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Sample records for premier ehec assay

  1. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kilic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless for human. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common member of a group of pathogenic E. coli strains known variously as enterohaemorrhagic, verocytotoxin-producing, or Shiga-toxin-producing organisms. EHEC bacterium is the major cause of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The reservoir of this pathogen appears to be mainly cattle and other ruminants such as camels. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 387-388

  2. [EHEC carriage in ruminants and probiotic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Evelyne; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bertin, Yolande; Martin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause human outbreaks which can lead to a severe illness such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), particularly in young children. The gastrointestinal tract of cattle and other ruminants is the principal reservoir of EHEC strains and outbreaks have been associated with direct contact with the farm environment, and with the consumption of meat, dairy products, water and fruit or vegetable contaminated with ruminant manure. Several outbreaks occurred these last years in France. In Brazil, although STEC carriage in ruminants is important, human cases due to EHEC are fairly rare. In order to reduce EHEC survival in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and thus limit contamination of food products, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in this ecosystem with the aim of developing nutritional or ecological strategies. The effect of probiotics has been tested in vitro on the growth and survival of EHEC strains and in vivo on the animal carriage of these strains. Various studies have then shown that lactic bacteria or non-pathogenic E. coli strains were able to limit EHEC fecal shedding. In addition, understanding EHEC physiology in the ruminant gut is also critical for limiting EHEC shedding. We found that EHEC O157:H7 is able to use ethanolamine and mucus-derived sugars as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Thus, these substrates represent an ecological niche for EHEC and their utilization confers a competitive growth advantage to these pathogens as they use them more rapidly than the bacteria belonging to the resident intestinal microbiota. Understanding EHEC metabolism and ecology in the bovine intestinal tract will allow proposing probiotic strains to compete with EHEC for nutrients and thus decrease the sanitary risk. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  3. Discrimination of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) from Non-EHEC Strains Based on Detection of Various Combinations of Type III Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains comprise a subgroup of Shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) and are characterized by a few serotypes. Among these, seven priority STEC serotypes (O26:H11, O45:H2, O103:H2, O111:H8, O121:H19, O145:H28, and O157:H7) are most frequently implicated in severe clinical illness worldwide. Currently, standard methods using stx, eae, and O-serogroup-specific gene sequences for detecting the top 7 EHEC serotypes bear the disadvantage that these genes can be found in non-EHEC strains as well. Here, we explored the suitability of ureD, espV, espK, espN, Z2098, and espM1 genes and combinations thereof as candidates for a more targeted EHEC screening assay. For a very large panel of E. coli strains (n = 1,100), which comprised EHEC (n = 340), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n = 392), STEC (n = 193), and apathogenic strains (n = 175), we showed that these genetic markers were more prevalent in EHEC (67.1% to 92.4%) than in EPEC (13.3% to 45.2%), STEC (0.5% to 3.6%), and apathogenic E. coli strains (0 to 2.9%). It is noteworthy that 38.5% of the EPEC strains that tested positive for at least one of these genetic markers belonged to the top 7 EHEC serotypes, suggesting that such isolates might be Stx-negative derivatives of EHEC. The associations of espK with either espV, ureD, or Z2098 were the best combinations for more specific and sensitive detection of the top 7 EHEC strains, allowing detection of 99.3% to 100% of these strains. In addition, detection of 93.7% of the EHEC strains belonging to other serotypes than the top 7 offers a possibility for identifying new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23884997

  4. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  5. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Beutin

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1-10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates.

  6. Multiplexed Single Intact Cell Droplet Digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) Method for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Food Enrichment Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tanis C; Blais, Burton W; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin ( stx ) and intimin ( eae )]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae -negative STEC and eae -positive E. coli , but no EHEC with both markers in a single cell. To reduce false-positive detection of EHEC in food enrichment samples, a Multiplexed, Single Intact Cell droplet digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) assay capable of detecting the co-occurrence of the stx and eae genes in a single bacterial cell was developed. This method requires: (1) dispersal of intact bacteria into droplets; (2) release of genomic DNA (gDNA) by heat lysis; and (3) amplification and detection of genetic targets ( stx and eae ) using standard TaqMan chemistries with ddPCR. Performance of the method was tested with panels of EHEC and non-target E. coli . By determining the linkage (i.e., the proportion of droplets in which stx and eae targets were both amplified), samples containing EHEC (typically greater than 20% linkage) could be distinguished from samples containing mixtures of eae -negative STEC and eae -positive E. coli (0-2% linkage). The use of intact cells was necessary as this linkage was not observed with gDNA extracts. EHEC could be accurately identified in enrichment broth cultures containing excess amounts of background E. coli and in enrichment cultures derived from ground beef/pork and leafy-green produce samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dual-target detection in single bacterial cells using ddPCR. The application of MuSIC ddPCR to enrichment-culture screening would reduce false-positives, thereby improving the cost, speed, and

  7. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  8. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliC H25 and fliC H28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliC H25 and fliC H28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliC H25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliC H25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliC H28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliC H25[O145] and fliC H28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1–10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliC H25[O145] and fliC H28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates. PMID:26000885

  9. Epidemiological and Ecological Characterization of the EHEC O104:H4 Outbreak in Hamburg, Germany, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Tahden

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS occurred in Germany. The City of Hamburg was the first focus of the epidemic and had the highest incidences among all 16 Federal States of Germany. In this article, we present epidemiological characteristics of the Hamburg notification data. Evaluating the epicurves retrospectively, we found that the first epidemiological signal of the outbreak, which was in form of a HUS case cluster, was received by local health authorities when already 99 EHEC and 48 HUS patients had experienced their first symptoms. However, only two EHEC and seven HUS patients had been notified. Middle-aged women had the highest risk for contracting the infection in Hamburg. Furthermore, we studied timeliness of case notification in the course of the outbreak. To analyze the spatial distribution of EHEC/HUS incidences in 100 districts of Hamburg, we mapped cases' residential addresses using geographic information software. We then conducted an ecological study in order to find a statistical model identifying associations between local socio-economic factors and EHEC/HUS incidences in the epidemic. We employed a Bayesian Poisson model with covariates characterizing the Hamburg districts as well as incorporating structured and unstructured spatial effects. The Deviance Information Criterion was used for stepwise variable selection. We applied different modeling approaches by using primary data, transformed data, and preselected subsets of transformed data in order to identify socio-economic factors characterizing districts where EHEC/HUS outbreak cases had their residence.

  10. Survival of pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and control with calcium oxide in frozen meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eun Young; Ko, Young Mi; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated both the level of microbial contamination and the presence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in frozen meat products, followed by the evaluation of its survival over 180 days under frozen temperature. We also examined the effect of calcium oxide on the populations of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC under both 10 °C and -18 °C storage conditions. Afterward, the morphological changes occurring in EHEC cells in response to freezer storage temperature and calcium oxide (CaO) treatments were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Among the frozen meat products tested, the highest contamination levels of total aerobic counts, coliforms and E. coli were observed in pork cutlets. Examination showed that 20% of the frozen meat products contained virulence genes, including verotoxin (VT) 1 and 2. Over 180 days of frozen storage and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles, the population of EHEC did not change regardless of the type of products or initial inoculated concentration, indicating the strong survival ability of EHEC. Subsequent testing revealed that the growth of three pathogenic E. coli strains was completely inhibited in meat patties prepared with 1% CaO, stored at 10 °C. However, the addition of 2% CaO was necessary to control the survival of EHEC, E. coli O157:H7 and EPEC in meat patties stored at -18 °C. CaO reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 more effectively than the other EHEC and EPEC strains at both 10 °C and -18 °C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that exposed EHEC cells were resistant to the freezer storage temperature, although some cells incurred injury and death after several freeze-thaw cycles. Most of the cells exposed to CaO were found to have died or lost their cellular integrity and membranes, indicating that CaO has the potential to be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent for manufacturing frozen meat products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a Molecular Definition of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC): Detection of Genes Located on O Island 57 as Markers To Distinguish EHEC from Closely Related Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23325824

  12. Impacts of Verotoxigenic and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Vtec and Ehec on Animal, Human and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verotoxigenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC and EHEC are strains that produce a toxin on the Vero cells in vitro, therefore the toxin called verotoxin. Strain VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from human and various animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The prevalence of VTEC in cattle is 35%, milk 10%, cheese 1.5%. In beef meat, pork, poultry, goat and sheep is 3.7, 1.5, 1.5, 2 and 2.5%, respectively. In contrast, the human prevalence in United States, Spain and France 5 – 10, 2.5 and 3.4%, respectively. In Indonesia, nine cases of VTEC were reported by Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital and four out of nine cases were died. The verotoxin also named Shiga toxins (Stx, is active in vivo as a pathogen on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro intestinal mucosa, kidneys, brain and other tissues of human and piglets. Verotoxin in human, ruminants and piglets causes bloody diarrhea so with ruminants. In the adult ruminants, verotoxin results in clinical signs and they act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains but in human, it produced haemorrhagic colitis (HC, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and thrombocytopenia purpura (TPP. Infection in human by the most famous EHEC strain belongs to the O157:H7 serotype, through faecal contamination or environment of either food of animal origin, or other foodstuffs (fruits and vegetables. Infection from EHEC strains could be prevented by avoiding food of animal origin and unpasteurized milk, and by taking care of food hygiene for comsumption.

  13. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  14. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  15. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  16. Fitness of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)/Enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4 in Comparison to That of EHEC O157: Survival Studies in Food and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnlein, Christina; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Franz, Charles M A P; Pichner, Rohtraud

    2016-11-01

    In 2011, one of the world's largest outbreaks of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred, caused by a rare Escherichia coli serotype, O104:H4, that shared the virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). The persistence and fitness factors of the highly virulent EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain, grown either in food or in vitro, were compared with those of E. coli O157 outbreak-associated strains. The log reduction rates of the different EHEC strains during the maturation of fermented sausages were not significantly different. Both the O157:NM and O104:H4 serotypes could be shown by qualitative enrichment to be present after 60 days of sausage storage. Moreover, the EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 strain appeared to be more viable than E. coli O157:H7 under conditions of decreased pH and in the presence of sodium nitrite. Analysis of specific EHEC strains in experiments with an EHEC inoculation cocktail showed a dominance of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4, which could be isolated from fermented sausages for 60 days. Inhibitory activities of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 toward several E. coli strains, including serotype O157 strains, could be determined. Our study suggests that EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 is well adapted to the multiple adverse conditions occurring in fermented raw sausages. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that STEC strain cocktails composed of several serotypes, instead of E. coli O157:H7 alone, be used in food risk assessments. The enhanced persistence of EHEC/EAEC O104:H4 as a result of its robustness, as well as the production of bacteriocins, may account for its extraordinary virulence potential. In 2011, a severe outbreak caused by an EHEC/EAEC serovar O104:H4 strain led to many HUS sequelae. In this study, the persistence of the O104:H4 strain was compared with those of other outbreak-relevant STEC strains under conditions of fermented raw sausage production. Both O157:NM and O104:H4 strains could survive

  17. Barriers to Trace-back in a Salad-associated EHEC Outbreak, Sweden, June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Michael; Sundborger, Camilla; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Ivarsson, Sofie; Dryselius, Rikard; Insulander, Mona; Jernberg, Cecilia; Hutin, Yvan; Wallensten, Anders

    2014-06-06

    In June-July 2013, six counties notified the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control of enterohaemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) infections among attendees at a hotel in Dalarna, Sweden. An outbreak control team investigated to identify the source and implement control measures. We included individuals who attended the hotel between June 19th-25th in a cohort. We asked them about animal contact, swimming, and consumption of food items during this time using a questionnaire. A confirmed case was an EHEC O157:H7 outbreak strain positive individual who developed abdominal pain or diarrhoea between June 20th-July 2nd. We described the outbreak in time, place and person, calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We investigated the kitchen, tested and traced back implicated food items. 172 individuals responded. We identified 19 confirmed cases (Median age: 17 years, 64% female) with symptom onset between June 22nd-27th. Eating green salad on June 20th was associated with illness (RR:3.7;CI:1.3-11). The kitchen mixed green salads without records and destroyed leftovers immediately. Hence we could not conduct trace-back or obtain microbiological confirmation. Green salad contaminated before entering the kitchen was the likely outbreak source. We recommended early collaboration with food agencies and better restaurant records to facilitate future investigations.

  18. Management and marketing of sporting events: Nike Premier Cup Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nedbal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing ofsporting events: Nike Premier Cup project Points of thesis: Publish the Nike Premier Cup promotion campaign project and point out improvement possibilities for upcoming years based on analysis ofpast and present state. Methods: Data will be obtained by interview, observation, description analysis and SWOT analysis Results: Promotion campaign, improvement possibilities, final day schedule Keywords: SWOT analysis, promotion, management, marketing, Nike Premier ...

  19. A rapid procedure for the detection and isolation of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serogroup O26, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O157 strains and the aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strain from ready-to-eat vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzschoppe, Markus; Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2012-01-03

    Human infections with Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains (EHEC) as agents of Haemorrhagic Colitis (HC) and Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (HUS) are frequently associated with the consumption of EHEC contaminated foodstuffs of different origins. EHEC O26, O103, O111, O118, O121, O145 and O157 strains are responsible for the majority of HC and HUS cases worldwide. In May 2011, the emerging aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strain caused a large outbreak with high HUS incidence in northern Germany. Contaminated sprouted seeds were suspected to be the vehicles of transmission. The examination of vegetables retailed for raw consumption revealed low numbers of E. coli (vegetables are not yet published. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and sensitive method for detecting low EHEC contamination in vegetables (1-10 cfu/25 g) with artificially EHEC contaminated ready-to-eat salads. A 6-hour enrichment period in BRILA-broth was sufficient to detect 1-10 EHEC from spiked samples after plating 0.1 ml portions of enrichment culture on selective TBX-agar and CHROMagar STEC plates that were incubated at 44 °C overnight. Unlike EHEC strains, the growth of bacteria of the plant flora was substantially inhibited at 44 °C. DNA for real-time PCR detection of EHEC characteristic genes (stx(1), stx(2), eae, ehxA, and O-antigen associated) was prepared with bacteria grown on TBX-agar plates. The storage of EHEC inoculated salad samples for 72 h at 6 °C resulted in a significant reduction (mean value 14.6%) of detectable EHEC, suggesting interference of EHEC with the resident plant microflora. CHROMagar STEC was evaluated as a selective medium for the detection of EHEC strains. Growth on CHROMagar STEC was closely associated with EHEC O26:[H11], O111:[H8], O118:H16, O121:[H19], O145:[H28], O157:[H7] and aggregative EHEC O104:H4 strains and with the presence of the terB gene (tellurite resistance). TerB sequences were found in 87.2% of 235 EHEC but only in only 12.5% of 567 non-EHEC

  20. Revisiting the STEC Testing Approach: Using espK and espV to Make Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Detection More Reliable in Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy, Sabine; Chaves, Byron D.; Ison, Sarah A.; Webb, Hattie E.; Beutin, Lothar; Delaval, José; Billet, Isabelle; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for screening Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and non-O157 in beef enrichments typically rely on the molecular detection of stx, eae, and serogroup-specific wzx or wzy gene fragments. As these genetic markers can also be found in some non-EHEC strains, a number of ‘false positive’ results are obtained. Here, we explore the suitability of five novel molecular markers, espK, espV, ureD, Z2098, and CRISPRO26:H11 as candidates for a more accurate screening of EHEC s...

  1. Influence of RNase E deficiency on the production of stx2-bearing phages and Shiga toxin in an RNase E-inducible strain of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuraisamy, Thujitha; Lodato, Patricia B

    2018-05-01

    In enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), stx1 or stx2 genes encode Shiga toxin (Stx1 or Stx2, respectively) and are carried by prophages. The production and release of both stx phages and toxin occur upon initiation of the phage lytic cycle. Phages can further disseminate stx genes by infecting naïve bacteria in the intestine. Here, the effect of RNase E deficiency on these two virulence traits was investigated. Cultures of the EHEC strains TEA028-rne containing low versus normal RNase E levels or the parental strain (TEA028) were treated with mitomycin C (MMC) to induce the phage lytic cycle. Phages and Stx2 titres were quantified by the double-agar assay and the receptor ELISA technique, respectively. RNase E deficiency in MMC-treated cells significantly reduced the yield of infectious stx2 phages. Delayed cell lysis and the appearance of encapsidated phage DNA copies suggest a slow onset of the lytic cycle. However, these observations do not entirely explain the decrease of phage yields. stx1 phages were not detected under normal or deficient RNase E levels. After an initial delay, high levels of toxin were finally produced in MMC-treated cultures. RNase E scarcity reduces stx2 phage production but not toxin. Normal concentrations of RNase E are likely required for correct phage morphogenesis. Our future work will address the mechanism of RNase E action on phage morphogenesis.

  2. Multiplexed Single Intact Cell Droplet Digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) Method for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Food Enrichment Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tanis C.; Blais, Burton W.; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtu...

  3. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.

  4. [The EHEC O104:H4 outbreak in Germany 2011 - lessons learned?!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissland, J; Kielstein, J T; Stark, K; Wichmann-Schauer, H; Stümpel, F; Pulz, M

    2013-04-01

    The EHEC O104:H4 outbreak 2011 in Germany provided numerous insights into the recognition and control of such epidemic situations. Food-borne outbreaks and their related dynamics may lead to a critical burden of disease and an eventual capacity overload of the medical care system. Possible difficulties in the microbiological diagnostics of new or significantly altered infectious agents may result in a delayed detection of the outbreak as well as the launching of interventional measures. Besides an early notification of the local public health office by the affected institutions, in which a complete electronic procedure and additional sentinel or surveillance instruments (e. g., in emergency departments of hospitals) may be of great help, an interdisciplinary cooperation of the local public health and food safety agencies is the key to an effective outbreak control. Corresponding organizations on the state and federal level should support the investigation process by microbiological diagnostics and advanced epidemiological analysis as well as examination of the food chains. Finally, successful crisis communication relies on "speaking with one voice" (not necessarily one person). Immediate, transparent, appropriate and honest information of the general public concerning the reasons, consequences and (counter-) measures of a crisis are the best means to keep the trust of the population and to counteract the otherwise inevitable speculations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Prophage induction is enhanced and required for renal disease and lethality in an EHEC mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Tyler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, particularly serotype O157:H7, causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and even death. In vitro studies showed that Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2, the primary virulence factor expressed by EDL933 (an O157:H7 strain, is encoded by the 933W prophage. And the bacterial subpopulation in which the 933W prophage is induced is the producer of Stx2. Using the germ-free mouse, we show the essential role 933W induction plays in the virulence of EDL933 infection. An EDL933 derivative with a single mutation in its 933W prophage, resulting specifically in that phage being uninducible, colonizes the intestines, but fails to cause any of the pathological changes seen with the parent strain. Hence, induction of the 933W prophage is the primary event leading to disease from EDL933 infection. We constructed a derivative of EDL933, SIVET, with a biosensor that specifically measures induction of the 933W prophage. Using this biosensor to measure 933W induction in germ-free mice, we found an increase three logs greater than was expected from in vitro results. Since the induced population produces and releases Stx2, this result indicates that an activity in the intestine increases Stx2 production.

  6. Policy Advice to Alberta’s New Premier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On September 6th, 2014, members of the Progressive Conservative Party of Alberta elected Jim Prentice as leader of their party, and Premier of Alberta. The School of Public Policy assembled its key thinkers in economic, taxation, energy and natural resource policy to provide unsolicited but important advice to Premier Prentice on some areas of policy that matter most to Alberta, and that will demand the Premier’s attention as he takes office. These are opinion pieces, are not peer reviewed, and reflect the views of their authors alone.

  7. The Role of Internet in Marketing Premiering Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohimaa, Suvi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find out about the role of Internet today in premiering movie marketing and whether Internet is a good tool for it. The hope was to obtain new information provided by moviegoers and to contribute something useful to the art of marketing premiering movies. This thesis was a part of the School of Business and Information Management's Innomajakka-project but did not have an official commissioner, so the topic for the thesis came from the writer's personal and ...

  8. Open Access Publishing in Indian Premier Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mohammad Hanief

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Publishing research findings in open access journals is a means of enhancing visibility and consequently increasing the impact of publications. This study provides an overview of open access publishing in premier research institutes of India. Method: The publication output of each institution from 2003 to 2007 was ascertained through…

  9. Trichoberoard gastrique : Premier cas observe en milieu bur kina be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le trichobezoard est une concretion de cheveux, de poils ou de fibres de tapis et de debris alimentaire, localisee habituellement dans l'estomac. Le trichobezoard est une pathologie rare qui survient habituellement chez des adolescentes presentant des troubles psychiques. La premiere observation de trichobezoard a ete ...

  10. Physiological response of one of South Africa's premier freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological response of one of South Africa's premier freshwater sport angling species, the Orange-Vaal smallmouth yellowfish Labeobarbus aeneus, ... These data suggest that catch-and-release causes physiological stress to fish, but nonetheless this practice can be a valuable fisheries management tool to ensure the ...

  11. Premiere toob lavale jalgpallimeeskonna, inimkatsed ja punase tooli / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi, 1977-

    2012-01-01

    Premiere 2012 osalevad neli Eesti tantsukunstnikku: Svetlana Grigorjeva tantsulavastusega "sõp rus est", Kaisa Selde, Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Christin Lunts tantsulavastusega "fie", esmakordselt võtab osa välismaalane - sakslanna Mareike Franz tantsulavastusega "Duett". Kõik esietenduvad 9. veebruaril Kanuti gildi saalis

  12. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  13. The impact of dermatology in premier medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Meenal K; Ellis, Charles N

    2011-01-01

    In the past 15 years, research in dermatology has significantly increased. Dermatology-related contributions in premier medical journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) are the representation of our field in the medical world. To analyze this representation, incidence of dermatology-related contributions in NEJM and JAMA during 3 separate years (during a 15-year period) was calculated.

  14. Market Segmentation, Targeting, Dan Brand Positioning Dari Winston Premier Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Tania, Debby

    2014-01-01

    Sejak tahun 2012 mulai terasa bahwa bisnis properti mengalami kenaikan di Indonesia. Banyak masyarakat Indonesia berinvestasi pada properti karena dianggap aman dan menguntungkan. Sehingga muncul banyak produk properti baru di Indonesia. Perkembangan properti di Indonesia menjadi peluang besar bagi Agen Properti untuk dapat menjalankan bisnisnya. Winston Premier sebagai salah satu Agen properti di Surabaya Barat yang baru berdiri memerlukan strategi pemasaran yang tepat untuk digunakan guna b...

  15. Market size and attendance in English Premier League football

    OpenAIRE

    Buraimo, B; Simmons, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper models the impacts of market size and team competition for fan base on matchday attendance in the English Premier League over the period 1997-2004 using a large panel data set. We construct a comprehensive set of control variables and use tobit estimation to overcome the problems caused by sell-out crowds. We also account for unobserved influences on attendance by means of random effects attached to home teams. Our treatment of market size, with its use of Geographical Information ...

  16. Associação de micelas mistas de surfactantes aniônicos como o polímero hidrofobicamente modificado etil(hidroxietil) celulose(EHEC)

    OpenAIRE

    Dal-bó, Alexandre Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química As propriedades de misturas de etil(hidroxietil) celulose (EHEC) e dodecanoato de sódio (SDoD) em solução tampão borato/NaOH, pH 9,20, a 250C, foram aqui investigadas por meio de medidas de tensão superficial, condutividade elétrica e transmitância. Experimentos paralelos com misturas de EHEC e dodecilsulfato de sódio (SDS) foram executados. També...

  17. Vaccination with DNA encoding truncated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC factor for adherence-1 gene (efa-1’ confers protective immunity to mice infected with E. coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eRiquelme-Neira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1’ in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1’ gene (pVAXefa-1’ into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1`, EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10 and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1´ have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle.

  18. [On the risk of spread of E. coli/EHEC O104:H4 stx 2 positive bacteria via sewerage treatment plants during the 2011 EHEC outbreak in north Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeyer, E-A; Luden, K; Monazahian, M

    2013-08-01

    During an EHEC outbreak with E. coli O104:H4 stx2-pos in northern Germany 2 sewage treatment plants (Cuxhaven and Stade) of highly affected areas were monitored for the presence of the outbreak strain. 7 efflux water samples were collected at 1 h and 6 h intervals. The overall E. coli content of the treated sewage water was approximately 35 000 CFU/100 mL in both treatment plants. Among these about 500 were ESBL-E. coli (1.4%). ESBL-Agar was used as selective medium as the outbreak strain is highly resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins. From the ESBL-isolates 208 strains have been typed by molecular methods for markers specific to the outbreak strain (O104rfb -351 base pairs (bp), flic H4-201 bp, stx2-584 bp, Tellur D - 434 bp). No outbreak strain was detected. The number of E. coli O104:H4 stx2-pos was calculated to be less than 3 per 100 mL in the treated sewage at the time of the study. Therefore it can be concluded that there was no threat for bathers to fall sick with this highly pathogenic strain from possibly sewage-contaminated bathing waters during the outbreak. The national limit value of 1 800 E. coli in 100 mL offers a high safety margin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Rapid Detection Of Escherichia coli Enterohemorragic (EHEC) Bacteria by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudrajat, Dadang; R, Maria Lina; Suhadi, F.

    2000-01-01

    A polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay for detect presence of enterohemmoragic Eschericha coli O157:H7 was carried out. DNA was extracted from bacterial cells with CTBA-phenol-chloroform and precipitated with isopropanol. To test sensitivity of PCR amplifies reaction, serial dilutions of E. coli DNA solution were prepared bwtween 1 mu g-1 ng/mu l. A single pair oligonucleotide primer SLTI-F and SLTI-R derived from shiga-like-toxin genes was used in amplification method. The results shows that 1 ng/mu l of E. coli DNA could be detected using the primers SLTI-F and SLTI-R with the position of 140 bp DNA fragment

  20. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...

  1. Lessons learned from a textbook outbreak: EHEC-O157:H7 infections associated with the consumption of raw meat products, June 2012, Limburg, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeye, Toon; Denayer, Sarah; De Rauw, Klara; Forier, Anmarie; Verluyten, Jurgen; Fourie, Ludo; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Quoilin, Sophie; Cosse, Pascale; Noyen, Jeannine; Pierard, Denis

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June 2012 several enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, EHEC, O157:H7 infections were reported to the public health authorities of Limburg. We performed a case-control study, a trace back/forward investigation and compared strains isolated from human cases and food samples. A case was defined as anyone with a laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157:H7-infection in North-East Limburg from May 30 2012 till July 15 2012. Family members with bloody diarrhea were also included as cases. E. coli O157 was isolated by culture and the presence of the virulence genes was verified using (q)PCR. Isolates were genotyped and compared by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and insertion sequence 629-printing (IS629-printing). The outbreak involved 24 cases, of which 17 were laboratory-confirmed. Five cases developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) and fifteen were hospitalized. Cases reported a significantly higher consumption of "steak tartare", a raw meat product (OR 48.12; 95% CI; 5.62- 416.01). Cases were also more likely to buy meat-products at certain butcheries (OR 11.67; 95% CI; 1.41 - 96.49). PFGE and IS629-printing demonstrated that the vtx1a vtx2a eae ehxA positive EHEC O157:H7 strains isolated from three meat products and all seventeen human stool samples were identical. In a slaughterhouse, identified by the trace-back investigation, a carcass infected with a different EHEC strain was found and confiscated. We present a well described and effectively investigated foodborne outbreak associated with meat products. Our main recommendations are the facilitation and acceleration of the outbreak detection and the development of a communication plan to reaches all persons at risk. Foodborne diseases, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Meat products, Case control studies, Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field.

