01/2011. 93.0% of women in the selected sample has been visited in their homes and the face to face interviews were done. The questionnaire was prepared according to Prenatal Care Management Guidelines (PCMG of Ministry of Health. Findings The number of follow-ups was not complete in 23.7% of 15-24 month, 34.4% of 25-32 month, 52,1% of 33-42 month pregnant women. At least four follow-up visits were completed only in 66,7% of postpartum women. Timing of first visit was after 15th week in 15,6% of women. In follow up visits 62.5% of of women’s height were never measured, in 13,0% the women hearth sound of infants didn’t monitored at least once. Laboratory test numbers were under the level required by PCMG. The delivery conditions weren’t planned in 41,8% of last trimester and postpartum women and training about breastfeeding wasn’t given to 15,5 of the same group. Result In family medicine model in Karabuk CHC developments in number of prenatal follow-up visits were observed, but no substantial improvements were found in quality of prenatal visits. Regular in service trainings shoud be given to family doctors and midwives. The use of prenatal care guideline published by MoH should be increased. Keywords: Prenatal care, pregnancy, timing of first visit, qality of prenatal care [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 153-162

  5. SECONDARY EFFECTS OF THE LOCALIZAED PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENTS ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE AND MARITAL

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    MÓNICA MARÍA NOVOA GÓMEZ

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this correlational-descriptive study was to analyze the relation betweenantineoplasic treatment’s secondary effects, quality of life and marital adjustment in men with localizedprostate cancer. The instruments were a structured interview about sociodemographic data, the QLQC30.v3 Inventory, to evaluate quality of life in oncology patients; the QLQ-PR25 Inventory, that is a complementary module of the previous one aimed to evaluate prostate cancer treatment’s secondaryeffects, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS to evaluate marital adjustment. In order to select theparticipants of the study, contacts with the Javeriano Oncology Center at the San Ignacio UniversitaryHospital, the Santa Fe Foundation and the National Institute of Cancerology were made. Participantswere fifty (50 patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who received treatment s as radicalprostatectomy, and/or radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy and/or brachitherapy, and with a timebetween six months and two years elapsed since the treatment. After the instruments application datawere analyzed with Kendall’s bivariate statistics. Significant correlations were found between treatment’ssecondary effects and quality of life, marital adjustment and quality of life, and treatment’s secondaryeffects and marital adjustment. Based on this results, hypothesis formulated for this study were accepted.

  6. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  7. Parental Expressiveness as a Moderator of Coparenting and Marital Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by theory and extant research on the communication of emotions within the family, the current investigation examined marital quality and parents' emotional expressiveness as determinants of coparenting in a sample of 57 couples with young children. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' expressiveness was examined as moderators of the…

  8. Parental Expressiveness as a Moderator of Coparenting and Marital Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by theory and extant research on the communication of emotions within the family, the current investigation examined marital quality and parents' emotional expressiveness as determinants of coparenting in a sample of 57 couples with young children. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' expressiveness was examined as moderators of the…

  9. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  10. Quality of life and marital sexual satisfaction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Romana Pawlińska-Chmara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 5-10% of women in the developed world, making it the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. The symptoms typically associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, subfertility, anovulation and acne can lead to a significant reduction in female life quality.The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome on quality of life and marital sexual satisfaction. Fifty women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified to the study as the research group. The control group consisted of fourty healthy women. A specific questionnaire was used as a research tool in this study. It included the socio-demographic part, polycystic ovary syndrome's symptomatology and validated scales: Polish version of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 and Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS. The mean age of researched women was 28.9+/-5.6 years, and in the control group - 30.5+/-5.3 years (p>0.05. Quality of life parameters for women with polycystic ovary syndrome were lower than for the controls in the aspect of: general health (p<0.01, limitations due to physical health (p<0.05, limitations due to emotional problems (p<0.001, social functioning (p<0.01, energy/fatigue (p<0.001 and emotional wellbeing (p<0.01. Studied women showed worse marital sexual functioning (p<0.05. Marital sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 28.6% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and in 10.5% of healthy women (p<0.05. Polycystic ovary syndrome decreases quality of life and marital sexual functioning among women. A negative effect of hirsutism severity on general well-being and marital sexual life is also observed.

  11. Marital quality and relationship satisfaction in war veterans and their wives in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Miro Klaric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in war veterans and its complex emotional and behavioral characteristics affect veterans’ partners and the quality of their relationships. Although most research focuses on the effects of veterans’ PTSD on their partners/wives and their relationships, not many findings have been established on partner adjustment and marriage quality when wives suffer from PTSD as well.The aim of the research was to examine the relationship between war-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and partner's marital satisfaction in couples where one or both partners suffer from PTSD.The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Dyadic Adjustment Scale encompassed 154 war veterans and their wives who had been treated at Mostar Clinical Hospital in Bosnia and Herzegovina for combat-related PTSD as well as 77 veterans who did not suffer from PTSD and their wives.Veterans’ PTSD is related to lower levels of marital adjustment of their wives. Marital adjustment was significantly lower in couples where both partners had PTSD compared with couples where only the veteran had PTSD or neither partner had PTSD. Female partner's marital adjustment is best explained by his avoidance symptoms and her own level of depressiveness and re-experiencing symptoms.The results highlight the importance of recognizing PTSD in wives of traumatized veterans as well as the importance of family approach in the treatment of PTSD.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  12. Sexual activity of pregnant Polish women and the assessment of the marital relation quality

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    Karolina Lutkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to present sexual functioning of pregnant women in terms of their assessment of the sexual life and marital relation. The study included 61 pregnant women (31 with high-risk pregnancy and 30 with a normal course of pregnancy, aged on average 28.5 years and pregnant on average for 27.5 weeks. Participants and procedure The study was based on the sociodemographic questionnaire The Female Sexual Function Questionnaire, SFQ28 (designed by Quirk et al., 2005, the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire – Female Version, SQoL-F (designed by Symonds et al., 2005, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, DAS (designed by Cieślak, 1989. Results The obtained results reveal changes in sexual functioning during pregnancy, mostly in terms of desire and excitement. The groups differed significantly in terms of sexual activity. Women with pathological pregnancy obtained lower results on the scales of desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction with sexual relationship. With every subsequent pregnancy week, both groups obtained lower results on the scales of arousal, orgasm and satisfaction with sexual activity. Neither pregnancy nor its length was related to the assessment of satisfaction with marital relation. Conclusions The conducted data analysis indicates that the subjective assessment of sexual life is related to the assessment of marital relation on the scale of emotional expression and relation coherence. No relation of sexual activity and sexual life with the assessment of the quality of marital relation was proved. However, the assessment of sexual life is related significantly to the assessment of the quality of marital relation.

  13. Love and Marital Quality in Romantic Relationships Mediated and Non-Mediated by Internet

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    Karla Rafaela Haack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Love is one of the most desired feelings by human beings. According to the triangular theory of love, it is composed of three elements: intimacy, passion and decision/commitment, which constitutes a dimension related to the quality of love the partners perceive in their relationship. This study aims to compare the three elements of love and marital quality of 86 Internet users (43 in a relationship mediated by the Internet and 43 with a physical relationship. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the intimacy, the decision/commitment and the whole dimension of love, as well as in the marital quality between partners who have a relationship mediated by Internet and the ones in a physical relationship. We can conclude that the Internet is a great tool for people to meet, but that it is important for the relationship to develop in a face-to-face context.

  14. Discordance in couples' reporting of courtship stages: Implications for measurement and marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Tach, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The symbolism of rituals creates a shared understanding of events among group members. In the context of romantic relationships, a shared understanding of relationship status transitions may be associated with greater commitment and higher quality relationships. We argue that couples with differing retrospective accounts of their premarital courtship may not have had clear discussions or rituals marking relationship turning points. We test the association between discordance in couples' reports of premarital courtship stages and marital quality using data from married couples in a national online survey (n=1504). We find that couple discordance is common, particularly among former premarital cohabitors and for the less institutionalized relationship stages of dating and stayovers, and is associated with lower marital quality. Implications for relationship measurement and the meaning of couple discordance are discussed.

  15. How Adult Attachment and Personality Traits are Related to Marital Quality

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    Parisa Nilforooshan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore the role of General Factor of Personality (GFP and adult attachment dimensions in marital quality through relationship attributions and emotional reactions. The sample consisted of 261 couples who were married at least more than one year and had no major stressful events in their lives up to the time of the study. In this study, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R, the Relationship Attribution Measure (RAM, the Geneva Emotion Wheel (GEW, and the Perceived Relationship Quality Components (PRQC were used for collecting the data. Structural equation modeling (SEM was employed to analyze the data. The results suggest that attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance and GFP directly and indirectly, through relationship attributions and emotional reactions, were related to marital quality. In addition, relationship attributions are antecedent to emotional reactions. Based on the findings, an intrapersonal-situational model of marital quality is suggested.

  16. Marital stability and quality in families created by assisted reproduction techniques: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, L; Casey, P; Jadva, V; Golombok, S

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of children are being born with the use of assisted reproduction techniques such as donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy. There have been concerns that the use of these third-party reproduction techniques may have a negative effect on the quality of the relationship between the mother and father. Marital stability and quality was examined in a UK sample of donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy families and families in which children were naturally conceived. Interview and questionnaire assessments of marital stability and quality were collected from mothers and fathers over five time points, when the children in the families were aged 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10. Of those families who participated when children were 10years old, a minority of couples in each family type had divorced/separated and few differences emerged between the different family types in terms of mothers' or fathers' marital quality. Despite concerns, couples in families created by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy were found to be functioning well.

  17. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  18. Marital Satisfaction and Marital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenthall, Gerald

    1977-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is viewed as a function of the comparison between one's marital expectations and one's marital outcome. Marital stability is viewed as a function of the comparison between one's best available marital alternative and one's marital outcome. Hence, marital satisfaction and marital stability can differ. (Author)

  19. Diabetes Risk and Disease Management in Later Life: A National Longitudinal Study of the Role of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon

    2016-11-01

    We assess the association between marital quality and both the risk of developing diabetes and the management of diabetes after its onset in later life. We use data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to estimate regression models with lagged dependent variables. The sample includes 1,228 married respondents, among whom 389 were diabetic. Those with either a reported diagnosis or with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% are identified diabetic. We categorize diabetic respondents into three groups: controlled, undiagnosed, and uncontrolled diabetes. We conduct factor analysis to construct positive and negative marital quality scales. For women, an increase in positive marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2, net of diabetes status at Wave 1; surprisingly, for men, an increase in negative marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to both a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2 and a higher chance of controlling diabetes at Wave 2 after its onset. Our results challenge the traditional assumption that negative marital quality is always detrimental to health and encourage family scholars to distinguish different sources and types of negative marital quality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AND MARITAL QUALITY AMONG WIVES OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE SYNDROME

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    Koustubh R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Alcohol Dependence syndrome (ADS is one of the most common psychiatric disorders that has deleterious consequences not only on the patient with ADS but also hampers social , financial , and legal matters of his family hence could be considered as a disorder of the family. Spouses of patients with ADS , a key member of such dysfunctional family system , are most vulnerable to have significant psychiatric disorders like adjustment disorders , mood disorders , anxiety disorders and psychosocial problems. Hence we have undertaken this study in order to understand and address such issues which is largely neglected in psychiatric research. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the severity of alcohol dependence & its adverse effect on families , the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity and marital quality in spouses of men with ADS and to explore the association between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 spouses of males with ADS according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ‑ IV (DSM IV - TR Criteria were screened for psychiatric morbidity using General Health Questionnaire and the presence of specific psychiatric disorders using Structured Cli nical Interview for DSM - IV AXIS - I & AXIS - II (SCID - I & SCID - II. Severity of alcohol dependence in males and its adverse consequences was assessed using Short Alcohol Dependence Data and Drinkers Inventory of Consequences, respectively. Marital quality was assessed using the marital quality scale. Data obtained was analyzed statistically. RESULTS : High prevalence of Psychiatric morbidity (63.33% among spouses of alcohol dependent men , with majority having Axis I diagnosis of Major Depression (35% , Anxiety and Adjustment Disorder. None of them had personality disorders on SCID II. Psychiatric morbidity , poor marital quality in spouses and high alcohol dependence in their husbands and its adverse consequences were found to be significantly correlated with each

  1. The Relationship Between Quality of Life With Marital Satisfaction in Nurses in Social Security Hospital in Zahedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Maliheh; Sanagouymoharer, Gholamreza; Yaghoubinia, Fariba

    2015-06-25

    Marital satisfaction is one of the most important determinative factors of healthy function in family and can be affected by some factors. This study was conducted aimed to determine the relationship between quality of life and marital satisfaction in nurses in Social Security hospital in Zahedan. In this descriptive and correlational study, the population was the all of the nurses in various wards in Social Security hospital in Zahedan. The sample size was 103 and data collection was done through quality of life questionnaire (War and Sherborn) and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data analysis was done through SPSS15 and using pearsons' correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. The aspects of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health problems, role limitation due to emotional problems had a significant positive correlation and the bodily pain had a significant reverse correlation with aspects of marital satisfaction. The aspects of role limitations due to physical health problems and bodily pain were predictors of marital satisfaction. The results of study demonstrated the importance of pay attention to family issues and marital satisfaction and in this regard, the promotion of all aspects of quality of life is essential.

  2. Video recording to improve the quality of prenatal genetic counselling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelten, E.; Gitsels, J.; Pereboom, M.; Martin, L.; Hutton, E.; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Counselling on prenatal testing has become an increasing part of obstetric care in the Netherlands. The majority of Dutch women (>70%) are counselled by midwives on prenatal testing (Wiegers and Hingstman, 2008). Prenatal screening on congenital abnormalities is not routinely done and pr

  3. Marital quality as a moderator of the effects of poor vision on quality of life among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2011-09-01

    This study assessed the moderating role of marital quality in the effects of subjective and objective vision on functional limitations, social isolation, and depressive symptomatology. Data from 738 married older adults drawn from a probability-based representative sample of elders residing in the United States were used. Assessments included subjective and objective vision, marital quality variables (relationship satisfaction, supportive spouse behaviors, and free time spent with one's spouse), and three aspects of quality of life (functional limitations, social isolation, and depressive symptomatology). Moderated regression analyses found that relationship satisfaction and supportive spouse behaviors moderated the effects of poor self-reported vision on functional limitations and depressive symptoms and the effects of poor visual acuity on functional limitations. As hypothesized, poorer vision was unrelated to functional limitations and depressive symptoms in more satisfying marriages but predicted higher levels of both outcomes in less satisfying marriages. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of supportive spouse behaviors were associated with more functional limitations in respondents who reported poorer subjective and objective vision. A marriage that is highly satisfying can mitigate the adverse effects of poor vision on functional limitations and depressive symptomatology in late life. The moderating role of supportive spouse behaviors in the link between poor vision and quality of life is less intuitive, however. Whereas relationship satisfaction may operate as a traditional buffer in the context of poor vision, supportive spouse behaviors may increase in response to or be ineffective in this context.

  4. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

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    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  5. Impact of Psychological Problems and Marital Adjustment of Iranian Veterans on Their Children's Quality of Life and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness.

  6. Marital Quality in Deaf-Deaf and Deaf-Hearing Marriages

    OpenAIRE

    Mosier, Anthony G.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess similarities and differences in marital adjustment between Deaf-Deaf and Deaf-hearing married couples. In examining marital adjustment, Spanier's Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) was translated from English to American Sign Language (ASL) and administered to 30 Deaf-Deaf and 22 Deaf-hearing couple respondents. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Deaf-Deaf couples tended to have higher marital adj...

  7. Marital conflict and early adolescents' self-evaluation: the role of parenting quality and early adolescents' appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.

  8. Marital relationship quality in early-stage dementia: perspectives from people with dementia and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Whitaker, Christopher J; Martyr, Anthony; Markova, Ivana S; Roth, Ilona; Woods, Robert T; Morris, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Spouse caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) report relatively poor marital relationship quality (RQ), but few studies have obtained the perspective of the PwD, examined discrepancies between spouses, or considered changes in RQ over time. This study explored caregiver and PwD perceptions of RQ, identified associated factors, and examined changes over an 18-month period. Participants were 54 couples where one spouse had early-stage dementia and 54 were control couples. RQ was assessed with the Positive Affect Index. Measures of mood, stress, and quality of life (QoL) were also administered. The clinical couples were followed up after 9 and 18 months. Caregivers gave significantly lower RQ ratings than controls. PwD ratings did not differ significantly from those of caregivers or controls. Dyadic discrepancies were significantly greater in the clinical than in the control group. Caregiver ratings were associated with stress, whereas PwD ratings were associated with depression and QoL. Discrepancies were associated with caregiver stress and with PwD mood, QoL, and age. Caregiver ratings declined significantly over time; PwD ratings did not decline significantly, but showed different trends for men and women. It is important to consider RQ when considering how to support couples where one partner has early-stage dementia.

  9. WHAT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTING QUALITY? EVIDENCE FROM PARENT’S GENDER IN SPILLOVER EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Benedetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (destructive and constructive tactics, childrearing disagreement and parent-child relationships, in order to verify if there are different pathways for fathers and mothers in spillover effects.   Method. 110 parents (children aged 6-12 years completed the Styles of Conflict Scale (marital conflict style, the Parent Problem Checklist (disagreements about childrearing, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (parenting practices, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results. The links between conflict tactics and parenting practices change in function of parent’s gender. Mothers refer more frequent childrearing disagreements and increasing in punishment; furthermore - in line with the spillover hypothesis - attack and violence tactics are associated negatively with positive parenting (involvement and warmth. For fathers compromise, avoidance and attack correlate positively with effective parenting (more involvement, affection and consistency disciplinary. Conclusions. A spillover effect, that is, an extension of marital tensions in the relationship with their children with reduced quality of parenting, seems to manifest only for women. These findings, if confirmed by other studies, would be relevant from an clinical point of view to understand how paternal and maternal parenting mediate the effects of the marital disharmony on children’s adjustment.

  10. [Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-08-01

    To assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care. Cross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02). The indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09), non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51); unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17) and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03). Prenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  11. Influence of Marital Status on the Quality of Life of Chinese Adult Patients with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Li; Gu, Xiang-Min; Hao, Bao-Yun; Wang, Shan; Chen, Ze-Jie; Ding, Cheng-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures and has significant psychological and social consequence for everyday living. Epilepsy affects various aspects of ones’ social life. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of marital status on the quality of life of adult Chinese patients with epilepsy. Methods: This study surveyed 805 Chinese adults who have been clinically diagnosed with epilepsy for longer than 1 year in 11 hospitals in Beijing. In this survey, 532 (66.1%) participants were married. All of them completed the case report form with enquiries on demographic data, social factors, and illness. The marriage status of adult epileptic quality of life was the dependent variable, and demographic data and clinical data were independent variables, analyzed through the multiple linear regression analysis methods. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life in patients with Epilepsy-31 items (QOLIE-31) questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items (GAD-7). Results: The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores in the unmarried group (PHQ-9 = 6.0 and GAD-7 = 5.0) were significantly higher than that of the married group (PHQ-9 = 4.0 and GAD-7 =3.0). The scores of married adult patients with epilepsy on QOLIE (61.8 ± 15.3) and social function (70.9 ± 22.7) were higher than the scores of the unmarried patients aged between 20 and 44 years. The scores of married adult epileptics on the QOLIE (58.4 ± 14.6) and the energy/fatigue (62.1 ± 20.4) were higher than the scores of the unmarried patients (QOLIE = 58.4 ± 14.6 and the energy/fatigue = 62.1 ± 20.4) aged between 45 and 59 years. For the adult epilepsy patients, depression, anxiety, seizures within the last year, disease course, medical expense category, and marriage* age are negatively correlated with the quality of life. Occupation, educational level, and average monthly income are closely

  12. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined four models of ways premarital cohabitation may affect marital quality using interview data from a national probability sample of 2,033 married persons. Found cohabitation was negatively related to marital interaction and positively related to marital disagreement, proneness to divorce, and the probability of divorce in nonminority…

  13. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed.

  14. Physical intimate partner violence during gestation as a risk factor for low quality of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Claudia Leite; Arana, Flávia Dias Nogueira; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate physical intimate partner violence during gestation as an independent risk factor for low quality of prenatal care. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three public maternity wards of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern Brazil). The 528 puerperal women included in the study were selected by simple random sampling from all babies born at term in 2000. Prenatal care information was collected through the pregnant woman's card and face-to-face interviews. The Kotelchuck index was employed to assess the quality of prenatal care. In order to identify violence situations, the Brazilian version of the instrument Revised Conflict Tactics Scales was used. Non-conditional logistic regression was used to assess the effect of exposure, after controlling for confounding variables. Even after adjustment for socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive, and couple's lifestyle variables, physical intimate partner violence during gestation remained associated with low quality of prenatal care. Women exposed to physical violence during gestation had 2.2 times more chance of presenting inadequate prenatal care compared to those without history of physical violence. These findings point to the need of identifying family conflict situations since the beginning of prenatal care in order to address the issue and enable higher adherence to follow-up among victimized pregnant women.

  15. Affiliation and control in marital interaction: interpersonal complementarity is present but is not associated with affect or relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Butner, Jonathan; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Nealey-Moore, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory states that an actor's behavior tends to "pull, elicit, invite, or evoke" responses from interaction partners who are similar in affiliation (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) and opposite in control (i.e., dominance vs. submissiveness). Furthermore, complementary interactions are proposed to evoke less negative affect and promote greater relationship satisfaction. These predictions were examined in two studies of married couples. Results suggest that complementarity in affiliation describes a robust general pattern of marital interaction, but complementarity in control varies across contexts. Consistent with behavioral models of marital interaction, greater levels of affiliation and lower control by partners-not complementarity in affiliation or control-were associated with less anger and anxiety and greater relationship quality. Partners' levels of affiliation and control combined in ways other than complementarity-mostly additively, but sometimes synergistically-to predict negative affect and relationship satisfaction.

  16. Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Cristina Melo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care.METHODCross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02.RESULTSThe indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09, non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51; unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17 and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03.CONCLUSIONPrenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  17. Women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sword Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework. Results The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust. Conclusions While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of

  18. The Relationship between Cohabitation and Marital Quality and Stability: Change across Cohorts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Cohan, Catherine L.; Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital dysfunction a sample spouses in two marriage cohorts: those married between 1964 and 1980 (when cohabitation was less common) and those married between 1981 and 1997 (when cohabitation was more common). Spouses in both cohorts who cohabited prior to marriage reported poorer…

  19. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  20. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  1. Investment in Child Quality over Marital States. Discussion Paper No. 1320-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meta; Flinn, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Policies governing divorce and parenting, such as child support orders and enforcement, child custody regulations, and marital dissolution requirements, can have a large impact on the welfare of parents and children. Recent research has produced evidence on the responses of divorce rates to unilateral divorce laws and child support enforcement. In…

  2. MATERNAL INTERACTION QUALITY MODERATES EFFECTS OF PRENATAL MATERNAL EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS ON GIRLS' INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; De Bruijn, Anouk T C E; Van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Pop, Victor J M; Van Baar, Anneloes L

    2017-09-01

    The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of prenatal feelings of anxiety and depression, or the "low-exposed group" (n = 50), consisting of mothers with normal levels of depressive or anxious symptoms during pregnancy. When the children (49 girls, 47 boys) were 23 to 60 months of age (M = 39.0, SD = 9.6), parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, ), and mother-child interaction quality during a home visit was rated using the Emotional Availability Scales. There were no differences in mother-child interaction quality between the prenatally exposed and low-exposed groups. Girls exposed to high prenatal emotional symptoms showed more internalizing problems, if maternal interaction quality was less optimal. No significant effects were found for boys. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Reassessing the Link between Women’s Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Quality

    OpenAIRE

    James, Spencer L; Beattie, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 2,898 women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979, we employ a novel method to examine two perspectives, social selection and the experience of cohabitation, commonly used to explain the negative relationship outcomes cohabiting women report. Results reveal cohabitation is negatively related to marital happiness and communication and positively related to conflict. As in previous research, selection mechanisms appear to increase the odds of cohabitation while dec...

  4. [Do the quality of prenatal care have an impact on obstetrical outcomes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léticée, N; Vendittelli, F; Ughetto, S; Janky, E

    2013-05-01

    To assess the rate of pregnant women not having accurate prenatal care utilization. The others goals were to assess the impact of an inadequate quantitative or qualitative prenatal care on obstetrical outcomes. Historical cohort study with a prospective data registration. Hospitalised patients at the maternity ward of the University Hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre were eligible if they gave birth after 22 weeks (or≥500g) at home, outside a maternity ward or in another maternity ward. Early postpartum maternal transfers were included but not medical abortions. The principal outcome was preterm birth (before 37 weeks' gestation). Patients without an appointment before 15weeks or without an appointment each month before their delivery represented 27.4% of women (n=2344). We stressed more preterm deliveries outside the maternity ward among the group with an inadequate prenatal care utilization vs. the other group (3,89% vs. 0,88%) (pinadequate quality prenatal care. Our study did not stress a difference concerning perinatal outcomes among women with an inadequate quantitative or qualitative prenatal care utilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of mothers' prenatal and postnatal quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symon Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary broad descriptions of health and well-being are reflected in an increasing appreciation of quality of life issues; in turn this has led to a growing number of tools to measure this. Methods This paper reviews articles cited in MEDLINE, CINAHL and BIDS which have addressed the concept of quality of life in pregnancy and the period following childbirth. Results It describes five groups of articles: those explicitly assessing quality of life in this area; those using broader health assessments as an indicator of quality of life; those articles equating quality of life with certain pregnancy outcomes in identified groups of patients; those studies which identify the possibility of pregnancy as an outcome measure and infer from this that quality of life has been improved; and those articles which are themselves reviews or commentaries of pregnancy and childbirth and which identify quality of life as a feature. Conclusions The term 'quality of life' is used inconsistently in the literature. There are few quality of life tools specifically designed for the maternity care setting. Improved or adversely affected quality of life is frequently inferred from certain clinical conditions.

  6. Drivers of Prenatal Care Quality and Uptake of Supervised Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of supervised delivery services continues to be low due partly to poor quality of antenatal care (ANC). Aim: The .... At the time of conducting the study, average ... equipment and logistics are nominally available, it offers minimal confidence for ...

  7. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  8. The Comparison between Socio-Demographic Characteristic on Quality of Life and Marital Happiness in Sub-Urban and Rural Area in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmi Ismail; Mohammad Hesam Hafezi; Rahim Mohd Nor

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports results of the study on effect of socio-demographic characteristic to Quality of Life (QOL) and marital happiness in Malaysia. The sample was drawn from Selangor state and Klang Valley. The objective of the study is to determine the influence socio-demographic parameters on quality of life and happiness among Malaysian household who live in sub-urban and rural area. Data was collected through interview using a set of questionnaire asking about their perception toward...

  9. Customer Quality during Prenatal Care in Health Care Centers in Tabriz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives :  Customer Quality (CQ refers to customer’s characteristics and is concerned with the knowledge, skills and confidence of health services customers who actively participate with health team in proper decision-making, appropriate activities and changing environment and health related behaviors. The purpose of this study was measuring customer quality of pregnant women during prenatal care. Materials and Methods :  This is a cross- sectional study which was conducted with the participation of 185 pregnant women who received prenatal care from urban health centers in Tabriz city. All participants were selected randomly from 40 health centers. Customer quality was measured based on CQMH-CQ questionnaire.  Questionnaire content validity was reviewed and confirmed by 10 experts and its reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha index (α = 0.714. Spss v.17 was used for data analysis. Results : According to the results, the mean score of customer quality among pregnant women was (11.29± 67.79   and only %14 of the participants reported the highest customer quality score and ability of continuity of care under stressful situations. There was a positive relationship between customer quality score and visiting midwife and a better evaluation of overall quality of care, but there was inverse relationship with early registration at health centers. Conclusion :  The participation of pregnant women in service delivery process and decision-making can promote costumer quality. Furthermore, training health care providers in empowering patients and using their abilities to improve quality of care and paying attention to patient-centered care will be helpful. ​

  10. An evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital, sexual satisfaction indices and health-related quality of life in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Valsangkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. Aims and Objectives : To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. Design and Setting : Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. Materials and Methods : Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale, sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. Results : Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R 2 0.725, Cohen′s D 0.86 and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R 2 0.73, Cohen′s D 0.815. QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. Conclusions : Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility.

  11. Investigating the Mechanism of Marital Mortality Reduction: The Transition to Widowhood and Quality of Health Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei Jin; Nicholas A. Chrisatakis

    2009-01-01

    .... We address whether the transition to widowhood affects the quality of care that individuals receive and explore the extent to which these changes mediate the elevated mortality hazard for the widowed...

  12. TSL Family Therapy Followed by Improved Marital Quality and Reduced Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo; Nam, Seok In

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a form of family therapy developed in Korea. The "Thank you--Sorry--Love" (TSL) model was applied to a group of elderly retired men to improve the quality of their marriage and to reduce their stress. Methods: Thirty married retired Korean men were assigned to three groups.…

  13. TSL Family Therapy Followed by Improved Marital Quality and Reduced Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo; Nam, Seok In

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a form of family therapy developed in Korea. The "Thank you--Sorry--Love" (TSL) model was applied to a group of elderly retired men to improve the quality of their marriage and to reduce their stress. Methods: Thirty married retired Korean men were assigned to three groups. Group 1…

  14. Investigation of Marital Quality of Patients with Maintenance hemodialysis%维持性血液透析患者的婚姻质量调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋根兄; 严丽霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查维持性血液透析患者的婚姻质量,为临床提供更有针对性的护理依据。方法采用Olson婚姻质量量表(ENRICH)对52例维持性血液透析患者婚姻质量进行评定。结果维持性血液透析患者婚姻质量明显降低,在婚姻满意度、夫妻交流、解决冲突的方式、经济安排、性生活、业余活动六项因子评分均显著低于国内常模(P<0.05)。结论维持性血液透析患者婚姻质量明显降低,在护理维持性血液透析患者时要开展有针对性的心理、社会干预,以尽可能地促进其身心康复。%Objective To analyze the quality of marital life in patients with maintenance hemodialysis so as to provide more targeted clinical nursing .Methods 52 patients with maintenance hemodialysis were evaluated with Olson Marital Quality Inven-tory(ENRICH) .Results The marital quality of patients with maintenance hemodialysis was lower compared with normal refer-ences ,and the scores of six factors of ENRICH that concluded the satisfied degree of marriage ,interaction ,solving conflict ,e-conomic arrangement ,sexual life ,spare -time activity were lower than normal references .Conclusion Patients marital life could be influenced after hemodialysis . Psychosocial intervention for both patients and their spouses needs to be implemented in order to maximize the potential for recovery .

  15. Marital therapy: qualities of couples who fare better or worse in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, R B; Prince, C C; Beavers, W R

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of couples therapy and determine the characteristics and qualities of couples who fare best in treatment, 139 couples presenting at a nonlaboratory sliding-fee clinic in Dallas, Texas, were evaluated. Observational and self-report measures of the Beavers Systems Model were taken at the first session and, for some subjects, at termination. Therapists also rated the couples on goal attainment and on dimensions of the therapeutic alliance. Not surprisingly, there was a direct association between number of sessions and goal attainment, with couples attending only one or two sessions having the lowest goal attainment. There were also significant family functioning qualities associated with success: more competent couples fared better in therapy. Another consistent finding was that couples with no children did better in treatment than those who were also parents. It is interesting that remarried couples without children did best in treatment, followed by first-married couples with no children, first-married couples with children, and, finally, remarried couples with children. Implications for screening and clinical work with couples are presented.

  16. Characteristics of Money Management Strategies in Urban China and Its Impact on Women's Marital Quality%城市家庭管钱方式的特点及其对女性婚姻质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会平; 聂晶; 曾洁雯

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of money management strategies on urban Chinese women's marital quality. Methods: 752 urban women and 1088 suburban women in Beijing were selected by purposive sampling method. Results: Joint management was the most common strategy adopted by urban couples, and then wife management and separate management, and the husband management came last And wives with joint management reported highest marital happiness and marital interaction, lowest marital disagreement, marital problem and marital instability. Wives with separate management reported lowest marital happiness and marital interaction, highest marital disagreement, marital problem and marital instability. Wives with wife management and husband management reported moderate marital quality. Conclusion: Money management strategies have impact on wives' marital quality.%目的:探讨城市家庭管钱方式的特点及其对女性婚姻质量的影响.方法:采用目的抽样法对北京市区752位已婚女性和郊区1088位已婚女性进行调查.结果:共同管理是我国城市家庭使用最多的管钱方式,其次为妻子管理和各自管理,丈夫管理的方式则最少被使用.使用共同管理方式的女性报告的婚姻幸福感和夫妻互动程度最高,婚姻冲突、婚姻问题和离婚意向最低.而使用各自管理方式的女性报告的婚姻幸福感和夫妻互动程度最低,婚姻冲突、婚姻问题和离婚意向最高.使用妻子管理和丈夫管理方式的女性在婚姻质量的各个维度上都处于中间状态.结论:家庭管钱方式对女性的婚姻质量有影响.

  17. Marital Conflict and Disruption of Children's Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph, A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Acebo, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Marital conflict was examined as a predictor of the quality and quantity of sleep in a sample of healthy 8 to 9 year-olds. Parents and children reported on marital conflict, the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through an actigraph worn for 7 consecutive nights, and child sleepiness was derived from child and mother reports.…

  18. 父母婚姻质量与幼儿抑郁行为的关系%Correlation between parental marital quality and depressive behavior in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国艳; 陈玮玮; 陈圆圆

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between parental marital quality and depressive behavior in children.Methods Using the method of stratified cluster random sampling,1 311 mothers whose children were 4 to 7 from Shenzhen' s kindergartens were randomnly selected and filled out Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL 4/16) and Chinese Marital Quality Questionnaire.The survey results were analyzed using SPSS statistical package.Results ①In 1 311 children,the detection rate of depressive behavior was 3.28% (43/1 311).Based on the detection rate,the difference of children depressive behavior was not statistically significant between the gender(x2=2.860,P>0.05),but was statistically significant among different ages(x2 =17.146,P<0.01).Increasing depressive behavior was observed with age.②The normal group of behavioral and emotional development was better than the group which had depressive behavior in marital quality(63.65±14.86) and 10 indicators of marital quality including personality magnanimous(6.03± 1.49),communication of couple(6.04± 1.48) and family roles (6.03± 1.48).There were statistical significances in marital quality(t=4.415,P<0.05) and its 10 indicators,which was communication of couple(t=4.891,P< 0.05),conflict resolution (t=4.229,P<0.05) and leisure activities(t=4.084,P<0.05),were showed significant differences between the two groups.③The relationship between parental marital quality and depressive behavior in children were negatively correlated(r=-0.070--0.352).The better marital quality,the lower incidence of children depressive behavior,and the impact of marital quality for younger children was more significant.④In the indicators of the marital quality,communication of couples(B=-0.318,P<0.01),and attitude towards offspring and marriage(B=-0.275,P<0.01) could predict children depressive behavior.Conclusion It is important to improve marital quality and creat harmonious family spiritual enviromnent for reducing the

  19. The effect of the couple's personality similarity on the marital quality%夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽; 郭菲; 陈祉妍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate couple's personality similarity effect on the marital quality,and to explore the vairance of such effect under different levels of spouse's depression. Methods The cross⁃sectional da⁃ta of 4644 couple from the national survey of mental health database in china( 2009) was used. Couples completed Locke ⁃Wallance marital adjustment test,The CES⁃D scale a self⁃report depression scale and Eysenck personality questionnaire short scale for Chinese version (EPQ⁃RSC). Results The personality similarities of couples(0.44 ±0.27) and their marital quality (wife (103.71±27.54),husband (106.15±26.94))had significant positive corre⁃lation ( r=0.25~0.27, P<0.01). Regression analysis showed the effect of personality similarity on the marital quality were varied according to the level of spouse depression( β=0.09⁃0.22, P<0.05) . Among participants whose husband or wife had higher level of depression,couple's personality similarity had stronger effect on his/her per⁃ceived marital quality. Conclusion Husband and wife personality similarity is related to marital quality signifi⁃cantly,and the spouse depression plays a significant moderating role in this relationship.%目的:探讨夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响,以及在配偶不同抑郁水平下,夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响程度的差异。方法采用横断面研究,从2009年中科院心理所全国心理健康数据库中,选取了其中4644对夫妻配对数据进行分析。夫妻分别完成了Locke⁃Wallance婚姻调适量表,艾森克人格问卷简式量表(EPQ⁃RSC)和流调中心抑郁量表的填写。结果夫妻人格相似性(0.44±0.27)与婚姻质量[妻子(103.71±27.54)分,丈夫(106.15±26.94)分]呈显著正相关( r=0.25~0.27, P<0.01)。回归分析显示:配偶抑郁程度不同,夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响差异具有统计学意义(β=0.09

  20. 农村小学骨干教师婚姻质量调查%Marital Quality Survey of Backbone Teachers in Rural Primary Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤华

    2015-01-01

    Use olson questionnaire 253 rural primary school teachers to investigate the quality of marriage, the study found:marital quality teachers in rural primary schools in the"high stability, low quality"level, showing a"3-7-12"law, the perform-ance of the special V-shaped curve development, marriage 4-7 years of marriage lowest quality groups, in line with seven-year itch argument. Compared to the medical staff and teachers, low teacher marital overall quality of rural primary schools, and ex-changes in the couple, conflict resolution, the role of equality indicators on the quality of marriage, male teachers scored signifi-cantly lower than female teachers. Combining Employee Assistance Program and ecosystem psychotherapy theory marital qual-ity change"3-7-12"psychology trends were analyzed, and the initial ideas teacher assistance program.%使用olson问卷对253名农村小学骨干教师婚姻质量进行调查,研究发现:农村小学教师婚姻质量处在"高稳定、低质量"水平,呈现出"3-7-12"规律,表现为特殊V型曲线发展,婚姻4-7年群体婚姻质量最低,符合七年之痒的说法.较之医护人员和高校教师,农村小学教师婚姻总体质量偏低,并且在夫妻交流、冲突解决方式、角色平等性婚姻质量指标上,男性教师得分明显低于女教师.文章结合员工援助计划和生态系统心理治疗理论对婚姻质量变化的"3-7-12"变化趋势进行了心理学分析,并提出了教师援助计划的初步设想.

  1. 女性抑郁症患者的婚姻质量研究%Research on the Marital Quality of Female Patients with Depression.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑杰; 薛伟; 李丽娜; 杨美荣; 程淑英; 吕少博; 王静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the marital quality of female patients with depression .Methods The questionnaire of demo-graphic variables, Locke-Wallace marital adjustment and Self -rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to survey 139 cases of female patients with depression(study group) and 139 cases of healthy women(control group).Results The scores of the marital quality in the study group were significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.000).The scores of marriage quality in major depression group were significantly lower than that in mild and moderate depression group (P=0.000).The scores of marital quality was negatively corre-lated with SDS scores ( P<0.01) .There were significant differences in marital quality among ages , education backgrounds , marriageable ages, physiological periods(menstrual period, pregnant or puerperal period, menopause), monthly incomes,first-episode depression /relapse (P<0.01) .The scores of marital quality were positively correlated with education backgrounds ,physiological periods, monthly incomes, first-episode depression /relapse(P<0.01), and negatively correlated with marriageable ages (P<0.05).④Hierarchical re-gression analysis indicated that depression levels can be used to predict the marriage quality of the female patients with depression after controlling the variables of education backgrounds , marriageable ages , physiological periods , monthly incomes , first-episode depression/relapse(P<0.01).Conclusion Overall, the marital quality of female patients with depression is poor .Specifically, the marriage quality of major depression is obviously poorer than that of mild and moderate depression .The higher the depression scores , the poorer their mar-riage quality becomes;the marriage quality is poor in the female patients with depression who are less educated , low incomes, in physio-logical period , suffering first-episode depression , or have 21-30 years of marriage .After controlling the variables of

  2. Assessing Health-Related Quality-of-Life in Prenatal Diagnosis Comparing Chorionic Villi Sampling and Amniocentesis: A Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    David Feeny; Marie Townsend; William Furlong; Darrell Tomkins; Gail Robinson; George Torrance; Patrick Mohide; Qinan Wang

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) effects of chorionic villi sampling (CVS) and genetic amniocentesis (GA) prenatal diagnosis, including factors related to both the processes and the outcomes. Study Design. The HRQL of one hundred twenty six women participating in a randomized controlled clinical trial of CVS versus GA in Toronto and Hamilton, Ontario was assessed in four interviews at weeks 8, 13, 18, and 22 of pregnancy. Statistical analyses included analysis o...

  3. Correlation of self-efficacy and marital quality for vaginal surgical patients%经阴道手术患者术后自我效能与婚姻质量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞芳娣; 尤慧娣; 孙迎芳; 朱水英

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析经阴道手术患者术后自我效能与婚姻质量的相关性.方法采用自我效能测量表及婚姻质量问卷,对126例经阴道手术患者分别于出院后12周、24周、36周及48周进行自我效能与婚姻质量测评,数据采用Pearson相关分析.结果 患者出院后不同时间的自我效能水平及婚姻质量评分比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),患者的自我效能与婚姻质量存在相关性.结论 患者的自我效能可以影响其婚姻质量.%Objective To study the correlation of self - efficacy and marital quality for vaginal surgical patients . Method Assess the self-efficacy and marital quality of 126 vaginal surgical patients in the 12nd, 24th, 36th and 48th week after discharge by self-efficacy inventory and marital quality inventory. Analyze the data by Pearson's correlation analysis. Result There is significant difference on comparison of scores of self-efficacy and marital quality on different time after discharge (P<0. 05). Patients' self-efficacy is correlated to marital quality. Conclusion Patients' self-efficacy can influence their marital quality.

  4. Adjustment to Acute Leukemia: The Impact of Social Support and Marital Satisfaction on Distress and Quality of Life Among Newly Diagnosed Patients and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Megan E; Johnson, Teresa M; Kuszczak, Sarah; Attwood, Kristopher M; Zevon, Michael A; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Thompson, James; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the specific patterns of adjustment among newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients and their caregivers. This study examined the trajectories of patient and caregiver distress over time as well as the extent to which marital satisfaction and social support moderated these trajectories among those with significant-other caregivers. Forty six patient-caregiver dyads provided ratings at four time points: within 1 week of diagnosis (T1), 2 week follow-up (T2), 6 week follow-up (T3) and 12 week follow-up (T4). As anticipated, patients and caregivers reported higher levels of distress around the time of diagnosis than they did during subsequent time points. Marital satisfaction was a significant predictor of distress among patients, whereas among caregivers, social support predicted distress and quality of life. Results support the inclusion of relational variables such as social support and relationship satisfaction in the assessment of newly diagnosed patients and families in order to best identify those at risk for distress over time.

  5. Prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal en Salvador, Bahia Indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal em Salvador - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilda Rosendo do Nascimento

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal care quality indexes of public health services in Salvador, Bahia following the implementation of the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program (PBHB. METHODS: This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in primary care units in Salvador that adopted the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program. RESULTS: Few pregnant women registered in the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program had the benchmark of six prenatal consultations (9.76%. More than half of these registered pregnant women received all basic exams. However, only few women received puerperal consultations (5.66%, which conclude their maternal care. CONCLUSION: Prenatal care in Salvador, carried out through the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program in 2002, had a low performance in basic exams, and in prenatal and puerperal consultations.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores de calidad de la asistencia prenatal prestada por servicios públicos de salud de Salvador/Bahia, después de la implantación del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. MÉTODOS: Estudio cuantitativo realizado en las unidades básicas de salud de Salvador que se adhirieron al Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento. RESULTADOS: Bajo porcentaje de gestantes inscritas en el Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento realizaron seis consultas de prenatal (9,76%; más de la mitad de esas mujeres realizaron todos los exámenes básicos y hubo bajo porcentaje de las que se presentaron a la consulta de puerperio (5,66%. Además, apenas el 5,66% concluyeron la asistencia prenatal. CONCLUSIÓN: La asistencia prenatal en Salvador, prestada a través del Programa de Humanización en el Prenatal y Nacimiento en el año 2002, se caracteriza por la baja cobertura realizada por las unidades de salud tanto de consultas prenatales como de exámenes básicos y consulta puerperal.OBJETIVO: Analisar indicadores de qualidade da assistência pré-natal prestada por

  6. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  7. Health-related quality of life of Canadian children and youth prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungar Wendy J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD has been estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. Caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, FASD is the leading cause of neuro-developmental disabilities among Canadian children, and youth. Objective: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQL of Canadian children and youth diagnosed with FASD. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study design was used. One-hundred and twenty-six (126 children and youth diagnosed with FASD, aged 8 to 21 years, living in urban and rural communities throughout Canada participated in the study. Participants completed the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3. HUI3 measures eight health attributes: vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition, and pain. Utilities were used to measure a single cardinal value between 0 and 1.0 (0 = all-worst health state; 1 = perfect health to reflect the global HRQL for that child. Mean HRQL scores and range of scores of children and youth with FASD were calculated. A one-sample t-test was used to compare mean HRQL scores of children and youth with FASD to those from the Canadian population. Results Mean HRQL score of children and youth with FASD was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.52 as compared to a mean score of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.94 in those from the general Canadian population (p Conclusion Children and youth with FASD have significantly lower HRQL than children and youth from the general Canadian population. This finding has significant implications for practice, policy development, and research.

  8. Effectiveness of Quality of Life Therapy Aimed at Improving Sexual Self-Efficacy and Marital Satisfaction in Addict Couples of Treatment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooripour, Roghieh; Bass, Christopher K.; Apsche, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Those who are addicted to substances face increased psychological emotional, social and economic problems which can potentially have negative impacts on marital satisfaction and sexual self-esteem and efficacy. Routine activities are often displaced by the need to satisfy the physiological urges. Within a marital union, this along with other…

  9. Later first marriage and marital success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D; Uecker, Jeremy E; Love, Robert W B

    2010-09-01

    The research reported here used measures of marital success based on both marital survival and marital quality to assess how well first marriages entered at relatively late ages fare in comparison with those entered younger. Analysis of data from five American data sets indicated that the later marriages fare very well in survival but rather poorly in quality. The greatest indicated likelihood of being in an intact marriage of the highest quality is among those who married at ages 22-25, net of the estimated effects of time since first marriage and several variables that might commonly affect age at marriage and marital outcomes. The negative relationship beyond the early to mid-twenties between age at marriage and marital success is likely to be at least partially spurious, and thus it would be premature to conclude that the optimal time for first marriage for most persons is ages 22-25. However, the findings do suggest that most persons have little or nothing to gain in the way of marital success by deliberately postponing marriage beyond the mid-twenties.

  10. Factors associated to the notification of congenital syphilis: an indicator of quality of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze factors associated to the notification of congenital syphilis. Methods: a cross-sectional documentary, quantitative study, made through the National System of Notifiable Diseases. The study consisted of 113 notified cases. A data collection form was used and Chi-square and Fisher tests were made. Results: women had prenatal exams (80.2%, serologic testing before six months of pregnancy (46.7% and after (53.3%. There was an association for the variables race (p = 0.005 and serological test (p = 0.044. The treatment of the pregnant woman was inadequate (64.5% and the partner was not treated (85.7%. Conclusion: it was found that the number of cases is growing, increasing the possibility of children with severe sequelae. So improvements in prenatal care are still needed.

  11. The Status of Quality Control Investigation and Analysis for Maternal Serum Marker of Prenatal Screening Laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Falin; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    This national survey was initiated to investigate the current status of quality control practice of prenatal screening by statistical analysis of the previous half year data of prenatal screening in 2015. Data were sent to all Chinese prenatal screening centers via the National Quality Assessment Scheme. This covered the software used, the risk cutoffs, monthly sample throughput, monthly median MoM of AFP, HCG, β-HCG, free β-HCG and uE3, monthly screening positive rates for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and Open Neural Tube Defect (ONTD). Screening protocols were versatile, 73.5% (133/181) used the two-marker model, 24.3% (44/181) used the three-marker model, and 2.2% used the four-marker model. Regarding the software used, 350 laboratories never updated the screening parameters, 89 laboratories had updated their median or parameter by manufacturers, and 24 laboratories had updated the parameters by themselves. Cutoffs differ between laboratories. 59.9% (275/459) use 1/270 as their cutoffs for trisomy 21. 66.2% (296/447) use 1/350 as their cutoff for trisomy 18. 96.5% (361/374) use cutoffs between 2.0 - 2.5 MoM for ONTD. Regarding the results of the monthly median MoM, the percentage of laboratories for which all six monthly median MoMs were within the target of 0.90 - 1.10 was 46.7% (155/332) for AFP, 20.0% (4/20) for hCG, 29.2% (28/96) for β-HCG, 15.7% (31/198) for free β-HCG, and 4.8% (11/228) for uE3. The percentage of laboratories for which all six monthly median MoMs were within the target of 0.95 - 1.05 was 14.2% (47/332) for AFP, 0% (0/20) for HCG, 4.3% (4/96) for β-HCG, 12.6% (31/198) for free β-HCG, and 4.8% (11/228) for uE3. Regarding the screening positive rate, there was a difference in the trisomy 21 positive rate in the same laboratory within the six month. There were variations in the types of screening protocols, different kinds of soft platforms, randomness of choice or update of medians or other important parameters, and great difference in the

  12. 应对方式在夫妻人格与婚姻质量关系间的中介效应%Mediating effect of coping style between marital quality and personality in spouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾黎斋; 王宇中; 赵江涛; 王中杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨夫妻婚姻质量与人格、应对方式之间的关系.方法 采用婚姻主观感受量表(MPS)、艾森克人格问卷简式量表(EPQ-RSC)和简易应对方式问卷(SCSQ)对923名已婚者进行调查.结果 婚姻质量与精神质、神经质呈负相关(r=-0.24,-0.31,均P<0.01),与内外向和测谎呈正相关(r=0.24,0.14,均P<0.01),婚姻质量与积极应对呈正相关(r=0.33,P<0.01).应对方式在人格和婚姻质量关系间存在部分中介效应,中介效应占总效应的8.8%.结论 应对方式是人格与婚姻质量关系间的中介变量.%Objective To examine the relationship of marital quality,personalities,coping style in spouses.Methods Total 923 spouses were assessed with the marriage perception scale (MPS),Eysenck personality questionaire(EPQ) and simplified coping style questionnaire(SCSQ).Results The results revealed that psychoticism and neuroticism were both negatively correlated with marital quality(r=-0.24,-0.31,P< 0.01),but intraversion/extraversion and lie were both positively correlated with marital quality (r =0.24,0.14,P < 0.01).And coping style was positively correlated with marital quality(r=0.33,P< 0.01).Significant partial mediation of coping style on the association between personality and marital quality were revealed,and the mediating effect was accounted for 8.8% of the total effect.Conclusion Coping style is the mediator between personalities and marital quality.

  13. Marital instability after midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Penning, M J

    1997-09-01

    "Divorce in later life has been shown to produce dramatic declines in the economic, psychological, and physical well-being of marital partners. This study examines the prevalence and determinants of marital disruption after midlife using Becker's theory of marital instability. Using recent Canadian national data, the marital outcomes of women and men who were married as of age 40 are tracked across the remaining years of the marriage. Cox proportional hazard regression models indicate stabilizing effects of the duration of the marriage, the age at first marriage, the presence of young children, as well as of remarriage for middle-aged and older persons. Other significant risk factors include education, heterogamous marital status, premarital cohabitation, number of siblings, and region."

  14. Marital transitions. A child's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E M; Stanley-Hagan, M; Anderson, E R

    1989-02-01

    Despite a recent leveling off of the divorce rate, almost half of the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and most of these children will also experience the remarriage of their parents. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents marital transitions are diverse. Whereas some exhibit remarkable resiliency and in the long term may actually be enhanced by coping with these transitions, others suffer sustained developmental delays or disruptions. Others appear to adapt well in the early stages of family reorganizations but show delayed effects that emerge at a later time, especially in adolescence. The long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se. In recent years, researchers have begun to move away from the view that single-parent and remarried families are atypical or pathogenic families and are focusing on the diversity of children's responses and to the factors that facilitate or disrupt the development and adjustment of children experiencing their parents' marital transitions.

  15. Marital stability among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K D; Rosow, I

    1972-03-01

    Analysis of 57,514 initial complaints for divorce, separate maintenance, and annulment filed in California during the first six months of 1968 reveals that physicians are considerably less prone to marital failure than men of comparable age in the general population. Furthermore, when compared to professionals in general, doctors also appear less prone to marital collapse. For physicians, marriages break down in the greatest numbers and at the greatest rate between the ages of 35 and 44. Women doctors are at least 40% more prone to marital instability than men, and black physicians are nearly 70% more prone to divorce than their white colleagues. Of the individual specialists, orthopedists and psychiatrists possibly have the highest rates of marital demise.

  16. Tri voprossa / Marit Valge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valge, Marit

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Vabatahtlik Teenistus on võimalus noorele kogeda vabatahtlikuna töötamist mõnes Euroopa riigis. Küsimustele vastab organisatsiooni Euroopa Noored Eesti büroo avalike suhete koordinaator Marit Valge

  17. Tri voprossa / Marit Valge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valge, Marit

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Vabatahtlik Teenistus on võimalus noorele kogeda vabatahtlikuna töötamist mõnes Euroopa riigis. Küsimustele vastab organisatsiooni Euroopa Noored Eesti büroo avalike suhete koordinaator Marit Valge

  18. Marital Dissolution in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Raymo; Bumpass, Larry L.; Miho Iwasawa

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marria...

  19. 夫妻对沟通模式感知差异与双方婚姻质量的关系%Consistency of Perceived Communication Patterns by Couples and Their Marital Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦涛; 方晓义

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨夫妻对沟通模式的感知差异及其与双方婚姻质量的关系.方法:采用问卷法共收集421对夫妻感知到的沟通模式及婚姻质量的数据.结果:①根据夫妻双方对婚姻沟通模式的感知将夫妻匹配成四个类型,其中夫妻积极一致型占26.1%;夫妻消极一致型占44.6%;夫积极-妻消极型占14.7%;夫消极-妻积极型占13.6%.②夫妻双方的婚姻质量在四类不同的沟通模式匹配类型上存在显著差异,均表现为夫妻积极一致型和自身积极配偶消极型显著高于自身消极配偶积极型,而后者显著高于夫妻消极一致型.结论:夫妻对沟通模式的感知一致性及沟通模式是否为积极型均与夫妻双方的婚姻质量有关.%Objective: To explore the relationship between perceived consistencies of perceived communication patterns by couple and their marital quality. Methods: 421 couples were asked to report their perceived communication pattern and marital quality. Results: ①There were four different couple subtypes based on perceived consistencies of their communication pattern, i.e. consistently perceived positive communication pattern, consistently perceived negative communication pattern; husband perceived positive while wife perceived negative communication pattern, and husband perceived negative while husband perceived positive communication pattern. The proportions of the four subtypes were 26.1%,44.6%, 14.7%, and 13.6% respectively. ②There was significantly difference of marital quality among the four communication subtypes. Specifically, the individual marital quality of consistently positive type and him/herself positive while the partner negative type were significantly higher than the type which him/herself was negative while the partner was positive;the latter was significantly higher than that of consistently negative type. Conclusion: Both whether the couples perceived their communication pattern consistently or

  20. The Recent Trend in Marital Success in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on measures of marital success based both on rates of divorce and separation and on the quality of intact marriages constructed from U.S. national survey data gathered over the 15-year period from 1973 to 1988. Concludes that the probability of ever-married persons attaining and maintaining marital success dropped in the past few years.…

  1. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  2. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between Sexual Function and Marital Relationship in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Patients  with  ischemic  heart  disease  (IHD  may  report  difficulties with  sexual  function  and  marital relationship. However, there is a dearth of studies focusing on the association between these aspects in IHD patients. The present study sought to assess the association between sexual function and marital relationship among IHD patients and also test the effect modification of gender, education level, and marital distress on the above association.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 551 patients with IHD were enrolled and their sexual function and marital relationship quality were assessed with the Relation and Sexuality Scale (RSS and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS, respectively. Association between marital relationship quality and sexual function was assessed with respect to gender, education level, and marital distress.Results: Most participants (72% were men at a mean age of 57 ± 11 (range = 36-80 years. Total sexual function was significantly correlated with total marital quality (r = -0.28, marital consensus (r = -0.17, marital coherence (r = -0.19, marital affection expression (r = -0.22, and marital satisfaction (r = -0.25. Total marital quality also showed a significant association with sexual fear (r = -0.11. These associations were moderated by gender, education level, and marital distress level.Conclusion: Among the IHD patients, sexual function and marital relationship quality showed a mild to moderate association. Association between sexual function and marital relationship quality, however, may depend on gender, education level, and marital distress level.