  2. Monitoring evaluation of a spillway pilaster for Premiere Chute Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, Louis; Kassem, Chakib [OSMOS Canada Inc., Montreal, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Premiere-Chute hydroelectric power station, commissioned in 1968, has four hydraulic turbines for a total of 130 MW. One of the pilasters of the dam weir, built with pre-stressed concrete, showed a crack at the level of the post-tension cable. This paper presented an evaluation of the behaviour of the pilaster in question, No. 9. The main goal was to prevent any disruption to the gate opening through adequate monitoring for a long term data follow-up. Six long-base OSMOS type optical sensors were installed on each face of the spillway pilaster. The behaviour of the No. 9 pilaster was then compared with that of other pilasters with respect to the effects of temperature and water level fluctuation in the dam. After the pilasters had been monitored for six months, it was found that No. 9 pilaster showed the least deformation of all. It was therefore concluded that the behaviour of this pilaster was normal.

  3. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant; Fabrication du premier coeur de rapsodie. Premiere partie: l'atelier de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselot, Y; Bataller, S; Ganivet, M; Guillet, H; Robillard, A; Stosskopf, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le premier d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides Rapsodie. Il comporte une etude detaillee des procedes de fabrication (pastilles, aiguilles, assemblages combustibles) et des methodes de controle associees (matieres premieres, pastilles et aiguilles en cours de fabrication, assemblages fissiles avant livraison), ainsi qu'une decription complete des installations de l'atelier de fabrication et les modifications apportees pour une deuxieme campagne. (auteur)

  4. Upregulation of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/Gb3 and interleukin-1β expression in the brain of EHEC patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurologic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Christian; Krasemann, Susanne; Löffler, Judith; Püschel, Klaus; Magnus, Tim; Glatzel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections occurred in northern Germany, which mainly affected adults. Out of 3842 patients, 104 experienced a complicated course comprising hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurological complications, including cognitive impairment, aphasia, seizures and coma. T2 hyperintensities on magnet resonance imaging (MRI) bilateral in the thalami and in the dorsal pons were found suggestive of a metabolic toxic effect. Five of the 104 patients died because of toxic heart failure. In the present study, the post-mortem neuropathological findings of the five EHEC patients are described. Histological investigation of 13 brain regions (frontal, temporal, occipital cortex, corpora mammillaria, thalamus, frontal operculum, corona radiata, gyrus angularis, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemisphere) showed no thrombosis, ischemic changes or fresh infarctions. Further, no changes were found in electron microscopy. In comparison with five age-matched controls, slightly increased activation of microglia and a higher neuronal expression of interleukin-1β and of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/globotriaosylceramide 3 was observed. The findings were confirmed by Western blot analyses. It is suggested that CD77/globotriaosylceramide upregulation may be a consequence to Shiga toxin exposure, whereas increased interleukin-1β expression may point to activation of inflammatory cascades. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  5. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  6. 40Ar-39Ar laser probe dating of individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier eclogitic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.; Turner, G.; Laurenzi, M.; Harris, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The ages of seven individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier diamonds of eclogitic association have been determined using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique. Syngenetic inclusions weighing between 10 and 130 μg were exposed on cleaved surfaces of the diamonds and analysed using a laser probe. The inclusion ages were found to be in the range 1111±35 to 1254±38 Ma with an average of 1185±94 Ma. The ages obtained are in good agreement with previous determinations made on aggregates of eclogitic inclusions from Premier diamonds and demonstrate the applicability of the laser probe to dating individual diamond inclusions. (orig.)

  7. How to Revise, and Revise Really Well, for Premier Academic Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaPlaca, Peter J.; Lindgreen, Adam; Vanhamme, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    Most of the premier academic journals in all fields routinely have rejection rates of 80%, 95%, or higher. All journals prefer articles that make significant contributions to the field. Revising a manuscript and responding properly to the comments of reviewers and editors often is challenging....... This article discusses how to revise effectively a manuscript according to the (minor or major) comments of reviewers and editors for premier academic journals. We provide a series of tips for helping the authors in their endeavor, making the process less arduous and improving the possibility of a positive...

  8. IMPROVEMENTS FOR THE OPERATION OF CHINESE FOOTBALL LEAGUE BY ANALYSING THE SUCCESS ASSETS OF ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hanxiong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is going to analyze the success assets of English Premier League (which is now the most successful football league in the world) and the defects of Chinese Super League by analyzing the financial statements of the Premier League, and try to make some possible improvements for Chinese Super League according to the results of the analysis.

  9. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  10. The long-term effect of premier pay for performance on patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish K; Joynt, Karen E; Orav, E John; Epstein, Arnold M

    2012-04-26

    Pay for performance has become a central strategy in the drive to improve health care. We assessed the long-term effect of the Medicare Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (HQID) on patient outcomes. We used Medicare data to compare outcomes between the 252 hospitals participating in the Premier HQID and 3363 control hospitals participating in public reporting alone. We examined 30-day mortality among more than 6 million patients who had acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or pneumonia or who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2003 and 2009. At baseline, the composite 30-day mortality was similar for Premier and non-Premier hospitals (12.33% and 12.40%, respectively; difference, -0.07 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.40 to 0.26). The rates of decline in mortality per quarter at the two types of hospitals were also similar (0.04% and 0.04%, respectively; difference, -0.01 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.01), and mortality remained similar after 6 years under the pay-for-performance system (11.82% for Premier hospitals and 11.74% for non-Premier hospitals; difference, 0.08 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.30 to 0.46). We found that the effects of pay for performance on mortality did not differ significantly among conditions for which outcomes were explicitly linked to incentives (acute myocardial infarction and CABG) and among conditions not linked to incentives (congestive heart failure and pneumonia) (P=0.36 for interaction). Among hospitals that were poor performers at baseline, mortality was similar in the two groups of hospitals at the start of the study (15.12% and 14.73%; difference, 0.39 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.36 to 1.15), with similar rates of improvement per quarter (0.10% and 0.07%; difference, -0.03 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.02) and similar mortality rates at the end of the study (13.37% and 13.21%; difference, 0.15 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.70 to 1.01). We

  11. The highly virulent 2006 Norwegian EHEC O103:H25 outbreak strain is related to the 2011 German O104:H4 outbreak strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine M L'Abée-Lund

    Full Text Available In 2006, a severe foodborne EHEC outbreak occured in Norway. Seventeen cases were recorded and the HUS frequency was 60%. The causative strain, Esherichia coli O103:H25, is considered to be particularly virulent. Sequencing of the outbreak strain revealed resemblance to the 2011 German outbreak strain E. coli O104:H4, both in genome and Shiga toxin 2-encoding (Stx2 phage sequence. The nucleotide identity between the Stx2 phages from the Norwegian and German outbreak strains was 90%. During the 2006 outbreak, stx(2-positive O103:H25 E. coli was isolated from two patients. All the other outbreak associated isolates, including all food isolates, were stx-negative, and carried a different phage replacing the Stx2 phage. This phage was of similar size to the Stx2 phage, but had a distinctive early phage region and no stx gene. The sequence of the early region of this phage was not retrieved from the bacterial host genome, and the origin of the phage is unknown. The contaminated food most likely contained a mixture of E. coli O103:H25 cells with either one of the phages.

  12. [Epidemics and pandemics in general practice. What can we learn from the swine flu (H1N1) and EHEC outbreak?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, M; Hansen, H; Wagner, H-O; von Leitner, E; Pohontsch, N; Scherer, M

    2014-06-01

    As primary care givers with a coordinating function, general practitioners (GP) play a key role in dealing with epidemics and pandemics. As of yet, there are no studies in Germany describing the difficulties experienced by GPs in patient care during epidemics/pandemics. This study aimed at identifying the problem areas in GPs' patient care during the H1N1 and EHEC (enterohemorrhagic strain of Escherichia coli) outbreaks. With this information, recommendations for guaranteeing proper patient care during future epidemics/pandemics can be derived. In all, 12 qualitative, semi-structured, open guideline interviews with GPs in Hamburg and Lübeck were conducted, transcribed, and evaluated with qualitative content analysis. Five areas in ambulatory patient care were identified in which changes are needed from the primary care perspective: provision of information for GPs, workload, financing of epidemic-related measures, organization of the practices, care of those taken ill. The workload of GPs in particular can and should be reduced through successful, centralized information distribution during epidemics/pandemics. The GP's function as a coordinator should be supported and consolidated, in order to relieve the in-patient sector in cases of an epidemic/pandemic. Secured financing of epidemic-associated measures can help ensure patient care.

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan pada Hotel Santika Premiere Dyandra Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Mey Royani M.

    2013-01-01

    Quality of service is an expected level of excellence and control over the level of excellence to comply the customer wants. Satisfaction is the difference between the perceived performance with expectations. This study aimed to to identify and analyze the influence of the quality of services consisting of physical tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy to customer satisfaction on Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel. To measure service quality from the point of servic...

  14. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; A.L. Bevan-Dye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  15. Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Jasa Hotel Santika Premiere Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Dewangga, Nandy; Hidayat, Wahyu; Widiartanto, Widiartanto

    2014-01-01

    The competition of global business today focusing on consumers is a strategic choice in business world in order to survive. For example, the tight competition of business in the company of hotel services is by improving the service quality to consumers. The problems in this research were the decreasing number of hotel service users and the increasing number of consumer complaint as the service users of Santika Premiere Hotel in Semarang from year to year. The aims of this research were to ide...

  16. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    OpenAIRE

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacement. The successfulness of managerial turnover depends on specific highly unpredictable circumstances, as we illustrate through case-studies.

  17. Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants aux acheteurs. Un homme qui parle sur un téléphone mobile. Les petits exploitants agricoles dominent l'agriculture égyptienne, mais leur manque de connaissances en matière de commercialisation et de compétences techniques, ainsi qu'une mauvaise ...

  18. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  19. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  20. Cooperative Actions of CRP-cAMP and FNR Increase the Fosfomycin Susceptibility of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) by Elevating the Expression of glpT and uhpT under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Koichi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Hirakawa, Hidetada

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infections to anaerobic site are often hard to be treated because the activity of most of antimicrobials decreases under anaerobic conditions. However, fosfomycin rather provides a greater activity under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Previously, we found that expression of glpT and uhpT , fosfomycin symporters in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was upregulated by FNR, a global regulator during the anaerobiosis of the bacterium, which led to increased uptake and susceptibility to this drug. In this study, we showed that expression of glpT and uhpT is induced by CRP-cAMP, the regulator complex under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The activity of CRP-cAMP in EHEC was elevated under anaerobic conditions because levels of both CRP and cAMP were higher in the cells when grown anaerobically than those when grown aerobically. Results of expression study using mutants indicated that CRP-cAMP is indispensable for expression of glpT but not uhpT -whereas that of uhpT requires UhpA that is the response regulator composing of two-component system with the sensor kinase, UhpB. The CRP-cAMP protein bound to a region that overlaps RNA polymerase binding site for glpT and region upstream of UhpA binding site for uhpT . FNR bound to a region further upstream of CRP-cAMP binding site on region upstream of the glpT gene. These combined results suggested that increased antibacterial activity of fosfomycin to EHEC under anaerobic conditions is due to activation of FNR and increment of CRP-cAMP activity. Then, FNR enhances the expression of glpT activated by CRP-cAMP while CRP-cAMP and FNR cooperatively aids the action of UhpA to express uhpT to maximum level.

  1. Les animateurs TICE du premier degré, quelle professionnalité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Villemonteix , François

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Les animateurs TICE du premier degré, quelle professionnalité ? Congrès international AREF 2007 (Actualité de la Recherche en Education et en Formation) François VILLEMONTEIX Doctorant Laboratoire EDA (Education et apprentissages) Université Paris 5 – La Sorbonne franç RÉSUMÉ. Dans le but de favoriser le développement d'usages instrumentés dans les classes de l'école primaire française, l'institution éducative a depuis les années 80 at...

  2. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  3. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  4. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  5. Asymmetry after hamstring injury in English Premier League: issue resolved, or perhaps not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, P; Drust, B; Robinson, M A; Vanrenterghem, J

    2015-06-01

    Hamstring injuries constitute one of the most concerning injuries in English Premier League football, due to its high primary incidence but also its recurrence. Functional methods assessing hamstring function during high-risk performance tasks such as sprinting are vital to identify potential risk factors. The purpose of this study was to assess horizontal force deficits during maximum sprint running on a non-motorized treadmill in football players with previous history of hamstring strains as a pre-season risk-assessment in a club setting. 17 male football players from one Premier League Club were divided into 2 groups, experimental (n=6, age=24.5±2.3 years) and control (n=11, age=21.3±1.2 years), according to history of previous hamstring injury. Participants performed a protocol including a 10-s maximum sprint on a non-motorized treadmill. Force deficits during acceleration phase and steady state phases of the sprint were assessed between limbs and between groups. The main outcome measures were horizontal and vertical peak forces during the acceleration phase or steady state. There were no significant differences in peak forces between previously injured and non-injured limbs, or between groups, challenging the ideas around functional force deficits in sprint running as a diagnostic measure of hamstring re-injury risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  7. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  8. Report to New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers on climate change projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The Premiers-Governors energy discussions are aimed at promoting joint energy cooperation between provinces and states. This report outlines the major accomplishments in the implementation of the Climate Change Action Plan adopted by the Conference in 1998. The project priorities for the coming year are also outlined. In 2001, the New England Governors (NEG) and the Eastern Canadian Premiers (ECP) directed the Environment Committee and the Northeast International Committee on Energy (NICE) to implement a plan to develop a regional emissions inventory so that participating jurisdictions would have common data for measuring progress. The plan also identified specific climate actions that could be readily implemented. This report describes the results of 5 working groups which were created to focus on the following potential categories: energy, transportation, inventory and registry, adaptation, and 'lead by example'. In addition to the working groups, the Climate Change Steering Committee developed 4 proposals for consideration for implementation. These were the LED Traffic Light Proposal, the College and University Partnerships in Emissions Reductions, State/Provincial Purchasing Programs for High Efficiency-Low Emission Office Equipment, and Use of Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Vehicles in State/Provincial Fleets. The Steering Committee will also pursue other tasks in the coming year, including the study of other proposals for cost-effective measures that could contribute to the goals of the Climate Change Action Plan, examine Internet options for coordinating internal project work, examine opportunities to pursue climate action, and identify opportunities to improve vehicle fuel efficiency

  9. Identificación de péptidos bloqueantes del sistema de secreción de tipo III y de la adherencia a epitelios de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágico (EHEC) y Escherichia coli enteropatógeno (EPEC)

    OpenAIRE

    Larzábal, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli Enteropatógeno (EPEC) y Escherichia coli Enterohemorrágico (EHEC) se encuentran asociadas con diarrea en seres humanos. EPEC es una de las principales causas de diarrea infantil en países desarrollados, mientras que EHEC es responsable de enfermedades cuyo espectro clínico incluye diarrea, colitis hemorrágica y síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH), que es la principal causa de insuficiencia renal aguda de niños menores de 5 años en la Argentina. La expresión de la toxina Shiga (...

  10. Une forme urbaine du premier âge touristique: les promenades littorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck DEBIÉ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Les promenades maritimes caractérisent les stations de bord de mer du premier âge touristique (1850-1930. Elles traduisent dans le paysage un urbanisme spéculatif, à rapprocher de celui qui produit le square et le boulevard, et donnent lieu à une urbanisation du littoral sous forme de vastes appendices linéaires. Les pratiques sociales associées à la promenade rappellent celles du jardin de plaisir, et renvoient au même rêve d’une urbanité idéale, libérée des miasmes, des promiscuités sociales, des contraintes qui pèsent sur les amours et les jeux.

  11. What’s a Cricketer’s Worth? Predicting Bid Prices for Indian Premier League Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Indian Premier League is a twenty-over format cricket tournament of teams representing different Indian cities. Beginning 2008, it is established now as a grand annual affair. The team franchises are auctioned on long term basis, whereas cricketers are auctioned every season under certain conditions. Despite such wealth of information, studies on IPL auctions are rare barring four cited models. The present paper studies the results of year 2011 English-style auction of cricketers and recalibrates the old yet most accurate model by Rastogi and Deodhar (2009. Both models use ordinary least square method of regression albeit with different variable. The old models lack predictive power, whereas the recalibrated model presented displays better predictive capability as compared to earlier models. It also succeeds in reducing overall predictability gap and stands significantly parsimonious vis-à-vis previous models. Further, the final model presented is applied on 2013 and 2014 auction data to show superior results.

  12. Injury profile of a professional soccer team in the premier league of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabi, Mohammad; Mohammad-Javad Mortazavi, Seyed; Giti, Mohammad-Reza; Hassabi, Majid; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Shapouran, Sara

    2010-12-01

    Despite numerous studies which have been done regarding soccer injuries worldwide, there is lack of available data considering the epidemiology of injuries in the Iranian soccer premier league, although it is the most popular sport in the country. The main goal of this research was to determine the incidence of physical injuries in the studied population, considering other characteristics such as site, type and mechanism as well. Twenty one adult male professional soccer players (age 24±3), members of a team (Tehran-Pas) participating in Iranian premier league, were followed during a 4-month period. The injury characteristics and exposure times were recorded by the team physician during all the matches and training sessions. The total exposure time was 2610 playing hours (2352 h of training versus 258 h of competition). Eighty six percent of the injuries were acute. Incidence of acute injuries was 16.5 (95% CI: 12-22) per 1000 hours of playing (11.5 per 1000 hrs of training and 62 per 1000 hrs of competition). The most common types of injuries were strains followed by contusions, each of which constituted 30% of acute injuries. More than 80% of injuries occurred in lower limbs, especially in thigh and groin regions. Nearly 60% of acute injuries occurred in dominant side of the body, and collision was the reason of about half of the acute injuries. Severity of more than 70% of the injuries was minor. On average each injury had led the player being off the field for about 10 days. The incidence of injury in this research is in range of numbers obtained in important international tournaments but the rate of injuries during training sessions is higher than comparable studies.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION AGENTS IN DRINKING WATER, WATTS P{REMIER ULTRA 5 REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM (POU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier Ultra 5 system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF International's Laboratory. Watts Premier submitted ten units, which were split into two groups of five. One group received 25 days of conditioning prior to challenge testing, while the secon...

  14. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  15. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...

  16. [Sõltumatu Tantsu Ühenduse poolt korraldatud sarjast "Premiere"] / Evelin Lagle ; küsinud Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2012-01-01

    Uutele koreograafidele pühendatud sarja "Premiere" programmis osalevad tantsulavastustega neli tantsukunstnikku Eestist - Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Svetlana Grigorjeva, Turu Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud Kaisa Selde, Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia lõpetanud Kristina-Maria Heinsalu ja Tallinna Ülikooli lõpetanud Christin Lunts

  17. Disease activity, physical function, and radiographic progression after longterm therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate: 5-year results of PREMIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Keystone, Edward C.; Landewé, Robert; Patra, Kaushik; Pangan, Aileen L.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial combination treatment with adalimumab (ADA) and methotrexate (MTX) versus monotherapy with ADA or MTX during an open-label extension of PREMIER. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received blinded ADA plus MTX, ADA alone, or MTX alone for 2

  18. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  19. Autoassociação de misturas dos Surfactantes Dodecanoato de Sódio (SDoD e Decanoato de Sódio (SDeC com o Polímero Hidrofobicamente Modificado Etil(HidroxietilCelulose (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre G. Dal-Bó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the interactions between the non-ionic polymer of ethyl(hydroxyethylcellulose (EHEC and mixed anionic surfactant sodium dodecanoate (SDoD-sodium decanoate (SDeC in aqueous media, at pH 9.2 (20 mM borate/NaOH buffer were investigated by electric conductivity and light transmittance measurements at 25 ºC. The parameters of the surfactant to polymer association processes such as the critical aggregation concentration and saturation of the polymer by surfactants were determined from plots of specific conductivity vs total surfactant concentration, [surfactant]tot = [SDoD] + [SDeC]. Through the results was not observed a specific link of polymer with the surfactant, implying therefore a phenomenon only cooperative association.

  20. Comparison of five assays for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Kimberle C; Dickenson, Roberta A; Wu, Fongman; Andrea, Sarah B

    2011-07-01

    Performance characteristics of five assays for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin were compared using fresh stool samples from patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). Assays were performed simultaneously and according to the manufacturers' instructions. Patients were included in the study if they exhibited clinical symptoms consistent with CDI. Nonmolecular assays included glutamate dehydrogenase antigen tests, with positive findings followed by the Premier Toxin A and B Enzyme Immunoassay (GDH/EIA), and the C. Diff Quik Chek Complete test. Molecular assays (PCR) included the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, the Xpert C. difficile test, and the ProGastro Cd assay. Specimens were considered true positive if results were positive in two or more assays. For each method, the Youden index was calculated and cost-effectiveness was analyzed. Of 81 patients evaluated, 26 (32.1%) were positive for CDI. Sensitivity of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, the Xpert C. difficile test, the ProGastro Cd assay, C. Diff Quik Chek Complete test, and two-step GDH/EIA was 96.2%, 96.2%, 88.5%, 61.5%, and 42.3%, respectively. Specificity of the Xpert C. difficile test was 96.4%, and for the other four assays was 100%. Compared with nonmolecular methods, molecular methods detected 34.7% more positive specimens. Assessment of performance characteristics and cost-effectiveness demonstrated that the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay yielded the best results. While costly, the Xpert C. difficile test required limited processing and yielded rapid results. Because of discordant results, specimen processing, and extraction equipment requirements, the ProGastro Cd assay was the least favored molecular assay. The GDH/EIA method lacked sufficient sensitivity to be recommended. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Five Assays for Detection of Clostridium difficile Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Kimberle C.; Dickenson, Roberta A.; Wu, Fongman; Andrea, Sarah B.

    2011-01-01

    Performance characteristics of five assays for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin were compared using fresh stool samples from patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). Assays were performed simultaneously and according to the manufacturers' instructions. Patients were included in the study if they exhibited clinical symptoms consistent with CDI. Nonmolecular assays included glutamate dehydrogenase antigen tests, with positive findings followed by the Premier Toxin A and B Enzyme Immunoassay (GDH/EIA), and the C. Diff Quik Chek Complete test. Molecular assays (PCR) included the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, the Xpert C. difficile test, and the ProGastro Cd assay. Specimens were considered true positive if results were positive in two or more assays. For each method, the Youden index was calculated and cost-effectiveness was analyzed. Of 81 patients evaluated, 26 (32.1%) were positive for CDI. Sensitivity of the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay, the Xpert C. difficile test, the ProGastro Cd assay, C. Diff Quik Chek Complete test, and two-step GDH/EIA was 96.2%, 96.2%, 88.5%, 61.5%, and 42.3%, respectively. Specificity of the Xpert C. difficile test was 96.4%, and for the other four assays was 100%. Compared with nonmolecular methods, molecular methods detected 34.7% more positive specimens. Assessment of performance characteristics and cost-effectiveness demonstrated that the BD GeneOhm Cdiff assay yielded the best results. While costly, the Xpert C. difficile test required limited processing and yielded rapid results. Because of discordant results, specimen processing, and extraction equipment requirements, the ProGastro Cd assay was the least favored molecular assay. The GDH/EIA method lacked sufficient sensitivity to be recommended. PMID:21704273

  2. Associated chemical and carbon isotopic composition variations in diamonds from Finsch and Premier kimberlite, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines, P.

    1984-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of 66 inclusion-containing diamonds from the Premier kimberlite, South Africa, 93 inclusion-containing diamonds and four diamonds of two diamond-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Finsch kimberlite, South Africa was measured. The data suggest a relationship between the carbon isotopic composition of the diamonds and the chemical composition of the associated silicates. For both kimberlites similar trends are noted for diamonds containing peridotite-suite inclusions (P-type) and for diamonds containing eclogite-suite inclusions (E-type): Higher delta 13 C P-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe) and higher in FeO and CaO. Higher delta 13 C E-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe), Na 2 O, K 2 O, TiO 2 and higher in CaO, Ca/(Ca + Mg). Consideration of a number of different models that have been proposed for the genesis of kimberlites, their zenoliths and diamonds shows that they are all consistent with the conclusion that in the mantle, regions exist that are characterized by different mean carbon isotopic compositions. (author)

  3. Linear systems surviving the first breakdown; Systemes unbaires survivant a la premiere panne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uberschlag, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Various types of linear systems are described which are not affected by the first breakdown. They make it possible to operate continuously and are thus very reliable. This is because the first breakdown which occurs affects only very slightly the operation. These components can be replaced during working. The operation, the errors, and the detection are briefly considered in the case of three different designs of linear servo systems. An attempt at comparison is made, it could be developed in a particular case. (author) [French] On decrit divers types de systemes lineaires survivant a la premiere panne. Ils permettent un fonctionnement permanent et sont donc d'une tres grande fiabilite. En effet, une panne, qui peut etre signalee, perturbe peu le fonctionnement. Ces composants peuvent etre remplaces en marche. Les considerations de fonctionnement, d'erreur, de detection des pannes sont succinctement presentees, sur trois schemas de systemes lineaires asservis. Une tentative de comparaison est faite, qui pourrait etre developpee dans des cas precis. (auteur)

  4. Trace elements in diamonds from the Premier, Finsch, and Jagersfontein mines, and their petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesq, H.W.; Bibby, D.M.; Erasmus, C.S.; Kable, E.J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron-activation studies of the impurity chemistry of more than 1500 natural diamonds from three South African kimberlite sources, Premier, Finsch, and Jagersfontein, provide evidence for the presence of submicroscopic inclusions of a quenched (or temperature re-equilibrated) melt from which these diamonds crystallized. These microscopic inclusions of parental magma contain variable amounts of fluids rich in water and carbon dioxide, as well as iron-nickelcopper-cobalt sulphides, and a major silicate phase, which is remarkably constant in composition irrespective of the source of the diamonds and the age of emplacement of their host kimberlite. These microscopic inclusions are present in varying amounts in all the diamonds that were analysed, and may even dominate the impurity chemistry of diamonds having observable mineral inclusions. An estimate of the composition of the major elements in the silicate melt indicates that the diamonds that were investigated crystallized from picritic magma rich in water and carbon dioxide in the presence of immiscible iron-nickel-copper-cobalt sulphides [af

  5. Design science research for decision support systems development: recent publication trends in the premier IS journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a contemporary literature review of design science research (DSR studies in the domain of decision support systems (DSS development. The latest studies in the DSS design domain claim that DSR methodologies are the most popular design approach, but many details are still yet to be revealed for supporting this claim. In particular, it is important to thoroughly investigate the trends in either the form or deeper insights in use of DSR in this field. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing DSS design science studies to reveal insights into the use of DSR, so that we can outline research agenda for a special issue, based on findings of analysis. We selected articles (from 2005 to 2014 that were published in seven selected premier IS journals (ranked as A* in the ABDC journal ranking. The selected 57 sample articles are representative of DSS design studies that used DSR in theorising, designing, implementing, and evaluating DSS solutions. We discuss the theoretical positions of DSR for DSS development through six categories: DSS artefacts, DSR methods, DSR views, user involvement, DSS design innovations and problem domains. The findings indicate that new studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in DSS design science, for more solid theoretical basis in near future.

  6. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  8. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-12-01

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24-hr recalls) of professional soccer players (n = 6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the prematch (recovery from an evening kick-off) were similar (p > .05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for prematch CHO intake and postmatch recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (p lunch (0.6 g·kg -1 )>breakfast (0.3 g·kg -1 )>evening snacks (0.1 g·kg -1 ). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the prematch and postmatch meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  9. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge of New Zealand premier club rugby coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant; Wall, Clare

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about if and how team coaches disseminate nutrition information to athletes. In a census survey, New Zealand premier rugby coaches (n = 168) completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, received by either Internet or standard mail (response rate, 46%), identifying their nutrition advice dissemination practices to players, their level of nutrition knowledge, and the factors determining this level of knowledge. The majority of coaches provided advice to their players (83.8%). Coaches responded correctly to 55.6% of all knowledge questions. An independent t-test showed coaches who imparted nutrition advice obtained a significantly greater score, 56.8%, than those not imparting advice, 48.4% (P = 0.008). One-way ANOVA showed significant relationships between total knowledge score of all coaches and qualifications [F(1,166) = 5.28, P = 0.001], own knowledge rating [F(3,164) = 6.88, P = 0.001] and nutrition training [F(1,166) = 9.83, P = 0.002]. We conclude that these rugby coaches were inadequately prepared to impart nutrition advice to athletes and could benefit from further nutrition training.

  10. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javani Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  11. What Happens When Employers are Free to Discriminate? Evidence from the English Barclays Premier Fantasy Football League

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Research on employers' hiring discrimination is limited by the unlawfulness of such activity. Consequently, researchers have focused on the intention to hire. Instead, we rely on a virtual labour market, the Fantasy Football Premier League, where employers can freely exercise their taste for racial discrimination in terms of hiring and firing. The setting allows us to eliminate co-worker, consumer-based and statistical discrimination as potential sources of discrimination, thus isolating the ...

  12. Chinese Dream——Concert in Commemoration of 115th Birth Anniversary of Premier Zhou Enlai Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our; Staff; Reporter

    2013-01-01

    <正>The theme song of the film The Founding of a Republic sung by male vocalists Dai Yuqiang and Wei Song reverberated in the Opera Hall at the National Center for the Performing Arts on the `evening of March 14. It marked the start of the concert in commemoration of the 115th anniversary of the birth of Premier Zhou Enlai, with "Chinese Dream" as the theme.

  13. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan, Harga Dan Lokasi Terhadap Loyalitas Melalui Kepuasan Tamu Pada Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel & Convention Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Susi Marta

    2016-01-01

    Santika Premiere Dyandra Hotel & Convention, Medan, is one of movers in hotel service industry which combines products and services, including the combination of service quality, price, and location in order to attract and provide satisfaction for its guests. It also pays attention to and gives expectation and needs for the guests by giving something correctly which are in line with the guests’ need by providing good performance so that they will be satisfied and will eventually be loyal to t...

  14. Epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Mohtasham, Hamid; Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Khoshroo, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology and history of knee injury and its impact on activity limitation among football premier league professional referees in Iran. This was a descriptive study. 59 Football Premier League professional referees participated in the study. The knee injury related information such as injury history and mechanism was recorded. Injury related symptoms and their impacts on the activity limitation, ability to perform activities of daily living as well participation in sports and recreational activities was obtained through the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS). The results indicated that 31 out of 59 participants reported the history of knee injury. In addition, 18.6%, 22.4% and 81% of the referees reported that they had been injured during the last 6 months of the last year, and at some point in their refereeing careers, respectively. Results further indicated that 48.8% of the injuries occurred in the non-dominant leg and they occurred more frequently during training sessions (52%). Furthermore, the value of KOS was 85 ± 13 for Activities of Daily Living subscale and 90 ± 9 for Sports and Recreational Activities subscale of the KOS. Knee injury was quite common among the Football Premier League professional referees. It was also indicated that the injuries occurred mainly due to insufficient physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that football referees undergo the proper warm-up program to avoid knee injury.

  15. PENGARUH PEMBAGIAN KERJA TERHADAP PENINGKATAN EFISIENSI KERJA KARYAWAN PASTRY DI HOTEL SANTIKA PREMIERE MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estikowati Estikowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of the division of labor on the work efficiency of pastry employees at Hotel Santika Premiere Malang. Work efficiency relates to the product produced with the resources used. While the division of labor is a separator type of work done by individuals. Researchers used the Simple Linear Regression Analyze method to predict how far the value of the dependent variable will be changed if the independent variable is changed. From result of research of independent variable (X that is Division of labor and dependent variable (Y Work efficiency have significant relation. This is evidenced from the data processing is known significant value sebersar 0.003 <0.05, with the conclusion Ho rejected and Ha accepted that there is influence between the Division of labor (X on Efficiency of work. From the questionnaire data the authors conclude that the existing division of labor is not appropriate for employees so that the level of efficiency of employees decreased. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:IN;} The study was conducted to determine the effect of the division of labor on the work efficiency of pastry employees at Hotel Santika Premiere Malang. Work efficiency relates to the product produced with the resources used. While the division of labor is

  16. The first metallurgical tests on plutonium; Premiers essais metallurgiques sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E; Abramson, R; Anselin, F; Monti, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Metallic plutonium was first prepared in France in January 1956, as soon as we had access to quantities of the order of several grams of plutonium, which had been extracted from the rods of the pile EL2 at Saclay. Since up to the present this reactor, of thermal power 2 000 kW, has been our only source of plutonium, we have so far only worked on experimental quantities sufficient for the basic tests but not for tests on a scale of possible applications. It is this work, carried out during this phase of preliminary research, which is described below. With the starting up of the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule, where the reactor G1 has been operating at power for more than a year, we shall go on next to a another order of magnitude which will allow the manufacture and experimentation of prototype fuel elements. (author) [French] La premiere elaboration de plutonium metallique en France fut faite en janvier 1956, des que nous pumes disposer de quantites de plutonium de l'ordre de quelques grammes, qui avaient ete retires des barreaux de la pile EL2 de Saclay. Ce reacteur, d'une puissance thermique de 2 000 kW, ayant ete jusqu'a present notre seule source de plutonium, nous n'avons encore travaille que sur des quantites experimentales suffisantes pour les essais de base, mais non pour des essais a l'echelle d'applications possibles. Ce sont les travaux effectues pendant cette phase de recherches preliminaires qui seront evoques ci-dessous. Avec la mise eu route de l'usine d'extraction de plutonium de Marcoule, ou le reacteur G1 fonctionne en puissance depuis plus d'un an, nous allons passer prochainement a un autre ordre de grandeur, qui nous permettra la fabrication et l'experimentation d'elements combustibles prototypes. (auteur)

  17. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  18. Mobil positioning itself to become Canada's premier oil and gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.

    1994-01-01

    To achieve its goal of becoming Canada's premier oil and gas company by the year 2000, Mobil Oil Canada is empowering its employees and applying appropriate technology to unlock resources and create value. Mobil produces 4.1 million m 3 of oil and natural gas liquids, 5.6 million m 3 /y of natural gas and 438,000 tonnes/y of sulfur. It also operates over 3,000 wells in western Canada and eleven gas processing plants, manages 1,700 km of pipeline, and has 33% interest in the Hibernia project on the Grand Banks. Oil lifting costs have decreased over the past three years from $3.40/bbl to $2.80/bbl and development costs are under $2/bbl. Innovative technology used to achieve high production and low costs include the use of three dimensional seismic surveys and horizontal drilling. Other techniques used at particular sites include installation of downhole injection regulators to control problems of segregation and metering between different water injection zones at the Carson Creek field, use of artificial lifts in gas wells, and a dual gas lift at the Rainbow Lake oil field. At the Lone Pine gas plant, the first Superclaus-99 sulfur recovery process was installed, reducing sulfur emissions by 60% and increasing recovery efficiency from 95% to 98%. Mobil has operated in Canada since 1940 and has made significant discoveries, including Canada's largest producing oil field, the Pembina. In 1971, Mobil discovered gas of commercial significance off the east coast and helped discover the Hibernia and Venture fields. The Hibernia project is scheduled to come on stream in 1997 and Mobil expects the economics of the project to be favorable, with a $12-13/bbl oil price needed to break even. 7 figs

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachina RJ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Júlio de Freitas Guina Fachina,1,2 Marília dos Santos Andrade,3 Fernando Roberto Silva,4 Silas Waszczuk-Junior,4 Paulo César Montagner,1 João Paulo Borin,1 Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira5 1Departamento de Ciência do Esporte, Faculdade de Educação Física, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Confederação Brasileira de Basketball (CBB, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Grêmio Barueri Futebol LTDA, Barueri, Brazil; 5Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, Brazil Abstract: Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2% were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8% during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. Keywords: injuries, epidemiology, soccer players

  20. Should health organizations use web 2.0 media in times of an infectious disease crisis? An in-depth qualitative study of citizens' information behavior during an EHEC outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Lex; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C; Beaujean, Desirée J M A; Wentzel, Jobke; van Steenbergen, Jim E

    2012-12-20

    Web 2.0 media (eg, Facebook, Wikipedia) are considered very valuable for communicating with citizens in times of crisis. However, in the case of infectious disease outbreaks, their value has not been determined empirically. In order to be able to take full advantage of Web 2.0 media in such a situation, the link between these media, citizens' information behavior, and citizens' information needs has to be investigated. The goal of our study was to assess citizens' Web 2.0 media use during an infectious disease outbreak and to determine which Web 2.0 medium is used for which goal. With this information, we wanted to formulate recommendations for health organizations that consider using Web 2.0 media as part of their communication strategy during an infectious disease outbreak. A total of 18 student participants kept an information diary for 4 weeks during the 2011 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak in Germany. Of them, 9 lived at the epicenter of the outbreak and 9 of them at some distance. The diaries were supplemented by a qualitative pre-survey (demographics) and postsurvey (questioning their satisfaction with information provision during the outbreak). The Internet appeared to be the most popular medium for passively receiving EHEC-related information, with news websites and websites of newspapers as the most consulted sources. Twitter was used for receiving information to a small degree, while Facebook played virtually no role. Participants indicated that they thought information posted on Twitter or Facebook was not reliable or was out of place. When actively seeking information, online newspapers and wikis were important sources. Several causes for (dis)satisfaction with information provision were uncovered: source credibility, contradicting messages, and a need for closure. During an infectious disease outbreak, our small sample of students did not see social media (like Facebook and Twitter) as suitable or reliable sources for communicating

  1. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanil R Parma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2 are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx was developed using anti-Stx2 B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933 and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 400 ng /ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for 2 strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  2. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933, and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:22919675

  3. Etat des lieux des soins de premier recours des malades mentaux à Antananarivo : étude rétrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakohariliva, Hasina Andrianarivony; Rafehivola, Imisanavalona Hanitrinihaja; Raobelle, Evah Norotiana; Raharivelo, Adeline; Rajaonarison, Bertille Hortense

    2018-01-01

    Résumé Religion et guérisseurs traditionnels occupent encore une place prépondérante dans la prise en charge des maladies mentales à Madagascar. Ainsi, nous nous sommes fixés comme objectif d'établir un état des lieux sur les soins de premier recours des malades mentaux. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective descriptive s'étalant sur une période de 16 mois allant de janvier 2014 en avril 2015 au sein du service de psychiatrie du CHU de Befelatanana à Antananarivo. La prévalence des psychoses était de 25%. Le genre féminin (53%), l'ethnie merina (77%), les étudiants (45%), le niveau d'étude secondaire (40%), les célibataires (72%), la religion protestante (45%), ainsi que le niveau socio-économique moyen (57,5%) étaient prédominants. Dans les paramètres cliniques, le mode de début brutal (52%), le premier recours à la religion (40%), la présence d'antécédents des cas similaire (90%), étaient majoritaires. La schizophrénie était la pathologie la plus rencontrée dans la moitié des cas. Le délai d'amélioration en cas de traitement religieux et traditionnels était dans la moitié des cas de plus de 10 jours d'hospitalisation. Les patients ayant reçu une prise en charge psychiatrique en premier recours, étaient améliorés dans 75 % cas en moins de 10jours. Le retard du recours aux soins psychiatriques est une réalité à Madagascar qui aggrave le pronostic des psychoses. PMID:29632623

  4. Shirt sponsorship by gambling companies in the English and Scottish Premier Leagues: global reach and public health concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, C.; Ireland, R.; Minton, J.; Holman, D.J.; Philpott, M.; Chambers, S.

    2018-01-01

    While the nature of gambling practices is contested, a strong evidence\\ud base demonstrates that gambling can become a serious disorder and have\\ud a range of detrimental effects for individuals, communities and societies.\\ud Over the last decade, football in the UK has become visibly entwined with\\ud gambling marketing. To explore this apparent trend, we tracked shirt\\ud sponsors in both the English and Scottish Premier Leagues since 1992 and\\ud found a pronounced increase in the presence of...

  5. Comparison of premier CAMPY enzyme immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY tests with culture for laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Paul A; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2010-11-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the "gold standard" for

  6. Comparison of Premier CAMPY Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY Tests with Culture for Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Enteric Infections ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Paul A.; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A.; Novak-Weekley, Susan M.; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the “gold standard” for

  7. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  8. First experiments results about the engineering model of Rapsodie; Premiers resultats d'essais interessant le bloc pile de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalot, A; Ginier, R; Sauvage, M [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report deals with the first series of experiments carried out on the engineering model of Rapsodie and on an associated sodium facility set in a laboratory hall of Cadarache. It conveys more precisely: 1/ - The difficulties encountered during the erection and assembly of the engineering model and a compilation of the results of the first series of experiments and tests carried out on this installation (loading of the subassemblies preheating, thermal chocks...). 2/ - The experiments and tests carried out on the two prototypes control rod drive mechanisms which brought to the choice for the design of the definitive drive mechanism. As a whole, the results proved the validity of the general design principles adopted for Rapsodie. (authors) [French] Ce rapport traite des premiers essais realises sur la maquette du bloc pile de Rapsodie et sur une installation annexe de sodium, implantees dans un hall d'essais de Cadarache. Il fait part: 1/- Des difficultes eprouvees lors du montage de la maquette et rassemble les resultats des premiers essais effectues sur cette installation (chargement des assemblages, prechauffage, chocs thermiques...). 2/- Des essais realises sur deux prototypes de mecanisme de barre de controle qui ont conduit a la conception du mecanisme definitif. L'ensemble des resultats obtenus a permis de confirmer la validite des principes adoptes pour la pile Rapsodie. (auteurs)

  9. [Pierre Chirac "premier physician" of the king and the aborted plan to create an "Académie de médecine" in Paris (1731-1732)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunel, Alexandre

    2005-03-01

    After being appointed "premier physician" in 1731, Pierre Chirac, thanks to his influence with the king, tried to realize an ambitious project. Inspired by the creation of an Academie de Chirurgie by the "premier surgeon", Chirac decided to creation an Académie de Médecine in Paris. Under his guidance, it was planned to collect opinions from all doctors of the kingdom in order to enhance global knowledge of disease, symptoms and treatments. However, threatened with the loss of its secular superiority, the Paris University Medical School immediately opposed the project. Although well advanced, the project was finally abandoned on Chirac's death.

  10. MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS OF FOOTBALL MATCH PERFORMANCES: COMPOSITION OF PROBABILISTIC PREFERENCES APPLIED TO THE ENGLISH PREMIER LEAGUE 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Principe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article aims to analyze the technical performance of football teams in the FA Premier League during the 2015/2016 season. Data of twenty clubs over 38 matches for each club are considered using 23 variables. These variables have been explored in the football literature and address different features of technical performance. The different configuration of the data for teams in detached segments motivated the multi-criteria approach, which enables identification of strong and weak sectors in each segment. The uncertainty as to the outcome of football matches and the imprecision of the measures indicated the use of Composition of Probabilistic Preferences (CPP to model the problem. “R” software was used in the modeling and computation. The CPP global scores obtained were more consistent with the final classification than those of other methods. CPP scores revealed different performances of particular groups of variables indicating aspects to be improved and explored.

  11. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  12. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  13. QUALITY OF NURSING WORK LIFE IMPROVEMENT MODEL TO DECREASE NURSE INTENTION TO QUIT IN PREMIER SURABAYA HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jany Prihastuty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of Nursing Work Life (QNWL is a thing that needs attention by human resource management approach. The purpose of this research was to provide develop model to increase QNWL in order to lower nurse’s intention to quit the Premier Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Design used in the structure was explanatory research. The independent variables was Internal factors (Individual factors, social and environment conceptual factors, operational factors, administrative factors where as the dependent variable from this study was intention to quit, and moderator variables QNWL random sampling technique. Total sample was 160 nurses, taken according to inclusion criteria. The research was conducted in Premier Hospital Surabaya from October 2012 - July 2013. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Data were then analyzed by using multiple linear regression test with level of significance of ≤ 0.05. Result: The results showed, QNWL was influenced by relationships inter-professional part of variabel social and environment conceptual factors, supervision monitoring part of variabel operational factors, career development part of variabel administrative factors. Intention to quit influenced by relationships between nurses, inter-departmental and inter-professional part of variabel social and environment conceptual factors and salaries and benefits part of variabel administrative factors with significant value p = 0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded good inter-professional relation, supervision monitoring, and good career development affected QNWL. Good relationships between nurses, inter-departmental and inter- professional led to lower intention to quit. Low salary and benefits led nurse’s intention to quit getting stronger.

  14. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Radiobiological and PK assays at advance Centre for Training Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, Goda Jayant; Gota, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Radiobiological, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies are of paramount importance for drug development and more so in the development of newer radiation modulators. Radiobiological studies have now graduated from simple cell survival and viability assays to more complex molecular and imaging studies to study radiation modulation both in in-vitro and in-vivo models. Tata Memorial Centre and its research centre (ACTREC) is a premiere cancer centre in India dedicated to cancer research. The Department of Radiation Oncology treats approximately 7000 new patients in a year and is uniquely placed to do both translational radiation and clinical research in the field of drug development. The Clinical Biology Lab of the Department of Radiation Oncology at ACTREC in collaboration with other labs at ACTREC has standardized cell survival assays, DNA damage assays such as Gamma H2AX assay (by flow as well as confocal microscopy), Micronuclei assay and COMET assays using CASP software for quantification. We have also done apoptotic assays. These assays have been conducted for development newer drug formulations (for e.g liposomal radiosensitizers). We also have a strong imaging division having sophisticated microscopes (confocal and single molecule super resolution microscopes) for in-vitro optical imaging and a dedicated preclinical PET/CT/SPECT for in-vivo imaging. The clinical 3T MRI and PET/CT is being used to study the effect of hypoxia in various cancers

  17. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  19. The energy outlook in China-Minutes from the seminar organised by the Centre Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Meritet, S.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the seminars that are organised on a regular basis, the Centre de Geopolitique de l'Energie et des Matieres Premieres has devoted, on the 2. of June, a day to China, its energetics outlook and the resulting economic and geopolitical challenges. (authors)

  20. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  1. Cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli on hides of market beef cows at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L G; Stromberg, Z R; Lewis, G L; Moxley, R A; Smith, D R

    2018-03-25

    Cattle hides are an important source of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) carcass contamination at slaughter. Seven EHEC serogroups are adulterants in raw, non-intact beef: EHEC O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145 and O157. The objective of this study was to estimate the probability for hide contamination with EHEC among US market beef cows at slaughter and to test the effects of season and geographic region on prevalence of hide contamination. Hides (n = 800) of market cows were swabbed at slaughter immediately after exsanguination, prior to hide removal. Cows were sampled from two geographically distinct beef packing plants during four seasons of 2015. Cattle source was categorized by northern or southern region. Samples were tested for EHEC by a molecular screening assay. The effects of region, season and their interaction on the probability of hide contamination by each EHEC serogroup were tested in separate multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for the random effect of clustering by plant. Statistical significance was set α = .05. Of 800 total samples, at least one EHEC was detected on 630 (79%) hides. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O26 was detected on 129 (16%) of all hides sampled, EHEC O45 on 437 (55%), EHEC O103 on 289 (36%), EHEC O111 on 189 (24%), EHEC O121 on 140 (18%), EHEC O145 on 171 (21%) and EHEC O157 on 89 (11%). Detection of EHEC O26 and EHEC O121 was associated with season. Season and region were associated with detecting EHEC O45 and EHEC O157. Season-by-region interactions were associated with the outcome of detecting EHEC O103, EHEC O111 and EHEC O145. Season, region of origin and the interaction of these factors affect hide contamination of market beef cattle at slaughter by EHEC, and each serogroup responds to these factors uniquely. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Les marqueurs d'aspect de dicto : 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenepveu Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available On se propose d’étudier les locutions adverbiales "à première vue", "au premier abord", "de prime abord", trois locutions qui comportent une forme numérale ordinale et qui entretiennent des relations de proximité sémantique. Nous nous intéressons précisément au fonctionnement sémantique et pragmatique de ces locutions à valeur paradigmatisante (Nølke 1983, quand elles introduisent un point de vue (Anscombre & Ducrot 1983, Ducrot 1984, Nølke 1994. Dans cette perspective, nous faisons l’hypothèse d’un procès énonciatif, qui consiste à prendre en considération une situation, et qui vise à constituer un jugement stabilisé. Nous admettons alors que les locutions adverbiales 'à première vue', 'au premier abord', 'de prime abord', servent à sélectionner la phase initiale de ce procès énonciatif, ce qu’attestent les mises en corrélation possibles des trois marqueurs de point de vue avec des expressions qui signalent une évolution dans le temps du jugement du locuteur concernant une situation ('à mieux regarder', 'à y regarder de plus près', 'tout compte fait', 'tout bien considéré', .... L’étude de ces enchaînements, qui vont parfois au-delà du paragraphe, fait apparaître la capacité des trois locutions à initier un cadre (Charolles 1997, et à appeler un autre cadre dans lequel le jugement va être réévalué. En présentant le point de vue qu’elle introduit comme provisoire et en attente de confirmation, chacune de ces locutions anticipe ainsi sur la suite du texte, et s’inscrit dans une structure aspectuelle de dicto qui est celle d’un procès énonciatif de constitution d’un jugement stabilisé. Nous nous appuyons sur des énoncés attestés au XXème, sélectionnés sur "Frantext intégral", ou bien choisis dans Le Monde sur cederom (1995-96, 1999-2002.

  3. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  4. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  5. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  10. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  11. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  12. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  13. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  16. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  17. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  18. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  19. Injury incidence in a Premier League youth soccer academy using the consensus statement: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an established risk of injury to young athletes exposed to high training loads. Identifying and monitoring injury risk is essential to aid prevention. The aim of this study was to use the consensus statement to determine the incidence and pattern of injury in 1 English Premier League soccer academy during 1 season. Methods A prospective cohort study included 181 elite academy soccer players during the 2012–2013 season. Players were divided into 5 age groups between 9 and 18 years. The number, type and incidence of injuries were recorded during matches and training. Incidence was calculated per 1000 hours of exposure. Results 127 injuries occurred during 29 346 hours of soccer exposure. 72% of injuries were non-contact related. Under (U)18 players sustained the highest number of match injuries. U12–14 players sustained the highest number of training injuries and injuries overall. U16 players sustained the highest number of severe injuries, and U18 players sustained the highest number of moderate injuries. U18 players sustained the highest number of injuries/1000 hours of training and overall. U15 players sustained the highest number of injuries/1000 hours of matches, the highest number of recurrent injuries and the highest incidence of recurrence. The most common injuries were muscle injuries in U15 and U18 players. The most common injury location was the anterior thigh, with the majority of these occurring in training. Conclusions Using the consensus statement, this study used a repeatable method to identify the injury profile of elite academy-level soccer players. PMID:27900186

  20. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  1. The Effect of Promotional Tools on Conveying Brand Identity from Sport Consumers’ Viewpoint in the Country’s Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Asadollahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.

  2. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  3. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  4. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  5. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  6. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  7. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  8. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  9. Towards Improving our Understanding on the Retrievals of Key Parameters Characterising Land Surface Interactions from Space: Introduction & First Results from the PREMIER-EO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Gareth; North, Matthew R.; Petropoulos, George P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Hodges, Crona

    2015-04-01

    Acquiring accurate information on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) is of key importance to extend our understanding of the Earth system's physical processes, and is also required in a wide range of multi-disciplinary research studies and applications. The utility and applicability of Earth Observation (EO) technology provides an economically feasible solution to derive continuous spatio-temporal estimates of key parameters characterising land surface interactions, including ET as well as SM. Such information is of key value to practitioners, decision makers and scientists alike. The PREMIER-EO project recently funded by High Performance Computing Wales (HPCW) is a research initiative directed towards the development of a better understanding of EO technology's present ability to derive operational estimations of surface fluxes and SM. Moreover, the project aims at addressing knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of such parameters, and thus contribute towards current ongoing global efforts towards enhancing the accuracy of those products. In this presentation we introduce the PREMIER-EO project, providing a detailed overview of the research aims and objectives for the 1 year duration of the project's implementation. Subsequently, we make available the initial results of the work carried out herein, in particular, related to an all-inclusive and robust evaluation of the accuracy of existing operational products of ET and SM from different ecosystems globally. The research outcomes of this project, once completed, will provide an important contribution towards addressing the knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of ET and SM. This project results will also support efforts ongoing globally towards the operational development of related products using technologically advanced EO instruments which were launched recently or planned be launched in the next 1-2 years. Key Words: PREMIER

  10. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  11. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  12. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  13. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  14. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  15. Structurations formelle et conceptuelle des articles de dictionnaires : le premier modèle de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Nous nous proposons d’examiner, dans l’histoire des dictionnaires généraux monolingues Larousse des origines à nos jours, une sélection de jalons de l’articulation entre structure conceptuelle et structure formelle des articles. Au regard de l’ampleur des données à couvrir, il ne pourra bien entendu s’agir que d’un survol, mais celui-ci permettra (1 de présenter le premier des trois modèles majeurs de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse, celui qui trouve son origine dans le Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française de 1856 ou ses éditions révisées, (2 de prendre en compte les dictionnaires proposés par cet éditeur en un siècle et demi qui ont repris le modèle de 1856 ou sa forme révisée, et (3 de présenter contrastivement au premier les deux autres modèles majeurs, qui trouvent leur ancrage chronologique respectivement dans le Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle de 1866-1876 et le Dictionnaire du français contemporain de 1966.

  16. Les premiers pas d’Agnon à Jaffa (1908-1912 First Steps of S.Y. Agnon in Jaffa (1908-1912 ראשית דרכו של עגנון ביפו (1908 עד 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Itzhaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers pas du célèbre auteur S. Y. Agnon lors de son premier séjour à Jaffa (1908-1912 sont liés aux deux revues hébraïques : Ha-Omer, histoire d’un échec, et Ha-po‘el ha-tsa‘ir, histoire d’une réussite, et aux rédacteurs en chef de ces revues, les écrivains et pères spirituels du jeune Agnon, Sh. Ben Tzion, un écrivain esthétique, bourgeois, et Y. H. Brenner, un penseur tourmenté, un véritable intellectuel socialiste.The first period of the famous writer S. Y. Agnon in Jaffa (1908-1912 has a lot to do with two literary Hebrew periodicals: Ha-Omer, a story of a failure, and Ha-po‘el ha-tsa‘ir, a successful one, as well as  with two major figures in Hebrew literary milieu at that time, the editors, Sh. Ben Tzion and Y. H. Brenner.

  17. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  18. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  19. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-St...

  20. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yanil R Parma; Pablo A Chacana; Paula María Alejandra Lucchesi; Ariel eRoge; Claudia V Granobles Velandia; Alejandra eKrüger; Alejandra eKrüger; Alberto E. Parma; Mariano Enrique Fernandez Miyakawa

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-St...