  4. Partners’ Long-term Appraisal of Their Caregiving Experience, Marital Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction, and Quality of Life 2 Years After Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet K.; Sanda, Martin G.; Wei, John T.; Yarandi, Hossein; Hembroff, Larry; Hardy, Jill; Northouse, Laurel L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Partners of men treated for prostate cancer report more emotional distress associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer than the men report; the duration of distress for partners is seldom examined. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of prostate cancer treatment on partners’ appraisal of their caregiving experience, marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL) and factors related to these variables. Methods This exploratory study evaluated QOL among spouses of prostate cancer survivors at 24 months after treatment. Partners completed a battery of self-report questionnaires in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Results The sample consisted of 121 partners with average age of 60 years. There was a significant relationship between partners’ perceptions of bother about the man’s treatment outcomes and negative appraisal of their caregiving experience and poorer QOL. Younger partners who had a more negative appraisal of caregiving also had significantly worse QOL. Conclusions Men’s treatment outcomes continued to bother the partner and resulted in more negative appraisal and lower QOL 2 years after initial prostate cancer treatment. Younger partners may be at greater risk of poorer QOL outcomes especially if they have a more negative view of their caregiving experience. Implications for Practice Findings support prior research indicating that prostate cancer affects not only the person diagnosed with the disease but also his partner. Partners may benefit from tailored interventions designed to decrease negative appraisal and improve symptom management and QOL during the survivorship period. PMID:22728952

  5. Trajectories of Marital Conflict Across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions With Marital Happiness Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M; Taylor, Miles G

    2012-03-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or low conflict. Several factors predicted conflict trajectory group membership; respondents who believed in lifelong marriage and shared decisions equally with their spouse were more likely to report low and less likely to report high conflict. The conflict trajectories were intersected with marital happiness trajectories to examine predictors of high and low quality marriages. A stronger belief in lifelong marriage, shared decision making, and husbands sharing a greater proportion of housework were associated with an increased likelihood of membership in a high happiness, low conflict marriage, and a decreased likelihood of a low marital happiness group.

  6. Narcissism and newlywed marriage: Partner characteristics and marital trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Karney, Benjamin R

    2016-04-01

    Despite narcissism's relation with interpersonal dysfunction, surprisingly little empirical research has been devoted to understanding narcissism's effect on intimate relationships in general or marital relationships in particular. The current study addressed this gap using longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage. First, we examined partner characteristics associated with higher levels of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Second, we examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning (the intercept) and changes in relationship functioning (the slope). Results indicated a small degree of homophily but otherwise no clear pattern of partner characteristics for individuals higher in narcissism. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems. Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives. These findings are notable in indicating that the effects of personality characteristics on marital functioning may take some time to manifest themselves, even if they were present from early in the marriage. Future research into the mediating psychological and interpersonal processes that link wives' narcissism with poorer marital functioning over time would be valuable.

  7. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Marital stability and infertility-related stress. RESULT(S): The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants...... separated and repartnered while pursuing fertility treatments. Marital stability significantly predicted the initial status of infertility stress and infertility stress growth levels. Specifically, patients who repartnered had higher infertility stress levels at all time points compared with those who...... a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital...

  8. Relating Process to Outcome in Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan M.; Greenberg, L. S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed process of change in "best" sessions of Emotionally Focused Marital Therapy (EFT). Rated client performance in therapy on depth of experiencing and quality of interpersonal interactions. Noted occurrences of particular change events arising from theoretical principles of EFT. Confirmed that higher levels of experiencing and more…

  9. Study in factors influencing marital quality of night- shift nurses in general hospitals%综合医院夜班护士婚姻质量的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓雯; 袁欣; 谷金君

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of night- shift work on marital quality, and analyze the relations between the marital quality and related factors in order to explore the method to tackle the marital crisis of night- shift nurses. Methods 500 nurses were selected in general hospitals of Liaoeheng above county-level, each tested nurse filled out marital quality inventory, general well-being scale,social support scale and Eysenck personality questionnaire(EPQ), and withdrew 416 copies(effective rate 90.83%) of ef-fective questionnaire after filling independently. Results (1)There were significant difference in the var-ious scores of marital quality between the nurses and the norm. (2) The marital quality was correlated with general well-being, social support and psychoticism, neuroticism and lying degree of EPQ.(3) Multivariable linear regression which took marital quality as dependent variable ,the variables which entered the equation were age of marriage, social support, psychoticism,subjective well- being,lying degree and objective support. Conclusions (1) The marital quality of night-shift nurses was low. (2)Marital quality was positively cor-relat-ed with subjective well-being, social support and lying degree, negatively correlated with neuroticism and psychoticism. (3) Marital quality were influenced by time of marriage, social support, psycholepsy, sub-jec-tive well-being, lying degree and objective support, among which social support has a great influence.%目的 探讨护士倒夜班对婚姻质量的影响,分析婚姻质量与相关因素之间的关系,为寻求解决倒夜班护士婚姻危机的方法提供科学依据.方法 采用调查问卷的方法,以聊城市县级以上综合医院从事临床一线的护理人员为研究对象,采用整群抽样的方法,发放问卷500份,回收458份,回收率91.6%,其中有效问卷416份,有效率90.83%.调查工具采用婚姻质量问卷、总体幸福感量表、社会支

  10. Children and Marital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland

    1977-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between early childbearing and marital instability. Women with large families and those with no children were the most likely to experience disruption. The lowest dissolution rates were found for those with moderate numbers of children. (Author)

  11. Drivers of Prenatal Care Quality and Uptake of Supervised Delivery Services in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Atinga, RA; Baku, AA; Adongo, PB

    2014-01-01

    Background: In spite of the introduction of free maternal healthcare in Ghana, utilization of supervised delivery services continues to be low due partly to poor quality of antenatal care (ANC). Aim: The study sought to identify the determinants of perceived quality of ANC and uptake of skilled delivery services. Subjects and Methods: A total of 363 expectant mothers were randomly selected in urban health facilities for interview. Logistic regression models were computed to examine the relati...

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  13. Effect of self-efficacy mediating with self-esteem on marital quality of nurses%自尊在自我效能感与护士婚姻质量关系中的中介效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛艳; 张雪; 许乃芹; 周希环; 陈建伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of self-efficacy mediating with self-esteem on marital quality of nurses.Methods Totals of 320 nurses were investigated with Self-Esteem Scale (SES),Olson marital quality questionnaire (ENRICH),and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES).Results Out 320 questionnaires,recycling effective questionnaire 281,questionnaire effective rate was 87.8%.Among nurses,there was a significant negative correlation was found between self-esteem,marital quality and self-efficacy.Three-step regression results showed that self-efficacy can effectively predicted the satisfaction of marital (t =-3.302,P <0.01) and self-esteem (t =-5.012,P <0.01).Marital satisfaction could be predicted by self-effiicacy and self-esteem,while the self-esteem predicted effect was significantly (t =4.551,P < 0.01),the predicted effect of self-efficacy was not significant (t =-1.964,P > 0.05).Conclusions The nurse' s self-efficacy,marital quality,self-esteem have significant positive correlation,in the prediction of martial satisfaction,the self-esteem reaches fully mediated.%目的 探讨自我效能感以自尊为中介对护士婚姻质量的影响.方法 采用自尊量表(SES)、婚姻质量问卷(ENRICH)、一般自我效能感量表(GSES)对320名在职护士进行问卷调查.结果 共发放问卷320份,回收有效问卷281份,问卷有效率为87.8%.在职护士中,其自尊水平、婚姻质量与自我效能感之间存在显著的负相关.采用三步回归对自尊的中介效应进行检验,发现自我效能感对婚姻满意度的预测效应显著(t=-3.302,P<0.01),自我效能感对自尊的预测效应显著(t=-5.012,P<0.01),自我效能感、自尊同时对婚姻满意度预测时,自尊的预测效应显著(t=4.551,P<0.01),但自我效能感的预测效应并不显著(t=-1.964,P>0.05).结论 护士的自我效能感、婚姻质量、自尊之间存在两两相关;自我效能感对婚姻满意度的预测中,自尊的中介效应显著.

  14. Analysis of Quality of Nuchal Translucency Measurements: Its Role in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Comas Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quantitative analysis of the quality of nuchal translucency (NT measurements. Methods. First-trimester combined screening for Down syndrome was performed to all pregnant women attended in our Department from October 2003 to November 2009. NT was measured according to the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF criteria by 20 trained obstetricians. The performance of NT measurements was retrospectively analyzed with regard to several quality control standards. Accuracy according to experience, professional profile, crown rump length (CRL values, and FMF certification was statistically tested. Results. A total of 14978 NT measurements were assessed. (1 The mean operator-specific median NT-MoM values was 0,98. (2 Mean percentage of cases >95th and <5th centiles were 5,0% and 4,2%, respectively. (3 Logarithmic mean and SD of the NT MoM values were 0,00 and 0,13, respectively. (4 The DR for trisomy 21 at screening time was 90,7% for a FPR of 6,7% for standard screening strategy. (5 According to Cumulative SUM (CUSUM figures, the performance was more acceptable in FMF-certified operators. Conclusion. Overall, quality standards show optimal NT measurements in our unit. Operator experience, a dedicated profile to fetal medicine, CRL over 60 mm, and FMF certification have a significant positive impact on the quality standards.

  15. Exploratory Analysis of the Links Among Food Consumption Profiles, Prenatal Androgens, and Selected Measures of Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal sex steroids play a vital role in the development of the whole organism, and therefore also the brain. Exposure of the fetus to testosterone seems to be of special importance both for typical development and pathology. The key factor impacting offspring development (including prenatal androgen levels appears to be diet, both in terms of shortage and excessive intake of certain food products. Prenatal steroid levels are measured using the ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D. So far the digit ratio (2D:4D has been shown to correlate negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estrogen. Numerous correlational studies found relationships between the 2D:4D phenotype and differences in magnitude of many psychological traits. Certain social and demographic variables also correlate with the digit ratio. The present paper offers a preliminary analysis of correlations between diet, prenatal hormones' levels (established based on the digit ratio and selected social variables. One of the findings is that countries with high meat consumption present the so-called masculine digit ratio, while countries with plant-based diets – a feminine digit ratio.

  16. The Effect of Prenatal Education on Mother’s Quality of Life during First Year P ostpartum among Iranian Women:A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosrat Bahrami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal educations provide information regarding pregnancy, birth, infantcare and early parenthood. The purpose of this study was to determine effect ofprenatal education on mother’s quality of life during first year after childbirth amongIranian women.Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized control trial study was performedon 160 first-time pregnant women; with a singleton fetus; aged 18 to 35;without history of medical, psychological, and infertility diseases; as well as withat least eight prenatal visits during pregnancy. Participants were invited into twogroups of intervention (n=80 and control (n=80. The antenatal education classeswere consisted of eight sessions, and then, mother’s quality of life was evaluatedduring first year after childbirth. Data was analyzed using t test, chi-square, andMann-Withney.Results: The interventional group demonstrated higher scores of quality of life domainsthan the control group (p<0.05. The interventional group (at one year postpartum demonstratedsignificantly higher scores for quality of life in the physical health, psychologicalhealth, and environmental health domains compared to the control group. In addition,the interventional group showed a significant increase in the mean scores for the domainsof physical, psychological, and environmental health from 6-8 weeks to 1 year postpartum.Conclusion: The study showed that women receiving prenatal education had higherlevel of happiness and satisfaction in their overall quality of life and health, respectively(Registration Number: IRCT201101115571N2.

  17. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  18. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle Emc; Baarveld, Frank; van der Schans, Cees P; Schellevis, François G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Search of publications in EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed (1992-2010). Studies that attempted to study determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the studies. Only high-quality studies were included. Data on inadequate use (i.e. late initiation, low-use, inadequate use or non-use) were categorized as individual, contextual and health behaviour-related determinants. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. Ultimately eight high-quality studies were included. Low maternal age, low educational level, non-marital status, ethnic minority, planned pattern of prenatal care, hospital type, unplanned place of delivery, uninsured status, high parity, no previous premature birth and late recognition of pregnancy were identified as individual determinants of inadequate use. Contextual determinants included living in distressed neighbourhoods. Living in neighbourhoods with higher rates of unemployment, single parent families, medium-average family incomes, low-educated residents, and women reporting Canadian Aboriginal status were associated with inadequate use or entering care after 6 months. Regarding health behaviour, inadequate use was more likely among women who smoked during pregnancy. Evidence for determinants of prenatal care utilization is limited. More studies are needed to ensure adequate prenatal care for pregnant women at risk.

  19. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care in Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, I; Hidalgo, L; Chedraui, P; Palma, J; Eugenio, J

    2005-02-01

    Although inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, reports on the factors associated with poor prenatal care in developing Latin American countries are scarce. To determine factors associated with inadequate prenatal care among women from low socioeconomic circumstances. Women delivered after a pregnancy duration of more than 20 weeks at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador, were surveyed. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and reasons for having inadequate prenatal care. Adequacy of prenatal care was measured with the Kessner index and correlated to the sociodemographic data. During the study period, 1016 pregnant women were surveyed. Among them, there were adolescents (23.7%), primigravidas (30.8%), and women with a high-risk pregnancy (29.3%). According to the Kessner index, prenatal care was considered adequate or inadequate in 24.5% and 75.5% of cases, respectively. Knowledge regarding the importance of adequate prenatal care and the effects of poor prenatal care was lower among women who had received inadequate prenatal care. The women that were considered to have had adequate prenatal care had at least one visit, and they were more often cared for by a specialist than women who considered having inadequate prenatal care. The three most important reasons associated to inadequate prenatal care in this series (n=767), were economic difficulties having to care for a small child, and transportation difficulties. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with undesired pregnancies who resided in rural areas and were para 5 or higher had an increased risk of inadequate prenatal care. On the other hand, an adverse outcome to a prior pregnancy (abortion, intrauterine fetal demise, or ectopic pregnancy) decreased this risk. Marital status and educational level were confounding factors. Although prenatal care at our institution is free, adequacy was thought to be low

  20. [Reliability and validity of marital love scale in middle- aged and elderly couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2012-08-01

    A marital love scale was created to study the marital quality of middle-aged and elderly couples, and the scale's reliability and validity were examined. In this study, 888 middle-aged and elderly married participants completed the marital love scale questionnaire as well as answering questions regarding marriage satisfaction and husband-wife communication. In all age groups, men scored higher than women on the marital love scale. The marital love score gradually increased from the middle-aged to the senior period, and like the marriage satisfaction score, the marital love score showed a U-shaped curve in the whole married life. The results also showed that the scale was highly correlated with marriage satisfaction and spousal self-disclosure. Thus, the validity and internal consistency of the marital love scale were confirmed.

  1. Marital Discord and Marital Separation: A County Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Gay C.

    1985-01-01

    Explored the frequency of marital separations of 48 hours or more due to marital discord in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, residents (N=1,101). Results indicated one in six couples is likely to separate at some point in their relationship. Income and children account for much of the variation between race, sex, and separations. (Author/BL)

  2. effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    The sample consisted of 52 married women (academic and ... counsellors to teach women skills that will enhance positive marital attitudes, adoption of marital ... person‟s attitude could be as a result of the influence or impact made through a ... the instrument was established by a panel of four experts in Psychology,.

  3. Marital Status, Happiness, and Anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John

    1981-01-01

    Survey data indicates that neither marital status nor marital happiness is related to anomia. Suggests a moderately strong negative relationship exists between education and anomia with a weak negative relationship between overall life satisfaction and anomia. Results indicate socioeconomic status remains the primary determinant of anomia for most…

  4. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  5. Epidemiological profile of pregnant women and prenatal care quality in a healthcare center in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Teixeira Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the profile and assess the quality of care received by pregnant women, who gave birth in 2008, attending the Panorama healthcare centre (HC in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state (RS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using pre-codified questionnaires applied at households and HCs investigating the mothers’ demographic reproductive characteristics and the healthcare received during antenatal period and delivery. Analysis consisted of frequency distribution of variables and their mean, median and standard deviations. Results: Amongst the 238 women interviewed, 20% were teenagers, 38% had at least nine years of schooling, three quarters were living with a partner and 40% had a paid job during gestational period; a quarter had family income of a minimum wage (average of US$ 350/month. Regarding their reproductive health, on average, menarche occurred at 13 years old, sexual intercourse started at 16 years old, 25% had already had an abortion and, by 19 years old, 60% had already given birth. Concerning prenatal care, 87% attended at least six medical appointments, three quarters started prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy and 85% received tetanus vaccine and iron supplementation during antenatal period. According to the Kessner Index modified by Takeda and Silveira, the antenatal care was considered adequate for 80% and 49% of all pregnant women, respectively. Conclusion: Panorama HC attends socioeconomic deprived pregnant women that started early antenatal care, performing a high amount of medical appointments, but, in general, the healthcare quality offered both during prenatal and delivery was unsatisfactory.

  6. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists.

  7. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  8. The Role of Affect in Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Wayne H.

    1991-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Waring et al. on controlled trial of cognitive marital therapy in severe marital discord. Focuses on suggestion of possibility that self-disclosure of personal constructs does not enhance marital intimacy. Contends that important reason why cognitive marital therapy did not prove more effective for subjects was lack…

  9. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  10. Age at Marriage and Marital Satisfaction: A Multivariate Analysis with Implications for Marital Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary R.

    1977-01-01

    Relationships between age at marriage, marital role performance, and marital satisfaction were investigated. Results show the existence of small positive associations between age at marriage and marital satisfaction, and performance. (Author)

  11. Adults and Children with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring Adult Attachment Style, Marital Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder resembling autism in its problems with social interaction and cognitive flexibility. Today, a number of adults with AS marry and rear children. Yet there has been little research into the quality of their marital and parental relationships. This study explored romantic attachment style, marital satisfaction and…

  12. Stressors and Enhancers in the Marital/Family Life of Family Professionals and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Stephen F.; Goddard, H. Wallace

    1993-01-01

    Assessed how work as family professional is uniquely enhancing and stressful and whether enhancers and stressors are correlated with marital and family quality. Findings from 59 family professionals and their spouses strengthen idea that there are marital and family life enhancers and stressors uniquely associated with work as family professional.…

  13. Recovery after unsuccessful in vitro fertilization: the complex role of resilience and marital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochovski, Julijana; Moss, Simon A; Charman, Denise P

    2013-09-01

    The failure rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) is around 75% per cycle. These unsuccessful attempts can provoke acute clinical depression and other problems. Although practitioners often recommend cognitive reappraisal, rather than avoidance, to cope with these difficulties, previous research has not established the psychosocial determinants of adaptive coping strategies. Arguably, resilience could encourage cognitive reappraisal, because resilient individuals feel confident they can overcome their emotions, whereas marital quality could prevent avoidance, because individuals feel secure enough to reflect upon their distress. Consequently, resilience and marital quality could facilitate recovery over time. To explore these possibilities, 184 women, all of whom had unsuccessfully completed IVF treatment, completed a questionnaire that gauged their levels of self-reported depression since their last IVF attempt as well as resilience and marital quality. Immediately after the unsuccessful attempt, resilience was inversely, whereas marital quality was positively, related to depression. However, within this cross-sectional sample after greater time had elapsed, marital quality became increasingly beneficial and was negatively associated with depression. These findings imply that resilience can curb the initial distress; in contrast, marital quality may enable individuals to reflect upon their trauma, initially amplifying distress but eventually facilitating recovery. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies, illustrating whether resilience and marital quality at one time predict changes in distress at subsequent times.

  14. Marital relations in incest offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R A; Langevin, R; van Santen, V; Billingsley, D; Wright, P

    1990-01-01

    The study compared 92 incest perpetrators to 40 (noncriminal) married males on two marital inventories, the Clarke Martial Relations Questionnaire (CMRQ), and the Sexual Behavior and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (SBMSQ). Results showed that marital disharmony, in the form of mistrustfullness, lack of mutual friends and time together, emotional instability (in both partners), but not sexual relations, were predominant factors in incest perpetrators' profiles. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 91.3% of incest offenders, but only 30.0% of controls, into their a priori group. Incest perpetrators reported less mutual give-and-take in disagreements with their spouses, a trend to confide less in their wives, and being more lonely in their marriage. Incest offenders reported they knew their spouses less well prior to marriage, despite the lack of any between-group differences in length of marriage or number of prior marriages. No differences emerged with respect to the range of sexual behaviors experienced or the degree of satisfaction with them. There were no group differences in the frequency of coitus nor in sexual dysfunction. In general, the lack of a satisfying emotional relationship between the incest offenders and their wives appeared as the most prominent factor in their marital relationships. The prominent aspects of their marital disharmony and sexual relations identified in the study reflect, in part, the inherent treatment goals needed for the incest perpetrator.

  15. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  16. Marital Dialogue – Between Conflict, Agreement and Relationship Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornaszewska-Polak Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marital dialogue plays an essential role in shaping the relationship between spouses and supports experiencing personal I in the context of the community – We. In these couples, where dialogue is going well, it fulfils the function of a secure base forming a community based on the foundation of unity. However, contemporary culture denies an interpersonal dialogue the authenticity and engagement, emphasizing individualistic attitudes, preoccupation with oneself, leading to relationship and community disintegration and breakdown. This paper is to present the authors twenty year research into bonds, communication styles, marital conflicts and ways of coping with them. The research shows various issues related to developing the interpersonal dialogue and thus creating bonds and unity in the marriage and family. At first, the research devoted to the transmission of generation patterns in the family is presented and it is followed by presentation of selected psychological factors influencing marriage quality and marital satisfaction.

  17. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  18. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  19. The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A

    2013-04-01

    Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers.

  20. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  1. Time-Related Determinants of Marital Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined temporal dimensions (timing of prior events, historical time, duration dependence, selectivity) and their impact on marital dissolution in multivariate continuous time model using data from June 1985 Current Population Survey. Results indicated that marital stability decreased over time, increased over marital duration, increased with age…

  2. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  3. Postnatal Depression Prevention Through Prenatal Intervention: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-17

    including increased preterm birth, small for gestational age infants, spontaneous abortion, low Apgar scores and birth complications such as increased...to have late entry to prenatal care. Utilizing the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESTS) score , the author suggested that...primiparous pregnancy, age, marital status or education levels. Identification of a woman who scores a false positive on a screening test may cause undue

  4. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  5. Marital conflict and boys' peer relationships: the mediating role of mother-son emotional reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Campbell, Jessica; Frabutt, James M; Lamb, Michael E

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the role of mother-son emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and the quality of boys' peer relationships. Parents from 84 intact families with preadolescent boys reported on the level of conflict in their marital relationship. Observations of mother-son interaction were coded for emotional reciprocity, and assessments of boys' peer relationships were obtained from both teachers and classmates. No direct connection between marital conflict and boys' peer relationships was observed. Rather, marital conflict affected boys' social competence indirectly, through its effect on the emotions expressed between mother and son. The findings support the proposal that emotional processes play an important role in connections between marital conflict and children's peer relationships and suggest that family emotional expressiveness deserves greater attention in both research and intervention.

  6. Marital Discord and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: Perceptions of Nepalese Wives and Husbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elyse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of marital discord on separation and divorce in a rural South Asian setting. We know little about how marital discord influences marital outcomes in settings with low personal freedom and limited access to independence. Using a sample of 674 couples from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, this paper investigates the impact of marital discord on the rate of marital dissolution, and the extent to which wives’ and husbands’ perceptions of discord influence dissolution. Results reveal that (a) spouses’ perceptions of marital discord increase the rate of marital dissolution, (b) both husbands’ and wives’ perceptions of discord have an important influence, and (c) the influence of wives’ perceptions of discord is independent of their husbands’ perceptions. Overall, these findings suggest that both spouses’ perceptions of discord are important for marital outcomes, even in settings where the costs of marital dissolution are relatively high. PMID:25484450

  7. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  10. ACMEOLOGY OF THE MARITAL RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa A. Zotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the basis of theoretical and practical studies leading psychological mechanisms of stability of the relations proposed noospheric vision of marriage. Considered noosferology promise for understanding the system of the marital relationship from the perspective of theory of the brain. Noospheric paradigm of social cognition is defined as an integrative phenomenon, studying holistic development of the individual, society, social groups in the context of macroevolution and psikhopedogogics

  11. The Pill and Marital Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Zuppann

    2012-01-01

    Better contraception will have competing impacts on marital stability and divorce rates. Preexisting marriages are likely to become less stable as better contraception raises the value of reentering the dating market. Subsequent marriages are likely to be more stable as couples delay marriages and use better contraception to search for better partners. Â I investigate this hypothesis using variation in access to the birth control pill by state and cohort as developed by Goldin and Katz (2002)...

  12. Relationship between mental health and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsattar Shahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital satisfaction is an important component of the marriage. Mental health as a component of the personal characteristic also related with marital satisfaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental health and marital satisfaction of couples.Methods: Three hundred couples from high-risk area of Gorgan – North of Iran were selected. Association between men's and women’s mental health level was measured using General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28. Marital satisfaction measured by Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire among married couples. Data was analyzed using multiple regression and analysis of variance modelling.Results: Results indicated that marital satisfaction was predicted by the person’s mental health level. Findings also showed that depression and anxiety were significantly associated with marital satisfaction. 52.5% of studied individuals had mental disorders at the clinical level (p≤0/05. Marital satisfaction in this population was 51.7%. Conclusions: The study confirmed that mental health is an important predictor of marital satisfaction. Improving mental health may lead to improve marital satisfaction.

  13. Individualized choice in prenatal diagnosis : the impact of karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Oepkes, D.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reasons and perceptions of women who are offered a choice between karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) and to compare the impact of both tests on anxiety and health-related quality of life Methods In this prospective comparative study, women undergoing

  14. Individualized choice in prenatal diagnosis : the impact of karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Oepkes, D.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reasons and perceptions of women who are offered a choice between karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) and to compare the impact of both tests on anxiety and health-related quality of life Methods In this prospective comparative study, women undergoing

  15. 产前筛查与诊断的质量控制与热点问题%Quality control and hot issues of maternal serum prenatal screening in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕时铭; 沈凤贤

    2013-01-01

    母血清学产前筛查的质量控制必须强调:孕周和体重等临床因素、测定结果的准确性、风险计算参数、产前筛查数据库等均会影响筛查质量,且产前筛查的结果只是一个风险提示,后续的诊断与随访是关键.现行的中孕期筛查存在检出效率低、假阳性率高等问题,建立适合我国国情的产前筛查和诊断质量管理体系有望提高筛查效率.此外,高龄孕妇及双胎妊娠筛查诊断问题,改进羊水细胞培养方法、提升染色体分析自动化水平,以及快速产前分子诊断技术的引入及定位等问题亟待我们解决.%It must be emphasized in the maternal serum prenatal screening that the quality is not only influenced by accuracy of biomarker assay,risk calculation parameters and biomarker database,but also influenced by clinical factors such as gestational weeks,weight and ect.The result of prenatal screening is just a risk evaluation,the subsequent diagnosis and the follow-up are more important.It is expected to improve screening efficiency by localization of prenatal screening database and making the quality management of the prenatal screening-diagnosis suitable for the national conditions.On the other hand,prenatal screening in the women of advanced maternal age and twin pregnancy,improve amniotic fluid cell culture method,chromosome analysis automation,the introduction and positioning of rapid prenatal molecular diagnosis techniques become the hot issues.

  16. The Relation Between Mental Well-Being and Marital Satisfaciton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Iman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Functional value of the social institution of family is important in any social system. Any society with its values ​​ is beginning to look into family to train its future citizens. One of the important issues in this institution is the quality of relationships between parents (spouses. When a relation between the two is satisfactory in a relaxed family on which the ruling family in public life will improve performance. One of the affective factors that impact the process of making marital satisfaction effective is psychological issues. Therefore, according to a mental health problem of the couples can enhance their marital satisfaction and ultimately improve the efficiency of the family. Previous studies indicate that the level of psychological well-being is an affective factor in marital satisfaction of women than men. Also as known the cultural roots in modern cities have been weaken and divorce rate has been increased (Shirazi, 2007; Shie, 2001. While the studies and research in this regard is less. Thus pay attention to mental well-being with regard to the role of social context causes to increase the survival rates of marital satisfaction of women in particular and families in general. We choosed Najafabad and Fooladshahr as different social contexts, because of their cultural, demographic and historical distinctions. In one hand Najafabad is an old and passing city which could maintain its ancient structure and in the other hand has been accepted elements of modern and industrial life. But Fooladshahr is a new and immigrant town which because of this character, it has no homogenous and specific culture and diversity of cultures and ethnos in this city has been caused different positive and negative problems in habitant's lives. The statistics show that the immigration of Fooladshahr is more than Najafabad. Therefore, the total goal of this paper is answering to these questions: what kind of relation is there between

  17. The relationship between marital quality, attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Başaran Gençdoğan; Atatürk University, Turkey

    2014-01-01

    Society imposes different roles on women and men in the family and the society, concerning their gender. “Gender Role Concept” is very important in terms of the fact that it is related all parts of life of individuals, behaviors, perceptions and attitudes of men and women (Çelik, 2008). In this perspective, gender roles, which affect individuals’ lives, cannot be isolated from the factors which affect marriage. In this context, the reflections of gender roles on marriage and also the ef...