  1. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  2. Les premiers tours du monde à forfait. L’exemple de la Société des Voyages d’Etudes Autour du Monde (1878)

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, avec le développement du bateau à vapeur et du chemin de fer, et l’ouverture de nouveaux axes de transport comme le Canal de Suez, le voyage autour du monde devient envisageable pour les touristes. Ainsi, dès 1872 des tours du monde à forfait sont organisés, ce qui témoigne de l’entrée du voyage autour du monde dans l’industrie touristique naissante. Cet article étudie ces premiers voyages d’un nouveau genre à travers l’exemple de la Société des Voyages ...

  3. Les premiers temps de l'architecture en briques au nord des Alpes : la question de l'origine cistercienne vue des Pays-Bas

    OpenAIRE

    Lehouck, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    L'argile est l'une des plus vieilles matières premières pour la fabrication de matériaux de construction. La chute de l'Empire romain a marqué la fin de l'utilisation de la brique au nord des Alpes. La brique ne ressurgit véritablement qu' à partir de la deuxième moitié du XIIe s. et de la première moitié du XIIe s.; dans la deuxième moitié du XIIIe s., la brique était devenue le matériau de construction le plus utilisé. Dans cet article, nous discutons les données concernant les premiers ...

  4. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  5. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  6. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  7. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  8. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  9. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  10. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  11. Analysis of physical match performance in English Premier League soccer referees with particular reference to first half and player work rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; Abt, Grant

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of first half activity, overall match intensity and seasonal variation on the physical match performances of English Premier League football referees. Match analysis data was collected using the Prozone match analysis system from 19 full-time professional referees during a total of 254 matches in the 2004-2005 season. Physical match performances were classified into three separate categories: 1, total distance covered (TD); 2, high-intensity running distance (running speed>5.5m/s, HIR); 3, average distance from infringements (DI). Using these match activity variables the influence of first half TD and HIR distances on second half activities and also the influence of players' match activities upon the referees' physical match performances were examined. The main finding of the present study was that the physical match performances of the referees were partly related to those of the players, in that the referees' HIR correlated with players' HIR (r=0.43, pphysical match performance of the referee. Further examination is required as to whether reduced physical performances in the second half of matches are a consequence of referee fatigue, tactical strategies on behalf of the referee or reduced player match activities resulting in a slower tempo of match.

  12. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  14. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  15. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Nicholls

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.

  16. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  17. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  18. Autour d'un mystère de l'histoire du livre. Les trois versions du premier volume du Voyage pittoresque de Choiseul-Gouffier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koubourlis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, il est question d'un grand mystère de l'histoire du livre, celui de l'existence de trois versions différentes du premier volume du Voyage pittoresque de la Grèce (1782 de Choiseul-Gouffier, c'est-à-dire d'un ouvrage majeur pour la floraison des idées philhellènes dans l'Europe des XVIIIe-XIXe siècles. On sait, grâce à la correspondance de l'auteur, qu'il avait pris la décision de réviser son texte dès 1783, en raison de sa candidature pour le poste d'Ambassadeur de France à Constantinople. Par contre, on n'en sait pas davantage sur le lieu et le temps exacts où il a travaillé les deux nouvelles versions, portant également la date 1782, ni d'ailleurs sur les circonstances de leur édition. Sur la base d'une étude comparative des trois versions du texte, qui met l'accent sur l'argumentation avancée chaque fois par l'auteur, nous formulons ici une série d'hypothèses pour l'interprétation de ce mystère, que nous allons examiner dans leurs détails à partir d'une étude de bibliologie qui suivra le présent article.

  19. Girassol. A world premiere; Girassol. Une premiere mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnan, J.Ph.; Serceau, A. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-06-01

    Located at 150 km of the Angola coast, Girassol is the very first oil field integrally developed in deep sea conditions (1400 m). Girassol ensures today 8% of the production operated by TotalFinaElf company. This first step announces two other developments of comparable size on the same bloc (17): Dalia and Rosa-Lirio. This project, carried out with the participation of Angola companies, required 2.8 billions of US$ of investment. It significantly contributes to the development of a particularly rich oil province. This article describes the production equipment of the field: FPSO (floating production storage off-loading), mooring, tower risers, injection and production wells, bundles, flow-lines etc.. and the underwater operations required for the connecting of the bottom and surface equipments. (J.S.)

  20. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  1. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  2. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Measurement method of somatomedian A by radioreceptor assay using the human placenta membrane was described and discussed. Binding rate of /sup 125/I-somatomedin A to its receptors was studied under various conditions of time and temperature of the incubation, and pH of the system. The influence of somatomedin A, porcine insulin, and porcine calcitonin, on /sup 125/I-somatomedin A bound receptors was studied, and these hormones showed the competitive binding to somatomedin A receptors in some level. The specificity, recovery rate, and clinical applications of somatomedin A were also discussed. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedine A provided easier, faster, and more accurate measurements than conventional bioassay. This technique would be very useful to study somatomedin A receptor and functions of insulin.

  3. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  4. Assay of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, C.; Berry, J.

    1987-01-01

    Assays of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) can be used to illustrate many properties of photosynthetic systems. Many different leaves have been assayed with this standard procedure. The tissue is ground with a mortar and pestle in extraction buffer. The supernatant after centrifugation is used as the source of enzyme. Buffer, RuBP, [ 14 C]-NaHCO 3 , and enzyme are combined in a scintillation vial; the reaction is run for 1 min at 30 0 . The acid-stable products are counted. Reproducibility in student experiments has been excellent. The assay data can be combined with analyses of leaf properties such as fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and protein content, etc. Students have done projects such as the response of enzyme to temperature and to various inhibitors. They also report on the use of a transition state analog, carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate, to titrate the molar concentration of rubisco molecules (active sites) in an enzyme sample. Thus, using crude extracts the catalytic activity of a sample can be compared to the absolute quantity of enzyme or to the turnover number

  5. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  6. Enhancing Classroom Creativity. Premier PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Elizabeth; Ernst, Jeremy; Clark, Aaron; DeLuca, V. William; Kelly, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Educators often hear about the need for students to be more creative, more free-thinking, and more exploratory throughout projects and class assignments. This article will highlight the importance of creating and implementing an open-classroom environment where students are confident in their ability to ask questions and capable of exploring a…

  7. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pScottish Government and The UK Football Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, J.D.; Kamen, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3 H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  9. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  10. Rotor assembly and assay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  11. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  12. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert

    2016-01-01

    ) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). METHODS: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4...

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  14. Formes du regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours. Une typologie des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Anissa Afrite; Julien Mousques

    2014-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche global sur le lien entre le regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours dans les sites participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR) et la performance des médecins généralistes en matière d’activité, de productivité, d’efficacité et d’efficience de leurs pratiques, cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser la structure, l’organisation et le fonctionnement des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant...

  15. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Caldwell, J.T.; Medvick, P.A.; Kunz, W.E.; Hastings, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Guidicini, Olga; Llacer, Carlos D.; Rojo, Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  17. Assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.J.; Stipanuk, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed that rat liver contains two cysteine dioxygenase enzymes which convert cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid, one which is stimulated by NAD + and has a pH optimum of 6.8 and one which is not stimulated by NAD + and has a pH optimum of 9.0. This led the authors to reinvestigate assay conditions for measuring cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver homogenate. An HPLC method, using an anion exchange column (Dionex Amino-Pac trademark PA1 (4x250 mm)) was used to separate the [ 35 S]cysteinesulfinic acid produced from [ 35 S]cysteine in the incubation mixture. They demonstrated that inclusion of hydroxylamine prevented further metabolism of cysteinesulfinic acid. which occurred rapidly in the absence of hydroxylamine

  18. Évolution nycthémérale des composantes biochimiques du phytoplancton de la retenue du barrage Idriss premier (Fès, Maroc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahhou, J.; Alaoui Mhamdi, M.

    1999-03-01

    The diel changes of the biochemical composition of the phytoplankton were studied in the Idriss first reservoir (located on the Inaouen river at thirty Km from the city of Fes, Morrocco) during September 1994. Several biomass and metabolic indicators (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, chlorophyll a and primary production) were assessed every fourth hour over tow days (7, 8 and 9 September). Since the Protein/Carbohydrates ratio (P/C) is largely recognised as a good integrator of the metabolic functions of the cells, we examined its distribution pattern concomitantly with aforementioned parameters. The results demonstrated enhanced P/C ratios clearly indicating that nutrients were sufficiently available for growth. In addition, this index showed a diel significant variation with levels higher in the night than in the day. Moreover, these results suggest that phytoplankton species during the night used the day-synthesised carbohydrates to insure the cell metabolic functioning. The P/C presents relatively high values in proposition to the ones that have been recorded in temperate regions, and seems to be related to azotic inputs of the Inaouen river. Dans le but de parfaire nos connaissances sur le fonctionnement du sous écosystème phytoplancton, nous nous sommes intéressés à étudier son cycle nycthéméral et son métabolisme cellulaire dans la retenue du barrage Idriss premier. Cette dernière, construite sur l'Oued Inaouène, est située à une trentaine de Km de la ville de Fès. Au cours de ce cycle, les prélèvements ont été effectués selon une séquence temporelle de 4 heures pendant 48 heures, les 7, 8 et 9 septembre 1994. L'étude de l'évolution des composantes biochimiques des cellules phytoplanctoniques à savoir les protéines, les glucides et les lipides a permis de mettre en évidence des variations nycthémérales importantes. Ces variations sont d'autant plus importantes que les variations spatiales observées entre les profondeurs. De plus

  19. Conception et réalisation de l'unité de décision du système de déclenchement de premier niveau du détecteur LHCb au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Laubser, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Le detecteur LHCb est l'une des quatre experiences de physique des particules installees sur la nouvelle chaine d'acceleration LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN a Geneve. Afin de reduire la quantite de donnees destinees au stockage pour les analyses hors ligne, un dispositif de selection en ligne des collisions interessantes selon la physique a etudier est mis en place en parallele de la chaine d'acquisition des donnees. Ce dispositif est compose d'un premier niveau(niveau 0) realise par un systeme electronique complexe et d'un second niveau de selection realise par informatique HLT (High Level Trigger). L'unite de decision de niveau 0 (L0DU) est le systeme central du niveau 0 de declenchement. L0DU prend la decision d'accepter ou de rejeter la collision pour ce premier niveau a partir d'une fraction d'informations issues des sous-detecteurs les plus rapides (432 bits a 80 MHz). L'unite de decision est un circuit imprime 16 couches integrant des composants de haute technologie de type FPGA (Field Programmab...

  20. Study of the first collective levels of the even-even nuclei between masses 182 and 206; Etude des premiers niveaux collectifs des noyaux pairs-pairs entre les masses 182 et 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Quidort, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The reduced probabilities of deexcitation of the first two 2 + levels of {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt have been deduced from coulombic excitation experiments on these nuclei.The results are included in a chart of the properties of the first two 2 + levels of even-even nuclei situated between masses 182 and 206. The variation of these properties as a function of nuclear distortion is compared with the various theoretical predictions concerning vibration levels. (author) [French] Les probabilites reduites de desexcitation des deux premiers niveaux 2 + de {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt ont ete deduites des experiences d'excitation coulombienne de ces noyaux. Les resultats sont inseres dans une systematique des proprietes des deux premiers niveaux 2 + des noyaux pairs-pairs situes entre les masses 182 et 206. La variation de ces proprietes en fonction de la deformation nucleaire est comparee aux diverses predictions theoriques concernant les niveaux de vibration. (auteur)

  1. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  4. Harmonization of radiobiological assays: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has made available a technical manual for cytogenetic biodosimetry assays (dicentric chromosome aberration (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays) used for radiation dose assessment in radiation accidents. The International Standardization Organization, which develops standards and guidelines, also provides an avenue for laboratory accreditation, has developed guidelines and recommendations for performing cytogenetic biodosimetry assays. Harmonization of DCA and CBMN assays, has improved their accuracy. Double-blinded inter-laboratory comparison studies involving several networks have further validated DCA and CBMN assays and improved the confidence in their potential use for radiation dose assessment in mass casualties. This kind of international harmonization is lacking for pre-clinical radiobiology assays. The widely used pre-clinical assays that are relatively important to set stage for clinical trials include clonogenic assays, flow-cytometry assays, apoptotic assays, and tumor regression and growth delay assays. However, significant inter-laboratory variations occur with respect to data among laboratories. This raises concerns on the reliability and reproducibility of preclinical data that drives further development and translation. Lack of reproducibility may stem from a variety of factors such as poor scientist training, less than optimal experimental design, inadequate description of methodology, and impulse to publish only the positive data etc. Availability of technical manuals, standard operating procedures, accreditation avenues for laboratories performing such assays, inter-laboratory comparisons, and use of standardized protocols are necessary to enhance reliability and reproducibility. Thus, it is important that radiobiological assays are harmonized for laboratory protocols to ensure successful translation of pre-clinical research on radiation effect modulators to help design clinic trials with

  5. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  6. TRU assay system and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    The measurement of the transuranic content of nuclear products or process residues has become increasingly important for the recovery of fissionable material from spent fuel elements, the identification of commercial fuel elements which have not yet reached full burnup, the measurement and recovery of transuranics from discarded or stored waste materials, the determination of the transuranic content in high gamma activity waste material scheduled for disposal, compliance with 10CFR61 by land burial operators/shippers, and the satisfaction of accountability requirements. Active neutron interrogation techniques measure either the prompt neutrons or the beta delayed neutrons from fission products following induced fission. These techniques normally only measure fissile transuranics ( 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu) and are commonly applied only to contact handleable waste. Passive neutron interrogation techniques, on the other hand, are capable of measuring all transuranics except 235 U with adequate sensitivity and will work on both contact handleable and high gamma activity wastes. Since the passive techniques are senstitive to a wider spectrum of transuranic isotopes than the active techniques, substantially less complex and less expensive than the active systems, and they have proven techniques for measuring small quantities of TRU in high gamma activity packages, the passive neutron TRU assay technology was chosen for development into the instruments discussed in this paper

  7. Micronucleus assay for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasem, A.N.; Ali, A.S.K.

    1997-01-01

    Micronucleus assay was performed on 49 radiation workers and 22 healthy volunteers. Radiation workers were subdivided into two groups according to their employments durations in the radiation field. Group a consisted of 18 radiation workers who have been in this work between 5 and 22 years. Group b included 31 employees who have been classified as radiation workers for 1 to 4.5 years. Statistical analysis showed significant variations between the yields of micronuclei in groups A and B as well as between group A and a group of healthy controls. Meanwhile no significant difference was noticed between the yields of micronuclei in group B and the corresponding values in the healthy controls. The possible effect of age in the induction of micronuclei was discussed and a comparison with the yield of chromosomal aberrations was described. It seems that cytokinesis- blocking method may be used to detect the radiation-induced micronuclei in workers exposed occupationally to ionizing radiation in levels below the maximum permissible limit of 0.05 Sv per year

  8. PAME: plasmonic assay modeling environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic assays are an important class of optical sensors that measure biomolecular interactions in real-time without the need for labeling agents, making them especially well-suited for clinical applications. Through the incorporation of nanoparticles and fiberoptics, these sensing systems have been successfully miniaturized and show great promise for in-situ probing and implantable devices, yet it remains challenging to derive meaningful, quantitative information from plasmonic responses. This is in part due to a lack of dedicated modeling tools, and therefore we introduce PAME, an open-source Python application for modeling plasmonic systems of bulk and nanoparticle-embedded metallic films. PAME combines aspects of thin-film solvers, nanomaterials and fiber-optics into an intuitive graphical interface. Some of PAME’s features include a simulation mode, a database of hundreds of materials, and an object-oriented framework for designing complex nanomaterials, such as a gold nanoparticles encased in a protein shell. An overview of PAME’s theory and design is presented, followed by example simulations of a fiberoptic refractometer, as well as protein binding to a multiplexed sensor composed of a mixed layer of gold and silver colloids. These results provide new insights into observed responses in reflectance biosensors.

  9. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackleton, D.R.; Hulmes, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a [4,5-3H]-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware

  10. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN - ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation

  11. Linearization of the Bradford Protein Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-01-01

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, t...

  12. New automated pellet/powder assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses an automated, high precision, pellet/ powder assay system. The system is an active assay system using a small isotopic neutron source and a coincidence detection system. The handling of the pellet powder samples has been automated and a programmable calculator has been integrated into the system to provide control and data analysis. The versatile system can assay uranium or plutonium in either active or passive modes

  13. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1990-08-01

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239 Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of highly enriched {sup 233}U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched {sup 235}U do not convert easily over to the assay of {sup 233}U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with {gamma} ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of {sup 233}U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. 233U Assay A Neutron NDA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, D.C.; Lucero, A.J.; Pierce, L.

    1998-01-01

    The assay of highly enriched 233 U material presents some unique challenges. Techniques which apply to the assay of materials of Pu or enriched 235 U do not convert easily over to the assay of 233 U. A specialized neutron assay device is being fabricated to exploit the singles neutron signal, the weak correlated neutron signal, and an active correlated signal. These pieces of information when combined with γ ray isotopics information should give a good overall determination of 233 U material now stored in bldg. 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. Safeguards and Non-destructive Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.; Bruggeman, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and non-destructive assay includes: (1) various activities to assure nuclear materials accountancy; (2) contributes to the implementation of Integrated Safeguards measures in Belgium and to assist the IAEA through the Belgian Support Programme; (3) renders services to internal and external customers in the field of safeguards; (4) improves passive neutron coincidence counting techniques for waste assay and safeguards verification measurements by R and D on correlation algorithms implemented via software or dedicated hardware; (5) improves gamma assay techniques for waste assay by implementing advanced scanning techniques and different correlation algorithms; and (6) develops numerical calibration techniques. Major achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  17. Assay-specific decision limits for two new automated parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Fayol, Véronique; Sault, Corinne; Lawson-Body, Ethel; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2005-02-01

    The recent development of nonradioactive automated assays for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has made measurement of these two hormones possible in many laboratories. In this study, we compared two new assays for PTH and 25OHD adapted on an automated analyzer, the LIAISON, with two manual immunoassays used worldwide. We studied 228 osteoporotic patients, 927 healthy individuals, 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and 167 hemodialyzed patients. Serum PTH was measured with the Allegro and the LIAISON assays, and 25OHD was measured with DiaSorin RIA and the LIAISON assay. Regression analysis was used to calculate decision thresholds for the LIAISON assays that were equivalent to those of the Allegro PTH and DiaSorin 25OHD assays. The 25OHD concentrations obtained with the LIAISON assay and the RIA in osteoporotic patients were well correlated (r = 0.83; P 50 nmol/L as eligible for the reference population for the LIAISON PTH assay. In this group, the 3rd-97th percentile interval for LIAISON PTH was 3-51 ng/L. Considering upper reference limits of 46 and 51 ng/L for the Allegro and LIAISON assays, respectively, the frequency of above-normal PTH concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism was similar in both assays. Regression analysis between serum PTH measured by the Allegro and LIAISON assays in 167 hemodialyzed patients and the corresponding Bland-Altman analysis of these data suggest that the LIAISON PTH assay tends to read higher than the Allegro assay at low concentrations but lower at high concentrations (>300 ng/L). Because clinical decision limits for both PTH and 25OHD should be assay specific, we propose equivalences between these assays and two manual assays used worldwide. These assay-specific decision limits should help potential users of the LIAISON PTH and 25OHD assays.

  18. A radiochemical assay for biotin in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical assay for biotin is described. The assay was sensitive to one nanogram and simple enough for routine biotin analyses. The assay yielded results which were comparable to those obtained from a microbiological assay using Lactobacillus plantarum. (author)

  19. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  20. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, G.; Simon, P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising [fr

  1. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  2. A Continuous, Fluorogenic Sirtuin 2 Deacylase Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleano, Iacopo; Schiedel, Matthias; Jung, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    and kinetic insight regarding sirtuin inhibitors, it is important to have access to efficient assays. In this work, we report readily synthesized fluorogenic substrates enabling enzyme-economical evaluation of SIRT2 inhibitors in a continuous assay format as well as evaluation of the properties of SIRT2...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A...

  4. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo [Seoul National University college of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2+-1.7%, 3.9+-2.1%, 7.1+-6.2%, 11.2+-7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1+-1.7%, 4.8+-3.1%, 3.6+-4.8%, and 7.4+-6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  5. Comparison of Batch Assay and Random Assay Using Automatic Dispenser in Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Ho Young; Shin, Sun Young; Min, Gyeong Sun; Lee, Hyun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was usually performed by the batch assay. To improve the efficiency of RIA without increase of the cost and time, random assay could be a choice. We investigated the possibility of the random assay using automatic dispenser by assessing the agreement between batch assay and random assay. The experiments were performed with four items; Triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (fT4), Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In each item, the sera of twenty patients, the standard, and the control samples were used. The measurements were done 4 times with 3 hour time intervals by random assay and batch assay. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the standard samples and patients' data in T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA were assessed. ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) and coefficient of correlation were measured to assessing the agreement between two methods. The CVs (%) of T3, fT4, PSA, and CEA measured by batch assay were 3.2±1.7%, 3.9±2.1%, 7.1±6.2%, 11.2±7.2%. The CVs by random assay were 2.1±1.7%, 4.8±3.1%, 3.6±4.8%, and 7.4±6.2%. The ICC between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9968 (T3), 0.9973 (fT4), 0.9996 (PSA), and 0.9901 (CEA). The coefficient of correlation between the batch assay and random assay were 0.9924(T3), 0.9974 (fT4), 0.9994 (PSA), and 0.9989 (CEA) (p<0.05). The results of random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay in a day. These results suggest that random assay using automatic dispenser could be used in radioimmunoassay

  6. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in radar facility workers: comparison of the comet assay with micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.

    2003-01-01

    Genotoxic risks of occupational exposure in a radar facility were evaluated by using alkaline comet assay, micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay on peripheral blood leukocytes in exposed subjects and corresponding controls. Results show that occupational exposure to microwave radiation correlates with an increase of genome damage in somatic cells. The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by using alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control and showed interindividual variations. Incidence of micronuclei was also significantly increased compared to baseline control values. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin, cells of occupationally exposed subjects responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Although the level of chromosome damage generated by bleomycin varied greatly between individuals, in exposed subjects a significantly elevated number of chromatid breaks was observed. Our results support data reported in literature indicating that microwave radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard. Alkaline comet assay is confirmed as a sensitive and highly reproducible technique for detection of primary DNA damage inflicted in somatic cells. Micronucleus assay was confirmed as reliable bio-markers of effect and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive bio-marker of individual cancer susceptibility. The results obtained also confirm the necessity to improve measures and to perform accurate health surveillance of individuals occupationally exposed to microwave radiation

  7. Non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament injury in an English Premier League football player with return to play in less than 8 weeks: applying common sense in the absence of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Monte-Colombo, Mathew; Mitchell, Adam; Haddad, Fares

    2015-01-01

    This case report illustrates and discusses the non-operative management of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in an English Premier League football player, his return to play within 8 weeks and problem-free follow-up at 18 months post injury. When non-operative verses surgical ACL reconstruction is considered there are many fundamental gaps in our knowledge and currently, at elite level, there are no cases in cutting sports within the literature to guide these decisions. When the norm is for all professional footballers to be recommended surgery, it will be very challenging when circumstances and patient autonomy dictate a conservative approach, where prognosis, end points and risk are unclear and assumed to be high. This case challenges current dogma and provides a starting point for much needed debate about best practice, treatment options, research direction and not just at the elite level of sport. PMID:25917066

  8. Nano-immunosafety: issues in assay validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boraschi, Diana; Italiani, Paola; Oostingh, Gertie J; Duschl, Albert; Casals, Eudald; Puntes, Victor F; Nelissen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials for human health must include a thorough evaluation of their effects on the immune system, which is responsible for defending the integrity of our body from damage and disease. An array of robust and representative assays should be set up and validated, which could be predictive of the effects of nanomaterials on immune responses. In a trans-European collaborative work, in vitro assays have been developed to this end. In vitro tests have been preferred for their suitability to standardisation and easier applicability. Adapting classical assays to testing the immunotoxicological effects of nanoparticulate materials has raised a series of issues that needed to be appropriately addressed in order to ensure reliability of results. Besides the exquisitely immunological problem of selecting representative endpoints predictive of the risk of developing disease, assay results turned out to be significantly biased by artefactual interference of the nanomaterials or contaminating agents with the assay protocol. Having addressed such problems, a series of robust and representative assays have been developed that describe the effects of engineered nanoparticles on professional and non-professional human defence cells. Two of such assays are described here, one based on primary human monocytes and the other employing human lung epithelial cells transfected with a reporter gene.

  9. Radioactive wastes assay technique and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Hong, D. S; Kim, T. K.; Bae, S. M.; Shon, J. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The waste inventory records such as the activities and radio- nuclides contained in the waste packages are to be submitted with the radioactive wastes packages for the final disposal. The nearly around 10,000 drums of waste stocked in KAERI now should be assayed for the preparation of the waste inventory records too. For the successive execution of the waste assay, the investigation into the present waste assay techniques and equipment are to be taken first. Also the installation of the waste assay equipment through the comprehensive design, manufacturing and procurement should be proceeded timely. As the characteristics of the KAERI-stocked wastes are very different from that of the nuclear power plant and those have no regular waste streams, the application of the in-direct waste assay method using the scaling factors are not effective for the KAERI-generated wastes. Considering for the versal conveniency including the accuracy over the wide range of waste forms and the combination of assay time and sensitivity, the TGS(Tomographic Gamma Scanner) is appropriate as for the KAERI -generated radioactive waste assay equipment

  10. A multiwell format assay for heparanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Farhad; Brenchley, Paul E C

    2003-09-15

    This assay employs a biotinylated heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HSGAG) substrate that is covalently linked to the surface of 96-well immunoassay plates. The ratio of biotin:HSGAG and the coating concentration of substrate bound to the wells have been optimized and allow removal of biotin HSGAG within 60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C in assay buffer with a standard dilution of bacterial heparitinase or platelet heparanase. Loss of biotin signal from the well surface is detected on incubation with peroxidase-streptavidin followed by color development using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as the peroxidase substrate. The new assay allows specific detection of heparanase activity in multiple samples in a total time of 3 h including a 1-h substrate digestion step and is a significant improvement with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and ease of handling of multiple samples compared to other described assays. Heparanase specifically degrades the biotinylated HSGAG substrate, when used with an optimized assay buffer. A range of enzymes including collagenase, trypsin, plasmin, pepsin, chondroitinases, hyaluronidase, and neuraminidase show no effect on the substrate under optimized assay conditions. The covalent linkage of the substrate to the well prevents leaching of substrate and allows preparation and long-term storage of substrate-coated plates. The assay can be used to detect heparanase levels in clinical samples and cell culture supernatants and is ideal as a screening method for antagonists of enzyme activity.

  11. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, Wayne D.; Lee, R. Stephen; Ottmar, Herbert; Guardini, Sergio

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants [ru

  12. Thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay: TELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiasson, B; Borrebaeck, C; Sanfridson, B; Mosbach, K

    1977-08-11

    A new method, thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TELISA), for the assay of endogenous and exogenous compounds in biological fluids is described. It is based on the previously described enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique, ELISA, but utilizes enzymic heat formation which is measured in an enzyme thermistor unit. In the model system studied determination of human serum albumin down to a concentration of 10(-10) M (5 ng/ml) was achieved, with both normal and catalase labelled human serum albumin competing for the binding sites on the immunosorbent, which was rabbit antihuman serum albumin immobilized onto Sepharose CL-4B.

  13. Reporting on a Talk I Gave Some Months Ago, the Headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' Premier Spanish Language Newspaper, Declared the City's School System "en crisis permanente." No One Wrote in to Disagree. The Claremont Letter. Volume 3, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles T.

    2008-01-01

    Reporting on a talk the author gave some months ago, the headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' premier Spanish language newspaper, declared the city's school system "en crisis permanente." No one wrote in to disagree. Indeed, at the end of "Learning from L.A.: Institutional Change in American Public Education" (Harvard Education Press) the author…

  14. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  15. Split Beta-Lactamase Complementation Assay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Search for the Molecular Better Half! Vaishali Verma ... These assays comprise of a protein molecule, ... ciferase, beta-galactosidase, GFP, g3p of M13 filamentous ph- .... sensors of protein–protein interactions, Nature Biotechnology, Vol.20,.

  16. Linearization of the bradford protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-04-12

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, the ratio of the absorbance measurements at 590 nm and 450 nm is strictly linear with protein concentration. This simple procedure increases the accuracy and improves the sensitivity of the assay about 10-fold, permitting quantification down to 50 ng of bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, the interference commonly introduced by detergents that are used to create the cell lysates is greatly reduced by the new protocol. A linear equation developed on the basis of mass action and Beer's law perfectly fits the experimental data.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a... intended for use in conjunction with other laboratory findings and clinical assessment of the patient to...

  18. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.; Ensslin, N.; Smith, H. Jr.; Kreiner, S.

    1991-03-01

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  19. Optical assay for biotechnology and clinical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Cauchi, Michael; Turner, Claire; Meglinski, Igor; Piletsky, Sergey

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present an optical diagnostic assay consisting of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes combined with multivariate data analysis for quantitative and qualitative examination of biological and clinical samples. The performance of the assay is based on the analysis of spectrum of the selected fluorescent dyes with the operational principle similar to electronic nose and electronic tongue systems. This approach has been successfully applied for monitoring of growing cell cultures and identification of gastrointestinal diseases in humans.

  20. Calibration method for a radwaste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Toma, Al.; Paunoiu, C.

    2004-01-01

    A waste assay system entirely designed and manufactured in the Institute for Nuclear Research is used in radwaste treatment and conditioning stream to ensure compliance with national repository radiological requirements. Usually, waste assay systems are calibrated by using various experimental arrangements including calibration phantoms. The paper presents a comparative study concerning the efficiency calibration performed by shell source method and a semiempirical, computational method based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. (authors)

  1. Radioimmune assay of human platelet prostaglandin synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, G.J.; Machuga, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Normal platelet function depends, in part, on platelet PG synthesis. PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) catalyzes the first step in PG synthesis, the formation of PGH 2 from arachidonic acid. Inhibition of the enzyme by ASA results in an abnormality in the platelet release reaction. Patients with pparent congenital abnormalities in the enzyme have been described, and the effects have been referred to as ''aspirin-like'' defects of the platelet function. These patients lack platelet PG synthetase activity, but the actual content of PG synthetase protein in these individuals' platelets is unknown. Therefore an RIA for human platelet PG synthetase would provide new information, useful in assessing the aspirin-like defects of platelet function. An RIA for human platelet PG synthetase is described. The assay utilizes a rabbit antibody directed against the enzyme and [ 125 I]-labelled sheep PG synthetase as antigen. The human platelet enzyme is assayed by its ability to inhibit precipitation of the [ 125 I]antigen. The assay is sensitive to 1 ng of enzyme. By the immune assay, human platelets contain approximately 1200 ng of PG synethetase protein per 1.5 mg of platelet protein (approximately 10 9 platelets). This content corresponds to 10,000 enzyme molecules per platelet. The assay provides a rapid and convenient assay for the human platelet enzyme, and it can be applied to the assessment of patients with apparent platelet PG synthetase (cyclo-oxygenase) deficiency

  2. Nondestructive assay methods for irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Crane, T.W.; Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Lee, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a review of the status of nondestructive assay (NDA) methods used to determine burnup and fissile content of irradiated nuclear fuels. The gamma-spectroscopy method measures gamma activities of certain fission products that are proportional to the burnup. Problems associated with this method are migration of the fission products and gamma-ray attenuation through the relatively dense fuel material. The attenuation correction is complicated by generally unknown activity distributions within the assemblies. The neutron methods, which usually involve active interrogation and prompt or delayed signal counting, are designed to assay the fissile content of the spent-fuel elements. Systems to assay highly enriched spent-fuel assemblies have been tested extensively. Feasibility studies have been reported of systems to assay light-water reactor spent-fuel assemblies. The slowing-down spectrometer and neutron resonance absorption methods can distinguish between the uranium and plutonium fissile contents, but they are limited to the assay of individual rods. We have summarized the status of NDA techniques for spent-fuel assay and present some subjects in need of further investigation. Accuracy of the burnup calculations for power reactors is also reviewed

  3. Selection of non-destructive assay methods: Neutron counting or calorimetric assay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, T.L.; Wachter, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to D ampersand D has lead to more measurements of product, waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. Some of these materials are difficult to analyze by either neutron counting or calorimetric assay. To determine the most efficacious analysis method, variety of materials, impure salts and hydrofluorination residues have been assayed by both calorimetric assay and neutron counting. New data will be presented together with a review of published data. The precision and accuracy of these measurements are compared to chemistry values and are reported. The contribution of the gamma ray isotopic determination measurement to the overall error of the calorimetric assay or neutron assay is examined and discussed. Other factors affecting selection of the most appropriate non-destructive assay method are listed and considered

  4. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  5. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  6. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  7. Random assay in radioimmunoassay: Feasibility and application compared with batch assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hwan Hee; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineNational Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The batch assay has been conventionally used for radioimmunoassay (RIA) because of its technical robustness and practical convenience. However, it has limitations in terms of the relative lag of report time due to the necessity of multiple assays in a small number of samples compared with the random assay technique. In this study, we aimed to verify whether the random assay technique can be applied in RIA and is feasible in daily practice. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of eight standard curves within a single kit were calculated in a CA-125 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the reference of the practically ideal CV of the CA-125 kit. Ten standard curves of 10 kits from 2 prospectively collected lots (pLot) and 85 standard curves of 85 kits from 3 retrospectively collected lots (Lot) were obtained. Additionally, the raw measurement data of both 170 control references and 1123 patients' sera were collected retrospectively between December 2015 and January 2016. A standard curve of the first kit of each lot was used as a master standard curve for a random assay. The CVs of inter-kits were analyzed in each lot, respectively. All raw measurements were normalized by decay and radioactivity. The CA-125 values from control samples and patients' sera were compared using the original batch assay and random assay. In standard curve analysis, the CVs of inter-kits in pLots and Lots were comparable to those within a single kit. The CVs from the random assay with normalization were similar to those from the batch assay in the control samples (CVs % of low/high concentration; Lot1 2.71/1.91, Lot2 2.35/1.83, Lot3 2.83/2.08 vs. Lot1 2.05/1.21, Lot2 1.66/1.48, Lot3 2.41/2.14). The ICCs between the batch assay and random assay using patients' sera were satisfactory (Lot1 1.00, Lot2 0.999, Lot3 1.00). The random assay technique could be successfully applied to the conventional CA-125 IRMA kits. The random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay. The

  8. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  9. Immune chromatography: a quantitative radioimmunological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Demetriades, M.; Bowen, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Immune chromatography, a radioimmunological binding assay, employs paper chromatography to separate immune complexes from free antigen and antibodies. During chromatography free antigen and antibodies become distributed throughout the paper, while immune complexes remain near the bottoms of the strips. The chromatographic differences can be made quantitative by using either iodinated antigens or antibodies. Under these conditions nanogram quantities of antigen can be detected or antibodies in sera diluted several 1000-fold. The immune chromatography assay can also be performed as an indirect assay, since the paper strips are cut from nitrocellulose paper. In this case the immune components are absorbed by the paper during chromatography. Antigen is then detected with an iodinated second antibody. The indirect immune chromatography assay is particularly useful for identifying different sera that react with the same antigen. Reaction with the first serum before chromatography reduces the amount of antigen available to the second serum following chromatography. In addition to characterizing the immune chromatography procedure, we discuss the possible applications of chromatography assays for the quantitation of other types of molecular binding interactions. (Auth.)

  10. Evaluation of three gentamicin serum assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, G.R.; Gwizdala, C.; Wery, J.; Ferry, D.; Starnes, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation was designed to compare the enzyme-modified immunoassay (Syva--EMIT) with a radioimmunoassay (New England Nuclear--RIA) and the radiometric assay (Johnston--BACTEC) to determine the optimal assay for use in our aminoglycoside dosing service. The serum concentration determinations obtained via the three assay methods were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Significant positive correlations were noted between the three assay techniques (p less than 0.005) during both sample collection phases. The coefficients of determination for EMIT vs BACTEC and RIA vs BACTEC were 0.73 and 0.83 during phase 1, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.68 during phase 2, respectively. The slope of the regression lines also varied markedly during the two phases; 0.49 and 0.42 for EMIT and for RIA vs BACTEC, respectively, during phase 1 compound with 1.12 and 0.77, respectively, during phase 2. The differences noted in these relationships during phase 1 and 2 may be related to the alteration of the pH of the control sera utilized in the BACTEC assay. In contrast, RIA vs EMIT regression analysis indicated that existence of a highly significant relationship (p less than 0.0005 and r2 . 0.90). The EMIT technique was the easiest and most accurate for determination of serum gentamicin concentrations, whereas the BACTEC method was judged unacceptable for clinical use

  11. The reactor Melusine - radiation measurements carried out at the start of operation and during the first ascents to power; Pile Melusine - mesures de rayonnement effectuees au demarrage et pendant les premieres montees en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutrot, V; Delpuech, J; Fitoussi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report gives the results of radiation measurements carried out on the first C.E.A. swimming-pool pile, Melusine. The purpose of these measurements, which were carried out during the starting-up period and the first ascents to 1 MW power, is to check the radiation intensity levels near the pile and from this to verify the safety calculation methods used. In addition certain special measurements, such as those performed in and above the water of the swimming-pool, in the channels and outside them etc..., should make it possible eventually to define the conditions under which the pile may be used for special jobs with less protection. In the first part of the report are given the results of radiation measurements carried out during runs at low power plateaux not exceeding 500 W: in particular measurements at variable water levels in the water of the swimming-pool and on the axis of the open channels. The results given in the second part deal with radiation measurements performed in various parts of the premises, studies on the activation of the plugs in the experimental channels and of the materials in the forward compartment, and also of the radioactivity of the swimming-pool water and the air used to cool the channels. (author) [French] Le present rapport a pour but de donner les resultats des mesures de rayonnement effectuees aupres de la premiere pile piscine du C.E.A.: la pile Melusine. Le but de ces mesures, effectuees pendant la periode de demarrage et les premieres montees a la puissance de 1 MW, est de controler les niveaux d'intensite de rayonnement aupres de la pile et par la de juger des methodes de calculs de protection utilisees. D'autre part, certaines mesures plus particulieres, telles que celles effectuees dans l'eau et au-dessus de l'eau de la piscine, dans les canaux et a l'exterieur de ceux-ci, etc..., doivent permettre de definir ulterieurement les conditions d'utilisation de la pile pour des fonctionnements particuliers avec des protections

  12. A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, M.; Valdimarsson, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay is described. It was found that the opsonin activity generated by incubating brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in medium containing less than 5% human serum was exclusively complement dependent. In contrast, C.albicans was effectively opsonized in the absence of complement. Antibodies and the early classical complement pathway did not contribute to the opsonization of S.cerevisiae and neither did C5-9. The brewer's yeast assay can therefore be used for measuring selectively the opsonizing capacity of the alternative pathway. Sera from approximately 7% of apparently healthy adult controls consistently failed to generate significant opsonin activity while 8 out of 26 patients with suspected immune deficiency of unknown cause were defective in this assay. All opsonin deficient sera so far tested had haemolytically normal alternative pathway and Factor B activity. (author)

  13. Evaluation of a molybdenum assay canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, T.T.; Keener, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a commercial molybdenum assay canister were evaluated. The geometrical variation of the technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc) activity reading was studied as a function of the elution volume for the standard vials. It was found that the /sup 99m/Tc canister activity reading was ∼ 5% lower than that of the standard method. This is due to attenuation by the canister wall. However, the effect of the geometric variation on the clinical dose preparation was found to be insignificant. The molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) contamination level was compared by two methods: (1) the commercial canister and (2) the standard assay kit. The 99 Mo contamination measurements with the canister indicated consistently lower readings than those with the standard 99 Mo assay kit. The authors conclude that the canister may be used in the clinical settings. However, the user must be aware of the problems and the limitations associated with this canister

  14. Elements of nondestructive assay (NDA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session provides an introduction to nondestructive assay methods and instruments as they are applied to nuclear safeguards. The purpose of the sessions is to enable participants to: (1) discuss the general principles and major applications of NDA; (2) describe situations in which NDA is particularly useful for nuclear safeguards purposes; (3) distinguish between various passive and active gamma-ray and neutron NDA methods; (4) describe several NDA instruments that measure gamma rays, and identify assay situations particularly suited to gamma-ray techniques; (5) describe several NDA instruments that measure neutrons, and identify assay situations particularly suited to neutron techniques; (6) discuss the role of calorimetry in the NDA of plutonium-bearing materials; and (7) compare the advantages and disadvantages of various NDA methods for different types of nuclear materials

  15. Development of an integrated assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molesworth, T.V.; Bailey, M.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Parsons, T.V.; Sene, M.R.; Swinhoe, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    The I.R.I.S. concept proposed the use of passive examination and active interrogation techniques in an integrated assay facility. A linac would generate the interrogating gamma and neutron beams. Insufficiently detailed knowledge about active neutron and gamma interrogation of 500 litre drums of cement immobilised intermediate level waste led to a research programme which is now in its main experimental stage. Measurements of interrogation responses are being made using simulated waste drums containing actinide samples and calibration sources, in an experimental assay assembly. Results show that responses are generally consistent with theory, but that improvements are needed in some areas. A preliminary appraisal of the engineering and economic aspects of integrated assay shows that correct operational sequencing is required to achieve the short cycle time needed for high throughput. The main engineering features of a facility have been identified

  16. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  17. Monitoring environmental exposures with semen assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays

  18. Have you stress tested your assay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Cao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a clinical assay is stressed with extraordinarily high volume of specimens over a short period of time, extra caution may be needed to avoid systematic errors and biases. Here we report our experience with a HgbA1c assay used for high volume wellness screening purpose, to illustrate the importance of stress testing during assay validation. Design and Methods: Over 15,000 whole blood specimens were tested for HgbA1c in a period of 2 months. HgbA1c was tested by an immunoturbidimetric method on a high through-put automation line. The HgbA1c population distribution in our study was compared to that from the NHANES database. Daily distributions of HgbA1c values ≥6%, means and medians were plotted. Correlation studies were performed between the high through-put immunoturbidimetric assay and a medium through-put HPLC method. Results: We observed a shift of HgbA1c distribution to the higher values compared to the NHANES. A bias of 15–20% was noted from further stress testing where large number of samples were batched and tested using the immunoturbidimetric assay. A 5–7% higher bias remained after implementing a cuvette washing program after each HgbA1c sample. We hypothesized this bias was caused by build-up of blood cell fragments in the cuvettes when continuous whole blood samples are run through the system. Our experience suggests stress testing needs to be incorporated early in the test validation process for high volume batched screening applications. This seemingly extra validation step may save significant troubleshooting and retesting efforts down the road. Keywords: Hemoglobin A1c, Immunoturbidimetric assay, HPLC, Quality assurance, Systematic bias, High volume, Automation

  19. Rapid colorimetric assay for gentamicin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutton, P

    1987-01-01

    A rapid colorimetric method for determining gentamicin concentration in commercial preparations of gentamicin sulfate injection was developed. Methods currently available for measuring gentamicin concentration via its colored complex with cupric ions in alkaline solution were modified to reduce the time required for a single analysis. The alkaline copper tartrate (ACT) reagent solution was prepared such that each milliliter contained 100 mumol cupric sulfate, 210 mumol potassium sodium tartrate, and 1.25 mmol sodium hydroxide. The assay involves mixing 0.3 mL gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL (of gentamicin), 1.0 mL ACT reagent, and 0.7 mL water; the absorbance of the resulting solution at 560 nm was used to calculate the gentamicin concentration in the sample. For injections containing 10 mg/mL of gentamicin, the amount of the injection was increased to 0.5 mL and water decreased to 0.5 mL. The concentration of gentamicin in samples representing 11 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 40 mg/mL and 8 lots of gentamicin sulfate injection 10 mg/mL was determined. The specificity, reproducibility, and accuracy of the assay were assessed. The colored complex was stable for at least two hours. Gentamicin concentration ranged from 93.7 to 108% and from 95 to 109% of the stated label value of the 40 mg/mL and the 10 mg/mL injections, respectively. No components of the preservative system present in the injections interfered with the assay. Since other aminoglycosides produced a colored complex, the assay is not specific for gentamicin. The assay was accurate and reproducible over the range of 4-20 mg of gentamicin. This rapid and accurate assay can be easily applied in the hospital pharmacy setting.

  20. Elements of nondestructive assay (NDA) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.; Smith, H.

    1984-01-01

    A thorough introduction to nondestructive assay methods and instruments as they are applied to nuclear safeguards is presented. The general principles and major applications of NDA are discussed and situations in which NDA is particularly useful for nuclear safeguards purposes are described. Various passive and active γ-ray and neutron methods are examined and assay situations particularly suited to γ-ray techniques, or to neutron techniques are identified. The role of calorimetry in the NDA of plutonium-bearing materials is also discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various NDA methods for different types of nuclear materials are mentioned

  1. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  2. A sensitive assay for Staphylococcus aureus nucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, J K; Vakil, B V; Patil, M S; Pandey, V N; Pradhan, D S [Bhabha Atomic Reserach Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry Div.

    1989-10-01

    A sensitive assay for staphylococcal nuclease involving incubation of the enzyme sample with heat-denatured ({sup 3}H) thymidine labelled DNA from E.coli, precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and measurement of the radioactivity of acid-soluble nucleotides released has been developed. The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs ., 3 tabs.

  3. Relationship between the radioisotopic footpad assay and other immunological assays in tumor bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, Yutaka; Takeichi, Noritoshi; Minami, Akio; Kasai, Masaharu; Itaya, Toshiyuki

    1981-01-01

    KMT-17, a fibrosarcoma induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in a WKA rat, is a sensitive tumor to various kinds of immunological assays and is a suitable model tumor for the study of the immune status in tumor bearing hosts. The antitumor immune response of KMT-17 bearing rats was studied by a radioisotopic footpad assay (FPA) in comparison with other in vivo and in vitro assays. Delayed hypersensitivity to tumor antigens measured by the FPA was observed from the 8th day after transplantation of KMT-17 cells, reached a peak on the 12 - 15th day, and then declined in the late stage on the 17th day. The kinetics of the FPA correlated well with those of an in vivo Winn assay and of an in vitro lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay ( 51 Cr-release assay). The appearance of an antitumor antibody detected by a complement dependent cytotoxicity test also correlated well with the kinetics of the FPA. A growth inhibition assay (GIA) for non-specific cell-mediated immunity also showed similar kinetics to that of the FPA. The delayed hypersensitivity footpad reaction to tumor cell extracts measured by this FPA was tumor-specific. These results suggest that the FPA is a simple and reliable in vivo assay for evaluating antitumor immunity in tumor bearing hosts. (author)

  4. Performance of a Multiplex Serological Helicobacter pylori Assay on a Novel Microfluidic Assay Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Filomena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori occurs in 50% of the world population, and is associated with the development of ulcer and gastric cancer. Serological diagnostic tests indicate an H. pylori infection by detecting antibodies directed against H. pylori proteins. In addition to line blots, multiplex assay platforms provide smart solutions for the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses towards several H. pylori proteins. We used seven H. pylori proteins (FliD, gGT, GroEL, HpaA, CagA, VacA, and HP0231 and an H. pylori lysate for the development of a multiplex serological assay on a novel microfluidic platform. The reaction limited binding regime in the microfluidic channels allows for a short incubation time of 35 min. The developed assay showed very high sensitivity (99% and specificity (100%. Besides sensitivity and specificity, the technical validation (intra-assay CV = 3.7 ± 1.2% and inter-assay CV = 5.5 ± 1.2% demonstrates that our assay is also a robust tool for the analysis of the H. pylori-specific antibody response. The integration of the virulence factors CagA and VacA allow for the assessment of the risk for gastric cancer development. The short assay time and the performance of the platform shows the potential for implementation of such assays in a clinical setting.

  5. Liquor oligoclonal bands assay: interpretation, correlation with other laboratory assays and importance for diagnostics of neurological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonas, Dovydas

    2017-01-01

    Aim: to analyse the possible relationship between liquor IgG oligoclonal bands assay and other laboratory assays in neurological patients. Objectives: to determine the frequency of oligoclonal bands in neurological patients; to compare the results between serum and liquor laboratory assays in dependence of oligoclonal bands assay results; to evaluate the relationships between oligoclonal bands assay and serological-immunological assays for infectious diseases, gender, age and neurological ...

  6. Enzymatic assay for methotrexate in erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H; Heinsvig, E M

    1985-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) accumulates in erythrocytes in MTX-treated patients. We present a modified enzymatic assay measuring MTX concentrations between 10 and 60 nmol/l in erythrocytes, adapted for a centrifugal analyser (Cobas Bio). About 40 patient's samples could be analysed within 1 h. The detection...

  7. Comet assay. Pt.1. Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, M.; Wojewodzka, M.; Iwanenko, T.

    1996-01-01

    Comet assay is a new method for measuring DNA breakage in a single cell. The main applications of the method are estimation of DNA single and double strand breaks, oxidative damage, pyrimidine dimers and (6-4)photoproducts, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The method is used for studying DNA damage and its repair. (author).19 refs, 9 figs

  8. Benzodiazepine Synthesis and Rapid Toxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James T.; Boriraj, Grit

    2010-01-01

    A second-year organic chemistry laboratory experiment to introduce students to general concepts of medicinal chemistry is described. Within a single three-hour time window, students experience the synthesis of a biologically active small molecule and the assaying of its biological toxicity. Benzodiazepine rings are commonly found in antidepressant…

  9. Nondestructive assay of HTGR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1974-01-01

    Performance characteristics of three different radioactive source NDA systems are compared for the assay of HTGR fuel rods and stacks of rods. These systems include the fast neutron Sb-Be assay system, the 252 Cf ''Shuffler,'' and the thermal neutron PAPAS assay system. Studies have been made to determinethe perturbation on the measurements from particle size, kernel Th/U ratio, thorium content, and hydrogen content. In addition to the total 235 U determination, the pellet-to-pellet or rod-to-rod uniformity of HTGR fuel rod stacks has been measured by counting the delayed gamma rays with a NaI through-hole in the PAPAS system. These measurements showed that rod substitutions can be detected easily in a fuel stack, and that detailed information is available on the loading variations in a uniform stack. Using a 1.0 mg 252 Cf source, assay rates of 2 to 4 rods/s are possible, thus facilitating measurement of 100 percent of a plant's throughput. (U.S.)

  10. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  11. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  12. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7425 Carboxyhemoglobin...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythropoietin assay. 864.7250 Section 864.7250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7250 Erythropoietin...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7490 Sulfhemoglobin...

  15. Radioligand assay for biotin in liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenmaier, R.

    1979-01-01

    A radioligand assay for biotin in liver tissue is described. 3 H-biotin is used as tracer and avidin as binder. The biotin-loaded avidin is separated from free biotin on dextran-coated charcoal, which leaves the avidin-biotin complex in the supernatant liquid. Thus, the avidin-biotin complex can easily be utilized for determination of the radioactivity. Calibration with known additions of biotin in the range 0.25-8.0 ng per assay sample yields a linear logit-log plot. The biotin is extracted from liver tissues by enzymatic proteolysis with papain. This treatment is optimized to liberate the bound forms of the vitamin. Microbiological parallel assays with Lactobacillus plantarum were in good agreement with the radioligand assay giving a regression coefficient of 0.974(n=44). The coefficient of variation was found to be 4.2% in the range 500-1200 ng of biotin per g of liver tissue (n=46). The method is simple and reliable and allows the simultaneous analysis of a considerable number of samples. (Auth.)

  16. Relationships between ytterbium precipitation assay, colorimetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digestion and metabolism of protein (Komolong et al., 2001). ... room temperature (25 °C) pending chemical analyses and in vitro ... assayed without sodium sulphite but with a heat-stable α-amylase due to the high ... of starch in the tree fruits.

  17. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  18. Presence of the relative age effect and its effect on playing time among under-20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen – a four-year follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arve Sæther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European top-level soccer clubs are continually looking for talented players. Few clubs, however, are willing to let youth players play at the highest senior level. Perhaps as a consequence, the search for talented players has resulted in an imbalance in the characteristics of these players, towards an overrepresentation of players born early in the selection year, an effect called the relative age effect (RAE. The RAE has been documented to be present among senior top-level players. Even so, few studies have investigated the effect among youth players at the senior level. The aim of this study is to examine RAE among U17-U20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen in the 2009-2012 seasons. Participants were 315 male players born in 1990-1996. The results showed that 68% of the players were born in the two first quartiles of the year. The effect was even increasing in the four-year period. As we could expect based on the literature, the oldest players are given more playing time. However, the connection between playing time and RAE was inconsistent. Norwegian top-level soccer seems to be affected by the RAE when selecting their players. These players are not however guaranteed playing time because of the RAE.

  19. Production and assay of forskolin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.T.; Ho, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Forskolin (Fo), a cardiovascular active diterpene of plant origin, has been widely used as a research tool in regulation of the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase (AC). A linear relationship of Fo binding to plasma membrane with activation of AC has been reported. The present abstract describes the production and assay of Fo antibodies (AB). 7-0-Hemisuccinyl-7-deacetyl Fo, coupled to either human serum albumin or goat IgG, was injected into goats to elicit AB to Fo haptan. AB to Fo in antiserum or an isolated IgG fraction was tested by two assay methods, a radioimmunoassay using 3 H-Fo as a tracer and a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using horse radish peroxidase-rabbit anti goat IgG as indicator. The titers for Fo antiserum were 4000-10,000. In the defined assay condition, approximately 20-25% of the added 3 H-Fo was found to bind to AB. The bound radioactivity was displaced by Fo-HSA or Fo-goat IgG or free unlabelled Fo ranging from 0.5-50 pmol/tube, or 5-500 nM. The IC 50 was approximately 8-10 pmol/tube or 80-100 nM. The binding of HRP-rabbit anti goat IgG in the ELISA was inhibited by proper Fo conjugate. The development of methods for production and assay for Fo AB may be useful in the study of mechanism of activation of AC by Fo and Fo-like compound

  20. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed

  1. Direct 125I-radioligand assays for serum progesterone compared with assays involving extraction of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 μL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11α-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand 125 I-labeled progesterone 11α-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum

  2. Evaluation of total PSA assay on vitros ECi and correlation with Kryptor-PSA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinat, B; Wacquet, M; Toubert, M E; Rain, J D; Schlageter, M H

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of multiparametric immuno-analysers for PSA assays are available. As different immuno-assays may vary in their analytical quality and their accuracy for the follow-up of patients, expertise is necessary for each new assay. The PSA assay on the Vitros-ECi analyser has been evaluated and compared with the PSA assay from the Kryptor analyser. Variation coefficients were 0.91 to 1.98% for within-run assays, and 4.2% to 5.4% for interassay (PSA levels = 0.8 microgram/L to 33.6 micrograms/L). Dilution tests showed 93 to 136% recovery until 70 micrograms/L PSA. Functional sensitivity was estimated at 0.03 microgram/L. Equimolarity of the test was confirmed. Correlation of PSA levels measured with Vitros-ECi and Kryptor analysers displayed a correlation coefficient r2 of 0.9716. The half-lives and doubling times of PSA were similar using both methods. Vitros-ECi PSA assay meets the major criteria for the management of prostate cancer patients.