  18. Impacts of Living Strategies on the Marital Satisfaction of the Rural Married Women Staying Home Alone:A Perspective of Sexual Life Quality%生计策略对农村留守妇女婚姻满意度的影响①--性生活质量的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丞

    2014-01-01

    An analytical framework of the impacts of living strategies on marital satisfaction under the adjustment of sexual quality is constructed to analyze the effects of living strategies and sexual quality of the married women staying alone in rural home on their marriage satisfaction based on the survey data from Chaohu, Anhui province. The results show that the family reproduction strategy has significant positive effects on the marital satisfaction among the women living together with husband, work with salary and family reproduction strategy have significant negative impact on the marital satisfaction among women staying home alone for part of her time; Agricultural production strategy has significant positive effect on marital satisfaction among the women staying home alone mostly while the household production and work for salary have significant negative effect on their marital satisfaction. In addition, the quality of sexual life not only having strong promoting effect on the marital satisfaction of all married women, but also playing a different moderate effect in the interaction of livelihood strategies and marital satisfaction. These findings have great significance in the improvement of the rural women'smarriage welfare.%构建性生活质量调节下的生计策略对婚姻满意度影响分析框架,利用安徽巢湖问卷调查数据,本文以非留守妇女和准留守妇女为参照,描述了农村留守妇女的生计策略、性生活质量和婚姻满意度现状,并采用有序回归方法对生计策略和性生活质量对婚姻满意度的影响进行了分析。结果表明:家庭再生产策略对非留守妇女婚姻满意度有显著的积极影响;工资性工作和家庭再生产策略对准留守妇女婚姻满意度有显著的消极影响;农业生产策略对留守妇女婚姻满意度有显著的积极影响,家庭经营和工资性工作策略则对留守妇女婚姻满意度有显著消极影

  19. Influence of Marital Relations of Parents on the Students'Psychological Quality in the Universities%父母婚姻关系对大学生心理素质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 王志波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨父母的婚姻关系对大学生心理素质产生的影响。方法采用症状自评量表( SCL-90)、青少年生活事件量表( ASLEC)、应付方式问卷及自编的个人信息表,对519名大学生进行了调查。结果父母关系和谐的学生心理健康水平显著高于父母关系一般和不和的学生(F=5.106,P<0.01);父母关系不和的学生在总应激强度(F=5.955,P<0.01)、学习压力(F=5.648,P<0.01)、受惩罚(F=10.181,P<0.001)、丧失(F=3.384,P<0.05)因子上显著高于其他学生(包括离异家庭的学生),而父母关系和谐的学生应激强度最小;父母离异的大学生比其他学生更多地采取自责的方式,但不存在显著差异(P﹥0.05)。结论父母婚姻关系对大学生的心理素质有明显的影响,父母关系和谐是提高大学生心理素质的重要因素,而关系不和对培养大学生良好的心理素质危害最大。%Objective To investigate the influence of parents'marital relations on university students'psychological quality .Methods A total of 519 university students were evaluated with psychological health check list ( SCL -90 ) , adolescent self-rating life events check list(ASLEC),coping style questionnaire and self-designed personal information sheet .Results The students whose parents'rela-tionship were harmonious had a significantly higher level psychological health than those whose parents 'relationship were common or divi-sive(F=5.106,P<0.01).The students whose parents'relationship were divisive had significantly higher level stress intensity ,study pressure,paying the penalty and losing than others including the students whose parents were divorced (F=3.384~10.181,P<0.05). The stress intensity was smallest in the students whose parents'relationship was harmonious .The students whose parents were divorced used more self-accusation than others ,but there were

  20. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  1. Relationship education and marital satisfaction in newlywed couples: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kieran T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether premarital relationship education and characteristics of relationship education in a community sample of newlywed couples predicted marital trajectories over 27 months. Newlywed couples (N = 191) completed measures of marital satisfaction 9 times over 27 months, and prior to marriage they provided information about relationship education and demographic, personal, and relationship risk factors for marital distress. Propensity scores (i.e., the probability of receiving relationship education) were estimated using the marital distress risk factors, and used to derive a matched sample of 72 couples who participated in relationship education and 86 couples who did not. Multilevel analyses of the propensity score matched sample (n = 158) indicated that wives who participated in relationship education had declines in marital satisfaction while wives who did not receive relationship education maintained satisfaction over time. Furthermore, the more hours of relationship education the couple participated in, the less steeply their marital satisfaction declined. Findings indicate that participation in community-based relationship education may not prevent declines in marital satisfaction for newlywed couples. A possible explanation is that the quality of relationship education available to couples is generally poor and could be greatly improved by inclusion of empirically based relationship information and skills training that are known to lead to stronger marriages.

  2. Predictors of success in emotionally focused marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S M; Talitman, E

    1997-04-01

    This study examined client variables expected to predict success in emotionally focused marital therapy (EFT), now the second most validated form of marital therapy after the behavioral approaches. The relationship of attachment quality, level of emotional self-disclosure, level of interpersonal trust, and traditionality to the therapy outcome variables, marital adjustment, intimacy, and therapist ratings of improvement, was examined. These variables were chosen for their relevance to the theory and practice of EFT and to intimate relationships in general. Overall, therapeutic alliance predicted successful outcome; the task dimension of the alliance in particular predicted couples' satisfaction. More specifically, one dimension of female partners' trust, their faith in their partner, predicted couples' satisfaction at follow-up. Females' faith also significantly predicted males' level of intimacy at follow-up. Males who were most likely to be nondistressed at termination indicated higher levels of proximity seeking on an attachment measure at intake, and older males and males whose partners had higher levels of faith in them were more likely to be nondistressed at follow-up. Traditionality was not found to be significantly related to outcome. Couples who made the most gains at follow-up also indicated lower initial marital satisfaction and included males who indicated lower levels of use of attachment figure on the attachment measure at intake. Males who made the largest gains at termination were older and were rated as less expressive by their partner on self-disclosure measures at intake. Age was the only variable significantly related to males' gains in satisfaction at follow-up. Implications for the practice of marital therapy and future research are delineated.

  3. Family structure, marital discord and offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-11-01

    With marital breakdown and discord relatively common, we examined whether family structure and the quality of marital relationship have a long-term impact on offspring's psychopathology in early adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association of family structure and marital discord in the family with a wide range of offspring's mental health and problem behaviours at 21 years. Data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population based birth cohort study, which commenced in Brisbane, Australia in 1981. Mothers and children were followed up at birth, 6 months and 5, 14 and 21 years after the initial interview. Marital status and marital quality were assessed at the 14 year follow-up. Young Adult Self-Report sub-scales of mental health and problem behaviours were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Type of family structure and the quality of marital relationship (at the 14-year follow-up) predicted offspring's psychopathology at 21 years. When a selected group of confounding factors were included in the multivariate analyses, children who lived with a step-father, un-partnered mother, or in families where parents had conflict in marital relationship reported higher symptoms of psychopathology at 21 years. The association between marital problems and young adult psychopathology does not appear to be confounded by a wide range of confounding variables. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism of these associations to develop preventive programmes.

  4. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

  5. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  6. Sex Role Ideology, Marital Status, and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Lloyd B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed General Social Survey data to determine if women's sex role ideology may be negatively related to marital happiness and stability. Found women with nontraditional gender values less happy and more likely to be separated or divorced. Results suggest that modern sex role ideology is negatively related to marital success for women.…

  7. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  8. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  9. MARITAL FUNCTIONING AND THE ANXIETY DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EMMELKAMP, PMG; GERLSMA, C

    1994-01-01

    The present paper provides a review of the literature on the relationship between marital factors and anxiety disorders. The review is based on both a descriptive and quantitative analysis. Studies of the marital relationship and outcome of exposure therapy are reviewed, as are studies investigating

  10. The Marital Happiness of Remarried Divorced Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the reported marital happiness of ever-divorced and never-divorced white respondents to three recent U. S. national surveys reveals significantly greater marital happiness for never-divorced females but not for never-divorced males. Even among females, the difference in the percentage of "very happy" responses was less than 10…

  11. Family Planning: Implications for Marital Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.

    1980-01-01

    In the past two decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. This paper studies the effect on marital stability of the planning of fertility. (Author)

  12. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  13. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dyadic Influence of Hope and Optimism on Patient Marital Satisfaction among Couples with Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Emily E.; Steiner, Jennifer L.; Rand, Kevin L.; Bigatti, Silvia M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE An estimated 10–40% of breast cancer (BC) patients report negative changes to their partnered relationships. Literature suggests that for these patients, marital satisfaction is related to depression and other quality of life factors which are associated with survivorship and treatment response. However, existing literature does not provide a clear explanation of the factors that strengthen vs. create strain in couples facing cancer. Given the benefits of a satisfying relationship to patient quality of life, it is important to better understand factors that put patients at greater risk for marital difficulties. This study examined the differential and combined roles of hope and optimism among BC patients and their partners on patient marital satisfaction. METHOD Fifty-six breast cancer patient-partner dyads completed study questionnaires as part of a larger study. Regression analyses were used to examine the main and interaction effects of patient and partner hope and optimism on patient marital satisfaction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Higher patient and partner hope predicted greater patient marital satisfaction, whereas optimism did not. These results are divergent from the literature on optimism and well-being, which shows the importance of studying these two traits concurrently. Interaction effects suggest certain combinations of patient and partner hope and optimism are more beneficial than others for patient marital satisfaction and suggest a dyadic approach is important for investigation of well-being in breast cancer. PMID:24687536

  16. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  17. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  18. Recent trends in marital disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T C; Bumpass, L L

    1989-02-01

    The post-1980 decline in the crude divorce rate must be interpreted in the context of the long-term trend and in terms of what we know about composition effects on crude measures-particularly given shifts in age at marriage and the age composition effects of the baby boom. Data from the June 1985 Current Population Survey permit more detailed, exposure-specific measurements as well as the use of separation as the event terminating marriage. Estimates from these data suggest a decline followed by a recovery. Taking into account well-known levels of underreporting, we find that recent rates imply that about two-thirds of all first marriages are likely to end in separation or divorce. We examine the persistence of major differences in marital stability and evaluate the comparative stability of first and second marriages.

  19. Relations between love styles and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hefazi Torqabeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Love is one of the most significant predictor of marital satisfaction. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between three components of love in Sternberg’s triangular theory and maital satisfaction. Reliability and validity of the Sternberg’s love scale was also assesed in this study.Materials and Methods: A sample of 123 married individuals selected by convenient sampling method from various communities were requested to complete three quostionaires: Sternberg’s triangular love scale, marital satisfaction scale (ENRICH and demographic questionnaire.Results: The results revealed that the Persian version of the Sternberg’s love scale is a valid and reliable scale and the three components (intimacy, passion, commitment were also significantly related to scores of marital satisfaction. Intimacy was the strongest predictor of marital satisfaction and there was no significant difference in scores of intimacy, passion, commitment and marital satisfaction between men and women.Conclusion: Sternberg’s triangular love scale could be used together with other marital satisfaction questionnaires in marriage counseling. Intimacy score is the strongest predictor of both men’s and women’s marital satisfaction.

  20. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, L C; Figueiredo, F P; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Caldas, A J M; Mochel, E G; Ribeiro, V S

    2007-09-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

  1. The Effects of Life Skills Training on Marital Satisfaction of Married Women: A Case Study in Dogonbadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women in Dogonbadan, Iran. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and related demographic data which was collected prior and one year after training, were used for the study. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age, average number of children, and the average length of marriage were 35, 1.8, and 10.36 years respectively. The average of all scores was significantly different in pretest and post test (p<0.002. Also, the scores of personality objects (p<0.05, marital relationships (p<0.001, conflict resolution (p<0.001, and financial and economic monitoring (p<0.001 were significantly different. The differences in mean scores of subscales in relationship with relatives and friends, leisure activities, and marriage and children were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that marital skills' training is effective in improving the marital status and satisfaction, and also improved the quality of life among married couples.

  2. Prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials and overweight and obesity in danish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, A; Kahlert, J; Holsteen, V

    2015-01-01

    admissions during pregnancy. We defined overweight and obesity among the children using standard age- and sex-specific cutoffs. We computed sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of overweight and obesity associated with exposure to prenatal antibacterials, adjusting for maternal age at delivery......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antibacterials may permanently dysregulate fetal metabolic patterns via epigenetic pathways or by altering maternal microbiota. We examined the association of prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials with overweight and obesity in schoolchildren......, marital status, smoking in pregnancy and multiple gestation; we also stratified the analyses by birth weight. RESULTS: Among 9886 schoolchildren, 3280 (33%) had prenatal exposure to antibacterials. aPRs associated with the exposure were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.45) for overweight and 1...

  3. Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Relationship between Hardiness and Marital Satisfaction in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nabizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a couple confronts cancer, there is a major impact on their psychosocial life. Marital life and satisfaction with that are important factors in the quality of life of breast cancer patient. The aim of this research was to predict marital satisfaction based on hardiness in women with breast cancerMethods: A total of 100 women with breast cancer participated in this study and completed the Kobasa Personal View Survey and ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication, and happiness Marital Satisfaction Scale. The study was conducted in Rasol Akrm Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and linear regression were used for data analysis.Results: The results showed a significant relationship between hardiness and marital satisfaction. Moreover, hardiness determined 13% of the variance of marital satisfaction.Conclusions: Hardiness as an efficient coping style in breast cancer is an important factor to increase perceived marital satisfaction in breast cancer. Therefore, healthcare professionals such as psycho-oncologists can promote resiliency in breast cancer patients by improving cognitive hardiness in their patients.

  5. Sources of marital conflict in five cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Lisa M; Nowak, Nicole; Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C; Shattuck, Kraig S; Imamoğlu, Olcay E; Butovskaya, Marina; Shen, Jiliang

    2015-01-05

    This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  6. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  7. A Social Psychological Perspective on Marital Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, George

    1976-01-01

    The hypothetical constructs of attraction and barrier forces, as well as contrasting alternative attractions are used to organize the research literature on the determinants of marital stability and dissolution. (Author/AM)

  8. A Social Psychological Perspective on Marital Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, George

    1976-01-01

    The hypothetical constructs of attraction and barrier forces, as well as contrasting alternative attractions are used to organize the research literature on the determinants of marital stability and dissolution. (Author/AM)

  9. [Self concept, sex and marital status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, A

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the influence of sex and marital status on the self-concept. The Factorial Selfconcept Scale was administered to a sample of 855 university students. The 2 X 2 ANOVAS revealed a significant main effect of the two independent variables on several factors of the Scale, as well as an interaction sex X marital status. Results are consistent with a coherent body of previous research.

  10. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  11. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  12. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  13. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  14. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  15. Bidirectional Associations Between Newlyweds' Marital Satisfaction and Marital Problems over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2016-11-08

    Prevailing views of marital functioning generally adopt the view that marital problems predict decreases in marital satisfaction, but alternative theoretical perspectives raise the possibility that lowered satisfaction can also predict increases in problems. The current study sought to integrate and compare these perspectives by examining the bidirectional cross-lagged associations between newlyweds' reports of their marital satisfaction and marital problems over the first 4 years of marriage. Using annual assessments from 483 heterosexual newlywed couples, we find evidence for problem-to-satisfaction linkages as well as satisfaction-to-problem linkages. Satisfaction was a stronger predictor of marital problems early in marriage but not as time passed; by Year 4 only problem-to-satisfaction linkages remained significant. These findings are consistent with the idea that couples with more problems go on to report lower levels of satisfaction and couples with lower levels of satisfaction go on to report more marital problems. This dynamic interplay between global judgments about relationship satisfaction and ongoing specific relationship difficulties highlights the value of examining bidirectional effects to better understand marital functioning over time. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. What Predicts Divorce?: The Relationship between Marital Processes and Marital Outcomes, by John Mordechai Gottman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Sims, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates 1994 text summarizing Gottman's research efforts to understand marital processes and to identify predictors of dissolution. Describes concluding chapter as attempt to integrate all research concepts and findings into a comprehensive theory of marital stability. Suggests volume is essential for professionals and required for…

  17. Marital Stability and Marital Satisfaction in Families of Children with Disabilities: Chicken or Egg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    2004-01-01

    Although much has been written suggesting that stress, grief, and other factors associated with parenting a child with disabilities results in high rates of marital discord, marital dissatisfaction, and divorce, this notion is poorly supported by research. Research demonstrates that parents of children with disabilities have marriages that exhibit…

  18. Marital Power and Marital Happiness in Relation to Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Trudy M.; Straus, Murray A.

    1974-01-01

    Data on intrafamily power relations, obtained by observing the interaction of husband-wife-child groups during a laboratory problem-solving session, are related to ratings of marital happiness. Families above the median in husband-to-wife power tend to be high in marital happiness. (Author)

  19. Marital Interaction in Middle and Old Age: A Predictor of Marital Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marina; Kliegel, Matthias; Shapiro, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Many studies point out the importance of marital satisfaction for well-being. However, although being married is still the norm in middle and old age, research on the determinants of marital satisfaction has neglected long-term marriages. While research on short-term marriages mainly focuses on partner fit (e.g., in personality traits and…

  20. Depression, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital and Personality Measures of Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…

  1. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and newlyweds' observed communication, partner characteristics, and longitudinal marital outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-11-01

    Given borderline personality disorder's (BPD) relation with interpersonal dysfunction, there is substantial interest in understanding BPD's effect on marriage. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' BPD symptoms in relation to their observed communication, partner BPD symptoms, 4-year marital quality trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. BPD symptoms were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative skills during observational problem-solving and social support tasks, and spouses reporting more BPD symptoms were married to partners reporting more BPD symptoms. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of newlyweds' 4-year marital trajectories indicated that BPD symptoms predicted the intercept of marital quality for spouses and their partners, reflecting lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of marital problems. BPD symptoms did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the chronic relationship impairment associated with BPD symptoms, indicate that distress begins early in marriage, and suggest that partners with higher levels of BPD symptoms remain in more troubled marriages. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. 心理干预对石化城市中青年夫妇婚姻质量、家庭功能的影响分析%Effect of Psychological Intervention on Marital Quality and Family Functioning of Young and Middle-aged Couples in Petrochemical City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷璇; 段峰; 罗雪涛; 王新荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨心理干预对石化城市中青年夫妇婚姻质量、家庭功能的影响效果。方法:随机选取2012年7月-2013年2月在独山子文馨心理咨询中心寻求婚姻辅导并愿意接受调查的56对中青年夫妇作为研究对象。所有受试对象均接受为期6个月的心理干预,并于干预前和干预后分别作婚姻质量问卷(Olson)、家庭功能评定量表(FAD)调查。结果:干预前后结果对比分析显示:在婚姻质量方面,Enrich总分、婚姻满意度、夫妻交流、解决冲突方式的分值比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);在家庭功能方面,沟通、情感反应、情感介入、总功能分值比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:系统化心理干预可有效提高石化城市中青年夫妇婚姻质量及家庭功能状况,值得推广应用。%To investigate the effect of psychological intervention on the marital quality and family functioning of young and middle-aged couples in petrochemical city.Method:Fifty-six young and middle-aged couples who sought marriage counseling and would to accept the survey in the Dushanzi Wen-xin psychological counseling center from July 2012 to February 2013 were randomly selected,they were treated by systemic psychological intervention for six months.The Olson Inventory of Marital Quality(Olson)and Family Assessment Device(FAD)were used to analyze the efficacy of psychological intervention.Result:Before and after the intervention results showed that:in the marriage quality, there were significant differences in the total score of Enrich,marital satisfaction,couple communication,conflict resolution methods(P<0.05).In the family function,there were significant differences in communication,emotional response,emotional involvement,total function score(P<0.05).Conclusion:The systemic psychological intervention can improve the marital quality and family functioning of young and middle-aged couples in

  3. 心理干预对先天性无阴道患者术后婚姻和生活质量的影响%The influence on the quality of marital and life in the congenital absence of vagina patients with operation by psychological intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 朱清仙

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨心理干预对先天性无阴道患者术后婚姻和生活质量的影响.方法 将先天性无阴道患者按自愿原则分为干预组18例和非干预组11例,对干预组的患者进行术前的认知行为治疗,用Olson婚姻质量调查问卷及诺丁汉健康量表对两组手术前后生活质量以及术后婚姻质量进行评估.结果:干预组术后婚姻和生活质量评分均显著优于非干预组(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 手术前心理干预能有效提高先天性无阴道患者术后婚姻和生活质量.%Objective To explore the influence on the quality of marital and life of the congenital absence of vagina patients with operation by psychological intervention.Methods The congenital absente of vagina patients were divided into psycholOgical intervened group(n=18,all cases were treated with the cognitive and behaviour therapy)and without intervened group(n=11).Before and after treatment the scores of the nottingham health poofity(NHP)were used in the two groups.After treatment the Olson's enrich questionary were tested also.Results The scores of NHP and Olson of psychological intervened group were significantly superior to those without intervened group(P<0.05 or P<0 01).Conclusion The cogntive and behaviour theraopy before operation is good for the quality of marital and life in congenital absence of vagina patients.

  4. Marital separation and health: stress and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, D; Budman, S; Demby, A; Randall, M

    1984-01-01

    Marital separation is a stressful life event implicated in much current thinking and practice in mental health, health psychology and psychosomatic medicine. This study examines marital separation in a controlled, prospective design. The participants were 314 Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) subscribers followed over a two year period. Marital separation was experienced by 127 of these participants early in the two-year study period. A stratified random half of these separated individuals participated in a short-term psychoeducational group intervention, "Seminars for the Separated." Measures of psychosocial adjustment and medical utilization were analyzed to describe correlates of marital separation and to evaluate the intervention. Statistically significant increases in medical utilization by people experiencing marital separation were observed in comparisons with married control subjects. Much of this increased utilization occurred in the year surrounding the actual separation and may be accounted for by mental health visits as well as nonmental health contacts with the health plan. The effects of the intervention were not evident until controls for baseline levels of medical utilization were introduced into the multivariate analysis. Even then, intervention effects were slight. Methodological problems and implications for further study are presented.

  5. Integrative self-knowledge and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Fayyaz, Fatemeh; Chen, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Married Iranian couples (N = 210) responded to the Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale along with a measure of marital satisfaction, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Big Five, and an index of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge correlated positively with marital satisfaction, positively with all but the extraversion Big Five traits, and negatively with three indices of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge also mediated a number of personality relationships with marital satisfaction. Spouse-ratings of personality confirmed the adaptive implications of integrative self-knowledge for marriage. Linkages with questionnaire response styles supported the description of integrative self-knowledge as a measure of both self-insight and self-development. Results confirmed the potential of integrative self-knowledge for studying self-regulatory processes and suggested that the enhancement of self-knowledge may be a useful goal in efforts to strengthen marriages.

  6. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  7. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  8. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  9. Personality and compatibility: a prospective analysis of marital stability and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E L; Conley, J J

    1987-01-01

    The antecedents of marital stability (divorce or remaining married) and marital satisfaction (within the group that remains married) were investigated with a panel of 300 couples who were followed from their engagements in the 1930s until 1980. Twenty-two of the couples broke their engagements; of the 278 couples who married, 50 got divorced at some time between 1935 and 1980. Personality characteristics (measured by acquaintance ratings made in the 1930s) were important predictors of both marital stability and marital satisfaction. The three aspects of personality most strongly related to marital outcome were the neuroticism of the husband, the neuroticism of the wife, and the impulse control of the husband. In combination, the 17 major antecedent variables were moderately predictive of a criterion variable composed of both marital stability and marital satisfaction (R = .49). The three major aspects of personality accounted for more than half of the predictable variance. The remaining variance was accounted for by attitudinal, social-environment, and sexual history variables.

  10. Financial strain, trajectories of marital processes, and African American newlyweds' marital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal associations among financial strain, trajectories of marital processes, and increases in marital instability concerns among a sample of 280 African American newlywed couples followed over the first 3 years of marriage. Results from dyadic structural equation modeling revealed that financial strain experienced during the early years of marriage was associated with increased marital instability concerns for both husbands and wives. Latent growth curves of marital processes revealed mean declines in appraisals of spousal warmth and increases in appraisals of spousal hostility, with variability between individuals in rates of decline in warmth; further, wives' appraisals of spousal warmth covaried with levels of financial strain, such that high levels of financial strain were associated with steeper declines in spousal warmth appraisals. For both husbands and wives, rates of change in spousal warmth appraisals had a greater influence on increases in marital instability concerns than either starting levels of spousal warmth appraisals or financial strain. Findings highlight the long-term associations between external stress and trajectories of marital appraisals as well as their relative effects on marital distress. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study of a Queered Adaptation of the Marital First Responder Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenchik, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This study offers an evaluation of a community-based educational intervention to enhance the quality of confiding relationships in the LGBT community. Building off the original Marital First Responder (MFR) curriculum and intervention, the MFR-Q targets these confidants and provides an LGBT culturally-specific intervention with the goal of helping…

  12. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  13. College Students' Chronological Age Predicts Marital Happiness Regardless of Length of Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Powers, Justina; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A revised version of the Quality Marriage Index (QMI) was used to examine demographic correlates of marital satisfaction. We administered the revised QMI to a sample of college students and found a significant positive correlation between age and relationship satisfaction. We suggest that this increase in relationship satisfaction could be due to…

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study of a Queered Adaptation of the Marital First Responder Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenchik, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    This study offers an evaluation of a community-based educational intervention to enhance the quality of confiding relationships in the LGBT community. Building off the original Marital First Responder (MFR) curriculum and intervention, the MFR-Q targets these confidants and provides an LGBT culturally-specific intervention with the goal of helping…

  15. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ming Liu; Shuenn-Dyh Chang; Po-Jen Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Materials and Methods: Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23...

  16. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  17. Temperamento y satisfacción marital

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Rus, Maria de los Ángeles

    1995-01-01

    Esta investigación se sitúa dentro de los planteamientos de la Psicología de la Personalidad que enfatiza las variables intrapersonales como determinantes de la satisfacción marital. La Personalidad normal o anormal, puede ser en parte, junto con otras variables, la causa de una relación de pareja satisfactoria o insatisfactoria. Se ha partido del supuesto de que la personalidad de cada uno de los miembros de la pareja contribuye de forma independiente a la Satisfacción Marital. El temperamen...

  18. Temperamento y satisfacción marital

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Rus, Maria de los Ángeles

    1995-01-01

    Esta investigación se sitúa dentro de los planteamientos de la Psicología de la Personalidad que enfatiza las variables intrapersonales como determinantes de la satisfacción marital. La Personalidad normal o anormal, puede ser en parte, junto con otras variables, la causa de una relación de pareja satisfactoria o insatisfactoria. Se ha partido del supuesto de que la personalidad de cada uno de los miembros de la pareja contribuye de forma independiente a la Satisfacción Marital. El temperamen...

  19. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  1. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  2. Avaliação da qualidade da atenção à saúde de adolescentes no pré-natal e puerpério Evaluación de la calidad de atención a la salud de adolescentes en el prenatal y en el puerperio Evaluation of quality of health care for adolescents in the prenatal and puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Machado Vilarinho

    2012-06-01

    al 38,6% de las mujeres, 52,3% no regresaron a la clínica o bien recibieron las visitas domiciliarias, el 70,5% se les aconsejó sobre los métodos anticonceptivos y el 93,2% sobre la lactancia materna. Se deben hacer esfuerzos para garantizar la calidad de la atención durante el embarazo y el parto.It is an evaluative study aimed to assess the quality of prenatal and postpartum for adolescents with children born alive in a public health institution in Teresina, Piauí. Two parameters were used to evaluate the prenatal care: an international index (Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization and a national one, based on recommendations from the Ministry of Health. The quality of care was categorized as more appropriate, adequate, intermediate and inadequate. It was noticed that more than half of the women began the prenatal care at an early stage and the number of visits for prenatal care was inadequate. Most of them performed the ordinary prenatal exams, 75% had their breasts examined and 88.6% wereadvised about breastfeeding. The postpartum care was intermediate to 38.6% of women, 52.3% did not return to the health unit, nor received home visit, 70.5% were advised about contraceptive methods and 93.2% on breastfeeding. Efforts should be undertaken to ensure the quality of care in pregnancy up to the puerperium.