  3. Assay optimization for molecular detection of Zika virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, Victor M.; Rasche, Andrea; Baronti, Cecile; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Cadar, Daniel; Reusken, Chantal Bem; Pas, Suzan D.; Goorhuis, Abraham; Schinkel, Janke; Molenkamp, Richard; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Bleicker, Tobias; Brünink, Sebastian; Eschbach-Bludau, Monika; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Grobusch, Martin P.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2016-01-01

    To examine the diagnostic performance of real-time reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for Zika virus detection. We compared seven published real-time RT-PCR assays and two new assays that we have developed. To determine the analytical sensitivity of each assay, we

  4. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  5. Storage and Assay of Tritium in STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.; Anderl, Robert A.; Pawelko, Robert J.; Stoots, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently being commissioned to investigate tritium-related safety questions for fusion and other technologies. The tritium inventory for the STAR facility will be maintained below 1.5 g to avoid the need for STAR to be classified as a Category 3 nuclear facility. A key capability in successful operation of the STAR facility is the ability to receive, inventory, and dispense tritium to the various experiments underway there. The system central to that function is the Tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS).The SAS has four major functions: (1) receiving and holding tritium, (2) assaying, (3) dispensing, and (4) purifying hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen species.This paper describes the design and operation of the STAR SAS and the procedures used for tritium accountancy in the STAR facility

  6. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Radioligand purification prior to routine receptor assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.-M.; Berthois, Y.; Martin, P.-M.

    1988-01-01

    The need to repurify the commercially available radioligands [ 3 H]estradiol and [ 3 H]testosterone before use in routine assays was investigated. Storage of these products for 2 months after delivery led to appreciable degradation of [ 3 H]estradiol compared to [ 3 H]testosterone. Unexpectedly, TLC and even HPLC procedures were ineffective in completely restoring the purity of [ 3 H]-estradiol and the unremoved polar products induced important variations in our estrogen receptor assays. An increase in non-specific binding and a concomitant decrease in total binding were observed resulting in an underestimation of specific binding sites and of the affinity constant. In some cases Scatchard analysis was not possible. The authors therefore strongly recommend the repurification of low-stability radioligands and propose an economic time-saving procedure for the purification of [ 3 H]estradiol by solvent differential partition which requires no high-cost investment in apparatus. (author)

  8. Assay of 25-OH vitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayer, P. de; Thalasso, M.; Beckers, C.

    1977-01-01

    A simplified version of the competitive protein binding assay for 25-OH vit D3 derived from the method of Belsey et al. is presented. The procedure does not include a chromatography step, and is performed on an alcoolic extract of 0.1 ml plasma or serum. Normal rat serum (1:20,000) was used as binding protein. No β-lipoproteins were added to the assay buffer. A 10% displacement of the tracer was observed at 0.04 ng/tube, and 50% at 0.15 ng/tube, allowing for the measurement of 25-OH vit D3 concentrations between 2 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Mean values in a normal group was 23.1 +- 6.5 ng/ml (range 16-37 ng/ml, n = 11). (orig.) [de

  9. Developments in plutonium waste assay at AWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T J

    2009-01-01

    In 2002 a paper was presented at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) on the assay of low level plutonium (Pu) in soft drummed waste (Miller 2002 INMM Ann. Meeting (Orlando, FL, 23-27 July 2002)). The technique described enabled the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), at Aldermaston in the UK, to meet the stringent Low Level Waste Repository at Drigg (LLWRD) conditions for acceptance for the first time. However, it was initially applied to only low density waste streams because it relied on measuring the relatively low energy (60 keV) photon yield from Am-241 during growth. This paper reviews the results achieved when using the technique to assay over 10 000 waste packages and presents the case for extending the range of application to denser waste streams.

  10. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  11. A Quantitative Fluorescence-Based Lipase Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Lomolino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An easy and fast gel diffusion assay for detecting and monitoring lipase activity by quantification of fluorescein is described. By measuring the intensity of fluorescein, it is possible to obtain a calibration curve with a regression coefficient better than by using the radius of fluorescent haloes. Through the quantification of fluorescence intensity of fluorescein released after the hydrolysis of a fluorescent ester, fluorescein dibutyrate, used as substrate in agar plates, commercial and skimmed milk lipase activity were studied. Moreover, with this method, lipase activity can be monitored in reaction medium that contains compounds which are affected by turbidity or cause measurement interference for UV-spectrophotometer and fluorimeter. In this experiment, boiled skimmed milk was dispersed in the agar gel with fluorescein dibutyrate, and it was used as a reaction medium to mimic natural conditions. The development of such an assay has a potential for applications in industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to food production and monitoring.

  12. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications

  13. LDLCHOLESTEROLEXAMINATION (LDL-C USINGHOMOGENEOUS ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made DwiAmbara Putra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous method describe as a method that does not require separation of free and bound label. This method has the ability tofully automate the determination of LDL-C directly small sample volume sand short examination time. In addition this method use automated pipette and control of time and temperature more accurate. There are 5 methods i.e. Solubilization homogeneous LDL-C assay (SOL from KyowaMedex, Surfactant LDL-C assay (SUR from Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Protecting LDL-assay reagent (PRO from Wako Chemicals, LDL-C assaycatalase (CAT Denka Seiken and Calixarene of LDL-C assay (CAL from International Reagents Corporation. All method is to use a variety of detergents and other chemicals that cause blocking or dissolution of specific lipoprotein classes to achieve specificity for LDL. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Assaying the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D.W.; Minth, C.D.; Dixon, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    These experiments document the presence of enzymatic activities in extracts of commonly used cell lines which interfere with the determination of CAT activity. We suspect that the deacetylase activity is the most important, as the extract of the H4IIE C3 cells was capable of completely deacetylating the mono- and diacetylchloramphenicol formed during a 2-hr incubation of CAT with chloramphenicol and acetyl-CoA. The results of the inhibitor experiments are consistent with the presence of proteases which degrade CAT, or a serine carboxylesterase. The interference was also reduced by about half by EDTA; a metalloenzyme (either a protease or esterase) may therefore be involved. This interference appears to be a common phenomenon. We have surveyed 23 different cell types for the presence of the interfering activity and found it in 15. The interference was particularly prominent in several neuroendocrine and hepatoma cells. We took advantage of the effect of EDTA and the heat stability of CAT to eliminate the interference. Addition of 5 mM EDTA and a 10-min incubation of the sonicated cell suspension at 60 degrees prior to centrifugation abolished the interference in all cell lines tested. It is important to note that in order to reveal any CAT activity in some of the extracts (e.g., PC-12 or Hep3B), it was necessary to run the CAT assay for 2 hr. The control assays were therefore run almost to completion, and were well beyond the linear range of the assay. Therefore, the small differences which we observed between the heat-treated and control samples in some instances (e.g., rice, corn, or HeLa cells) will be dramatically amplified when the CAT assay is performed under conditions in which only a small percentage of the substrate is converted to product

  15. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), also known as “gel shift assay”, is used to examine the binding parameters and relative affinities of protein and DNA interactions. We produced recombinant CCA1 protein and tested its binding affinity for the promoter fragments that contain CBS (AAAAATCT) or evening element (EE, AAAATATCT) (1) using a modified procedure adopted from published protocols (2,3).

  16. Nondestructive assay methodologies in nuclear forensics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present chapter, the nondestructive assay (NDA) methodologies used for analysis of nuclear materials as a part of nuclear forensic investigation have been described. These NDA methodologies are based on (i) measurement of passive gamma and neutrons emitted by the radioisotopes present in the nuclear materials, (ii) measurement of gamma rays and neutrons emitted after the active interrogation of the nuclear materials with a source of X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons

  17. Methods and devices for protein assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Swapnil [San Jose, CA; Cintron, Jose M [Indianapolis, IN; Shediac, Renee [Oakland, CA

    2009-11-03

    Methods and devices for protein assays based on Edman degradation in microfluidic channels are disclosed herein. As disclosed, the cleaved amino acid residues may be immobilized in an array format and identified by detectable labels, such as antibodies, which specifically bind given amino acid residues. Alternatively, the antibodies are immobilized in an array format and the cleaved amino acids are labeled identified by being bound by the antibodies in the array.

  18. Quality control of estrogen receptor assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Jacobson, B

    1980-01-01

    Four types of material have been used for the quality control of routine assays of estrogen receptors in human breast tumors. Pieces of hormone-dependent Nb rat mammary tumors gave a precision about 40%. Rat uteri and rat tumors pulverized at liquid nitrogen temperature and stored as powder yielded precision about 30%. Powdered and lyophilised human tumors appear the best with precision as good as 17%.

  19. Design of radiation dose tumor response assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suit, H.D.; Hwang, T.; Hsieh, C.; Thames, H.

    1985-01-01

    The efficient utilization of animals in a radiation dose response assay for tumor control requires a definition of the goal, e.g., TCD50 or slope. A series of computer modelled ''experiments'' have been performed for each of a number of allocations of dose levels (DL) and number of animals/DL. The authors stipulated that the assumed TCD50 was .85 of true value; assumed slope was correct. They stipulated a binominal distribution of observed tumor control results at each dose level. A pilot assay used 6 tumors at 7 DL (from TCD1-TCD97). The second assay used 30 tumors assigned to 2,3,5 or 9 DL and to selected tumor control probabilities (TCP derived from the pilot run. Results from 100 test runs were combined with the pilot run for each of the combination of DL and TCP values. Logit regression lines were fitted through these ''data'' and the 95% CL around the TCD50 and the TCD37 values and the variances of the slopes were computed. These experiments were repeated using the method suggested by Porter (1980). Results show that a different strategy is needed depending upon the goal, viz. TCD50 or TCD37 vs slope. The differences between the two approaches are discussed

  20. New Application of the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Fernández, José Luís; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálbez, Altea; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay is a well-established, simple, versatile, visual, rapid, and sensitive tool used extensively to assess DNA damage and DNA repair quantitatively and qualitatively in single cells. The comet assay is most frequently used to analyze white blood cells or lymphocytes in human biomonitoring studies, although other cell types have been examined, including buccal, nasal, epithelial, and placental cells and even spermatozoa. This study was conducted to design a protocol that can be used to generate comets in subnuclear units, such as chromosomes. The new technique is based on the chromosome isolation protocols currently used for whole chromosome mounting in electron microscopy, coupled to the alkaline variant of the comet assay, to detect DNA damage. The results show that migrant DNA fragments can be visualized in whole nuclei and isolated chromosomes and that they exhibit patterns of DNA migration that depend on the level of DNA damage produced. This protocol has great potential for the highly reproducible study of DNA damage and repair in specific chromosomal domains. PMID:21540337

  1. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  2. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Radioreceptor assays: plasma membrane receptors and assays for polypeptide and glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulster, D.

    1977-01-01

    Receptors for peptide, protein and glycoprotein hormones, and the catecholamines are located on the plasma membranes of their target cells. Preparations of the receptors may be used as specific, high-affinity binding agents for these hormones in assay methodology akin to that for radioimmunoassay. A particular advantage of the radioreceptor assay is that it has a specificity directed towards the biologically active region of the hormone, rather than to some immunologically active region that may have little (or no) involvement in the expression of hormonal activity. Methods for hormone receptor preparation vary greatly, and range from the use of intact cells (as the source of hormone receptor) to the use of purified or solubilized membrane receptors. Receptors isolated from plasma membranes have proved to be of variable stability, and may be damaged during preparation and/or storage. Moreover, since they are present in relatively low concentration in the cell, their preparation in sufficient quantity for use in a radioreceptor assay may present technical problems. In general, there is good correlation between radioreceptor assays and in-vitro bioassays; differences between results from radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays are similar to those noted between in-vitro bioassays and radioimmunoassays. The sensitivity of the method is such that normal plasma concentrations of various hormones have been assayed by this technique. (author)

  4. La sodomie dans l’affaire Théophile de Viau : questions de genre et de sexualité dans la France du premier xviie siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dupas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available L’affaire Théophile est source de malentendus. Alors que l’historiographie du libertinage, en se concentrant sur le libertinage érudit a fini par oublier que la sodomie était un enjeu majeur du procès, les historiens de la répression homosexuelle abordent les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans une perspective essentialiste, gommant toute distinction entre sodomie au xviie siècle et homosexualité à l’époque contemporaine. Il s’agit donc la première partie de cet article de souligner que la sodomie est au cœur de l’affaire à la fois comme objet de représentation littéraire et comme pratique illicite. La seconde partie consiste dans une historicisation des discours ayant trait aux relations sexuelles entre hommes, qui montre qu’on ne saurait confondre « homosexualité masculine » et « sodomie ». Celle-ci désigne en effet des rapports anaux aussi bien entre hommes et femmes qu’entre hommes seuls ; lorsque la notion est mobilisée pour renvoyer à des relations anales entre hommes, elle ne constitue pas pour autant une orientation sexuelle ; en tant que concept issu de la théologie, elle ne relève pas de la sexualité ; aucune déviation de genre ne lui est associée. Dans une troisième partie, il s’agit de montrer que la notion de sodomie ne doit pas nous conduire à ignorer les autres discours pouvant porter sur les relations sexuelles entre hommes dans la France du premier xviie siècle et qu’à ce titre, on ne saurait se suffire de cette catégorie pour aborder la question. Bref, cet article a pour but de poser les premiers jalons d’une histoire de l’homosexualité masculine dans la France du xviie siècle d’un point de vue historiciste, sinon constructionniste.Sodomy in the Theophile de Viau affair: questions of gender and sexuality in early modern France.There is a puzzling misunderstanding about the Theophile affair. While the historiography of libertinism, focusing on erudite

  5. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dufaÿ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  6. Archéologie et sociabilité: la délégation du Pérou au Premier Congrès international des Américanistes, Nancy, 1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available L'auteur tente de montrer comment l'analyse de la composition de la délégation péruvienne au premier Congrès International des Américanistes peut fournir une vision différente du mouvement anthropologique au XIXème siècle, dans la mesure où la plupart des membres de cette délégation étaient peut-être plus préoccupés de représentation que de l'avancement des sciences humaines. D'où l'idée d'un intérêt pour l'archéologie considéré alors comme un acte de sociabilité. El autor intenta demostrar que el análisis de la delegación peruana al primer Congreso Internacional de Americanistas puede dar otra visión del movimiento antropológico en el siglo XIX, en la medida en que la mayoría de los miembros de esta delegación estaban tal vez más preocupados por su imagen pública que por el progreso de las ciencias humanas. En este caso, el interés por la arqueología sería sobre todo un acto de sociabilidad. The author intends to show how the analysis of the social composition of the peruvian delegation at the first International Congress of Americanists, can offer a different view upon the anthropological movement in the XlXth century, as far as most of the delegates were more worried of their public image instead of the advancement of human sciences. In this particular case, their interest on archaeology would be seen as a social act.

  7. MS transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid transporters--an efficient alternative for radiometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2014-08-05

    Transport assays for neurotransmitters based on radiolabeled substrates are widely spread and often indispensable in basic research and the drug development process, although the use of radioisotopes is inherently coupled to issues concerning radioactive waste and safety precautions. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed mass spectrometry (MS)-based transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). These "MS Transport Assays" provide all capabilities of [(3)H]GABA transport assays and therefore represent the first substitute for the latter. The performance of our approach is demonstrated for GAT1, the most important GABA transporter (GAT) subtype. As GABA is endogenously present in COS-7 cells employed as hGAT1 expression system, ((2)H6)GABA was used as a substrate to differentiate transported from endogenous GABA. To record transported ((2)H6)GABA, a highly sensitive, short, robust, and reliable HILIC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method using ((2)H2)GABA as an internal standard was developed and validated according to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) guidelines. Based on this LC-MS quantification, a setup to characterize hGAT1 mediated ((2)H6)GABA transport in a 96-well format was established, that enables automated processing and avoids any sample preparation. The K(m) value for ((2)H6)GABA determined for hGAT1 is in excellent agreement with results obtained from [(3)H]GABA uptake assays. In addition, the established assay format enables efficient determination of the inhibitory potency of GAT1 inhibitors, is capable of identifying those inhibitors transported as substrates, and furthermore allows characterization of efflux. The approach described here combines the strengths of LC-MS/MS with the high efficiency of transport assays based on radiolabeled substrates and is applicable to all GABA transporter subtypes.

  8. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  9. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  10. ACUTE ENTERIC INFECTIONS POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is estimate the opportunities of local multi-prime PCR reagents kits in children enteric infections etiological diagnostics amongst the patients with diarrhoea vs traditional bacteriological methods. We used 4 kits of reagents that provide multiple pathogens simultaneous indication in one sample: 1 Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus; 2 Shigella spp./EIEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.; 3 Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; 4 E. coli: EIEC (enteroinvasive, EPEC (enteropathogenic, ETEC (enterotoxigenic, EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic, EAgEC (enteroaggregative. It has been shown that the viral intestinal infections is increased by 14%, bacterial — in 2,5 times. PCR diagnostics identified in 62% of patients the viral gastroenteritis: Rotavirus (52%, Norovirus (9%, Astrovirus (1%. Detected bacterial pathogens PCR markers number proved up to 2.5 times high than according to bacteriological examination. The spectrum of bacterial agents increased due to E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. PCR diagnostics increased detection of Campylobacter up to 2 times. Detected E. coli DNA prevalence: EPEC — 66%, EAgEC, ETEC and EHEC were 31%, 9% and 4%, respectively. DNA Campylobacter spp. and E. coli constituted 2/3 of all findings: Campylobacter spp. (41%, E. coli (24%, Salmonella spp. (19%, Yersinia spp. (11%, Shigella spp./EIEC (5%. The positive results of bacteriological and serological methods duplicate the positive results of PCR diagnostics. In general, the positive results of PCR diagnosis of bacterial pathogens were detected in 46.35% of the examined patients. In 48.4% of patients identified PCR markers viral — bacterial infection, in 5.25% — of bacterial associations, in 11% of them were found the DNA 2–3 bacterial pathogens. The study was shown in children in St. Petersburg in 2012–2014 dominated rotavirus infection, campylobacteriosis and escherichiosis. The prevalence of viral-bacterial confections is more

  11. Biobarcode assay for the oral anticoagulant acenocoumarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broto, Marta; Salvador, J Pablo; Galve, Roger; Marco, M Pilar

    2018-02-01

    A novel approach for therapeutic drug monitoring of oral anticoagulants (OA) in clinical samples is reported, based on a NP-based biobarcode assay. The proposed strategy uses specific antibodies for acenocumarol (ACL) covalently bound to magnetic particles (pAb236-MP) and a bioconjugate competitor (hACL-BSA) linked to encoded polystyrene probes (hACL-BSA-ePSP) on a classical competitive immunochemical format. By using this scheme ACL can be detected in low nM range (LOD, 0.96 ± 0.26, N = 3, in buffer) even in complex samples such as serum or plasma (LOD 4 ± 1). The assay shows a high reproducibility (%CV 1.1 day-to-day) and is robust, as it is demonstrated by the fact that ACL can be quantified in complex biological samples with a very good accuracy (slope = 0.97 and R 2 = 0.91, of the linear regression obtained when analyzing spiked vs measured values). Moreover, we have demonstrated that the biobarcode approach has the potential to overcome one of the main challenges of the multiplexed diagnostic, which is the possibility to measure in a single run biomarker targets present at different concentration ranges. Thus, it has been proven that the signal and the detectability can be modulated by just modifying the oligonucleotide load of the encoded probes. This fact opens the door for combining in the same assay encoded probes with the necessary oligonucleotide load to achieve the detectability required for each biomarker target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiometric assays for the measurement of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen, a serine protease enzyme, of M.W. ∼ 26-33 kDa, is widely considered to be a very useful marker for prostate cancer. It satisfies nearly all the requirements of an ideal 'Tumour Marker' and has hence attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. PSA is present in multiple forms in serum, with an appreciable fraction bound to the protease inhibitor α-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and to a small extent to other proteins such as α-2-macroglobulin (AMG) leaving the rest in the free form. The total PSA levels have been reported to have 80% sensitivity and 60% specificity towards the detection of prostate cancer. The lack of specificity occurs mainly due to the high levels of t-PSA in benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) apart from the cancer. The concept of free PSA has been introduced in the recent past and the ratio of free/total PSA levels have been shown to be advantageous in the differential diagnosis of BPH from prostate cancer. The f/t ratio is considered to be particularly useful in the grey zones of decision making (t-PSA levels 4-20 ng/mL). The need for the development of assays for total and free PSA is felt due to: a. the high incidence of prostate cancers being detected currently; b. the high cost of tests (higher for free PSA assay, and the cost becomes an important parameter when a patient has to be regularly monitored after therapy) that is not affordable for many patients; c. the potential for research in the area of prostate cancer management where the PSA (total and free) assays will be of great help

  13. Results of in vitro chemosensitivity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Morimoto, Hideki; Akita, Toshiaki; Inoue, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Takeo.

    1986-01-01

    The authors reviewed their experiences to date with chemosensitivity testing of 629 tumors by human tumor clonogenic assay (HTCA) and of 199 tumors by scintillation assay (SA). HTCA and SA were both performed using a double-layer-soft-agar system with continuous exposure of cells to one concentration of standard anticancer drugs. Overall, 60 % of specimens in HTCA and 58 % in SA produced significant growth in vitro. HTCA was 52 % (13/25) reliable for predicting in vivo sensitivity, and 95 % (36/38) reliable for in vivo resistance, whereas SA was 40 % (8/20) reliable for in vivo sensitivity and 88 % (21/24) for in vivo resistance. In vitro success rates were variable, depending on the tumor histology. In vitro growth of gastric cancer specimens was characteristically lower than that of colon cancer specimens (48 % and 60 % in HTCA, and 46 % and 68 % in SA, respectively). (p < 0.005). Optimal in vitro-in vivo drug concentrations and culture conditions are still being defined. Correlation studies of in vitro-in vivo responses of gastrointestinal cancers suggested that in vitro concentrations of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C used in this study were considerably higher than their optimal doses. Tumor cell heterogeneity poses significant problems in the clinical use of chemosensitivity assays. In this last study, we sought evidence of tumor heterogeneity by comparing chemosensitivity responses between : 1) different portions of a single tumor, 2) a primary and a metastatic biopsy taken from a patient on the same day, and 3) different metastases from a patient taken on the same day. The results demonstrated the presence of considerable heterogeneity of response to chemotherapy among different tumors from the same patient, and even within the same tumor. The reported discrepancies of in vitro and in vivo sensitivity may be due to such therapeutic heterogeneity among tumors. (J.P.N.)

  14. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.; Carolyn ROWLAND; Renato BAUDO; Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists ...

  15. ARIES nondestructive assay system operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, Teresa L.; Hansen, Walter J.; Herrera, Gary D.; Nelson, David C.; Sampson, Thomas E.; Scheer, Nancy L.

    2000-01-01

    The ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System) Project is an integrated system at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for the dismantlement of nuclear weapons. The plutonium produced by the ARIES process was measured by an integrated nondestructive assay (NDA) system. The performance of the NDA systems was monitored by a measurement control program which is a part of a nuclear material control and accountability system. In this paper we will report the results of the measurements of the measurement control standards as well as an overview of the measurement of the ARIES process materials

  16. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.

    1994-01-01

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  17. Assaying gene function by growth competition experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Joshua; Edwards, Jeremy S

    2004-07-01

    High-throughput screening and analysis is one of the emerging paradigms in biotechnology. In particular, high-throughput methods are essential in the field of functional genomics because of the vast amount of data generated in recent and ongoing genome sequencing efforts. In this report we discuss integrated functional analysis methodologies which incorporate both a growth competition component and a highly parallel assay used to quantify results of the growth competition. Several applications of the two most widely used technologies in the field, i.e., transposon mutagenesis and deletion strain library growth competition, and individual applications of several developing or less widely reported technologies are presented.

  18. Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min

  19. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  20. ewec 2007 - Europe's premier wind energy event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This online collection of papers - the ewec 2007 proceedings - reflects the various sessions and lectures presented at the ewec wind-energy convention held in Milan in 2007. The first day's sessions looked at the following topics: Renewable Energy Roadmap, the changing structure of the wind industry, politics and programmes, aerodynamics and innovation in turbine design, wind resources and site characterisation (2 sessions), energy scenarios, harmonisation of incentive schemes, structural design and materials, forecasting, integration studies, integrating wind into electricity markets, wind-turbine electrical systems and components, as well as loads, noise and wakes. The second day included sessions on offshore: developments and prospects, extreme wind conditions and forecasting techniques, small wind turbines, distributed generation and autonomous systems cost effectiveness, cost effectiveness of wind energy, financing wind energy concepts, wind and turbulence, wind power plants and grid integration, offshore technology, global challenges and opportunities, aero-elasticity, loads and control, operations and maintenance, carbon trading and the emission trading schemes, investment strategies of power producers, wind power plants and grid integration, wind turbine electrical systems and components, and wakes. The third day offered sessions on environmental issues, condition monitoring, operation and maintenance, structural design and materials, the Up-Wind workshop, winning hearts and minds, offshore technology, advances in measuring methods and advancing drive-train reliability. In a closing session the conference was summarised, awards for poster contributions were made and the Poul la Cour Prize was presented

  1. PREMIER WOLNYCH ŁUŻYC

    OpenAIRE

    Suwart, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Wojciech Kóćka’s life could easily serve as a source material of many action and historical film screenplays. He has been hunted by the Nazi, has gone into hiding following threads by the NKVD and have had not an easy life in the first years of the communist Poland. In 1945 he was regarded as the most serious candidate for the position o f Prime Minister of a Lusatian Free State. He has never repudiated his Lusatian roots and became one of the most eminent intellectuals in the pos...

  2. Premier numéro bilingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes heureux de vous présenter ce nouveau numéro bilingue de la revue PISTES. Nous espérons ainsi faire connaître les travaux francophones sur la santé au travail dans le monde anglo-saxon. Nous vous rappelons que la traduction de ce numéro a été rendu possible grâce à une subvention du CRSH (Conseil de la recherche en sciences humaines du Canada ainsi qu’à la contribution de certains auteurs que nous tenons à remercier. Ce numéro aborde plusieurs thèmes de recherche reliés au travail...

  3. Film Premiere: Arrows of time at exploratorium

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Join award-wimming artist and filmmaker Ken McMullen for a uniqude presentation of films engaging ideas at the forefront of science and culture on Sunday, Apri 29 at 2pm at the Exploratorium." (1/3 page)

  4. Arthroscopy Techniques: The Premier Arthroscopic Video Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, J Martin; Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T

    2016-12-01

    Arthroscopy has always been focused on its roots-providing practical, clinically relevant information for the practicing arthroscopist. In the digital age, there is a need for publication platforms dedicated to multimedia presentations, hence the birth of Arthroscopy Techniques, Arthroscopy's online video companion. With over 700 videos, our library is filled with an exceptional collection of arthroscopic educational material, with topics ranging from the basics of arthroscopy to the most complex surgical procedures. One series, published this month, explores elbow arthroscopy with specific attention to describing various elbow portals, patient positioning, and tricks of elbow arthroscopy known only to the masters. If you have yet to view Arthroscopy Techniques, experience the future of arthroscopy today at www.ArthroscopyTechniques.org! Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear raw materials; Matieres premieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J. [Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-01-15

    It is clear that in the next decades there will be a substantial and increasing demand for uranium to fuel nuclear power stations. In a developing country, the discovery and development of uranium resources can be of importance either for the development of national nuclear power or for the commercial export of uranium. As the time taken between the start of a uranium exploration program and the uranium production stage.may be of the order of 6 - 10 years, it is now opportune to start new exploration so that advantage of the increased demand in the mid-1970s may be achieved. Thorium will also be of interest, but in the more distant future when the thorium cycle for advanced converters and breeder reactors is fully developed [French] Il est certain qu' au cours des prochaines décennies la demande d'uranium pour les centrales nucléaires sera importante et ne cessera de croître. Dans un pays en voie de développement, la découverte et la mise en valeur de ressources d'uranium peut avoir une grande importance, soit en vue de produire de l'énergie nucléoélectrique, soit en vue d'exporter l'uranium. Etant donné que les délais entre le démarrage d'un programme de prospection de l'uranium et le début de la production peuvent être de l'ordre de six ans, il est actuellement opportun de commencer les opérations d'exploration pour pouvoir profiter de la demande accrue qui s' affirmera vers le milieu de la prochaine décennie. Le thorium présentera aussi un certain intérêt, mais à plus long terme. Il faut pour cela que le cycle du thorium pour convertisseurs avancés et surgénérateurs ait été pleinement développé. (author)

  6. World premiere. And the antimatter was

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an historical review of the discovery of antimatter. Nine anti-hydrogen atoms were produced in September 1995 by a German-Italian team using the CERN-LEAR. This exceptional event has convulsed the existing fundamental physics theories: the symmetry theory and the general relativity theory and its equivalence principle. The discovery of antimatter raises the question of the existence of an anti-universe and of where the antimatter could lie in the universe. The paper describes the experiment carried out at the CERN and the difficulties encountered for the measurement and the storage of antimatter particles. The possible forthcoming closure of the LEAR appears as a threat to future antimatter studies and developments using antimatter annihilation energy. (J.S.). 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo

  7. First results with a radioreceptor-assay (TRAK-Assay) for TSH-receptor-autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new radioreceptor-assay (TRAK-assay) for autoantibodies against TSH-receptors was tested in 48 untreated thyrotoxic patients (26 regional autonomies, 22 toxic diffuse goiters). None of the 26 patients with regional autonomy showed positive autoantibody-titers. 4 patients with toxic diffuse goiter and thyrotoxic exophthalmos were TRAK-positive. Positive titers of microsomal and thyreoglobulin autoantibodies could be seen in 8 of 9 patients with positive TRAK-titers. In accordance with the conventional methods for detecting thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins the new TRAK-assay seems to be suited for differentiating between immunogenic toxic diffuse goiter (Graves' disease) and goiter with disseminated autonomy as well as for prediction of relapse. (orig.) [de

  8. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 1. Application of assay technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Green, T.H.; Molesworth, T.V.; Staniforth, D.; Strachan, N.R.; Rogers, J.D.; Wise, M.O.; Forrest, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd., and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd., on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. In volume 1, the reasons for assay are considered together with the various techniques that can be used, and the information that can be obtained. The practical problems associated with the use of the various techniques in an integrated assay facility are identified, and the key parameters defined. Engineering and operational features are examined and provisional designs proposed for facilities at three throughput levels: 15,000, 750 and 30 drums per year respectively. The capital and operating costs for such facilities have been estimated. A number of recommendations are made for further work. 16 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  9. Fluorescence lifetime assays: current advances and applications in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritz, Stephan; Doering, Klaus; Woelcke, Julian; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Fluorescence lifetime assays complement the portfolio of established assay formats available in drug discovery, particularly with the recent advances in microplate readers and the commercial availability of novel fluorescent labels. Fluorescence lifetime assists in lowering complexity of compound screening assays, affording a modular, toolbox-like approach to assay development and yielding robust homogeneous assays. To date, materials and procedures have been reported for biochemical assays on proteases, as well as on protein kinases and phosphatases. This article gives an overview of two assay families, distinguished by the origin of the fluorescence signal modulation. The pharmaceutical industry demands techniques with a robust, integrated compound profiling process and short turnaround times. Fluorescence lifetime assays have already helped the drug discovery field, in this sense, by enhancing productivity during the hit-to-lead and lead optimization phases. Future work will focus on covering other biochemical molecular modifications by investigating the detailed photo-physical mechanisms underlying the fluorescence signal.

  10. The Statistics of wood assays for preservative retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Scott W. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers general statistical concepts that apply to interpreting wood assay retention values. In particular, since wood assays are typically obtained from a single composited sample, the statistical aspects, including advantages and disadvantages, of simple compositing are covered.

  11. Use of polymeric dyes in lignin biodegradation assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, M.H.; Alic, M.; Glenn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical use of various 14 C-radiolabeled and unlabeled substrates to screen for ligninolytic activity. The disadvantages of these assays are presented. The authors describe the development of assays utilizing polymeric dyes

  12. MCNP efficiency calculations of INEEL passive active neutron assay system for simulated TRU waste assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, W.Y.; Meachum, T.R.; Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) passive active neutron (PAN) radioassay system is used to certify transuranic (TRU) waste drums in terms of quantifying plutonium and other TRU element activities. Depending on the waste form involved, significant systematic and random errors need quantification in addition to the counting statistics. To determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results, a statistical sampling and verification approach has been developed. In this approach, the total performance of the PAN nondestructive assay system is simulated using the computer models of the assay system, and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. The supporting steps in performing the uncertainty analysis for the passive assay measurements in particular are as follows: (1) Create simulated waste drums and associated conditions; (2) Simulate measurements to determine the basic counting data that would be produced by the PAN assay system under the conditions specified; and (3) Apply the PAN assay system analysis algorithm to the set of counting data produced by simulating measurements to determine the measured plutonium mass. The validity of this simulation approach was verified by comparing simulated output against results from actual measurements using known plutonium sources and surrogate waste drums. The computer simulation of the PAN system performance uses the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Code System to produce a neutron transport calculation for a simulated waste drum. Specifically, the passive system uses the neutron coincidence counting technique, utilizing the spontaneous fission of 240 Pu. MCNP application to the SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis has been very useful for a variety of waste types contained in 208-ell drums measured by a passive radioassay system. The application of MCNP to the active radioassay system is also feasible

  13. Treatment of in vitro enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection using phage and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, C; Bolla, P A; de Urraza, P J

    2016-07-01

    To assay the combination of phage and probiotics against EHEC in vitro on infected Hep-2 cells. Phage and probiotics treatments on EHEC O157:H7-infected Hep-2 cells were assayed individually or combined. The effect of freeze-drying on phage and probiotic antimicrobial activity was also studied. While treatment with phage alone increased cell detachment caused by EHEC infection, the treatments with MM alone or in combination with phage proved to effectively diminish cell damage caused by EHEC infection. Combined treatment showed a decrease in apoptotic cell count of 57·3% and a reduction in EHEC adhesion to cell monolayer of 1·2 log CFU. The simultaneous use of phage and probiotics showed no antagonistic effect, and freeze-drying did not affect their antipathogenic activity. The combination of phage and probiotics has great potential for reducing the number of pathogens adhered to epithelial cells during EHEC O157:H7 infection and attenuating the cytotoxic effect derived from it. Further in vivo assays are needed for assessing the actual effectiveness of the treatment. This study presents a freeze-dried formulation of phage and probiotics capable of controlling EHEC infections and reducing epithelial cell damage in vitro. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Specific binding assay technique; standardization of reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, K.G.; Roitt, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The standardization of a labelled constituent, such as anti-IgE, for use in a specific binding assay method is disclosed. A labelled ligand, such as IgE, is standardized against a ligand reference substance, such as WHO standard IgE, to determine the weight of IgE protein represented by the labelled ligand. Anti-light chain antibodies are contacted with varying concentrations of the labelled ligand. The ligand is then contacted with the labelled constituent which is then quantitated in relation to the amount of ligand protein present. The preparation of 131 I-labelled IgE is described. Also disclosed is an improved specific binding assay test method for determining the potency of an allergen extract in serum from an allergic individual. The improvement involved using a parallel model system of a second complex which consisted of anti-light chain antibodies, labelled ligand and the standardized labelled constituent (anti-IgE). The amount of standardized labelled constituent bound to the ligand in the first complex was determined, as described above, and the weight of ligand inhibited by addition of soluble allergen was then used as a measure of the potency of the allergen extract. (author)

  15. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  16. Human semen assays for workplace monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed

  17. Rapid multiple immunoenzyme assay of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Petrakova, Alina V; Sadykhov, Elchin G; Koroleva, Olga V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-01-27

    Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin-polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively.

  18. Rapid Multiple Immunoenzyme Assay of Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr E. Urusov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and quantification of three mycotoxins, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone, in the kinetic regime. The main requirement for the proposed kinetic protocol was to provide a rapid method that combined sensitivity and accuracy. The use of biotin with an extended spacer together with a streptavidin–polyperoxidase conjugate provided high signal levels, despite these interactions occurring under non-equilibrium conditions. Duration of the individual mycotoxin assays was 20 min, whereas the analysis of all three mycotoxins in parallel reached a maximum duration of 25 min. Recovery of at least 95% mycotoxins in water-organic extracts was shown. The developed assays were successfully validated using poultry processing products and corn samples spiked with known quantities of mycotoxins. The detection limits for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in these substances were 0.24, 1.2 and 3 ng/g, respectively.

  19. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium ( 47 Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO 3 . In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the 47 Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison

  20. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  1. Trofile HIV co-receptor usage assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; McGovern, Rachel A; Harrigan, P Richard

    2009-03-01

    The introduction of CCR5 antagonists increases the options available for constructing therapeutic drug regimens for HIV-positive patients. However, as these drugs do not inhibit HIV variants that use the CXCR4 co-receptor, a pretreatment test is required to determine accurately HIV co-receptor usage (tropism) before initiating CCR5 antagonist-based therapy. To discuss the Monogram Trofile assay as a diagnostic tool for determining HIV tropism by critically reviewing reported literature and available data. Monogram Trofile has become, largely by default, the de facto standard for HIV tropism assay. However, there is significant room for improvement in the speed, cost and availability of the test. Furthermore, the test is not quantitative, requires high-input HIV RNA viral loads, and produces results that are less biologically stable than expected. These technical considerations may limit the use of CCR5 antagonists in therapy. Nevertheless, this test is likely to remain the most widely used tropism diagnostic for the short term. We expect that a more practical and possibly more accurate method for measuring HIV tropism can be developed.

  2. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  3. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  4. Assay for mutagenesis in heterozygous diploid human lymphoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopek, Thomas R.; Liber, Howard L.; Penman, Bruce W.; Thilly, William G.; Hoppe, IV, Henry

    1981-01-01

    An assay is disclosed for determining mutagenic damage caused by the administration of a known or suspected mutagen to diploid human lymphoblastoid cell lines. The gene locus employed for this assay is the gene for thymidine kinase, uridine kinase, or cytidine deaminase. Since human lymphoblastoid cells contain two genes for these enzymes, heterozygotes of human lymphoblastoid cells are used in this assay.

  5. Clinical validation of the Tempus xO assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubier, Nike; Tell, Robert; Huether, Robert; Bontrager, Martin; Bush, Stephen; Parsons, Jerod; Shah, Kaanan; Baker, Tim; Selkov, Gene; Taxter, Tim; Thomas, Amber; Bettis, Sam; Khan, Aly; Lau, Denise; Lee, Christina; Barber, Matthew; Cieslik, Marcin; Frankenberger, Casey; Franzen, Amy; Weiner, Ali; Palmer, Gary; Lonigro, Robert; Robinson, Dan; Wu, Yi-Mi; Cao, Xuhong; Lefkofsky, Eric; Chinnaiyan, Arul; White, Kevin P.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a clinically validated NGS assay that includes tumor, germline and RNA sequencing. We apply this assay to clinical specimens and cell lines, and we demonstrate a clinical sensitivity of 98.4% and positive predictive value of 100% for the clinically actionable variants measured by the assay. We also demonstrate highly accurate copy number measurements and gene rearrangement identification. PMID:29899824

  6. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  7. 40 CFR 79.67 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay... Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay. (a) Purpose. Chemical-induced injury of the nervous system, i.e... paragraph (e)(3) in this section). Assays of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate...

  8. Detection of induced male germline mutation: Correlations and comparisons between traditional germline mutation assays, transgenic rodent assays and expanded simple tandem repeat instability assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Timothy M. [Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 0803A, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont., K1S 5B6 (Canada); Lambert, Iain B. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont., K1S 5B6 (Canada); Williams, Andrew [Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 6604B, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada); Douglas, George R. [Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 0803A, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L. [Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 0803A, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada)]. E-mail: carole_yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2006-06-25

    Several rodent assays are capable of monitoring germline mutation. These include traditional assays, such as the dominant lethal (DL) assay, the morphological specific locus (SL) test and the heritable translocation (HT) assay, and two assays that have been developed more recently-the expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) and transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation assays. In this paper, we have compiled the limited amount of experimental data that are currently available to make conclusions regarding the comparative ability of the more recently developed assays to detect germline mutations induced by chemical and radiological agents. The data suggest that ESTR and TGR assays are generally comparable with SL in detecting germline mutagenicity induced by alkylating agents and radiation, though TGR offered less sensitivity than ESTR in some cases. The DL and HT assays detect clastogenic events and are most susceptible to mutations arising in post-spermatogonial cells, and they may not provide the best comparisons with TGR and ESTR instability. The measurement of induced ESTR instability represents a relatively sensitive method of identifying agents causing germline mutation in rodents, and may also be useful for bio-monitoring exposed individuals in the human population. Any future use of the TGR and ESTR germline mutation assays in a regulatory testing context will entail more robust and extensive characterization of assay performance. This will require substantially more data, including experiments measuring multiple endpoints, a greatly expanded database of chemical agents and a focus on characterizing stage-specific activity of mutagens in these assays, preferably by sampling epididymal sperm exposed at defined pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of development.

  9. Detection of induced male germline mutation: Correlations and comparisons between traditional germline mutation assays, transgenic rodent assays and expanded simple tandem repeat instability assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Timothy M.; Lambert, Iain B.; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2006-01-01

    Several rodent assays are capable of monitoring germline mutation. These include traditional assays, such as the dominant lethal (DL) assay, the morphological specific locus (SL) test and the heritable translocation (HT) assay, and two assays that have been developed more recently-the expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) and transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation assays. In this paper, we have compiled the limited amount of experimental data that are currently available to make conclusions regarding the comparative ability of the more recently developed assays to detect germline mutations induced by chemical and radiological agents. The data suggest that ESTR and TGR assays are generally comparable with SL in detecting germline mutagenicity induced by alkylating agents and radiation, though TGR offered less sensitivity than ESTR in some cases. The DL and HT assays detect clastogenic events and are most susceptible to mutations arising in post-spermatogonial cells, and they may not provide the best comparisons with TGR and ESTR instability. The measurement of induced ESTR instability represents a relatively sensitive method of identifying agents causing germline mutation in rodents, and may also be useful for bio-monitoring exposed individuals in the human population. Any future use of the TGR and ESTR germline mutation assays in a regulatory testing context will entail more robust and extensive characterization of assay performance. This will require substantially more data, including experiments measuring multiple endpoints, a greatly expanded database of chemical agents and a focus on characterizing stage-specific activity of mutagens in these assays, preferably by sampling epididymal sperm exposed at defined pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of development

  10. LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Content Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Song, Kee Chan

    2010-01-01

    Concerning the sustainable energy supply and green house effect, nuclear energy became the most feasible option to meet the energy demand in Korea. However, the production of the spent nuclear fuel is the inevitable situation. Since the first nuclear power plant started to produce the electricity in Korea, the accumulated amount of spent fuels exceeded 10k tomes recently. The accumulation of the spent fuels is the big issue in the society. Therefore, as an option which strengthens the nuclear proliferation resistance and reduces the amount of spent fuels, sodium fast reactor (SFR) program linked with pyro-processing is under development to re-use the PWR spent fuel and produce the energy. In the process, the produced metallic material involves uranium and TRU (transuranic; neptunium, plutonium, and americium). The uranium-TRU is used to fabricate SFR fuel. The burning the recycled fuel in the reactor is to solve the current spent fuel storage problem and to minimize the actinides accumulation having long half-life. Generally, the spent fuel from PWR has unburned ∼1 % U235, produced ∼0.5 % plutonium from decay chain, ∼3 % fission products, ∼ 0.1 % minor actinides (MA) and uranium remainder. About 1.5 % fissile materials still exist in the spent fuel. Therefore, spent fuel is not only waste but energy resource. The direct and isotopic fissile content assay is the crucial technology for the spent fuel reuse. Additionally, the fissile content analysis will contribute to the optimum storage design and safe spent fuel management. Several nondestructive technologies have been developed for the spent fuel assay; gamma ray measurement, passive and active neutron measurements. Spent fuel emits intense gamma rays and neutrons by (a, n) and spontaneous fission. This intense background has the limitation on the direct analysis of fissile materials. Recently, to analyze the individual fissile content, leadslowing down spectrometer (LSDS) has been being developed in Korea

  11. Localized irradiations, Evaluation through ''comet assay''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources Co 60 , Cs 137 or Ir 192 at workplaces for industrial gammagraphy. Severe skin reaction may develop at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models ''Contaminated Poisson'' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. This give an indication of the proportion of haemopoietic stem cell compartment involved in the overexposure. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give responses in biological dosimetry. The ''Comet Assay'' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. The advantages of the technique include: collection of data at the level of individual cell; the need for small numbers of cells per sample; its sensitivity for detecting DNA damage and that virtually any eukaryote cell population is amenable to analysis. The objective of this work is to apply ''Comet Assay'' method to evaluate the effect of radiation on skin and subcutaneous tissues, differentiating irradiated from unirradiated body areas. It could provide a useful tool to estimate the extension and the dose in the irradiated region, contributing with the current techniques. In this first study, we evaluate the alkaline comet assay as a method for detection of DNA radiation induced damage in keratinocytes from primary culture obtained from full thickness skin biopsies of patients requiring grafts. Skin and, particularly, keratinocytes were selected as an appropriate cellular system due to: Skin, the first barrier

  12. Localized irradiations, evaluation through 'Comet Assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Taja, Maria R.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources of Cobalt 60, Cesium 137 or Iridium 192 at work placed for industrial gammagraphy and other radiation sources. Severe skin reaction may developed at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models 'Contaminated Poisson' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give response in localized irradiations. Biological dosimetry is a necessary complement to physical and clinical dosimetries. Thus, there is increasing interest in the assessment of biological markers that permit the detection of radiation induced damage in the localized irradiations. The 'Comet Assay' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, rapid and relatively inexpensive method for measuring DNA damage in individual cells. Single cells are embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed to remove the majority of the proteins, electrophoresed, then stained with ethidium bromide in order to visualize the DNA. When visualized using a fluorescent microscope, DNA of undamaged cells appears as a spherical mass occupying the cavity formed by the lysed cell. Following radiation damage, the smaller the fragment size and the grater the number of fragments of DNA, the grater the percentage of DNA that it is able to migrate in an electric field, forming a comet image. The assay can be performed under alkaline conditions to examine DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), or in non denaturing (neutral) conditions to measure double strand breaks (DSBs) in individual

  13. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Assayed Quality Control Material for Clinical Microbiology Assays. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, Agency, or we) is classifying the assayed quality control material for clinical microbiology assays into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the assayed quality control material for clinical microbiology assays' classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  14. Metal-amplified Density Assays, (MADAs), including a Density-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DeLISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Gonidec, Mathieu; Shapiro, Nathan D; Kresse, Kayleigh M; Whitesides, George M

    2015-02-21

    This paper reports the development of Metal-amplified Density Assays, or MADAs - a method of conducting quantitative or multiplexed assays, including immunoassays, by using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure metal-amplified changes in the density of beads labeled with biomolecules. The binding of target analytes (i.e. proteins, antibodies, antigens) to complementary ligands immobilized on the surface of the beads, followed by a chemical amplification of the binding in a form that results in a change in the density of the beads (achieved by using gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules, and electroless deposition of gold or silver), translates analyte binding events into changes in density measureable using MagLev. A minimal model based on diffusion-limited growth of hemispherical nuclei on a surface reproduces the dynamics of the assay. A MADA - when performed with antigens and antibodies - is called a Density-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, or DeLISA. Two immunoassays provided a proof of principle: a competitive quantification of the concentration of neomycin in whole milk, and a multiplexed detection of antibodies against Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein and syphilis T. pallidum p47 protein in serum. MADAs, including DeLISAs, require, besides the requisite biomolecules and amplification reagents, minimal specialized equipment (two permanent magnets, a ruler or a capillary with calibrated length markings) and no electrical power to obtain a quantitative readout of analyte concentration. With further development, the method may be useful in resource-limited or point-of-care settings.

  15. The challenge and impact of engaging hard-to-reach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League 'Football in the Community' men's health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, K; Drust, B; Murphy, R; Pringle, A; Richardson, D

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the challenges that men from hard-to-reach (HTR) populations encounter when attempting to commit to regular participation in physical activity and health behaviours, and to explore the psychological and social effects of participation in a twelve week football-led health improvement intervention. A twelve week football specific physical activity intervention targeting men from HTR populations was delivered by Everton Football Clubs' Football in the Community (FitC) scheme as part of a national programme of men's health delivered in/by English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Men living in homeless shelters and/or recovering from substance misuse were recruited over a period of three months. The programme consisted of a two hour football session, twice weekly, alongside the dissemination of healthy living messages. Football sessions were conducted by a qualified FitC coach. This research was conducted during a twelve week period of immersed practitioner-research. Ethnographic and observational methodologies were adopted. Psychosocial issues were discussed with participants through informal client-researcher interactions and data were logged via field notes. Records of attendance were logged. Participants who failed to attend a session were contacted and their reason(s) for non-attendance were recorded. Data were analysed using deductive and inductive reasoning. Despite the apparent ambition of the participants to regularly participate in the FitC programme, adherence to the programme was poor. Economic, environmental and social barriers to engagement in the programme were apparent. Engagement in the programme resulted in positive psychosocial developments; the development of structure, social interaction and social capital. Community based football-led health improvement programmes endorsed by professional football clubs appear well positioned to connect with, and attract, men from HTR populations. The evidence suggests that such programmes can

  16. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B.; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine

  17. La stigmatisation particulière du pédéraste passif dans les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la premiere partie du xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Pastorello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les enquêtes de médecine légale dans la première partie du xixe siècle sont les premiers travaux envisageant la pratique de l’homosexualité masculine sous l’angle scientifique. Deux figures sont primordiales : le docteur Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 membre des idéologues et qui entendait faire de la médecine la pièce maîtresse d’une science de l’homme et Ambroise Tardieu 1818-1879 professeur de médecine légale à Paris auteur d’un traité vu comme un aboutissement de ces études médico-légales. Il faut signaler l’influence de la phrénologie. Ces médecins définissent des stigmates physiques et moraux propres à la pratique de la pédérastie, surtout passive et à l’occasion définissent un personnage type. Ces discours relèvent d’abord d’une phraséologie morale et ils puisent leurs racines antérieurement. Cependant il faut aussi replacer ces discours stigmatisant la pédérastie passive dans le contexte de la construction de la virilité moderne. Il faut aussi placer la médecine légale dans le contexte de la médecine et de ses évolutions.The particular stigmatization of the passive pederast in the inquiries of forensic medecine in the first part of the XIX centuryForensic medicine in the first part of the 19th century investigations are first work considering the practice of male homosexuality in scientific terms. Two figures are crucial: the Dr. Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis (1757-1808 the ideologists member and intended to do medicine the centrepiece of a human science and Ambroise Tardieu 1818 - 1879 Professor of forensic medicine in Paris author of a treaty as a culmination of these forensic studies. It should be noted the influence of the phrenology. These physicians define physical stigma and moral own practice of pederasty, especially passive and during the define a type character. These speeches are firstly a moral phraseology and they draw their roots previously. However we also

  18. From Raja to Prime Minister Entre rajah et premier ministre. Les étrangers et l’exploitation économique à Bornéo et dans le Pacifique au xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Dijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Some twenty years after the Sultan of Brunei had bestowed upon the Englishman James Brooke the title of Rajah of Sarawak, giving him extensive authorities over a large tract of land, an American, Joseph William Torrey, United States consul in Brunei, gained the right to call himself Rajah of Marudu and Ambong. Though Torrey’s efforts failed to establish a profitable business in Sabah, they formed the root of the British North Borneo Company. Torrey probably was one of the last of his kind. Elsewhere in the Pacific, European and American residents and adventurers did not bother much about native titles, expanding their hold over land and its inhabitants by economic and political manipulation. In Hawaii and Samoa political reform and becoming cabinet minister or prime minister of a still independent island state served their purposes better.Quelque vingt ans après que le sultan de Brunei eut accordé à l’Anglais James Brooke le titre de rajah de Sarawak, qui lui donnait d’importants pouvoirs sur une vaste région, un Américain, Joseph William Torrey, consul des Etats-Unis à Brunei, obtint le titre de rajah de Marudu et Ambong. Les efforts de Torrey, échouant à établir une affaire profitable à Sabah, constituèrent néanmoins les bases de la British North Borneo Company. Torrey fut sans doute l’un des derniers de ce type d’aventuriers. Ailleurs dans le Pacifique, des résidents et des aventuriers européens et américains, par des manœuvres économiques et politiques, consolidèrent leur contrôle sur les territoires et leurs populations, sans trop se soucier d’obtenir des titres locaux. A Hawaii et à Samoa, il leur fut plus utile d’entreprendre des réformes politiques et de se pourvoir d’un poste de ministre ou de premier ministre d’un Etat insulaire encore indépendant.

  19. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine de radionucleides dans les effluents produits et de

  20. Some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Langner, D.G.; Menlove, H.O.; Miller, M.C.; Russo, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides some target assay uncertainties for passive neutron coincidence counting of plutonium metal, oxide, mixed oxide, and scrap and waste. The target values are based in part on past user experience and in part on the estimated results from new coincidence counting techniques that are under development. The paper summarizes assay error sources and the new coincidence techniques, and recommends the technique that is likely to yield the lowest assay uncertainty for a given material type. These target assay uncertainties are intended to be useful for NDA instrument selection and assay variance propagation studies for both new and existing facilities. 14 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Spectrophotometric Enzyme Assays for High-Throughput Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Reymond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews high-throughput screening enzyme assays developed in our laboratory over the last ten years. These enzyme assays were initially developed for the purpose of discovering catalytic antibodies by screening cell culture supernatants, but have proved generally useful for testing enzyme activities. Examples include TLC-based screening using acridone-labeled substrates, fluorogenic assays based on the β-elimination of umbelliferone or nitrophenol, and indirect assays such as the back-titration method with adrenaline and the copper-calcein fluorescence assay for aminoacids.