  3. Marital Adjustments and Values Systems in Student Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Janet A.; Sharpley, Chris F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of married student couples found significant relationships between marital adjustment and people-oriented and success-oriented values systems for individual spouses. Congruency of values systems and marital adjustment for couple units was not found. (Author)

  4. Young adult romantic relationships: the role of parents' marital problems and relationship efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Fincham, Frank D; Pasley, B Kay

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the link between parental divorce and marital conflict and young adult romantic relationships, and it tested whether offspring efficacy beliefs and conflict mediate this association. Young adults (N=358) provided data at three time points each separated by 7-week intervals. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that (a) parents' marital conflict, rather than parental divorce, was associated with offspring conflict behavior; (b) relationship efficacy mediated this association; and (c) conflict behavior, in turn, mediated the association between efficacy beliefs and the quality of offspring romantic relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the impact of parents' marital problems on romantic relationships in young adulthood. Their implications for preventive interventions and future research are also outlined.

  5. Infección prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    Protocolos terapeuticos. Infección prenatal. Riesgo de infección prenatal. La infección prenatal requiere un alto índice de sospecha, ya que no siempre, los antecedentes se hallan presentes bien porque faltan o bien porque hayan pasado desapercibidos. Dentro del concepto de infección prenatal se encuentran las englobadas en el acrónimo Torches (toxoplasmosis, rubeola, citomegalovirosis, herpes o sífilis) )...

  6. Women in very low quality marriages gain life satisfaction following divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Sbarra, David A; Whisman, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    Although marital dissolution is associated with increased risk for poor mental and physical health outcomes, many people report improvements in functioning after divorce. To study the hypothesis that women in lower quality marriages would report the best outcomes upon separation/divorce, we investigated the combined effects of marital quality, gender, and marital status for predicting changes in life satisfaction (LS). Participants (N = 1,639; 50.3% men) were drawn from a nationally representative sample (Midlife in the United States Study), which included assessments of marital quality, marital status, and LS, at 2 time points (T1 and T2), roughly 10 years apart. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed an interaction between marital quality, marital status, and gender when predicting residual change in LS. Divorced women evidenced a negative association between marital quality and later LS, whereas continuously married women had a positive association between marital quality and later LS. In addition, women in higher quality marriages that become divorced showed the lowest LS, and women in lowest quality marriages show the highest LS among women with similar levels of marital quality. There was no association between marital quality and later LS for divorced or continuously married men. This work extends prior findings regarding gender differences in marital quality to postdivorce well-being, and suggests women in the lowest quality marriages may gain LS following divorce.

  7. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2011-01-01

    ), lower final adult height (median: 1.80 versus 1.82 cm), higher BMI (22.9 versus 22.4), smaller testicles (14.0 versus 14.5 ml), lower total sperm counts (119 versus 150 million), reduced spermatogenesis-related hormones (e.g. inhibin-B/FSH 66 versus 73 pg/mU) and higher calculated free testosterone...... levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal exposure to tobacco may lead to faster pubertal development possibly caused by a higher free-T, and to higher adult BMI and impairment of testicular function. The findings may not be clinical relevant for the individual but are of public health...

  8. Prenatal Substance Exposure: Neurobiological Organization at One Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the autonomic nervous system and neurobehavioral response to a sustained visual attention challenge among 1-month old infants with prenatal substance exposure. Study design We measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and neurobehavior during sustained visual orientation tasks included in the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) in 1,129, 1-month infants with prenatal substance exposure. Four groups were compared: infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure, infants with cocaine exposure, infants with opiate exposure, and infants with exposure to other substances (i.e. alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco). Results Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had the highest HRs and lowest levels of RSA during a sustained visual attention procedure compared with the other three groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had poorer quality of movement and more hypertonicity during the NNNS exam compared with the other three exposure groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had more nonoptimal reflexes and stress/abstinence signs compared with infants with prenatal cocaine exposure only and infants with prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Conclusions Problems with arousal regulation were identified among infants with prenatal substance exposure. Autonomic dysregulation has been implicated as a mechanism by which these difficulties occur. Our results suggest that infants with both prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure have the greatest autonomic response to the challenge of a sustained visual attention task, which may place these infants at risk for developing problems associated with physiological and behavioral regulation, a necessary prerequisite for early learning. PMID:23743094

  9. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  10. Marital Satisfaction as Perceived by the Medical Student's Spouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlow, Arlinda Dishman; Mullins, Stella Churchill

    1976-01-01

    Medical student marriages were examined in order to identify areas of stress, evaluate the congruence between expectations and actualities in the marital partner's role performance as perceived by the spouse, investigate the spouse's attitudes toward marital counseling, and determine whether a marital counseling service should be made available.…

  11. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  12. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23,665 deliveries, 198 were classified as patients with little or no prenatal care who received traditional, individualized, and physician-based discontinuous prenatal care (community-based model), and 187 were classified as control patients who received tertiary hospital-based continuous prenatal care. The effects on perinatal outcome were significantly different between the two groups. The cases in the hospital-based care group were less likely to be associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, very low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. After adjustment of confounding factors, the factors associated with pregnant women who received little or no prenatal care by individualized physician groups were diastolic blood pressure ≥ 105 mmHg, serum aspartate transaminase level ≥ 150 IU/L, and low-birth-weight deliveries. This study also demonstrated the dose-response effect of inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive prenatal care status on fetal birth weight and gestational periods (weeks to delivery). The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Stability in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Used data from probability sample of 10,472 ever-married Canadians to examine effects of premarital cohabitation on later marital stability. Results suggest that premarital cohabitation has a positive effect on staying married. Positive effect remained when length of marriage and age at marriage were controlled. (Author/NB)

  14. Longitudinal Study of Marital Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, P. M.; Newcomb, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Personality and background questionnaires were administered to newly married couples and followed up. Findings indicate correlational similarity and mean differentiation between partners was higher in still-married group than in divorced group. Variation in marital outcome was more accurately predicted from personality than demographic variables,…

  15. MARRIAGE, SEXUALITY, AND HOLINESS: ASPECTS OF MARITAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it also influenced it at decisive points and developed its own marital ethics. ..... seen nothing but purity and moral behavior in your company” (nihil ... viderit nisi ..... Wives, be subject to your husbands; that is your Chris- tian duty. ai` gunai/kej.

  16. Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)

  17. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  18. Autonomy as a Predictor of Marital Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Christina A.; And Others

    Recent qualitative investigations of abusive men have indicated that power and control of the wife are central themes in incidents of marital violence. Furthermore, anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that abusive husbands hold more traditional sex-role stereotypes, are more possessive and jealous, and are more controlling than nonabusive…

  19. Marital Role Strain and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Ellen; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire pertaining to discrepancies between an individual's ideal and actual marital role behaviors and level of sexual satisfaction indicated lower levels of role strain in nonpatient couples. A higher level of role strain correlated with increased sexual dissatisfaction. (Author)

  20. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  1. Marital Conflict in Stepfamilies: Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Clinical research shows that children have emotional investments in stepfamilies and are negatively affected by marital conflict, which can actually be greater than between couples without stepchildren. Stepchildren's perceptions of conflict heightens their need for affection. Views of parents and children about conflict do not necessarily…

  2. Marital Jealousy: A Structural Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.

    Although the experience of jealously is among the most common of experiences in intimate relationships, little theoretical or empirical work has been done from a sociologial perspective to increase our understanding of this aspect of male-female relationships. An investigation of marital jealousy as a sociological rather than a psychological…

  3. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  4. Violência física entre parceiros íntimos na gestação como fator de risco para a má qualidade do pré-natal Violencia física entre parejas íntimas en la gestación como factor de riesgo para la mala calidad del prenatal Physical intimate partner violence during gestation as a risk factor for low quality of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Leite Moraes

    2010-08-01

    seleccionadas en proceso de muestreo aleatorio simple entre un conjunto de nacidos vivos a término en 2000. Las informaciones sobre la asistencia prenatal fueron obtenidas a partir de la tarjeta de la gestante y por medio de entrevistas cara a cara. Para la evaluación de la calidad de la asistencia prenatal se utilizó el índice de Kotelchuck. Para la identificación de las situaciones de violencia, fue utilizada la versión brasilera del instrumento Revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Se utilizó la regresión logística no condicional para evaluar el efecto de la exposición, posterior al control de las variables de confusión. RESULTADOS: Aún después del ajuste por variables socioeconómicas, demográficas, reproductivas y relativas a los hábitos de vida de la pareja, la violencia física entre parejas íntimas durante la gestación permaneció asociada a la mala calidad de la asistencia prenatal. Mujeres que relataron haber sido víctimas de abuso físico durante la gestación poseían 2,2 veces más chance de presentar una asistencia prenatal inadecuada en comparación con aquellas sin historia de violencia física. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados indican la necesidad del rastreo de situaciones de conflicto familiar desde el inicio del prenatal buscando su enfrentamiento y una mayor adhesión de las gestantes victimizadas al acompañamiento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physical intimate partner violence during gestation as an independent risk factor for low quality of prenatal care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at three public maternity wards of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern Brazil. The 528 puerperal women included in the study were selected by simple random sampling from all babies born at term in 2000. Prenatal care information was collected through the pregnant woman's card and face-to-face interviews. The Kotelchuck index was employed to assess the quality of prenatal care. In order to identify violence situations, the Brazilian version

  5. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Luiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  7. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  8. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  9. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  10. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  11. The effect of marital status at first birth on marital dissolution among adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, J O; Landale, N S; McLaughlin, S D

    1986-08-01

    The sequencing of marriage and first birth was expected to play an important role in the stability of marriage among adolescent mothers. We hypothesized that adolescent women who married prior to conception would have the lowest rates of marital disruption, followed by those who married between conception and birth. Adolescent women who gave birth prior to marriage were expected to suffer the highest rates of marital dissolution. The results provide partial support for our hypotheses. There is little difference in the probability of separation between adolescent mothers who had a postmarital conception and those who had a premarital conception but married before the birth. Having a premarital birth, however, significantly increases the probability of marital dissolution. We also hypothesized that marital status at first birth would have less effect on the probability of marital dissolution for blacks than for whites. This, too, is generally supported by our findings. Among black females, those with a premarital birth are the first to suffer a marital disruption, but by the end of ten years there is little difference in the probability of separation among the three marital status groups. In contrast, among white females, those with a premarital birth are the first to experience a disruption, and this differential persists over all subsequent marriage duration intervals. Thus, the sequencing of marriage relative to birth has similar short term effects for whites and blacks, but the effect for blacks is evident only in the short term. Ten years after the marriage, black adolescent mothers have similar rates of marital stability regardless of the sequencing of marriage. This is consistent with the findings of previous research and with our hypothesis; with the black family pattern of lower rates of marriage, higher rates of illegitimacy and higher divorce rates, the sequencing of marriage has no long lasting consequences on marital stability. Finally, our predicted

  12. 某市三级甲等综合医院合同制护士婚姻质量的调查研究%Investigation on the marital quality of contract nurses from a third-grade class-A comprehensive hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大雪; 向航辰; 何剑

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析合同制护士婚姻质量现状及影响因素,为护理管理工作提供参考。方法对某市三级甲等综合医院500名合同制护士进行婚姻质量问卷(ENRICH)调查。结果合同制护士婚姻质量中子女与婚姻得分高于常模,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);其他因子分值均低于常模(P0.05). Scores of other factors were all significantly lower in contract nurses than the norm (P<0.05). Conclusion The marital status of contract nurses is not optimistic. The managers should give more atten-tion to the quality of marriage of contract nurses. Improving the remuneration of contract nurses and enhancing social support from family members, especially the spouse, can help promote physical and mental health of nurses, and im-prove the quality of marriage of contract nurses.

  13. Conflict and love: predicting newlywed marital outcomes from two interaction contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Elana C; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Miga, Erin; Chango, Joanna; Coan, James

    2011-08-01

    Research on marital interaction has focused primarily on couples in conflict contexts to understand better processes associated with concurrent and longitudinal outcomes such as marital stability and quality. Although this work has consistently revealed particular emotions (e.g., contempt) or behavioral sequences (e.g., demand/withdraw) predictive of later marital distress, it largely has neglected to take positive contexts into consideration. The present longitudinal study begins to address this gap in the literature by directly comparing newlywed behaviors from a conflict-resolution interaction with those from a love-paradigm interaction to predict relationship satisfaction and divorce proneness approximately 15 months later. Results showed that actor and partner negative (contempt) and positive (affection) emotions elicited in both positive (i.e., love) and negative (i.e., conflict) interaction contexts emerged as unique predictors of relationship quality and stability for both husbands and wives. Moreover, using a linear growth model, the temporal course of positive emotion during the love context, but not the conflict context, was predictive of later relationship satisfaction. Implications for future marital research and intervention are discussed.

  14. Qualidade da atenção ao pré-natal na Estratégia Saúde da Família em Sobral, Ceará Calidad de la atención en el pre-natal en la Estrategia Salud de Familia en Sobral, CE, Brasil Quality of pre-natal care in Family Health Strategy in Sobral, CE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães Ximenes Neto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diante das políticas públicas que envolvem a qualidade da atenção ao pré-natal, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da atenção ao pré-natal nos territórios da Estratégia Saúde da Família, do município de Sobral, à luz do referencial teórico de Avedis Donabedian. Trata-se de um estudo de caráter descritivo-exploratório, desenvolvido em Centros de Saúde da Família de Sobral, Ceará. Dos quatorze Centros de Saúde investigados, quatro se mostraram com indicadores adequados para o pré-natal. Porém, ainda que existam inadequações na estrutura física, não existem impedimentos para que se ofereça um atendimento de qualidade haja vista que o processo e os resultados também interferem na qualidade da assistência.Frente a las políticas públicas que impliquen la calidad de la atención a la salud prenatal, el estudio tiene como objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la atención prenatal a los territorios en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia de la ciudad de Sobral, a la luz del referencial teórico de AVEDIS Donabedian. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio de carácter descriptivo, desarrollado por los Centros de Salud Familiar de Sobral - Ceará. De los catorce Centros de Salud investigaron, cuatro fueron con los indicadores apropiados para la atención prenatal. Pero a pesar de que hay deficiencias en la estructura física, no hay impedimentos a fin de proporcionar una calidad de la atención hay una opinión de que el proceso y los resultados también interferir con la calidad de la atención.Face to public policies involving the quality of care for prenatal, the study aims to: assess the quality of prenatal care to the territories in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Sobral in the light of theoretical reference of Avedis Donabedian. This is a descriptive- exploratory study, developed by Family Health Units of Sobral, CE, Brazil. Of the fourteen Centers Health investigated, four were with appropriate

  15. Marital moratorium and fertility control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y

    1970-11-01

    Abstract Since 1949, the issue of marital postponement has been extensively discussed in China. Unlike some other means of fertility control (e.g. abortion and oral contraception), marital postponement has been welcomed with the fewest misgivings. Lately, marital postponement has also been given renewed emphasis by those outside China who see a weak link between various current national family planning programmes based on improved technology and the goal of fertility reduction. One aim of this paper is to render a comprehensive account of the marital postponement programme in China in the course of the birth control campaign during the last two decades. The second objective is to discuss the lessons that may be learned from it, and its implications for the current fertility controversy in the United States. Four general conclusions emerge from a careful analysis of the available documents: (1) in China, proponents of delayed marriage were divided on the question of how to secure its general acceptance. One issue dividing them was whether or not China's Marriage Law of 1950 should be amended in order to achieve it. Those who favoured raising the minimum legal age disagreed on the details of the presumably needed change. There is enough evidence to suggest that medical personnel were the chief advocates of compulsory postponement of marriage. The government rejected this legalistic approach and, in so doing, agreed with Chen Ta (a noted demographer) and others who sought to achieve postponement of marriage through appropriate social and economic measures. (2) Decisions to delay matrimony in different socio-cultural settings are not necessarily identical sociological phenomena. In some societies, (e.g. the United States), they may amount to no more than a course of action that enables individuals involved to realize or develop alternate goals in life. In others (e.g. China), they are literally acts of rebellion. (3) The fertility policy dispute has been carried on in

  16. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-07-22

    The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  17. Vi. Marital conflict, vagal regulation, and children's sleep: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A

    2015-03-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between adult interpartner conflict (referred to as marital conflict) and children's subsequent sleep minutes and quality assessed objectively via actigraphy, and tested parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity indexed through respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and initial sleep as moderators of predictive associations. At Wave 1 (W1), children (85 boys, 75 girls) with a mean age of 9.43 years (SD=.69) reported on marital conflict, and their sleep was assessed with actigraphs for seven nights. Sleep minutes, sleep efficiency, sleep activity, and number of long wake episodes were derived. RSA-R was measured in response to a lab challenge. Sleep parameters were assessed again 1 year later at Wave 2 (W2; mean age=10.39; SD=.64). Analyses consistently revealed 3-way interactions among W1 marital conflict, sleep, and RSA-R as predictors of W2 sleep parameters. Sleep was stable among children with more sleep minutes and better sleep quality at W1 or low exposure to marital conflict at W1. Illustrating conditional risk, marital conflict predicted increased sleep problems (reduced sleep minutes, worse sleep quality) at W2 among children with poorer sleep at W1 in conjunction with less apt physiological regulation (i.e., lower levels of RSA-R or less vagal withdrawal) at W1. Findings build on the scant literature and underscore the importance of simultaneous consideration of bioregulatory systems (PNS and initial sleep in this study) in conjunction with family processes in the prediction of children's later sleep parameters.

  18. Psychology and the study of marital processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, J M

    1998-01-01

    The divorce rate in the United States is extremely high. It is estimated that between 50% and 67% of first marriages end in divorce. For second marriages, failure rates are even higher. There are strong negative consequences to separation and divorce on the mental and physical health of both spouses, including increased risk for psychopathology, increased rates of automobile accidents, and increased incidence of physical illness, suicide, violence, homicide, significant immunosuppression, and mortality from diseases. In children, marital distress, conflict, and disruption are associated with depression, withdrawal, poor social competence, health problems, poor academic performance, and a variety of conduct-related difficulties. Though intervention techniques might be expected to reduce these grim statistics, our best scholars have concluded that marital therapy is at a practical and theoretical impasse. This article discusses the progress of research on the study of marriage.

  19. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  20. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sisprenatal como instrumento de avaliação da qualidade da assistência à gestante Sisprenatal como instrumento de evaluación de la calidad de la asistencia a la gestante SISPRENATAL as a tool for evaluating quality of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Betina Andreucci

    2011-10-01

    los municipios adecuar la calidad de la asistencia y capacitar sus profesionales para la correcta documentación de información en salud.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate coverage by the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program, according to its minimal requirements and process indicators, by comparing information from prenatal booklets to SISPRENATAL (System to Accompany the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with prenatal data from 1,489 women in the postpartum period after birth in the Brazilian Unified Health System, between November 2008 to October 2009 in São Carlos municipality, Southeastern Brazil. Data were collected from the prenatal booklet and afterwards from the SISPRENATAL. Information from both sources was compared using the McNemar Χ2 test for related samples. RESULTS: Prenatal coverage in relation to the number of live births was 97.1% according to the prenatal booklet and 92.8% according to SISPRENATAL. There were statistical significant differences between both sources of information for all the minimum requirements of the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program, and also the process indicators. Except for the first prenatal visit, the prenatal booklet always had greater frequencies than SISPRENATAL. The proportion of women with six or more prenatal visits and all basic exams was 72.5%, according to the prenatal booklet and 39.4% by the official system. These differences remained for the five health regions in the municipality. CONCLUSIONS: SISPRENATAL was not a reliable source for evaluating the available information on care during pregnancy. There was high adherence to the Prenatal and Birth Humanization Program, but documentation of information was insufficient for all the minimum requirements and process indicators. Ten years after the start of the program, municipalities should provide adequate quality of care and build health professional capacity for proper documentation of health information.

  2. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  3. [Coverage characterization of pre-natal in Maranhão State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Geny Rose Cardoso; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa; Gama, Mônica Elinor Alves; Coelho, Leidyane Silva Caldas; da Costa, Andreia Susana Vieira; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the coverage of prenatal care in the State of Maranhão. A population-based study, descriptive in 30 municipalities of the State of Maranhão, with 2075 women of childbearing age, with previous pregnancy, from July 2008 to Januray 2009. The results demonstrated that the units of family health accounted for 45.9% of the care of pregnant women and that 46.8% reported carrying out consultations six or more prenatal care during last pregnancy and 64.6% started prenatal in the first three months of pregnancy. The coverage of prenatal care, without regard to adequacy, was 85.6%, however, when considering the coverage of adequate prenatal as established by Brazilian Health Ministry was 43.4%. Although coverage of prenatal above 80%, less than half is considered adequate, showing a gap in primary care quality.

  4. Father involvement and marital relationship during transition to parenthood: differences between dual and single-earner families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Susana; Hidalgo, M Victoria; Jiménez, Lucía; Moreno, M Carmen

    2011-11-01

    Research into the process of becoming mother or father shows very conclusively that this important life transition is accompanied by both a decrease in marital quality and a more traditional division of labour. In this paper these changes are analyzed with special emphasis on the relationships between them and exploring the role played in this process by the mother's work status. Results showed a significant link between the development of marital quality and violated expectations regarding father involvement on childrearing. Dual-earner families were characterized by a specific pattern of changes, with greater stability than single-earner families in marital and parental roles during transition to parenthood and a significant role played by spouse support as a partner, but not as a parent.

  5. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Luiz; Almeida Maria; Lima Danilo DF; Bettiol Heloísa; Guimarães Alzira Maria DN; Ribeiro Eleonora RO; Silva Antônio; Gurgel Ricardo Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance ...

  6. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  7. Marital behavior of the elderly population in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine contemporary marital behavior of the population in Serbia older than 65 years. Models of marital behavior are a reflection of culture, tradition, local customs, economic status, cultural and historical heritage, and as such are subject to change. Extending the life expectancy of the population, and the change of socio-economic and cultural circumstances, had led to changing in marital behavior and marital structure of the old population. To track these changes and comprehend the current situation, we analyzed indicators such as the marriage and divorce rates for this age group, as well as current marital structure, comparing them with previous values. It is particularly noteworthy that for the first time (based on data from the 2011 census, we can analyze the frequency and characteristics of informal marriage unions (cohabitation, which provides important insights into the marital life of the elderly.

  8. The Maternal Lifestyle Study: Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between sleep problems and prenatal exposure to cocaine, opiates, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine in children 1 month to 12 years of age. Design Sleep data was collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of children participating in the Maternal Lifestyle multisite study. Setting Hospital based research centers in Providence, RI, Miami, FL, Detroit, MI, and Memphis, TN Participants There were 808 participants: 374 exposed to cocaine and/or opiates; 434 comparison. Main exposure Prenatal cocaine, opiate, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine exposure. Outcome measure Sleep problems in early, middle, and late childhood, assessed as composites of maternal report items. Results Of the five substances, prenatal nicotine exposure was the only unique predictor of sleep problems (B = .074, R2 Δ = .008, p = .012) with adjustment for covariates including SES, marital status, physical abuse, prenatal medical care, and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to nicotine was positively associated with children's sleep problems persisting throughout the first 12 years of life. Targeting this group of children for educational and behavioral efforts to prevent and treat sleep problems is merited given that good sleep may serve as a protective factor for other developmental outcomes. PMID:20439796

  9. Reassessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marria...

  10. Divorce Costs and Marital Dissolution in a One-to-One Matching Framework With Nontransferable Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saglam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a two-period one-to-one matching model with incomplete information to examine the effect of changes in divorce costs on marital dissolution. Each individual who has a nontransferable expected utility about the quality of each potential marriage decides whether to marry or to remain single at the beginning of the first period. Individuals married in the first period learn the qualities of their marriages at the beginning of the second period and then decide whether to stay married or to unilaterally divorce. We show that, for any society, there exist matching environments where the probability of the marital dissolution does not reduce divorce costs under gender-optimal matching rules. In such environments, an allocation effect of divorce costs with an ambiguous sign outweighs an incentive effect that is always negative. We also show that these results may also arise under stable matching rules that are not gender optimal.

  11. Understanding marital stressors. The importance of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-06-01

    Previous survey work with 1591 married Chicago adults has demonstrated a close connection between symptoms of depression and current marital stressors (nonfulfillment of basic role expectations, lack of reciprocity between partners, and nonacceptance by spouse). The pertinent question now becomes which factors predispose toward marital stressors. We address this issue here by examining a broad array of variables to see which are most predictive of marital stressors by employing multiple regression analysis on data from the survey sample. A descending order of explanatory power of marital stressors occurs for the following categories of variables: respondent's style of coping with marital problems, behavior patterns within the marriage, personality factors of the respondent, other current social stressors, demographic variables, and marital circumstances. One coping style in particular, that of optimistic action, is more predictive of low marital stressors than any other single variable studied. The findings contradict several common beliefs about marital stressors: the presence of background differences between the spouses, a lack of consensus between the partners, and the presence of other social stressors (job, parenting, finances) are relatively poor predictors of marital discord.

  12. Premarital education, marital quality, and marital stability: findings from a large, random household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Amato, Paul R; Johnson, Christine A; Markman, Howard J

    2006-03-01

    One of the limitations of experimental studies on the effectiveness of premarital education is the reliance on samples of mostly White, middle-class couples. In contrast, although survey methods allow only weak inferences about causal relations, representative surveys can yield important information about use and estimated effects across a diverse population. Using a large random survey of 4 middle American states, the authors found that participation in premarital education was associated with higher levels of satisfaction and commitment in marriage and lower levels of conflict-and also reduced odds of divorce. These estimated effects were robust across race, income (including among the poor), and education levels, which suggests that participation in premarital education is generally beneficial for a wide range of couples.

  13. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  14. Association between body mass index and the timing of pregnancy recognition and entry into prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Courtney D; Tumin, Rachel; Prasad, Mona R

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with the timing of pregnancy recognition and initiation of prenatal care. Data from 2009 to 2010 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The 30 participating states contacted sampled mothers 2-4 months after delivery and had them complete the standardized Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System questionnaire. Prepregnancy BMI was calculated from the participants' self-reported prepregnancy weight and height. Timing of pregnancy recognition and initiation of prenatal care were also self-reported on the questionnaire. Among the 72,913 participants, 69,872 (96%) met the eligibility criteria for analysis. After adjustment for maternal race, ethnicity, smoking status in the 3 months before pregnancy, pregnancy intentions, insurance status, maternal age, marital status, maternal education, and parity, there was no association between prepregnancy BMI status and the week of pregnancy recognition. Obese women initiated prenatal care 0.20 weeks earlier on average compared with normal-weight women, although the difference was not clinically important (mean difference -0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.38 to -0.03). When examining the odds of receiving late or no prenatal care, there was no association with prepregnancy BMI. Uninsured women, however, reported initiating prenatal care almost 3 weeks later on average than privately insured women (mean difference 2.83, 95% CI 2.27-3.38) and had a more than fourfold increased odds of receiving late or no prenatal care (odds ratio 4.04, 95% CI 3.13-5.23). Prepregnancy BMI was not meaningfully associated with a delay in pregnancy recognition or with increased odds of receiving late or no prenatal care.

  15. Stress, Attitude and Marital Relationships of Mothers of children with Chronic Neurological Disorders in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus Abasiubong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Neurological disorders (NDs occur commonly in children in our environment. Increasingly, the poor knowledge of these conditions among parents results in negative attitude with stress and disruption in interpersonal relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the level of stress and quality of marital relationships among mothers of children with NDs. METHOD: Between January and December 2008, 126 mothers of children with NDs at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric clinic, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were assessed for perceived stress, attitude and quality of marital relationships using PSQ and GRIMS Questionnaires. This was compared with mothers of normal children. RESULTS: There were prevalent negative attitudes among respondents in both groups; only 15 (13.2% mothers with NDs and 6 (5.3% controls attributed causes to medical conditions; 10 (7.9% against 26 (22.8% wished the child had died. Stress was high in mothers aged below 30 and 50 years and above; with tertiary education and in those who were self–employed (p<0.001. Quality of marital relationship was poorer in subjects than controls (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Mothers of children with neurological disorders have increased stress resulting in poor interpersonal relationships. Education is important to improve parental knowledge and enhance family cohesion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 413-420

  16. A Review of Marital Intimacy-Enhancing Interventions among Married Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardan-Souraki, Maryam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Asadpour, Ismail; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Khani, Soghra

    2016-08-01

    Lack of intimacy is currently the main concern rather than main concern of the experts in psychology and counseling. It is considered as one of the most important causes for divorce and as such to improve marital intimacy a great number of interventions have been proposed in the literature. Intimacy training and counseling make the couples take effective and successful steps to increase marital intimacy. No study has reviewed the interventions promoting marital intimacy after marriage. Thus, this review study aimed to classify the articles investigating the impact of interventional programs on marital intimacy after marriage. In April 2015, we performed a general search in Google Scholar search engines, and then we did an advanced search the databases of Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Also, lists of the references of the relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations. Using Medical Subject Headings (MESH) keywords: Intervention (Clinical Trials, Non-Randomized Controlled Trials, Randomized Controlled Trials, Education), intimacy, marital (Marriage) and selected related articles to the study objective were from 1995 to April 2015. Clinical trials that evaluated one or more behavioral interventions to improve marital intimacy were reviewed in the study. 39 trials met the inclusion criteria. Eleven interventions had follow-up, and 28 interventions lacked follow-up. The quality evidence for 22 interventions was low, for 15 interventions moderate, and for one intervention was considered high. Findings from studies were categorized in 11 categories as the intimacy promoting interventions in dimensions of emotional, psychological, physical, sexual, temporal, communicational, social and recreational, aesthetic, spiritual, intellectual intimacy, and total intimacy. Improving and promoting communication, problem solving, self

  17. 26 CFR 20.2056A-4 - Procedures for conforming marital trusts and nontrust marital transfers to the requirements of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for conforming marital trusts and nontrust marital transfers to the requirements of a qualified domestic trust. 20.2056A-4 Section 20.2056A-4... conforming marital trusts and nontrust marital transfers to the requirements of a qualified domestic...

  18. 26 CFR 20.2056A-4T - Procedures for conforming marital trusts and nontrust marital transfers to the requirements of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for conforming marital trusts and nontrust marital transfers to the requirements of a qualified domestic trust (temporary). 20.2056A-4T....2056A-4T Procedures for conforming marital trusts and nontrust marital transfers to the requirements...

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shih-Shan; Goldberg, Ethan; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Mark P; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, there have been case reports of prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly, an extremely rare entity characterized by enlargement of all or portions of 1 cerebral hemisphere and intractable seizures. A unique case is presented of hemimegalencephaly of a fetus diagnosed in utero. A 27-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks' gestation for fetal magnetic resonance imaging after an abnormal fetal ultrasound. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed hemimegalencephaly of the left cerebral hemisphere with abnormal gyration. The patient was born via cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. He had continuous infantile spasms and partial-onset seizures starting on day 1 of life, and electroencephalography showed burst suppression. The patient's seizures were initially managed with antiepileptics, prednisolone, and a ketogenic diet; however, he was hospitalized multiple times because of status epilepticus. At 6 months of age, he underwent a successful anatomic left hemispherectomy. In utero diagnosis of complex developmental brain anomalies allows a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal prenatal patient treatment and parental counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Religious Homogamy on Marital Satisfaction and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Pratt, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Tested effects of 3 religious homogamy types (denominational affiliation, church attendance, and Bible belief) upon marital satisfaction and stability using national probability sample of adults in over 6,000 households. Found denominational affiliation most critical although church attendance contributed only slightly to marital success. Found no…

  1. Coping with Marital Transitions: A Family Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes research on single-parent households and families whose mothers have remarried. This research concentrates on the effect of marital transitions on family functioning and children's adjustment. Introduces a longitudinal study that examined transformations in marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships following the remarriage of a…

  2. 18 CFR 1317.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marital or parental status. 1317.530 Section 1317.530 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Marital or parental status. (a) General. A recipient shall not apply any policy or take any employment...

  3. 18 CFR 1317.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marital or parental status. 1317.445 Section 1317.445 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1317.445 Marital or parental...

  4. Predicting Change in Adolescent Adjustment from Change in Marital Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2005-01-01

    The present prospective, longitudinal study of 451 adolescents and their parents extends earlier research by investigating whether change in marital problems predicts change in adolescent adjustment, after controlling for other marital problems and socioeconomic status. Latent growth curves over a period of 5 years were used, and the results…

  5. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  6. Predicting Depression from Marital Distress and Attributional Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Susan Creekmore; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the interaction between marital distress and spouses' attributions and expectancies regarding the marital relationship in predicting depressive symptoms in a mixed sample of 59 clinic and nonclinic couples. Best predictor of depression for both sexes was measure of disaffection, reflecting emotional distance and alienation in the…

  7. Treatment Acceptability of Alternative Marital Therapies: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Philip H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the acceptability of four therapeutic models (i.e., behavioral, psychoanalytic, systems, and eclectic) used in treatment of marital discord. Subjects (N=88) evaluated four treatment sequences as they applied to a marital case history. Results showed that, among varying treatments, behavioral and systems approaches were rated more…

  8. The Effects of Welfare on Marital Stability and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates the effects of welfare on marital dissolution and remarriage. Data from females indicated that those who received AFDC, food stamps, or other public assistance dissolved their marriages more frequently than those not receiving welfare. The relationship between welfare and marital dissolution decreased somewhat as duration of marriage…

  9. Predicting Marital Happiness and Stability from Newlywed Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, John M.; Coan, James; Carrere, Sybil; Swanson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Marital interaction processes that are predictive of divorce or marital stability and processes that discriminate between happily and unhappily married stable couples are explored (N=130). Seven types of process models are examined, and results are discussed. Divorce and stability were predicted with 83% accuracy, and satisfaction with 80%…

  10. The Impact of Job Insecurity on Marital and Family Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between perceived stress resulting from job insecurity and marital and family functioning. Data from 111 married couples in which at least 1 spouse was working in insecure job environment showed that job insecurity stress was related in systematic way to marital and family dysfunction and number of family problems reported.…

  11. Marital Distress and Mental Health Care Service Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…

  12. Individual and Marital Adjustment in Spouse Pairs Subsequent to Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ross E.; Carter, Charlene A.

    1993-01-01

    Explored effects of mastectomy for breast cancer on individual and marital adjustment among 20 spouse pairs in which wife had single mastectomy. Results indicated that both husbands and wives had adapted to mastectomy and were functioning well as individuals. Measures of marital adjustment, however, indicated serious problems with extremes of…

  13. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odacı, E; Hancı, H; Yuluğ, E; Türedi, S; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Y; Kaya, H; Çolakoğlu, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure in utero to a 900 megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymis. Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 - 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared. We found a higher apoptotic index, greater DNA oxidation levels and lower sperm motility and vitality in the NEMFG compared to controls. Immature germ cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen, and altered seminiferous tubule epithelium and seminiferous tubule structure also were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of NEMFG testis. Nuclear changes that indicated apoptosis were identified in TUNEL stained sections and large numbers of apoptotic cells were observed in most of the seminiferous tubule epithelium in the NEMFG. Sixty-day-old rat testes exposed to 900 MHz EMF exhibited altered sperm quality and biochemical characteristics.

  15. Reassessing the link between premarital cohabitation and marital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Steffen

    2010-08-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG.

  16. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  17. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  18. Living together apart: perceived concealment as a signal of exclusion in marital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Kerkhof, Peter; Righetti, Francesca; Branje, Susan

    2009-10-01

    This article examines how perceiving concealment in close relationships influences marital well-being. It suggests that the perception of concealment from a partner signals separateness from one's partner and contributes to feelings of perceived partner exclusion. These feelings of exclusion, in turn, should negatively affect relational quality. These predictions are tested in a prospective study among 199 newlywed couples. Results suggest that perceiving concealment reduced marital adjustment and trust and increased conflict over time. Importantly, change in perceived partner exclusion mediated these effects. This article demonstrates that the perception of concealment (a) has deleterious effects on relational well-being in the long run and (b) is harmful in part because it elicits feelings of exclusion.

  19. Direct and indirect effects of unilateral divorce law on marital stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit; Reinhold, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Previous research examining the impact of unilateral divorce law (UDL) on the prevalence of divorce has provided mixed results. Studies based on cross-sectional cross-country/cross-state survey data have received criticism for disregarding unobserved heterogeneity across countries, as have studies using country-level panel data for failing to account for possible mediating mechanisms at the micro level. We seek to overcome both shortcomings by using individual-level event-history data from 11 European countries (SHARELIFE) and controlling for unobserved heterogeneity over countries and cohorts. We find that UDL in total increased the incidence of marital breakdown by about 20 %. This finding, however, neglects potential selection effects into marriage. Accordingly, the estimated effect of unilateral divorce laws becomes much larger when we control for age at marriage, which is used as indicator for match quality. Moreover, we find that UDL particularly affects marital stability in the presence of children.

  20. Effects of marital conflict on subsequent triadic family interactions and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, K M

    2000-01-01

    This study examined marital conflict's indirect effects on children through disruptions in family alliances and parenting. Forty married couples were observed interacting with their 6-8-year-old sons after pleasant and conflictual discussions. After conflictual discussion, fathers showed lower support/engagement toward sons, and coparenting styles were less democratic. Couple negativity was correlated with family negativity, regardless of the topic of discussion, which suggests continuity in the affective quality of the two family subsystems. Mothers' marital satisfaction moderated families' responses to the experimental manipulation. The results provide stronger evidence than previously available of a causal link between conflict and disrupted parenting. Further research is needed to identify which conflict-related disruptions in parenting influence the development of children's problems.

  1. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  2. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  3. Psychological distress of marital and cohabitation breakups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lara Patrício; Aassve, Arnstein

    2013-11-01

    Using data from a large survey, the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), this paper explores the extent to which marital and cohabiting unions differ with respect to the short-term effects of union dissolution on mental health. We compare married individuals who divorced or separated with cohabitors whose first union ended and test the hypothesis that married individuals experience larger negative effects. Results show that initial differences are not statistically significant once the presence of children is controlled for, suggesting that the presence of children is a particularly significant source of increased psychological distress in union dissolutions. However, parenthood does not explain serious psychological distress, which appears to be associated with enduring traits (the personality trait neuroticism). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  5. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  6. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart problems. Children with Down syndrome have round faces and almond-shaped eyes that ...

  7. Relationship of Attachment Styles and Emotional Intelligence With Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P emotional intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P 0.05). According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples.

  8. Predictors of inadequate prenatal care in methamphetamine-using mothers in New Zealand and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Lagasse, Linda L; Wouldes, Trecia A; Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Tara; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Neal, Charles R; Huestis, Marilyn A; Dellagrotta, Sheri; Lester, Barry M

    2013-04-01

    This study compared patterns of prenatal care among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy and non-using mothers in the US and New Zealand (NZ), and evaluated associations among maternal drug use, child protective services (CPS) referral, and inadequate prenatal care in both countries. The sample consisted of 182 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 196 in the Comparison groups in the US, and 107 mothers in the MA-Exposed and 112 in the Comparison groups in NZ. Positive toxicology results and/or maternal report of MA use during pregnancy were used to identify MA use. Information about sociodemographics, prenatal care and prenatal substance use was collected by maternal interview. MA-use during pregnancy is associated with lower socioeconomic status, single marital status, and CPS referral in both NZ and the US. Compared to their non-using counterparts, MA-using mothers in the US had significantly higher rates of inadequate prenatal care. No association was found between inadequate care and MA-use in NZ. In the US, inadequate prenatal care was associated with CPS referral, but not in NZ. Referral to CPS for drug use only composed 40 % of all referrals in the US, but only 15 % of referrals in NZ. In our study population, prenatal MA-use and CPS referral eclipse maternal sociodemographics in explanatory power for inadequate prenatal care. The predominant effect of CPS referral in the US is especially interesting, and should encourage further research on whether the US policy of mandatory reporting discourages drug-using mothers from seeking antenatal care.

  9. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  10. Prenatal Lead Exposure Modifies the Impact of Maternal Self-Esteem on Children's Inattention Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microfinance Participation and Marital Violence in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Zippay, Allison

    2016-09-15

    This study explores the experiences of marital violence within the context of microfinance participation among a sample of women living in poverty in Bangladesh. Status inconsistency theory suggests that the higher incomes and female independence that may occur with microfinance participation may threaten or destabilize marital norms in Bangladesh, and have implications in terms of increased violence. We use qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 30 women residing in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the circumstances in which there may be an association between microfinance participation and marital violence and elucidate the context in which this interaction occurs.

  12. Marital conflict in early childhood and adolescent disordered eating: emotional insecurity about the marital relationship as an explanatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa W; Fairchild, Amanda J; Mark Cummings, E; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-12-01

    Disordered eating behaviors, including frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting and skipping meals for weight loss) and binge eating are prevalent among adolescents. While negative, conflict-ridden family environments have long been implicated as problematic and a contributing factor to the development of disordered eating, few studies have examined the influence of marital conflict exposure in childhood to understand the development of these behaviors in adolescence. The current study investigates the impact of marital conflict, children's emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence in a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 236 families in Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Full structural mediation analyses utilizing robust latent constructs of marital conflict and emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, support children's emotional insecurity as an explanatory mechanism for the influence of marital conflict on adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Findings are discussed with important implications for the long-term impact of marital conflict and the development of disordered eating in adolescence.

  13. A seven-year investigation of marital expectations and marriage among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Agostini, Wendy R Miller; Houston, Avril Melissa; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    Welfare reform has targeted marriage promotion among low-income women. This study explores patterns of marital expectations and marriage among 181 urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and their mothers. Using PROC TRAJ to analyze developmental trajectories of adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality over 24 months, we categorized relationships as either high or low support. We examined the effects of intergenerational marriage models and adolescent mother-grandmother relationship quality on marital expectations and marriage over the first 7 years postpartum. At 24 months, half (52%) of adolescent mothers expected to marry, but marital expectations did not predict marriage. Marital expectations were associated with concurrent involvement in a romantic relationship, not intergenerational marriage models or a supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationship. After 7 years, 14% of adolescent mothers were married. Married mothers lived in families characterized by the joint effects of intergenerational marriage models and supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships. They were older and had more children than did single mothers, suggesting that they were in a family formation phase of life. Policies that promote the education and employment opportunities necessary to support a family are needed.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Suvarna Bhasma Parada Marit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Thakur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this study was to characterize Suvarna Bhasma Parada Marit by using the Ayurvedic test parameters, physico-chemical tests, and various instrumentation techniques. Methods: Suvarna Bhasma, an Ayurvedic formulation manufactured as per Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar 5/8357 (BBR, has been studied using various instrumentation techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, laser particle size distribution (PSD analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and physico-chemical parameters, such as the loss on drying (LOD, loss on ignition (LOI, and acid insoluble Ash (AIA were determined. In addition, Ayurvedic tests, such as Rekhapurnatva (enterable in the furrows of the fingers, Varitaratwa (floatable over water, Nirdhoomta (smokeless, Dantagre Kach-Kach (gritty particle feeling between the teeth, were performed. Results: The XRD study showed Suvarna Bhasma to be crystalline in nature and to contain more than 98% gold. The mean size of the gold crystallites was less than 10 microns, and the morphology was globular and irregular. Suvarna Bhasma contains gold as its single and major element, with EDAX and FT-IR spectra showing that it is more than 98% pure gold. The moisture content (LOD is less than 0.5%, the LOI is less than 2%, and the AIA is not less than 95%. The Ayurvedic tests, as specified above, helped to confirm the quality of Suvarna bhasma prepared as per the text reference (BBR. Conclusion: This chemical characterization of Suvarna Bhasma performed in this study by using modern instrumentation techniques will be helpful in understanding its pharmacological actions and will help in establishing quality protocols and specifications to substantiate the safety, efficacy & quality of Suvarna Bhasma.

  15. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.

  16. Effect of Family Structure on Marital Attitudes of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)

  17. Effect of Family Structure on Marital Attitudes of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)

  18. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  19. Factors Associated With Marital Satisfaction in Infertile Couple: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadaee-Gelehkolaee, Keshvar; McCarthy, Barry W; Khalilian, Alireza; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Peyvandi, Sepideh; Elyasi, Forouza; Shahidi, Maryam

    2015-09-02

    Many factors impact on marital satisfaction. Related factors include demographic factors, assisted reproductive techniques, psychological health, quality of life, psychological, socioeconomic and family support, and sexual function. This study is a literature review of research studies conducted on factors associated with marital satisfaction in infertile couples. The current literature review search was undertaken using multiple databases selected from articles pertinent to the study. The selection of subjects was undertaken from1990 through 2015. The methodological quality was analyzed based on a checklist adopted from a systematic review. Quality assessment of full text studies was finally carried out by two reviewers. The initial search yielded a list of 445 papers, and then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Thereafter, 69 papers were incorporated, and researchers reviewed summaries of all of the searched articles. Finally, the researchers utilized the data gained from 64 full articles so as to compile this review paper. Reviewing the studies conducted on marital satisfaction, they classified related findings into 6 categories: demographic factors, using fertility assisting methods, psychological health, life quality, economic, social, and family support, and sexual function. The results of this review article depicted that various factors play role in creating marriage life satisfaction in an infertile couple, so that paying attention to them can play an important role in continuing their treatment. Thus, to identify such factors is considered essential in their treatment protocol highly based on culture. Of the drawbacks of this research is that it has tried at best to employ the studies belonging to diverse countries with different cultures. Also, the number of the papers was considerably limited.

  20. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006 – 2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital cohabitation experiences were associated with marital instability among a recent contemporary (married since 1996) marriage cohort of men (N = 1,483) ...

  1. Stability of marital unions and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    1998-01-01

    Using nationally representative data, it is shown that marital unions are relatively stable in Nigeria. Remarriage rates are high so little time is lost between unions. Consequently, the fertility of women who have experienced marital disruption is only slightly lower than for those in stable unions. Their slightly lower parity may be a function of a high incidence of reproductive impairment, which is a major reason for divorce and separation in Nigeria.

  2. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  3. The Dutch Marital Satisfaction and Communication Questionnaire: A Validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van den Troost

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to validate the Dutch Marital Satisfaction and Communication Questionnaire (DMSCQ, a 16-item measure that disentangles marital satisfaction, negative communication and open communication. In three subsequent studies empirical evidence for the construct and criterion validity is presented using (confirmatory factor analyses, and correlational analyses with criterion variables. Results indicate that the 16 items represent a solid three-factor structure, which was replicated across time and in independent samples. High agreement in factor structure between men and women was demonstrated by high levels of Tucker's coefficient of congruence. The internal consistencies of the marital satisfaction and negative communication scales are good; for the open communication scale it is somewhat lower but still acceptable. Consistent evidence was obtained for a negative relationship between the three marital outcomes and parental depression and conflictual family climate whereas the three former are positively related to life satisfaction and well-being. Spouses who feel restricted by their parental role or experience parenting stress tend to be less satisfied with their partnership and perceive the marital communication as more negative. Our results demonstrate that the DMSCQ provides a brief, valid and reliable measure of marital satisfaction, negative and open communication.

  4. Marital processes, arranged marriage, and contraception to limit fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G

    2013-10-01

    An international transition away from familially arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Although we know that this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. Drawing on theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to measure changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors, this study seeks to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility and suggest that new research should consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  6. Update on prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

  7. [Communication skills for prenatal counselling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S

    2007-04-18

    Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.

  8. Marital status, nation marital status composition, and self-assessed health: A multilevel test of four hypotheses in 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines to what extent the often found association between marital status and self-assessed health is influenced by the marital composition of the country people live in. Four hypotheses explaining why the national marital status composition may be influential are derived and tested. Whe

  9. 26 CFR 20.2056(d)-1 - Marital deduction; special rules for marital deduction if surviving spouse is not a United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marital deduction; special rules for marital deduction if surviving spouse is not a United States citizen. 20.2056(d)-1 Section 20.2056(d)-1 Internal... rules for marital deduction if surviving spouse is not a United States citizen. Rules pertaining to...

  10. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  11. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  12. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  13. [Effects of different home visit strategies on prenatal care in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Juraci A; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A; Ulmi, Eduardo F; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M; Neumann, Nelson A

    2008-11-01

    This non-randomized community intervention study evaluated the impact of prenatal home visits by community health agents and volunteer leaders from the Children's Mission on prenatal care among poor pregnant women in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Previously trained interviewers applied pre-coded questionnaires to the women at home, investigating demographic and reproductive characteristics, socioeconomic status, housing conditions, and prenatal care. Of the 339 pregnant women interviewed, 115 were assigned to the intervention group visited by community health agents, 116 to the group visited by volunteer leaders, and 108 to the control group. Pregnant women visited by community health agents began prenatal visits earlier than other groups, had more prenatal visits, lab tests, and clinical exams, and received more counseling on breastfeeding and iron supplementation. Participation by family members during medical consultations for pregnant women visited by volunteer leaders was higher than for community health agents. Pregnant women visited by community health agents received better prenatal care than the other groups. Home visits can improve the quality of prenatal care for poor women and increase participation by family members (mainly husbands) during the pregnancy.

  14. Using a prenatal electronic medical record to improve documentation within an inner-city healthcare network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartey, Jeny; Lee, Colleen; Weinberger, Elisheva; Nathan, Lisa M; Merkatz, Irwin R; Bernstein, Peter S

    2014-06-01

    To study the impact of a prenatal electronic medical record (EMR) on the adequacy of documentation. The authors reviewed paper prenatal records (historical control arm and contemporaneous control arm), and prenatal EMRs (study arm). A prenatal quality index (PQI) was developed to assess adequacy of documentation; the prenatal record was assigned a score (range, -1 to 2 for each element, maximum score = 30). A PQI raw score and PQI ratio-that controlled for which elements of care were indicated for a patient-were calculated and compared between the study arm versus historical control arm and then the study arm versus contemporaneous control arm. The median PQI raw score was significantly lower in the study arm compared with historical control arm; however, the PQI ratios were similar between these groups. The PQI raw score was similar in both the study arm and contemporaneous control arm; however the PQI ratio was significantly higher in the study arm when compared with the contemporaneous control arm. Implementation of this prenatal EMR did not have a significant impact on completeness of documentation when compared with a standardized paper prenatal record. Adequacy of documentation seems to be related to the type of practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. The efficacy of physiotherapy for the prevention and treatment of prenatal symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Marijke; Devoogdt, Nele; De Groef, An; Gielen, Annelies; Geraerts, Inge

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have described the evidence of prenatal physiotherapy for one symptom, but none has made an overview. We provided a systematic review on the effectiveness of prenatal physiotherapy. A full search was conducted in three electronic databases (Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE and PEDro), selecting randomized controlled trials concerning prenatal physiotherapy. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. We identified 1,249 studies and after exclusions 54 studies were included concerning the evidence of prenatal physiotherapy. The majority of studies indicated a preventative effect for low back pain/pelvic girdle pain, weight gain, incontinence, and perineal massage. For leg edema, fear, and prenatal depression, the efficacy was only based on one study per symptom. No preventative effect was found for gestational diabetes, while literature concerning gestational hypertensive disorders was inconclusive. Regarding the treatment of low back pain/pelvic girdle pain and weight gain, most therapies reduced pain and weight respectively. Evidence regarding exercises for diabetes was contradictory and only minimally researched for incontinence. Foot massage and stockings reduced leg edema and leg symptoms respectively. Concerning gestational hypertensive disorders, perineal pain, fear, and prenatal depression no treatment studies were performed. The majority of studies indicated that prenatal physiotherapy played a preventative role for low back pain/pelvic girdle pain, weight gain, incontinence, and pelvic pain. Evidence for the remaining symptoms was inclusive or only minimally investigated. Regarding treatment, most studies indicated a reduction of low back pain/pelvic girdle pain, weight gain, incontinence, and the symptoms of leg edema.

  16. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  19. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: more than a wives' tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all 3 waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives' negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives' negative behavior predicted increases in wives' marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives' use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives' downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives' constructive communication as a mediating pathway.

  20. Types of marital closeness and mortality risk in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Roni Beth; Kasl, Stanislav V; Darefsky, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of marital closeness on survival over 6 years in a community-dwelling sample of 305 older couples. Closeness is defined as 1) naming one's spouse as a confidant or source of emotional support (vs. not naming) and 2) being named by spouse on at least one of the two dimensions (vs. not being named). The survival effects of both naming and being named are examined in Cox proportional hazard regressions, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, and behavioral variables. Husbands who were named by their wives but did not name them were least likely to have died after 6 years. Compared with them, husbands in marriages with the other three styles of closeness were from 3.30 to 4.68 times more likely to be dead. Wives' results showed the same pattern of effects, with the same marital style being most protective as for husbands, but the effects were weaker. However, wives' results were strongly moderated by parenting status: those who had ever had children who were in the marital closeness pattern of wife naming husband but not being named by him were highly protected. Compared with these wives, others who had had children were from 8.26 to 10.95 times less likely to be alive after 6 years. The same pattern of marital closeness most benefited husbands and those wives who had had children. These findings are not explained adequately by social support or marital role theory although they fit the latter more closely.

  1. Religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital adjustment in newly married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jamie L; Riggs, Shelley A; Pollard, Sara E; Hook, Joshua N

    2011-04-01

    Existing literature on the role of religiosity in marital functioning is often difficult to interpret due to the frequent use of convenience samples, statistical approaches inadequate for interdependent dyadic data, and the lack of a theoretical framework. The current study examined the effects of religious commitment and insecure attachment on marital adjustment. Newly married couples who did not have children (N = 92 couples, 184 individuals) completed measures of religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital functioning. There was a small positive association between religious commitment and marital adjustment. Religious commitment buffered the negative association between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment, but exacerbated the negative association between attachment anxiety and marital adjustment.

  2. Prenatal genetic testing, counseling and follow-up of 33 Egyptian pregnant females with history of mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R. Gaber

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Early prenatal screening and diagnosis, through a systematic multidisciplinary approach, to all cases of mucopolysaccharidoses are recommended, to improve the quality of life and to avoid the presence of other associated fetal developmental malformations.

  3. Sexual violence, marital guidance, and Victorian bodies: an aesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines some of the emotional rules, encoded in grammars of representation and framed within law and prescriptive marital advice literature, regarding the expression of male sexual aggressivity within the bedroom. Despite the general Victorian idealization of marriage, many wives suffered physical and sexual abuse at the hands of their husbands, marital rape drawing particular attention from early feminists, psychologists, physicians, and evolutionary physiologists. In the 1870s, a belief that unrestrained sexual license was a symptom of degeneration led these commentators to consider marital rape particularly harmful to husbands. By the turn of the century, however, the focus of this harm had nominally shifted to women, who might become frigid if forced to submit to sex--a problem for wives but for husbands as well. As sexology and psychology gained greater influence, couples came to rely on the emotion-talk of commentators to negotiate mutually agreeable bedroom activity.

  4. A state-wide assessment: marital stability and client outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, D J; Sullivan, W P; Wolk, J L

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents results of Missouri's first statewide evaluation of alcohol and drug treatment programs. The study utilized a 1-year follow-up sample of 242 respondents to explore the nature and patterns of post-treatment functioning. This paper focuses on the impact of client marital stability on post-treatment substance use. The data supported the expected result that marital status was related to post-treatment relapse. Further analysis suggests that transitional periods between marriage and divorce are especially important in understanding the pattern of relapse after treatment. Multivariate analysis indicates that the marital status effect is important both directly and in interaction with program completion. The data suggest that attention to transitional states and interpersonal functioning should be incorporated into client follow-up.

  5. Processes linking adolescent well-being, marital love, and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Megan E; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined coparenting in a sample of 177 two-parent families with firstborn adolescents by using annual home interview data from mothers, fathers, and adolescents. With a path-analytic approach and with earlier problem behaviors controlled for, coparenting conflict predicted relative increases in adolescent risky behavior over 2 years. In addition, evidence for 2 types of mediation was found. Marital love mediated the link between adolescents' early risky behavior and coparenting 1 year later, and coparenting conflict mediated the link between marital love and adolescents' risky behavior 1 year later. Linkages did not emerge for coparenting cooperation or triangulation. Interventions that are focused on the marital and coparental relationships in families with adolescents may modify trajectories of adolescent risky behavior.

  6. Aggression in toddlers: associations with parenting and marital relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, J S; Zheng, L; Whiteman, M; Brook, D W

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the relation among parenting factors, marital relations, and toddler aggression. A structured questionnaire was administered to both parents of 254 2-year-olds. The authors used correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess the extent to which certain personality traits, drug use, parenting style, and marital conflicts were related to the toddlers' aggressive behavior. Results showed that the maternal child-rearing and parental aggression domains had a direct effect on toddler aggression. The domain of maternal child rearing also served as a mediator for the domains of marital relations, paternal child rearing, parental aggression, and parental drug use. The findings indicated that maternal child-rearing practices, personality attributes, and drug use were more important than paternal attributes in relation to toddler aggression. Implications for prevention among families at risk are discussed.

  7. Sex therapy: an adjunct in the treatment of marital discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A; Tamerin, J S; Tamerin, N G

    1986-01-01

    This is a pilot project where sex therapy format was used in a group setting for the treatment of six married couples who had severe marital discord. None of the patients had a diagnosable sexual dysfunction, but sexual dissatisfaction was one of the common universal complaints. The article describes the treatment format and the clinical progress of the couples. In spite of the fact that the couples' marital discord has been refractory to prior therapy, there has been an overall improvement in their marriage as their sexuality improved. Possible therapeutic factors which led to this improvement are addressed. Despite limitations in patients' sampling and size, the results have been promising enough to encourage others to explore this modality as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for couples with severe marital discord and sexual dissatisfaction who have been refractory to unstructured traditional therapy.

  8. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Esther Pereira da; Lima, Roberto Teixeira; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2013-05-01

    To develop and apply a new instrument to evaluate prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Brazilian Humanization Program for Prenatal Care and Birth, including quantitative and qualitative elements distributed according to the evaluation triad of structure, process, and outcomes. An analytic, descriptive, quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out with 238 women receiving care in 44 primary care services in the city of João Pessoa, Northeast Brazil, between November 2010 and December 2011. Physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care were also interviewed. The instrument developed by the investigators contains 23 questions relating to structure, process and outcomes of pre-natal care. Based on the information collected, pre-natal care was classified according to an IPR/Pre-Natal index (Índice IPR/Pré-Natal, where I stands for infrastructure, P for work process and R for results). A value of 1 is attributed to each question if it complies with the criteria established for quality, or 2 if it does not comply. The percent of adequate answers in relation to the 23 total questions is used to classify prenatal care as: upper adequate (100% adequate answers); adequate (>75%); intermediate (51 to 74%); and inadequate (Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) indices. Questions relating to the work process contributed significantly to the classification of prenatal care as intermediate according to the IPR/Pre-Natal. IPR/Pre-Natal classification categories were consistent to detect prematurity, insufficient weight at birth and absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The IPR/Pre-Natal index effectively incorporated quantitative and qualitative elements for the assessment of pre-natal care.

  9. Adequate and Ever Use of Prenatal Care in Fars Province 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyar Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prenatal care consists of a series of clinical visits and services offered to pregnant women throughout the antepartum period. Despite advances in the extent of prenatal care use in Iran, some women still avoid using these services. It is, therefore, very important to investigate the prevalence of prenatal care use, and to identify the factors associated with it. This study analyzes prenatal care use in Fars Province between 2000 and 2010, identifying the associations between women’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics and prenatal care use. Methods: The study is quantitative and based on secondary data drawn from IDHS 2000 and MIDHS 2010. The sample consisted of 765 individuals from Fars Province. The data were weighted to reflect the characteristics of the rural-urban population. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS-18. In the inferential analysis, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied. Results: It was indicated that both the quantity and quality of prenatal care increased during 2000–2010. Obstetricians and gynecologists became the primary reference point for women accessing healthcare during this period. Our study indicates that, in the final analytical model, the educational attainment (OR=1.32, P=0.035, urban place of residence (OR=10.49, P=0.003, sanitary and health status of households (OR=5.04, P<0.001, and knowledge of family planning (OR=1.14, P<0.001 were significantly related to the use of prenatal care. Conclusion: Women who do not have access to prenatal care are mainly from families with low socio-economic status. Thus socially vulnerable groups receive deficient prenatal care, indicating the need for government investment and planning in a comprehensive insurance system.

  10. 全国妊娠早期母血清学筛查的室间质量评价和室内质量控制结果分析%External quality assessment and internal quality control analysis of maternal serum prenatal screening in first trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何法霖; 王薇; 钟堃; 张妍; 赵彦; 李国华; 王治国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results of external quality assessment (EQA) and internal quality control (IQC) of first trimester maternal serum prenatal screening,and to investigate methods to improve the quality of prenatal screening.Methods Based on the reagent,laboratories which participated in the EQA project by National Center for Clinical Laboratories in May and October in 2013 were divided into PerkinElmer (PE) group (n=44) and Roche group (n=14).Five human serum quality control samples were distributed to each laboratory in every session to test free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A).The M,P75 and P25 of each sample were calculated.The robust coefficient of variation (CV) was defined as [0.7413 × (P75-P25)]/M× 100%.In five samples of each EQA session,if the results of four or more samples were within the M (1± 30%),the laboratory passed the session.If the laboratory passed both sessions,the laboratory passed the EQA project of 2013.The CV of in control quality control and cumulative CV of in control quality control results in May 2013 session were gathered.Results (1) Results of EQA:The robust CVs of all samples of two sessions were 5.0%-7.2% for free β-hCG in PE group,and 9.5%-188.4% in Roche group.The robust CVs were 6.4%-116.9% for PAPP-A in PE group,and 10.5%-165.3% in Roche group.Fifty five (94.8%,55/58) laboratories passed the EQA project of 2013 for free β-hCG.Forty four (75.8%,44/58) laboratories passed the EQA project of 2013 for PAPP-A.(2) Results of IQC:Twenty eight and twenty six laboratories reported IQC results for free β-hCG and PAPP-A respectively.In eighteen (55.1%,18/28) and fourteen (50.0%,14/28) laboratories,the CV of in control quality control and cumulative CV of in control quality control results for free β-hCG were less than 5% respectively.In Fifteen (57.7%,15/26) and thirteen (50.0%,13/26) laboratories,the CV of in control quality control

  11. Infant mortality and prenatal care: contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Paula Pereira de; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Pimpão, Fernanda Demutti

    2012-01-01

    This review study aimed to verify how studies conducted in Brazil have related infant mortality to prenatal care and to present contributions of the clinic in the light of Canguilhem and Foucault for qualification of the care. An integrative literature review was conducted from searches in the databases SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE and BDENF for the period 2000 to 2009. The relationship between infant mortality and prenatal care is related to the insufficient number of consultations or to the quality of the care provided. Even when the number of and routine consultations in the prenatal care were adequate, avoidable deaths were present. For the qualification of prenatal care, it is suggested that the clinical knowledge and other elements that comprise the process of human living are considered, in order that the clinical view is enlarged and articulated to the technologies available in the health system and, together, they are able to contribute to the reduction of infant mortality in Brazil.

  12. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  13. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  14. Prenatal irradiation-induced brain neuropathology and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ren, Bo Xu; Tang, Feng Ru

    2017-01-01

    Embryo/fetus is much more radiosensitive than neonatal and adult human being. The main potential effects of pre-natal radiation exposure on the human brain include growth retardation, small head/brain size, mental retardation, neocortical ectopias, callosal agenesis and brain tumor which may result in a lifetime poor quality of life. The patterns of prenatal radiation-induced effects are dependent not only on the stages of fetal development, the sensitivity of tissues and organs, but also on radiation sources, doses, dose rates. With the increased use of low dose radiation for diagnostic or radiotherapeutic purposes in recent years, combined with postnatal negative health effect after prenatal radiation exposure to fallout of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, the great anxiety and unnecessary termination of pregnancies after the nuclear disaster, there is a growing concern about the health effect of radiological examinations or therapies in pregnant women. In this paper, we reviewed current research progresses on pre-natal ionizing irradiation-induced abnormal brain structure changes. Subsequent postnatal neuropsychological and neurological diseases were provided. Relationship between irradiation and brain aging was briefly mentioned. The relevant molecular mechanisms were also discussed. Future research directions were proposed at the end of this paper. With limited human data available, we hoped that systematical review of animal data could relight research interests on prenatal low dose/dose rate irradiation-induced brain microanatomical changes and subsequent neurological and neuropsychological disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Marital/Family Life of the Family Theapist: Stressors and Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchler, Joseph L.; Piercy, Fred P.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses possible stressors and enhancers of marital and family life for the family therapist. The results are examined in terms of respondents' gender, work setting, theoretical orientation, number of hours worked, income, age, and marital status. (Author/BL)

  16. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  18. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  19. 农牧区哈萨克族老年人生命质量与社会支持和家庭婚姻状况关系的调查研究%Survey Research of the Relationship Between Quality of Life of Kazak Elderly in Agricultural and Pastoral Areas and Their Social Support and Marital Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江芸; 付素萍; 巩存涛; 郑昆亮; 胡海峰; 艾景涵; 韩林俐; 李新辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between quality of life(QOL)of Kazaks elderly in agricultural and pastoral areas and their social support and marital status. Methods From January 2013 to January 2014,using typical sampling method,we selected Halabula Town of Xinyuan County of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture that has the features of agricultural and pastoral area and where Kazak people gather as the survey area. Then we selected Halabula Village,Hongshibai Village,Jiyeke Village and Aketuo Village as the survey villages by random cluster sampling method and enrolled 368 elders who accorded with inclusion and exclusion criteria from the four villages as subjects. From July 12 to 19,2013,we acquired quantitative data by face - to - face inquiring surveys during home visits,using questionnaire of general data,SF - 8 scale and scale of social support. From January 3 to 9,2014,according to survey results,we selected 4 subjects with total QOL score higher than the median,4 subjects with that lower than the median and 2 people in charge of medical insurance and pension security recommended by experts in the research design and obtained qualitative data from their interviews. Results A total of 368 questionnaires were distributed,and all were returned with an effective return rate of 100. 0%. The dimension scores of QOL were positively correlated with the dimension scores and the total score of social support(P 0. 05). The results of interviews showed that Islamic culture,social network,new rural cooperative medical care system and new rural social pension insurance system had positive influence on the QOL of subjects(P > 0. 05). Conclusion The rising of regional economic level and the wide coverage of social pension insurance system and new rural cooperative medical care system provide a favorable social background,and the personalities,tradition culture and religious belief of the nationality form a solid and wide social support network and harmonious domestic

  20. A Model of Marital Functioning Based on an Attraction Paradigm and Social-Penetration Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, James

    1986-01-01

    Tested structural equation model of marital functioning based on an attraction paradigm and social-penetration variables. The model posited that the attraction paradigm factors of being satisfied with marital issues and of perceived attitudinal similarity would have an impact upon marital happiness as well as perceived partner understanding, which…

  1. Marital Happiness and Psychological Well-Being across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from six waves of the Study of Marital Instability over the Life Course (N = 1,998), we conducted a latent class analysis to test for distinct marital happiness trajectories. We found three distinct marital happiness trajectories: low, middle, and high happiness. Initial levels of life happiness were strongly associated with membership…

  2. Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

  3. Marital Therapy and Spouse Involvement in the Treatment of Depression, Agoraphobia, and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines literature on marital therapy and spouse involvement as treatments for major psychopathology, focusing on depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism. For each disorder, examines relation between marital dynamics and disorder and discusses empirical efforts to evaluate impact of marital therapy or spouse involvement on disorder. Summarizes…

  4. A Model of Marital Functioning Based on an Attraction Paradigm and Social-Penetration Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, James

    1986-01-01

    Tested structural equation model of marital functioning based on an attraction paradigm and social-penetration variables. The model posited that the attraction paradigm factors of being satisfied with marital issues and of perceived attitudinal similarity would have an impact upon marital happiness as well as perceived partner understanding, which…

  5. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Marital Relationship Predicts Daughters' Pubertal Development Two Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of 50 4th grade girls reported on their marital relationships and then, two years later, rated their daughters' pubertal development. Fathers' ratings of marital dissatisfaction, mothers' ratings of less emotional support from husbands, and both parents' ratings of aversive marital conflict were correlated with more advanced pubertal…

  6. Marital Happiness and Psychological Well-Being across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from six waves of the Study of Marital Instability over the Life Course (N = 1,998), we conducted a latent class analysis to test for distinct marital happiness trajectories. We found three distinct marital happiness trajectories: low, middle, and high happiness. Initial levels of life happiness were strongly associated with membership…

  7. Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are a rare central nervous system malformation, representing only 1% of all intracranial masses in newborns. Primary (congenital arachnoid cysts are benign accumulation of clear fluid between the dura and the brain substance throughout the cerebrospinal axis in relation to the arachnoid membrane and do not communicate with the subarachnoid space. Secondary (acquired arachnoid cysts result from hemorrhage, trauma, and infection and usually communicate with the subarachnoid space. The common locations of arachnoid cysts are the surface of the brain at the level of main brain fissures, such as sylvian, rolandic and interhemispheric fissures, sella turcica, the anterior cranial fossa, and the middle cranial fossa. Arachnoid cysts may be associated with ventriculomegaly and dysgenesis of corpus callosum. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have led to the increased diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts. This article provides a thorough review of fetal arachnoid cysts, including prenatal diagnosis, differential diagnosis and associated chromosomal abnormalities, as well as comprehensive illustrations of perinatal imaging findings of fetal arachnoid cysts. Prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hypoechoic lesions should include a differential diagnosis of arachnoid cysts and prompt genetic investigations.

  9. Prenatal care utilization in New York City: comparison of measures and assessment of their significance for urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, J D; Jaffee, K D

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers policy and programmatic consequences of shifting measurement of prenatal care utilization from the Kessner Index (KI) to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index (APNCUI). In gauging the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, the KI considers the timing of prenatal care initiation and the number of prenatal visits. The APNCUI also considers both timing of initiation and number of visits, but the approach taken to conceptualizing and measuring these two aspects of prenatal care utilization is more refined. We used birth certificates to calculate the KI and the APNGUI for 217,183 New York City (NYC) births in 1991-1992. We used cross-tabulations and bivariate odds ratios to compare the classifications resulting from the respective indexes. The APNCUI detected some important dimensions of the problem of inadequate prenatal care use that are not evident when using the KI. The proportion of births with inadequate use increases from 18% with the KI to 35% with the APNGUI. Groups of women at elevated risk for inadequate use are the same, but the KI understates significantly the risk for Hispanic women, teens, women who are less well educated, and those on WIC and Medicaid. The APNGUI yields a fuller picture of the degree to which some urban women are at risk for inadequate prenatal care use. Use of the APNGUI in quality assurance, monitoring, and research is recommended.

  10. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  11. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  12. Developmental Patterns in Marital Satisfaction: Another Look at Covenant Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Sanchez, Laura A.; Krivickas, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first 7 years between couples in covenant versus standard marriages. The authors analyzed data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998-2004, using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. When the sample was…

  13. The Relationship Between Self Concept and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William M., Jr.; Valine, Warren J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self concept and marital adjustment for married students and their spouses in a commuter college setting. The sample consisted of a random selection of 50 "both spouses commuting" couples, 50 "husband only commuting" couples, and 50 "wife only commuting" couples (300 subjects).…

  14. Predicting Marital Success with PREPARE: A Predictive Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J.; Olson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the utility of the premarital inventory, PREPARE, in predicting marital success. Conducted a three-year follow-up study with couples (N=164) who took PREPARE during their engagement. Found that the PREPARE scores from three months before marriage could predict with 80-90% accuracy which couples were separated and divorced from those that…

  15. Affect and Causal Attribution in Marital Conflicts: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David M.

    Recent attempts to predict marital success or failure have explored the explanations couples offer for interpersonal events. To investigate whether positive and negative affect would lead to different causal attributions in a conflict-resolution conversation, 20 married couples were asked to observe a conflict-resolution and a control conversation…

  16. Impediment or Stimulant? Marital Status and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Saul D.

    1973-01-01

    There is conflict between the role of wife and the role of full time graduate student. It appears that marital status has an effect upon the student roles of both men and women; greatest success'' obtains upon married men and divorced women. (Author/JB)

  17. Sexual Attraction and Romantic Love: Forgotten Variables in Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses lack of attention in marriage therapy literature to romantic love and sexual attraction. Notes that few guidelines are available to therapists concerning how to deal with love as an issue in therapy. Presents model based on assumption that marriage problems are emotional in nature and that success of marital therapists depends upon skill…

  18. Marital Naming Plans among Students at Four Evangelical Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Dougherty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasingly egalitarian gender roles in the United States, when the wedding bells ring for heterosexual couples, husband and wife still commonly emerge sharing the man’s last name. Largely missing from previous studies of marital name change is the influence of religion. We examine the marital naming plans of 199 students from four Evangelical colleges. Nearly all these students planned to marry and more than 80% planned to follow the traditional naming pattern for their gender. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression models reveal that private prayer and more literal views of the Bible correspond to plans for a traditional marital surname. Yet, only a small minority of students evoked religious language to justify their surname choice. Gender roles, identity, and tradition were dominant themes in their explanations. Whether recognized or not, personal religiosity and the model of marriage cultivated in religious families guide the marital naming intentions of Evangelical students. Thus, religion operates as an invisible influence shaping ideals of marriage and family within Evangelical subculture.

  19. Men's economic status and marital transitions of fragile families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sassler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men's ability to fill the provider role remains a consistent requirement for marriage across the class spectrum and cross-nationally. Fiscal concerns appear less salient for transitions to parenthood or to informal unions such as cohabitation. Objective: This paper evaluates whether marital expectations and marital transitions of new mothers are associated with the economic characteristics of father. Methods: Analyses are based on observed and imputed data on fathers from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study. Logistic regression models assess factors predicting mothers' initial expectations of marrying their baby's father, and transitions into marital unions by the second interview. Results: Most women expect to marry their baby's father, although estimates are lower when men's data are repaired by imputation. Multivariate analyses find mother's marital expectations are most strongly associated with men's educational attainment, but not with men's earnings at the child's birth. Transitions to marriage are positively associated with men's earnings levels, although estimates are considerably lower than previously reported thresholds. Furthermore, the odds of marrying do not increase monotonically as men's income level rises once missing data are imputed. Conclusions: Theories regarding prerequisites for marriage must better account for growing heterogeneity in the unmarried population. Standard economic predictors of marriage for the overall population are less applicable for this sample of new parents. Ultimately, this study highlights the importance of including information on missing fathers. Excluding them may produce misleading statistical associations between men's economic measures and women's marriage.

  20. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  1. Marital Adjustment to Adult Diabetes: Interpersonal Congruence and Spouse Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated adjustment to insulin-treated diabetes among 20 adult patients and spouses. Found illness-related perceptions of patients and spouses were positively correlated and discrepancies decreased with increasing duration of marriage after diagnosis. Marital satisfaction of spouses was negatively related to knowledge about diabetes,…

  2. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  3. Technical Considerations in the Behavioral-Marital Treatment of Agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Outlines a treatment approach integrating behavioral and marital interventions for working with agoraphobics and their partners. Where interactions arouse anxiety, agoraphobes and significant others become embroiled in a circular transaction which causes mutual resentment and entrenched symptomatology. Suggests a method to help develop a…

  4. The marital dynamics of conflict over the division of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    1997-01-01

    The division of labor as a source of conflict is a concern for many couples. This study goes beyond the mere prediction of the amount of marital conflict by scrutinizing the relationship between spouses' discontent with the division of labor, their conflict interaction patterns, and subsequent outco

  5. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  6. The marital dynamics of conflict over the division of labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    1997-01-01

    The division of labor as a source of conflict is a concern for many couples. This study goes beyond the mere prediction of the amount of marital conflict by scrutinizing the relationship between spouses' discontent with the division of labor, their conflict interaction patterns, and subsequent outco

  7. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...... of consanguinity's deleterious effects affecting an entire human population is provided...

  8. 31 CFR 28.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marital or parental status. 28.445 Section 28.445 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON... same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital...

  9. Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing, Marital Prospects and Mate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.; Mellott, Leanna M.

    2005-01-01

    We apply marital search theory to examine whether out-of-wedlock childbearing affects mate selection patterns among American women. Using 1980-1995 CPS data, we apply probit models with selection to account for potential selection bias due to differences in "marriageability" between women in and not in unions. Compared to those without unmarried…

  10. Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…

  11. Social Change, Premarital Non-Family Experiences, and Marital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, Lynette F.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of non-family experiences on marital relationships in a setting characterized by high levels of arranged marriage until recently. Drawing on theoretical frameworks for the study of families and social change, we argue that the expansion of opportunities for non-family experiences will increase the likelihood of marital…

  12. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  13. Behavioral Marital Therapy: Current Trends in Research, Assessment and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.

    1980-01-01

    Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) is clinically useful because it includes elaborating procedures, modifying the spouse's self-defeating cognitions, and moving toward early intervention and prevention. Each article in this issue of American Journal of Family Therapy focuses on innovations in BMT, either in research or practice. (Author/NRB)

  14. Economic Pressure and Marital Conflict in Retirement-Aged Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Jeffrey; Yorgason, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Tests of the relationship between economic difficulties and marital distress have generally excluded retirement-aged couples. Given the aging U.S. population and the upcoming retirement of the baby boom cohort, this research gap is problematic. To rectify this omission, this study uses longitudinal data from the National Survey of Families and…

  15. Marital history and survival after a heart attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E; Nelson, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197). We found that adults who were never married (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73), currently divorced (OR = 1.70), or widowed (OR = 1.34) were at significantly greater risk of dying after a heart attack than adults who were continuously married; and the risks were not uniform over time. We also found that the risk of dying increased by 12% for every additional marital loss and decreased by 7% for every one-tenth increase in the proportion of years married. After accounting for more than a dozen socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, and physiological factors, we found that current marital status remained the most robust indicator of survival following a heart attack. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of life course inequalities in chronic disease and directions for future research.

  16. Social Change, Premarital Non-Family Experiences, and Marital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelter, Lynette F.; Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of non-family experiences on marital relationships in a setting characterized by high levels of arranged marriage until recently. Drawing on theoretical frameworks for the study of families and social change, we argue that the expansion of opportunities for non-family experiences will increase the likelihood of marital…

  17. Transient Structured Distance as a Maneuver in Marital Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Bernard L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Experience with 73 cases has shown the value of Transient Structured Distance as a maneuver in marriage therapy. While the TSD is a radical form of intervention with risks of anxiety reactions, homosexual panic, or divorce, it has proved effective with difficult forms of acute or chronic marital disharmony. (Author)

  18. Marital Values and Factors Associated With Marriage Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Brenda Clanton; And Others

    The breakdown of marriage within American society is a serious problem as evidenced by high divorce rates and numerous separations and family problems. A Marriage Values Questionnaire, developed to determine reasons for marrying and staying married and the impact of religion on marital stability, was completed by 305 subjects, ranging in age from…

  19. Locus of Control and Marital Stability: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, John A.; Bahr, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated relationship between locus of control and marital stability of young men. Factors derived from locus of control measures included leadership, personal, and fate scales. Results indicated the only significant difference was on the leadership scale between men remaining married and those who did not. (RC)

  20. Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assess how per capita expenditure on commercially prepared food as a proportion of total food expenditure varies by the sex and marital status of the head of the household. Design: Prospective cohort study, data collected by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Setting: United States.…

  1. Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Dissolution: An Examination of Recent Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing question remains for family researchers: Why does a positive association between cohabitation and marital dissolution exist when one of the primary reasons to cohabit is to test relationship compatibility? Drawing on recently collected data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, the authors examined whether premarital…

  2. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  3. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  4. Effect of an Educational-Supportive Program Based on Roy Adaptation Model on Marital Satisfaction in Mastectomy Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Shahed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding nurses' significant role in improving quality of marital life in mastectomy patients and their families, implication of the adaptation model can help nurses reaching this goal. Aim: This study aimed to determine Effect of an educational-supportive program based on Roy This quasi-experimental study was performed on 69 mastectomy patients receiving chemotherapy in 2013 in clinical services in Tehran, Iran. The samples were randomly allocated to two groups. The data collection instrument was ENRICH Marital Satisfaction scale (2011. In the experimental group, maladaptive behaviors and their stimuli were determined by the questionnaire, and then adaptive strategies were implemented in 45 days. The program was based on support (patients instruction, peer group, weblog, meeting with the participants’ spouses, and three-month follow-up using behaviors checklist. Control group patients received the regular treatment sessions. T-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 19. Results: In experimental group, paired sample t-test reflected an increase in marital satisfaction from 24.7±2.6 before to 32.9±3.5 after the intervention (P=0.03. However, no significant differences were observed in the control group from 26/7±4/6 before to 26/5±4/8 after the intervention in this regard (P=0/63.   Implications for Practice: Roy Adaptation Model can be used as a framework for designing educational-supportive programs to improve quality of marital life in mastectomy patients receiving chemotherapy.

  5. Sexual Satisfaction and its Relation to Marital Happiness in Iranians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rahmani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Marital satisfaction is affected by many factors. Satisfaction with one's sexual life tends to be a pivotal factor in marital satisfaction. In Iran, Socio-cultural and political limitations are obstacles for sexuality-related studies, therefore, in­sufficient information is available in the area. Unique in its own, in this paper we report how sexual relationships relate to mari­tal satisfaction among Iranians."nMethods: This descriptive-correlation study was conducted in 2007 in Tehran, continuous sampling was used to recruit 292 mar­ried men, and women aged 19-58 yr from selected hospitals in Tehran while visiting their hospitalized relatives. Some­times the participants were couple too. Three questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using de­scriptive and inferential statistics (x2، Fisher and Anova with SPSS."nResults: Marital satisfaction significantly relates to sexual satisfaction (P= 0/00. There was also a significant relation be­tween sexual satisfaction and the following variables: age difference of couples (P= 0.04, length of marital life (P= 0.05, and a drug abused participant (P= 0.007. Of these variables, only the age difference of couples significantly relates to mari­tal satisfaction (0.00."nConclusion: Findings suggest that sexual satisfaction plays a seminal role in marital satisfaction of Iranians. Therefore, we need to develop culturally appropriate practical strategies to improve Iranian couples' awareness in sexuality issues as well as training them in communication skills through their sexual encounters.

  6. Unhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Daniel N.; Booth, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The present study shows that long-term, low-quality marriages have significant negative effects on overall well-being. We utilize a nationally representative longitudinal study with a multi-item marital quality scale that allows us to track unhappy marriages over a 12-year period and to assess marital happiness along many dimensions. Remaining…

  7. Examining marital violence in India: review and recommendations for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Meghna; Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Marital violence has been recognized globally as a grave public health concern with devastating consequences affecting the physical, reproductive, sexual and psychological health of women. This article is a narrative review about marital violence in India, an understudied subtype of domestic violence. We include both theoretical and empirical studies of legal definitions, incidence and prevalence, correlates of marital violence and the consequences of such violence on survivors (N = 18). In addition to examining the sociocultural context and correlates of marital violence in India, we discuss the implications of current knowledge and recommendations for reducing and responding to marital violence.

  8. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  9. Marital Happiness and Psychological Well-Being Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp Dush, Claire M; Taylor, Miles G; Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2008-04-01

    Using data from six waves of the Study of Marital Instability over the Life Course (N = 1,998), we conducted a latent class analysis to test for distinct marital happiness trajectories. We found three distinct marital happiness trajectories: low, middle, and high happiness. Initial levels of life happiness were strongly associated with membership in the marital happiness trajectories and with various demographic and attitude-related control variables. Using fixed effects regression with time-varying covariates, we also found that marital happiness trajectory membership was associated with subsequent changes in both life happiness and depressive symptoms. All respondents experienced a decrease in life happiness between Wave 1 and the end of their observed time in their marriage, but respondents in the high marital happiness trajectory experienced the smallest decline. Respondents in both the high and middle marital happiness trajectories also experienced a decline in depressive symptoms across time. Intervention and policy implications are discussed.

  10. Early father–daughter relationship and demographic determinants of spousal marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsheikh Ali A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Alsheikh Ali,1 Fawzi Shaker Daoud2 1Counseling Psychology Program, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Hashemite University, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: This study examined several dimensions of early father–daughter relationship as predictors of marital satisfaction among 494 respondents. Descriptive comparative approach was used in result analysis. The Father Presence Questionnaire and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire were used, in addition to a number of demographic variables. Results showed that only physical relationship with the father, and perceptions of father’s influence, had a positive significant impact on wives’ marital satisfaction. Of all domains, only positive feelings about the father had a negative impact on the husband's marital satisfaction. Most demographic variables had statistically significant effect on marital satisfaction. Sociocultural implications for marital satisfaction for wives and husbands are discussed. Keywords: early father–daughter relationship, demographic, spousal marital satisfaction

  11. Prenatal exposure to bereavement and type-2 diabetes: a Danish longitudinal population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in

  12. Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Martha; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Li, Mengying; Caruso, Deanna; Hong, Xiumei; Kaczaniuk, Jamie; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Fallin, M Daniele; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-08-11

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior studies have examined prenatal MIA exposure and ASD risk in an under-represented minority population of African ancestry. To overcome these limitations, we estimated the association between prenatal exposure to fever and maternal infections and ASD in a prospective birth cohort of an understudied minority population in a city in the United States. No association was found between prenatal exposure to genitourinary infections or flu and the risk of ASD in a nested sample of 116 ASD cases and 988 typically developing controls in crude or adjusted analyses. Prenatal exposure to fever was associated with increased ASD risk (aOR 2.02 [1.04-3.92]) after adjustment for educational attainment, marital status, race, child sex, maternal age, birth year, gestational age, and maternal smoking. This effect may be specific to fever during the third trimester (aOR 2.70 [1.00-7.29]). Our findings provide a focus for future research efforts and ASD prevention strategies across diverse populations. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We looked at whether activation of the immune system during pregnancy increases the chance a child will develop ASD. We examined 116 children with ASD and 988 children without ASD that came from a predominantly low income, urban, minority population. We found that

  13. Problemas conjugais e outros fatores associados a transtornos psiquiátricos do pós-parto Marital problems and other factors associated with postpartum psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Roseli Kerber

    2011-06-01

    . According to the SRQ, 34.4% of the mothers and 25.4% of the fathers had a suspicion of psychiatric disorder. Clinical assessments using DSM-IV criteria detected larger numbers. In the analysis of the whole group of women, low family income (OR=0.8; p<0.05 and presence of previous maternal disorder (OR=2.2; p<0.05 were associated. When only women living with partners were assessed (n=116, there was an exclusive association with quality of marital relationship (OR=7.3; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the need of investigating the presence of maternal psychiatric disorder during prenatal care, introduces data about the father, and especially, the importance of routine assessment of the marital relationship.

  14. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  15. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  16. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U;

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  17. Prenatal Yoga: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promote your baby's health? Before you start prenatal yoga, understand the range of possible benefits, as well as what a typical class entails ... centering and focused breathing. Research suggests that prenatal yoga is safe ... many benefits for pregnant women and their babies. Research suggests ...

  18. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  19. Prenatal exclusion of the HHH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R G; Green, A; Hall, S; McKeown, C

    1995-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome is described by the analysis of ornithine incorporation in second-trimester cultured amniotic fluid cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted and confirmed in the newborn child. This is the third reported prenatal diagnosis for this disorder and the second predicting an unaffected fetus.

  20. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  1. Maternal education and marital fertility in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimere-dan, O

    1993-01-01

    World fertility data were used for Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria. Estimates of marital fertility and its proportional reduction owing to the proximate determinants were computed using Fertility Exposure Analysis (FEA). Eight exposure states were identified in an interval of 3 years before the survey. Proximate determinants were estimated from an equation for subsequent regression analysis, which also included socioeconomic variables, e.g., place of residence, religion, work pattern, and husband's education. Except for the 25-29 age group in Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire and the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire, age specific marital fertility was higher for women who had between 4 and 6 years of formal education than for those who had 7 or more years of schooling. Marital age specific fertility was higher for women who had 4-6 years of education than for uneducated women, except from the 2 oldest age groups in Cote d'Ivoire and the oldest age groups in Ghana. On the other hand, lower fertility also existed in poorly educated women in Cameroon, in the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and also in 20-24 and 30-34 age groups in Nigeria. Women with no education had lower fertility than those with 1-3 years and 4-6 years of education. Breastfeeding made the greatest contribution to the reduction of marital fertility for the educational categories except for the most educated women in Cote d'Ivoire. Contraception had a weak effect on fertility in Nigeria and Cameroon but a strong effect in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Postpartum abstinence had a small effect since the 1970s except in Nigeria where it depressed marital fertility by over 10%. In these 4 countries differences existed in the patterns of educational differentials in fertility-reducing impacts of the proximate determinants. The impact of maternal education on marital fertility is not uniformly predictable in all African countries.

  2. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  4. Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R

    2013-06-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones.

  5. Predicting marital stability and divorce in newlywed couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrère, S; Buehlman, K T; Gottman, J M; Coan, J A; Ruckstuhl, L

    2000-03-01

    A longitudinal study with 95 newlywed couples examined the power of the Oral History Interview to predict stable marital relationships and divorce. A principal-components analysis of the interview with the couples (Time 1) identified a latent variable, perceived marital bond, that was significant in predicting which couples would remain married or divorce within the first 5 years of their marriage. A discriminant function analysis of the newlywed oral history data predicted, with 87.4% accuracy, those couples whose marriages remained intact or broke up at the Time 2 data collection point. The oral history data predicted with 81% accuracy those couples who remained married or divorced at the Time 3 data collection point. This study offers support for causal linkages between perceptual biases and selective attention on the path of marriage.

  6. Protection of the weaker partner in the marital property agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many jurisdictions, spouses/common-law partners can choose which matrimonial property regime they want to be applied on their property relations. Viewed comparatively, such freedom exists in Western European countries for some time, but recently, both Eastern and Central European countries introduced the possibility of concluding marital property agreement in their legal systems, which changes the default marital property regime. However, the spouses do not have an absolute freedom when concluding such a contract. Restriction of freedom is due to the fact that the contracting parties are specific subjects - married persons, between whom exists personal relationships, which requires caution and some sort of protection of the weaker partner. This paper analyzes the legal mechanisms to protect weaker partners in domestic family law and in a comparative European law.

  7. Marital Dissolution in Japan: Recent Trends and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Iwasawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marriages are now likely to end in divorce. Estimates of educational differentials also indicate a rapid increase in the extent to which divorce is concentrated at lower levels of education. While educational differentials were negligible in 1980, by 2000, women who had not gone beyond high school were far more likely to be divorced than those with more education.

  8. [Influence of prenatal hospitalization on parental stressful experience in the case of a premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisod-Harari, M; Borghini, A; Hohlfeld, P; Forcada-Guex, M; Muller-Nix, C

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the influence of prenatal hospitalization before a premature birth, on the parental stressful experience, parental symptoms of post-traumatic stress and quality of parent-infant interaction during the hospitalization in neonatology. 51 preterm infants born and 25 full term infants control. Four groups: controls, premature without prenatal hospitalization, premature with a short (premature with a long (≥ 8 days) prenatal hospitalization. the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU, Miles et al., 1993 [14]) and the Perinatal PTSD Questionnaire (PPQ, Quinnell and Hynan, 1999 [16]). When prenatal hospitalization of the mother occurred, parents acknowledged increased stress induced by the environmental factors during the infant's hospitalization. Furthermore, mothers from the group with a short prenatal hospitalization presented significantly more symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Parents presenting more symptoms of post-traumatic stress describe a significantly more difficult interaction with their infant in neonatology. This study highlights the necessity to deliver special care to women hospitalized shortly (premature baby. This group is at high risk of presenting post-traumatic stress symptoms, which could have a negative impact on the quality of parent-infant interactions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Marital Processes around Depression: A Gendered and Relational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence of the importance of marriage and marital processes for mental health, little is known about the interpersonal processes around depression within marriage and the extent to which these processes are gendered. We use a mixed methods approach to explore the importance of gender in shaping processes around depression within marriage; we approach this in two ways. First, using quantitative longitudinal analysis of 2,601 couples from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)...

  10. The Peter Pan and Wendy syndrome: a marital dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrio, C

    1982-06-01

    A marital system is described which features an unfaithful and narcissistic husband, Peter Pan, and a long suffering and depressed wife, Wendy. The dynamics of their individual adjustments are examined as well as the symbiotic nature of the dyadic relationship. Other characters take their parts--Tinker Bell, Tiger Lily, and Little Lost Boys. Peter's infidelities belie a firm attachment to his Wendy/mother whilst she depends upon him for protection from forbidden impulses.

  11. The consequences of early marriage on marital dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, D D; Davidson, B; Sollie, D L; Lowe, G D; Peek, C W

    1987-01-01

    This study is concerned with the negative effects of early marriage on marital stability. "The focus on this paper is an analysis of a path model which includes the estimated effects of antecedents of early marriage, early marriage and education on the probability of divorce. Findings using the [U.S.] General Social Surveys support research that suggests that early marriage is the most important varialbe influencing divorce. Further, little influence of the early marriage measure through education was found."

  12. MARITAL RELATIONSHIP AND EXPECTATIONS ABOUT PARENTHOOD IN GAY COUPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Meletti, Alexandre Trevisani; Scorsolini-Comin,Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the processes of construction of the marital relationship and expectations about parenthood in same-sex couples. It has been interviewed four gay couples (four men and four women) who have been living together for four years, on average. Semi-structured interviews have been used and the technique of the life history has been also performed in an individual appliance. They have also been audio taped, fully and literally transcribed. The content analysis ...

  13. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  16. Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa María; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Márquez, Javier; Fajardo, Manuel; Rivas, Eloy; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

  17. Importance of Marital Characteristics and Marital Satisfaction: A Comparison of Asian Indians in Arranged Marriages and Americans in Marriages of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Jayamala; Benshoff, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To date, little research has been published related to cross-cultural differences in such marital factors as love, intimacy, happiness, and satisfaction. The present study compares factors contributing to marital satisfaction and examines correlations between the importance of these factors and the level of satisfaction for three groups: Asian…

  18. Using marital status and continuous marital satisfaction ratings to predict depressive symptoms in married and unmarried women with systemic sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as s

  19. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis : A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as s

  20. Marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors covary with life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2012-12-01

    Theories of "life history evolution" suggest that individuals might adjust the timing of marriage and reproduction, as well as their propensity to terminate a marriage or pregnancy and invest in skill development, in response to indicators of the locally prevailing level of life expectancy. In particular, such theories generate the hypothesis that foreshortened time horizons lead to hastened reproduction and marriage whereas lengthier time horizons increase the likelihood of reproductive and marital termination and lead to greater investment in education. Here, I show that the scheduling and occurrence of marital and reproductive behavior (including both initiation and termination), as well as levels of educational attainment and investment, covary with life expectancy, even after controlling for the effects of affluence. In analyses of variation in marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors at two jurisdictional levels in Canada, life expectancy was positively correlated with patterns of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, divorce, abortion, conferral of high school and higher education degrees (with the exception of the trades) and mean number of years of schooling. The large and highly consistent relationships observed between life expectancy and the behaviors under investigation suggest that these associations may be mediated by individual "perceptions" of life expectancy, though more research is needed before conclusions can be firmly reached.

  1. Sexual Conduct before Marriage and Subsequent Marital Happiness in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the links between wives' marital happiness and premarital sex and related consequences in Shanghai during 1980sMethods About 8 000 newly married couples were followed up at the 3rd and 15th month after their marriage.Results About 12% of them reported premarital intercourse. This proportion was higher among less educated couples with blue-collar jobs. About 63% of the sexually active caused pregnant before marriage. Most pregnancies were legitimised by marriage but 1/4 ended in induced abortion. Over 3/4 (78%) of wives reported that they were happy with the marriage in general, while 72% of wives were happy with the sexual aspects of their marriage. Results showed a strong relationship between marital happiness and the occurrence of a premarital abortion. Less educated and late-marring women were more likely to assess their marriage neutrally or negatively.Conclusion Unhappiness with marriage in general and with marital sexual life were significantly higher among women with premarital abortion, and among less educated and late-marrying women.

  2. The social context of marital happiness in urban Indian couples: interplay of intimacy and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, Shaifali

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the happiness of 182 married, urban Hindu husbands and wives. Prior research emphasizes that the processes mediating well-being diverge across cultures with personal desires not impacting the happiness of non-Western couples. However, with globalization as self needs become important, barometers of happiness such as intimacy and conflict in a relationship assume a critical role in the quality and longevity of marriage, even for non-Western marriages in a contemporary India. Participants were 91 Indian couples, married an average of 11 years, from three socioeconomic classes, three family structures, and arranged and love marriages. Results reveal that happy couples, compared with unhappy couples, reported agreement, empathy, validation, support, and fulfilled expectations. Couples' experience and expression of intimacy, affected by social context, also predicted enhanced levels of happiness in marriage while conflict had a negative effect on marital happiness. This research suggests how personal desires may be transforming cultural practices.

  3. Prenatal care and subsequent birth intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal care generally includes contraceptive and health education that may help women to control their subsequent fertility. However, research has not examined whether receipt of prenatal care is associated with subsequent birthspacing. Longitudinally linked birth records from 113,662 New Jersey women who had had a first birth in 1996-2000 were used to examine associations between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for social and demographic characteristics, hospital and year of birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. Women who had not obtained prenatal care until the second or third trimester, or at all, were more likely than those who had had first-trimester care to have a second child within 18 months, rather than in 18-59 months (odds ratios, 1.2-1.6). Similarly, women whose care had been inadequate were more likely than those who had had adequate care to have a short subsequent birth interval (1.2). The associations were robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals, and were strongest for mothers with less than 16 years of education. Providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to ensure that these women receive information about family planning. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Prenatal care utilization in Mississippi: racial disparities and implications for unfavorable birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Reagan G; Zhang, Lei; Zotti, Marianne E; Graham, Juanita

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study is to identify racial disparities in prenatal care (PNC) utilization and to examine the relationship between PNC and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and infant mortality in Mississippi. Retrospective cohort from 1996 to 2003 linked Mississippi birth and infant death files was used. Analysis was limited to live-born singleton infants born to non-Hispanic white and black women (n = 292,776). PNC was classified by Kotelchuck's Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Factors associated with PTB, LBW and infant death were identified using multiple logistic regression after controlling for maternal age, education, marital status, place of residence, tobacco use and medical risk. About one in five Mississippi women had less than adequate PNC, and racial disparities in PNC utilization were observed. Black women delayed PNC, received too few visits, and were more likely to have either "inadequate PNC" (P care" (P inadequate PNC compared to white women. Regardless of race, "no care" and "inadequate PNC" were strong risk factors for PTB, LBW and infant death. We provide empirical evidence to support the existence of racial disparities in PNC utilization and infant birth outcomes in Mississippi. Further study is needed to explain racial differences in PNC utilization. However, this study suggests that public health interventions designed to improve PNC utilization among women might reduce unfavorable birth outcomes especially infant mortality.

  5. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  6. Marital hostility and child sleep problems: direct and indirect associations via hostile parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Mannering, Anne M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined two family process predictors of parent-reported child sleep problems at 4.5 years in an adoption sample: marital hostility and hostile parenting. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to child sleep problems via hostile parenting. Mothers' marital hostility at 9 months was associated with child sleep problems at 4.5 years. Fathers' marital hostility at 9 months evidenced an indirect effect on child sleep problems at 4.5 years via fathers' hostile parenting at 27 months. Findings were significant even after controlling for genetic influences on child sleep (i.e., birth parent internalizing disorders). The findings suggest targets for prevention and intervention programs that are potentially modifiable (e.g., hostile parenting, marital hostility), and inform theory by demonstrating that relations among marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child sleep problems are significant after accounting for genetic influences.

  7. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

  8. Psychosocial adjustment and marital intimacy among partners of patients with breast cancer: a comparison study with partners of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the psychosocial adjustment of 70 partners of patients with breast cancer by comparing their emotional adjustment and quality of life (QoL) with 70 partners of women without cancer. The role of marital intimacy in their adjustment and the moderating effect of group type were analyzed. The partners of patients with breast cancer presented higher levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology; poor social, psychological, general and physical QoL; and higher levels of intimacy. The moderation analysis showed that higher levels of intimacy predicted lower levels of depression and anxiety and greater QoL only among the partners of cancer patients.

  9. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between Job Variables of Life Satisfaction and Marital Satisfaction of Lecturers

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Metehan; TÜMKAYA, Songül

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the job variables of life satisfaction and marital satisfaction of lecturers. It is descriptive study comparing the marital satisfaction and life satisfaction in terms of gender, academic status, working year and working hours. The sample of the study consisted of voluntary and married 119 lecturers (40 female, 79 male). Data collection instruments were Marital Adjustment Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale. In terms of gender va...

  11. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  12. Prenatal genotyping of Gaucher disease in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaya Elgawhary

    2013-07-24

    ]. ... and prenatal testing for people with family history of GD should be ... 130 children treated under the project and every year 12–15 new cases are ... or maternal trauma, infection, vaginal bleeding, feto-maternal hemorrhage ...

  13. Ready, Willing, and Able? Impediments to the Onset of Marital Fertility Decline in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, J David

    2016-12-01

    This study relies on IPUMS samples of the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 censuses, aggregate census data, and the timing of state laws criminalizing abortion to construct regional estimates of marital fertility in the United States and estimate correlates of marital fertility. The results show a significant lag between the onset of marital fertility decline in the nation's northeastern census divisions and its onset in western and southern census divisions. Empirical models indicate the presence of cultural, economic, and legal impediments to the diffusion of marital fertility control and illustrate the need for more inclusive models of fertility decline.

  14. Does infertility cause marital benefit? An epidemiological study of 2250 women and men in fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Holstein, Bjørn; Christensen, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) marital benefit, e.g., that infertility has strengthen the marriage and brought the partners closer together among people beginning fertility treatment and (ii) communication and coping strategies as predictors of marital benefit 12 months later. METHODS: A prospective...... the infertility as a secret, difficult marital communication, and using active-avoidance coping (e.g., avoid being with pregnant women or children, turning to work to take mind off things) were among men significant predictors for low marital benefit. No significant predictors were identified among women...

  15. I just want to be left alone: Daily overload and marital behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meredith S; Repetti, Rena L; Robles, Theodore F; Reynolds, Bridget M

    2016-08-01

    Stressful, busy days have been linked with increases in angry and withdrawn marital behavior. The process by which stressors in 1 domain, such as work, affect an individual’s behavior in another domain, such as the marital relationship, is known as spillover. Using 56 days of daily diary reports in a diverse sample of 47 wives and 39 husbands, this study examined associations between daily experiences of overload and 3 marital behaviors: overt expressions of anger, disregard of the spouse’s needs (“disregard”), and reductions in affection and disclosure (“distancing”). Two potential mechanisms by which daily overload spills over into marital behavior were examined: negative mood and the desire to avoid social interaction. Among husbands, negative mood mediated the association between overload and angry behavior. Associations between overload and wives’ angry behavior, as well as overload and husbands’ and wives’ disregard of their partners’ needs, were mediated by both negative mood and the desire to withdraw socially. Desire to withdraw, but not negative mood, mediated the association between overload and distancing behavior among husbands and wives. In addition, associations between marital satisfaction and spouses’ typical marital behavior, as well as behavioral responses to overload, were examined. Husbands’ and wives’ average levels of expressed anger and disregard, and husbands’ distancing, were associated with lower marital satisfaction in 1 or both partners. Both spouses reported lower marital satisfaction if husbands tended to express marital anger, disregard, or distancing on busy, overloaded days.

  16. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paublo M,Mario; Bustos V.,Juan Carlos; Ramírez H,Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas.

  17. Is gestational weight gain associated with diet quality during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dayeon; Bianchi, Leonard; Chung, Hwan; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Song, Won O

    2014-08-01

    The gestational weight gain (GWG) guidelines of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) aim to optimize birth outcomes and reduce pregnancy complications. The GWG guidelines are set based on the prepregnancy weight status and optimal weight gain at different trimesters of pregnancy. Dietary references intakes (DRIs) of the IOM are set for each trimester of pregnancy for energy intake and other essential nutrients by age groups (≤ 18, 19-30, 31-51 years). The DRIs, however, do not take into account the differing energy and nutrient requirements of women with different prepregnancy weights. In this cross-sectional study, we tested the hypothesis that diet quality during pregnancy is associated with adequate GWG at different stages of pregnancy. Diet quality during pregnancy was assessed from a 24-h recall measured by the healthy eating index of 2005 (HEI-2005). Both GWG and diet quality data were from 490 pregnant women aged 16-43 years included in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the US, during which pregnant women were oversampled. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, trimester of gestation, race/ethnicity, education level, marital status, family poverty income ratio, daily supplement use, physical activity, and prepregnancy BMI were used to investigate if HEI-2005 is a determinant of GWG status at different trimesters of pregnancy. We found that HEI-2005 scores were not determinants of adequate GWG, although inadequate intake of total vegetables (OR 3.8, CI 1.1-13.2, p = 0.03) and oils were associated with excessive GWG (OR 2.8, CI 1.2-6.4, p = 0.02) when covariates were controlled. Although adequate GWG was not associated with diet quality as measured by HEI-2005 during pregnancy in this study, comprehensive prenatal counseling is still important to reduce adverse birth outcomes.

  18. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  19. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  20. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.Y.F. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  2. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  3. Marital Status, Lifestyle and Dementia: A Nationwide Survey in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Fan

    Full Text Available Evidence of an association between lifestyle and marital status and risk of dementia is limited in Asia.In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey, participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 counties in Taiwan. A total of 10432 residents were assessed by a door-to-door in-person survey, among whom 7035 were normal and 929 were diagnosed with dementia using the criteria recommended by National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association. Premorbid lifestyle habits and demographic data including marital status were compared between normal subjects and participants with dementia.After adjustment for age, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, drinking, marital status, sleep habits, exercise, social engagement and co-morbidities including hypertension, diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases, an increased risk for dementia was found in people with widow or widower status (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.77 and people who used to take a nap in the afternoon (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72. Decreased risk was found in people with the habit of regular exercise (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.09-0.16, adequate night sleep (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.76 and regular social engagement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36-0.77.Our results provide preliminary evidence of possible risk-reduction effects for dementia, including regular exercise even in modest amounts, social engagement and adequate night sleep, whereas people with the widow/widower status or who used to take an afternoon nap might have increased risk of dementia.

  4. Marital conflict and adjustment: speech nonfluencies in intimate disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E L; White, K M; Speisman, J C; Costos, D

    1988-06-01

    Speech nonfluency in response to questions about the marital relationship was used to assess anxiety. Subjects were 31 husbands and 31 wives, all white, college educated, from middle- to lower-middle-class families, and ranging from 20 to 30 years of age. Three types of nonfluencies were coded: filled pauses, unfilled pauses, and repetitions. Speech-disturbance ratios were computed by dividing the sum of speech nonfluencies by the total words spoken. The results support the notion that some issues within marriage are more sensitive and/or problematic than others, and that, in an interview situation, gender interacts with question content in the production of nonfluencies.

  5. The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2013-08-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.

  6. Marital Dissolution and Child Educational Outcomes in San Borja, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopkowski, Kristin

    2016-12-01

    Serial monogamy is likely an adaptive mating strategy for women when the expected future fitness gains with a different partner are greater than expected future fitness with one's current partner. Using interview data from more than 400 women in San Borja, Bolivia, discrete-time event history analyses and random effects regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of marital dissolution, separated by remarriage status, and child educational outcomes. Male income was found to be inversely associated with women's risk of "divorce and remarriage," whereas female income is positively associated with women's risk of "divorce, but not remarriage." Children of women who divorce and remarry tend to have significantly lower educational outcomes than children of married parents, but women with higher incomes are able to buffer their children from the negative educational outcomes of divorce and remarriage. Counter to predictions, there is no evidence that women with kin in the community have a significant difference in likelihood of divorce or a buffering effect of child outcomes. In conclusion, predictors of divorce differ depending on whether the woman goes on to remarry, suggesting that male income may be a better predictor of a serial monogamy strategy whereas female income predicts marital dissolution only. Thus, women who are relatively autonomous because of greater income may not benefit from remarriage.

  7. Sociomedical aspects of epileptic patients: their employment and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, K; Kawata, Y; Murakami, T; Kamata, A; Zhu, G; Mizuno, K; Okada, M; Kaneko, S

    2001-04-01

    We examined the employment and marital status of adult patients with epilepsy who did not have mental retardation and who had been treated at Hirosaki University Hospital, Hirosaki, Japan, for more than 5 years. The present study included 278 patients (142 males and 136 females) ranging from 20 to 60 years of age. We investigated the occupational status of the subjects and found that 168 had permanent jobs, but 41 patients were unemployed at the time of this survey. The proportion of the patients whose seizures were controlled at the time of this survey was 68% (114/168) in the group having permanent jobs, and 22% (9/41) in the unemployed group. Forty cases answered that they had resigned from their jobs due to occurrence of epileptic seizures. Of these patients, 13 were dismissed and 27 resigned voluntarily due to the potential for seizures. As to relationship between jobs and neuropsychiatric complications, the incidence of a past history of psychotic states in the unemployed group was significantly higher than that in the employed group. As to marital status, 13 males and 16 females (n = 29) had experienced divorce. Seven cases (two males and five females) had answered that epilepsy had been the reason for their divorce. We conclude that epilepsy or epileptic seizures have various negative effects on the patient's social life.

  8. Validation of a Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures in patients with SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumboo, J; Feng, P H; Soh, C H; Boey, M L; Thio, S; Fong, K Y

    2000-01-01

    The objective was to validate a Chinese translation of the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures (FFM and MFM) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Chinese-speaking SLE patients (n = 69) completed a self-administered questionnaire containing the FFM and MFM and assessing demographic and socio-economic status twice within a 2 week period. SLE activity, disease-related damage and quality of life were assessed using the BILAG, SLICC/ACR Damage Index and SF-36 Health Survey, respectively. Scale psychometric properties were assessed through factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, quantifying test-retest differences and known-groups construct validity. Factor analysis identified 1 factor corresponding to the FFM and 2 factors corresponding to the MFM. Internal consistency for the FFM was excellent (alpha = 0.92) while that for the MFM was acceptable (alpha = 0.62). Mean (s.d.) test-retest differences were 0.06 (1.54) points for the FFM and 0.03 (2.08) points for the MFM. 11 and 10 of 13 a priori hypotheses relating the FFM and MFM, respectively, to demographic, disease and quality of life variables were confirmed, supporting the construct validity of these scales. The Chinese FFM and MFM are valid and reliable measures of family and marital functioning in Chinese-speaking SLE patients, with psychometric properties very similar to the source English version.

  9. The prenatal roots of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  10. Premarital Cohabitation and Subsequent Marital Stability in the United States: A Reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Rao, K. Vaninadha

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relationship between cohabitation and subsequent marital dissolution among 3,300 adults in United States. Consistent with results for Sweden, found that cohabitation in United States was associated with greater hazard of dissolution even after counting time spent in unmarried cohabitation as part of marital duration. (Author/NB)

  11. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship: Their Effects on Subsequent Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roy E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of cohabitation on subsequent marital adjustment. A comparison of couples (N=54) who had lived together before marriage with couples (N=30) who had not, showed significant differences. Unexpectedly, noncohabiters obtained higher marital satisfaction scores. Possible explanations in terms of test items are suggested.…

  12. The Relationship Between Self-Concept and Marital Adjustment for Commuter College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William M.; Valine, Warren J.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made of the relationship between self-concept and the adjustment of commuter college students. Instruments used were the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. There was a significant relationship between self-concept and marital adjustment. (Author)

  13. Depressive moods and marital happiness: within-person synchrony, moderators, and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A; Breiding, Matthew J; Papp, Lauren M

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies using within-persons designs conceptually replicate and substantively extend prior research that has shown marital distress to be a robust risk factor for depression. The present investigation further extends this within-persons research tradition by increasing the frequency of assessments and by adding new moderators and measures in a sample of both newlywed (n = 24) and maritally distressed (n = 31) wives. In both samples, the average within-persons association between 21 daily assessments of wives' depressed mood and marital happiness approximated previous estimates of analogous effects (overall r = -.54). Wives reported worse depressive mood symptoms on days they experienced lower marital happiness, even after accounting for time and between-person variation in marital happiness. Each participant's within-persons mood and marital happiness association was then treated as a dependent variable to be predicted from theoretically relevant individual differences. Multilevel modeling showed that the negative within-person association between daily depressed mood and daily marital happiness was especially strong for women who were relatively high in depressive symptoms, who had avoidant attachment styles, and who were relatively low in marital adjustment.

  14. On the Relationship between Marital Opportunity and Teen Pregnancy: The Sex Ratio Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Used United Nations cross-national data to examine the relationship between low sex ratio, marital opportunity, and teen pregnancy. Geographical region, per capita gross national product, marital rate, and urban and rural status were used as control variables in analyses that utilized sex ratios to predict teen births. Overall, early childbearing…

  15. Do Marital Status and Computer Usage Really Change the Wage Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashinsky, Harry A.

    2004-01-01

    The analyses use several identification strategies and data sources to control for individual ability and determine the causal effect of marital status and computer usage on wages. The empirical results indicate that marital status and computer usage are not important causal determinants of earnings.

  16. Fathering and Mothering in the Family System: Linking Marital Hostility and Aggression in Adopted Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and…

  17. Influences on Marital Satisfaction during the Middle Stages of the Family Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Silverberg, Susan B.

    1987-01-01

    Examined influence of adolescent development, parent-adolescent relationship, and psychological characteristics of midlife adults on marital satisfaction during transitional period of the family life cycle between childhood and adolescence. Marital satisfaction during the family's adolescent years was negatively influenced by distance in the…

  18. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  19. Behavioral Cues in the Judgment of Marital Satisfaction: A Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, W. Stephen; Weiss, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    Forty undergraduate judges watched videotaped interactions of couples and rated their marital satisfaction based on certain behavioral cues. Results indicate: untrained judges were able to discriminate marital satisfaction/distress with significant validity; judges' ratings were correlated with couples' aversive behavior; and the actuarial…

  20. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…