  2. Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of serum ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yao [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2007-06-15

    This assay is a solid phase, two-site fluoroimmunometric assay based on the direct sandwish technique. Standards or samples containing ferritin are first reacted with immobilized anti-ferritin antibodies. Then the europium-lablled antibodies are reacted with the bound antigen. The range of this assay is 2-1000 ng/mL. The analytical sentivity is better than 0.05 ng/mL. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation are both below 5%; This kit was compared with Wallac DELFIA kit. The correlation is r=0.96. (authors)

  3. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  4. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  5. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  6. Universal fieldable assay with unassisted visual detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelyapov, Nicolas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A universal detection system based on allosteric aptamers, signal amplification cascade, and eye-detectable phrase transition. A broadly applicable homogeneous detection system is provided. It utilizes components of the blood coagulation cascade in the presence of polystyrene microspheres (MS) as a signal amplifier. Russell's viper venom factor X activator (RVV-X) triggers the cascade, which results in an eye-visible phase transition--precipitation of MS bound to clotted fibrin. An allosteric RNA aptamer, RNA132, with affinity for RVV-X and human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF.sub.165) was created. RNA132 inhibits enzymatic activity of RVV-X. The effector molecule, VEGF.sub.165, reverses the inhibitory activity of RNA132 on RVV-X and restores its enzymatic activity, thus triggering the cascade and enabling the phase transition. Similar results were obtained for another allosteric aptamer modulated by a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The assay is instrumentation-free for both processing and readout.

  7. Development of an integrated assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molesworth, T.V.; Bailey, M.; Findlay, D.J.S.; Sene, M.R.; Swinhoe, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results of active neutron and active gamma-ray interrogation of a 500 liter cemented simulated CAGR intermediate level radioactive waste drum are described. The basis of the interrogation systems was the Harwell electron linear accelerator HELIOS, which was used to produce the interrogating neutrons and gamma-rays. Several sets of neutron detectors were located around the drum to count signature neutrons. The responses of the system were measured by placing known samples at many different locations within the drum. In general, measured responses confirmed calculated responses. Good agreement was obtained for the azimuthal angle dependences. The absolute responses agreed well for gamma-ray interrogation, but the calculations were apparently over-estimates for neutron interrogation. Those aspects requiring consideration in the practical application of assay techniques are identified. 8 refs., 6 figs

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MILK CASEIN ASSAY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIłĂ

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Casein, the main milk protein was determined by different assay methods: the gravimetric method, the method based on the neutralization of the NaOH excess used for the casein precipitate solving and the method based on the titration of the acetic acid used for the casein precipitation. The last method is the simplest one, with the fewer steps, and also with the lowest error degree. The results of the experiment revealed that the percentage of casein from the whole milk protein represents between 72.6–81.3% in experiment 1, between 73.6–81.3% in experiment 2 and between 74.3–81% in experiment 3.

  9. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, George N

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health concern especially after recognizing its constantly increased prevalence and severity. Despite careful reading of food ingredient statements, food allergic individuals may experience reactions caused by "hidden", "masked", or "contaminated" proteins that are known major allergens. Many techniques have been developed to detect even small traces of food allergens, for clinical or laboratory purposes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the best validated and most routinely used immunoassay in allergy research, in allergy diagnosis in allergy-related quality control in various industries. Although as a technique it has been implemented for the last 45 years, the evolution in biochemistry allowed the development of ultrasensitive ELISA variations that are capable of measuring quantities in the scale of picograms, rendering ELISA attractive, robust, and very famous.

  10. Systematic random sampling of the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; Wasson, Gillian R; McKerr, George; Saetzler, Kurt; Reed, Matt; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2009-07-01

    The comet assay is a technique used to quantify DNA damage and repair at a cellular level. In the assay, cells are embedded in agarose and the cellular content is stripped away leaving only the DNA trapped in an agarose cavity which can then be electrophoresed. The damaged DNA can enter the agarose and migrate while the undamaged DNA cannot and is retained. DNA damage is measured as the proportion of the migratory 'tail' DNA compared to the total DNA in the cell. The fundamental basis of these arbitrary values is obtained in the comet acquisition phase using fluorescence microscopy with a stoichiometric stain in tandem with image analysis software. Current methods deployed in such an acquisition are expected to be both objectively and randomly obtained. In this paper we examine the 'randomness' of the acquisition phase and suggest an alternative method that offers both objective and unbiased comet selection. In order to achieve this, we have adopted a survey sampling approach widely used in stereology, which offers a method of systematic random sampling (SRS). This is desirable as it offers an impartial and reproducible method of comet analysis that can be used both manually or automated. By making use of an unbiased sampling frame and using microscope verniers, we are able to increase the precision of estimates of DNA damage. Results obtained from a multiple-user pooled variation experiment showed that the SRS technique attained a lower variability than that of the traditional approach. The analysis of a single user with repetition experiment showed greater individual variances while not being detrimental to overall averages. This would suggest that the SRS method offers a better reflection of DNA damage for a given slide and also offers better user reproducibility.

  11. Global optimization in the adaptive assay of subterranean uranium nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulkan, U.; Ben-Haim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive assay is one in which the design of the assay system is modified during operation in response to measurements obtained on-line. The present work has two aims: to design an adaptive system for borehole assay of isolated subterranean uranium nodules, and to investigate globality of optimal design in adaptive assay. It is shown experimentally that reasonably accurate estimates of uranium mass are obtained for a wide range of nodule shapes, on the basis of an adaptive assay system based on a simple geomorphological model. Furthermore, two concepts are identified which underlie the optimal design of the assay system. The adaptive assay approach shows promise for successful measurement of spatially random material in many geophysical applications. (author)

  12. Serotype determination of Salmonella by xTAG assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhibei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Haoqiu; Pan, Jincao; Pu, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Currently, no protocols or commercial kits are available to determine the serotypes of Salmonella by using Luminex MAGPIX®. In this study, an xTAG assay for serotype determination of Salmonella suitable for Luminex MAGPIX® is described and 228 Salmonella isolates were serotype determined by this xTAG assay. The xTAG assay consists of two steps: 1) Multiplex PCR to amplify simultaneously O, H and Vi antigen genes of Salmonella, and 2) Magplex-TAG™ microsphere hybridization to identify accurately the specific PCR products of different antigens. Compared with the serotyping results of traditional serum agglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the xTAG assay were 95.1% and 100%, respectively. The agreement rate of these two assays was 95.2%. Compared with Luminex xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) kit, the advantages of this xTAG assay are: First, the magnetic beads make it applicable to both the Luminex®100/200™ and MAGPIX® systems. Second, only primers rather than both primers and probes are needed in the xTAG assay, and the process of coupling antigen-specific oligonucleotide probes to beads is circumvented, which make the xTAG assay convenient to be utilized by other laboratories. The xTAG assay may serve as a rapid alternative or complementary method for traditional Salmonella serotyping tests, especially for laboratories that utilize the MAGPIX® systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold increase in sensitivity to ribavirin. AX4 cells (MDCK cells with increased surface concentration of α2–6 sialic acid, the influenza virus receptor) have reduced the comet size variability relative to MDCK cells, making them a better host cell for use in this assay. Because of enhanced antiviral sensitivity in flow-based assays, less drug is required, which could lead to lower reagent costs, reduced cytotoxicity, and fewer false-negative drug screen results. The comet assay also serves as a readout of flow conditions in the well. Observations from comets formed at varying humidity levels indicate a role for evaporation in the mechanism of spontaneous fluid flow in wells. PMID:22155578

  14. The comet assay: ready for 30 more years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter

    2018-02-24

    During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. The use of repair enzymes increases the range of DNA lesions that can be detected with the assay. It can also be modified to measure DNA repair activity. Still, despite the long-term use of the assay, there is a need for studies that assess the impact of variation in specific steps of the procedure. This is particularly important for the on-going efforts to decrease the variation between experiments and laboratories. The articles in this Special Issue of Mutagenesis cover important technical issues of the comet assay procedure, nanogenotoxicity and ionising radiation sensitivity on plant cells. The included biomonitoring studies have assessed seasonal variation and certain predictors for the basal level of DNA damage in white blood cells. Lastly, the comet assay has been used in studies on genotoxicity of environmental and occupational exposures in human biomonitoring studies and animal models. Overall, the articles in this Special Issue demonstrate the versatility of the comet assay and they hold promise that the assay is ready for the next 30 years.

  15. Principles of validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Assay validation requires a series of inter-related processes. Assay validation is an experimental process: reagents and protocols are optimized by experimentation to detect the analyte with accuracy and precision. Assay validation is a relative process: its diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity are calculated relative to test results obtained from reference animal populations of known infection/exposure status. Assay validation is a conditional process: classification of animals in the target population as infected or uninfected is conditional upon how well the reference animal population used to validate the assay represents the target population; accurate predictions of the infection status of animals from test results (PV+ and PV-) are conditional upon the estimated prevalence of disease/infection in the target population. Assay validation is an incremental process: confidence in the validity of an assay increases over time when use confirms that it is robust as demonstrated by accurate and precise results; the assay may also achieve increasing levels of validity as it is upgraded and extended by adding reference populations of known infection status. Assay validation is a continuous process: the assay remains valid only insofar as it continues to provide accurate and precise results as proven through statistical verification. Therefore, the work required for validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases does not end with a time-limited series of experiments based on a few reference samples rather, to assure valid test results from an assay requires constant vigilance and maintenance of the assay, along with reassessment of its performance characteristics for each unique population of animals to which it is applied. (author)

  16. Heated oligonucleotide ligation assay (HOLA): an affordable single nucleotide polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Duteau, N M

    2006-03-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection requires expensive equipment and reagents. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is an inexpensive SNP assay that detects ligation between a biotinylated "allele-specific detector" and a 3' fluorescein-labeled "reporter" oligonucleotide. No ligation occurs unless the 3' detector nucleotide is complementary to the SNP nucleotide. The original OLA used chemical denaturation and neutralization. Heated OLA (HOLA) instead uses a thermal stable ligase and cycles of denaturing and hybridization for ligation and SNP detection. The cost per genotype is approximately US$1.25 with two-allele SNPs or approximately US$1.75 with three-allele SNPs. We illustrate the development of HOLA for SNP detection in the Early Trypsin and Abundant Trypsin loci in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and at the a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.

  17. A novel microculture kinetic assay (MiCK assay) for malignant cell growth and chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, V D

    1994-01-01

    The THERMOmax microplate reader was adapted for monitoring the growth kinetics of human leukaemic OCI/AML-2 and mouse tumour J-774.1 cell lines in continuous culture. Fluid evaporation from wells, CO2 escape and contamination were prevented by hermetic sealing of the microcultures in wells of a 96-well microplate, thus enabling the cells to grow exponentially for 72 h under the conditions of the incubated microplate reader. For both OCI/AML-2 cells, which grow in suspension, and adherent J-774.1 cells, a linear correlation was demonstrated between the number of unstained cells seeded in a given microplate well and the optical density (OD) of that well. Therefore, the OD/time curve of the culture could be deemed to be its growth curve. By the use of the linear fit equation, the actual number of the cells in the wells was computable at any time point of the assay. In the chemosensitivity test, an inhibitory effect of ARA-C on the growth of the cells could be estimated by viewing of the growth curves plotted on the screen. The maximum kinetic rates (Vmax) of the curves in the control and the ARA-C-treated wells were compared, yielding a growth inhibition index (GII). Comparison of results of the kinetic chemosensitivity assay with those of a [3H]thymidine incorporation assay revealed that the novel assay is suitable for precise quantitation of the cell chemosensitivity, is more informative and has the added technical advantage of performance without recourse to radioactive or chemically hazardous substances.

  18. Gamma aminobutyric acid radioreceptor assay: a confirmatory quantitative assay for toxaphene in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.A.; Blancato, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of polychlorinated monoterpenes, and was found to be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic and wild life and posed a carcinogenic risk to humans before its ban in 1982. However, it is still found in the environment due to its relative persistence with an estimated half life time of about 10 years in soils. Toxaphenes neurotoxicity is attributed to a few isomers with a mode of action through binding to the chloride channel of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ionophore complex. [ 35 S] tertiary butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) with specific activity higher than 60 Ci/mmole has a high binding affinity to the same sites and is now commercially available and can be used to label the GABA receptor for the development of radioreceptor assay technique. The GABA receptor was prepared by a sequence of ultra centrifugation and dialysis of mammalian (rats, cows, catfish and goats) brain homogenates. The receptor is then labeled with [ 35 S] TBPS and the assay was conducted by measuring the displacement of radioactivity following incubation with the sample containing the analytes. The assay is fast, sensitive and requires very little or no sample preparation prior to the analysis. (Author)

  19. Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay: a novel homogeneous assay for antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A.

    1993-05-01

    A novel immunoassay, Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay (PORSCHA), is described. This assay relies upon the change in fluorescent spectral properties that pyrene and its derivatives show with varying concentration. Because antibodies and other biomolecules can bind two molecules simultaneously, they can change the local concentration of the molecules that they bind. This concentration change may be detected spectrally as a change in the fluorescence emission wavelength of an appropriately labeled biomolecule. Several tests of PORSCHA have been performed which demonstrate this principle. For example: with streptavidin as the binding biomolecule and a biotin labeled pyrene derivative, the production of the excimer emitting at 470 nm is observed. Without the streptavidin present, only the monomer emitting at 378 and 390 nm is observed. The ratio of monomer to excimer provides the concentration of unlabeled biotin in the sample. Approximately 1 ng/mL of biotin may be detected with this system using a 50 (mu) l sample (2 X 10-16 moles biotin). The principles behind PORSCHA, the results with the streptavidin/biotin system are discussed and extensions of the PORSCHA concept to antibodies as the binding partner and DNA in homogeneous assays are suggested.

  20. Kinetic Consideration of AFP irma assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M. A.; Moustafa, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and later by the fetal liver during pregnancy. When the neural tube is not properly formed, by the fetal liver during pregnancy. When the neural tube is not properly formed, large amounts of AFP pass into the amniotic fluid and reach the mother's blood. During pregnancy, the major interest in AFP determination in maternal serum and amniotic fluid is on the early diagnosis of fetal abnormalities. AFP also used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. There are many different techniques for measuring AFP in blood, but the more accurate one is the immunoassay technique. The kinetics of the interaction between AFP antigen and two matched antibodies, one labeled with radioactive isotope 1 25I (tracer) and the other is unlabelled and attached to a solid support (tube), are studied using the more recently, two sites (sandwich) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) technique. We present here a method for determining the rate constants, using an advanced computer program (RKY), which based on the nelder-mead optimization principle. The rate constant, at three variable temperatures and three different antigen concentrations, as well as the half time of exchange (t 1/2 ) were calculated

  1. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K A; Freer, J H [Department of Microbiology, Alexander Stone Building, Bearsden, Glasgow, Scotland

    1982-03-01

    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 ..mu..Ci (37 K Bq) of (/sup 14/C)glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase activity assays: Importance of zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupai, K; Szucs, G; Cseh, S; Hajdu, I; Csonka, C; Csont, T; Ferdinandy, P

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases capable of degrading extracellular matrix, including the basement membrane. MMPs are associated with various physiological processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tissue repair. Moreover, due to the novel non-matrix related intra- and extracellular targets of MMPs, dysregulation of MMP activity has been implicated in a number of acute and chronic pathological processes, such as arthritis, acute myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. MMPs are considered as viable drug targets in the therapy of the above diseases. For the development of selective MMP inhibitor molecules, reliable methods are necessary for target validation and lead development. Here, we discuss the major methods used for MMP assays, focusing on substrate zymography. We highlight some problems frequently encountered during sample preparations, electrophoresis, and data analysis of zymograms. Zymography is a widely used technique to study extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes, such as MMPs, from tissue extracts, cell cultures, serum or urine. This simple and sensitive technique identifies MMPs by the degradation of their substrate and by their molecular weight and therefore helps to understand the widespread role of MMPs in different pathologies and cellular pathways. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dyes assay for measuring physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Meglinski, Igor V; Bessant, Conrad; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-03-15

    A combination of selective fluorescent dyes has been developed for simultaneous quantitative measurements of several physicochemical parameters. The operating principle of the assay is similar to electronic nose and tongue systems, which combine nonspecific or semispecific elements for the determination of diverse analytes and chemometric techniques for multivariate data analysis. The analytical capability of the proposed mixture is engendered by changes in fluorescence signal in response to changes in environment such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, and presence of oxygen. The signal is detected by a three-dimensional spectrofluorimeter, and the acquired data are processed using an artificial neural network (ANN) for multivariate calibration. The fluorescence spectrum of a solution of selected dyes allows discreet reading of emission maxima of all dyes composing the mixture. The variations in peaks intensities caused by environmental changes provide distinctive fluorescence patterns which can be handled in the same way as the signals collected from nose/tongue electrochemical or piezoelectric devices. This optical system opens possibilities for rapid, inexpensive, real-time detection of a multitude of physicochemical parameters and analytes of complex samples.

  5. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  6. A portable nondestructive assay measurement control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Portable nondestructive assay (NDA) of plutonium processing hoods, solvent extraction columns, glove boxes, filters, and other items is required for both nuclear materials accountability and criticality control purposes. The Plutonium Finishing Plant has hundreds of such items that require routine portable NDA measurement. Previous recordkeeping of NDA measurements consisted of boxes of papers containing results and notebooks containing notes for each item to be measured. If the notes for any item were lost, new measurement parameters had to be calculated for that item. As a result, subsequent measurements could no longer be directly compared with previous results for that item due to possible changes in measurement parameters. The new portable NDA management system keeps all the necessary information in a computerized data base. Technicians are provided with a computer-generated drawing of each item to be measured, which also contains comments, measurement points, measurement parameters, and a form for filling in the raw data. After the measurements are made, the technician uses the computer to calculate and print out the results

  7. The local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Costanza; Ryan, Cindy; Cinelli, Serena; Basketter, David; Dearman, Rebecca; Kimber, Ian

    2012-02-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a widely accepted method for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Compared with other in vivo methods in guinea pig, the LLNA offers important advantages with respect to animal welfare, including a requirement for reduced animal numbers as well as reduced pain and trauma. In addition to hazard identification, the LLNA is used for determining the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens as a pivotal contribution to the risk assessment process. The LLNA is the only in vivo method that has been subjected to a formal validation process. The original LLNA protocol is based on measurement of the proliferative activity of draining lymph node cells (LNC), as determined by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine. Several variants to the original LLNA have been developed to eliminate the use of radioactive materials. One such alternative is considered here: the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method, which uses 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in place of radiolabeled thymidine to measure LNC proliferation in draining nodes. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyland, M.J.; Ganguli, P.C.; Blower, D.; Delamore, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitiv specific and precise immunoradiometric assay for ferritin has been developed. Ferritin was measured in the serum of 160 hospital controls, 101 females (118 plus/minus 9 μg/l) and 59 males (189 plus/minus 16 μg/l). This difference was statistically significant. In 28 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin concentration (6.1plus/minus 0.7 μg/l) was significantly lower than in the controls, but it was within the normal range in 14 cases of polycythaemia vera treated by repeated phlebotomy. In 4 patients with primary haemachromatosis (2884 plus/minus 56 μg/l), 25 with secondary iron overload states (5702 plus/minus 1235 μg/l) and 8 with haemolytic anaemia (1612 plus/minus 605 μg/l), serum ferritin levels were markedly elevated. In 14 cases of transfusional siderosis there was a highly significant correlation between serum ferritin concentration and units of blood transfused. A circadian rhythmin serum ferritin concentration was observed in 7 healthy subjects. (author)

  9. Phenotypic assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Deboosere, Nathalie; Delorme, Vincent; Queval, Christophe J; Deloison, Gaspard; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Lafont, Frank; Baulard, Alain; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Brodin, Priscille

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB. Indeed, M. tuberculosis has multiple specific interactions within host phagocytes, which may be targeted by small molecules. In order to enable drug discovery strategies against microbes residing within host macrophages, we developed multiple fluorescence-based HT/CS phenotypic assays monitoring the intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis as well as its intracellular trafficking. What we propose here is a population-based, multi-parametric analysis pipeline that can be used to monitor the intracellular fate of M. tuberculosis and the dynamics of cellular events such as phagosomal maturation (acidification and permeabilization), zinc poisoning system or lipid body accumulation. Such analysis allows the quantification of biological events considering the host-pathogen interplay and may thus be derived to other intracellular pathogens. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Freer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 μCi (37 K Bq) of [ 14 C]glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation. (Auth.)

  11. Prandiology of Drosophila and the CAFE assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja, William W.; Carvalho, Gil B.; Mak, Elizabeth M.; de la Rosa, Noelle N.; Fang, Annie Y.; Liong, Jonathan C.; Brummel, Ted; Benzer, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Studies of feeding behavior in genetically tractable invertebrate model systems have been limited by the lack of proper methodology. We introduce the Capillary Feeder (CAFE), a method allowing precise, real-time measurement of ingestion by individual or grouped fruit flies on the scale of minutes to days. Using this technique, we conducted the first quantitative analysis of prandial behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results allow the dissection of feeding into discrete bouts of ingestion, defining two separate parameters, meal volume and frequency, that can be uncoupled and thus are likely to be independently regulated. In addition, our long-term measurements show that flies can ingest as much as 1.7× their body mass over 24 h. Besides the study of appetite, the CAFE can be used to monitor oral drug delivery. As an illustration, we used the CAFE to test the effects of dietary supplementation with two compounds, paraquat and ethanol, on food ingestion and preference. Paraquat, a prooxidant widely used in stress tests, had a strong anorexigenic effect. In contrast, in a feeding preference assay, ethanol-laced food, but not ethanol by itself, acted as an attractant. PMID:17494737

  12. Interpreting clinical assays for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, Nadine; Bertrand, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As opposed to genetics, dealing with gene expressions by direct DNA sequence modifications, the term epigenetics applies to all the external influences that target the chromatin structure of cells with impact on gene expression unrelated to the sequence coding of DNA itself. In normal cells, epigenetics modulates gene expression through all development steps. When “imprinted” early by the environment, epigenetic changes influence the organism at an early stage and can be transmitted to the progeny. Together with DNA sequence alterations, DNA aberrant cytosine methylation and microRNA deregulation, epigenetic modifications participate in the malignant transformation of cells. Their reversible nature has led to the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy. The efforts made to inhibit in particular the epigenetic enzyme family called histone deacetylases (HDACs) are described. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been proposed as a viable clinical therapeutic approach for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors, but also to a lesser degree for noncancerous diseases. Three epigenetic drugs are already arriving at the patient’s bedside, and more than 100 clinical assays for HDACi are registered on the National Cancer Institute website. They explore the eventual additive benefits of combined therapies. In the context of the pleiotropic effects of HDAC isoforms, more specific HDACi and more informative screening tests are being developed for the benefit of the patients

  13. Waste assay measurement integration system user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, K.C.; Hempstead, A.R.; Becker, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Assay Measurement Integration System (WAMIS) is being developed to improve confidence in and lower the uncertainty of waste characterization data. There are two major components to the WAMIS: a data access and visualization component and a data interpretation component. The intent of the access and visualization software is to provide simultaneous access to all data sources that describe the contents of any particular container of waste. The visualization software also allows the user to display data at any level from raw to reduced output. Depending on user type, the software displays a menuing hierarchy, related to level of access, that allows the user to observe only those data sources s/he has been authorized to view. Access levels include system administrator, physicist, QA representative, shift operations supervisor, and data entry. Data sources are displayed in separate windows and presently include (1) real-time radiography video, (2) gamma spectra, (3) passive and active neutron, (4) radionuclide mass estimates, (5) total alpha activity (Ci), (6) container attributes, (7) thermal power (w), and (8) mass ratio estimates for americium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes. The data interpretation component is in the early phases of design, but will include artificial intelligence, expert system, and neural network techniques. The system is being developed on a Pentium PC using Microsoft Visual C++. Future generations of WAMIS will be UNIX based and will incorporate more generically radiographic/tomographic, gamma spectroscopic/tomographics, neutron, and prompt gamma measurements

  14. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  15. Evaluation of a MTT assay in measurement of radiosensitizing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Keiko; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Niibe, Hideo

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of a MTT assay by measuring the radiosensitizing effect of caffeine on rat yolk sac tumor cell line with a mutant-type p53 in vitro was evaluated. A rat yolk sac tumor cell line with a mutant-type p53, NMT-1R, was used in this study. The radiosensitivity of NMT-1R with or without caffeine was measured with a MTT assay. The results were compared with those by a clonogenic assay. Caffeine at a concentration of 2.0 mM which released radiation-induced G 2 block demonstrated a radiosensitizing effect, but caffeine at a concentration of 0.5 mM did not. The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine measured by a MTT assay correlated with that measured by a clonogenic assay. A MTT assay was useful to measure radiosensitivity and/or a radiosensitizing effect in vitro. (author)

  16. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Aquatic Genotoxicity Using the Comet Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHUSNUL YAQIN

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Comet assay is a novel biological analysis, which is a sensitive, flexible, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to assess aquatic genotoxicant. Since Singh and co-workers developed the method in 1988, its use has increased exponentially in various fields. This review discourses on the application of this assay in aquatic ecosystems. Various types of cells from various aquatic organisms have been tested by various genotoxicant both direct- and indirect-acting using the comet assay. The applications of this assay suggest that it is a useful assay to assess aquatic genotoxicants. However, there are some factors, which should be taken into account when using this assay as aquatic ecotoxicological assessment device such as inter-animal and cell variability.

  17. Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.; Augustson, R.H.; Parker, J.L.; Walton, R.B.; Atwell, T.L.; Umbarger, C.J.; Burns, C.E.

    1975-02-01

    This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay

  18. Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, T.D.; Augustson, R.H.; Parker, J.L. Walton, R.B.; Atwell, T.L.; Umbarger, C.J.; Burns, C.E.

    1975-02-01

    This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  1. Computer-determined assay time based on preset precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L.A.; Hagan, R.; Martin, E.R.; Wachter, J.R.; Bonner, C.A.; Malcom, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Most current assay systems for special nuclear materials (SNM) operate on the principle of a fixed assay time which provides acceptable measurement precision without sacrificing the required throughput of the instrument. Waste items to be assayed for SNM content can contain a wide range of nuclear material. Counting all items for the same preset assay time results in a wide range of measurement precision and wastes time at the upper end of the calibration range. A short time sample taken at the beginning of the assay could optimize the analysis time on the basis of the required measurement precision. To illustrate the technique of automatically determining the assay time, measurements were made with a segmented gamma scanner at the Plutonium Facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory with the assay time for each segment determined by counting statistics in that segment. Segments with very little SNM were quickly determined to be below the lower limit of the measurement range and the measurement was stopped. Segments with significant SNM were optimally assays to the preset precision. With this method the total assay time for each item is determined by the desired preset precision. This report describes the precision-based algorithm and presents the results of measurements made to test its validity

  2. Detection of radiation-induced apoptosis using the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoa, Tran Van; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The electrophoresis pattern of apoptotic cells detected by the comet assay has a characteristic small head and spread tail. This image has been referred to as an apoptotic comet, but it has not been previously proven to be apoptotic cells by any direct method. In order to identify this image obtained by the comet assay as corresponding to an apoptotic cell, the frequency of appearance of apoptosis was examined using CHO-K1 and L5178Y cells which were exposed to gamma irradiation. As a method for detecting apoptosis, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used. When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following gamma irradiation was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using the TUNEL assay. However, there was only a slight increase when using the comet assay. In order to verify the low frequency of appearance of apoptosis when using the comet assay, we attempted to use the TUNEL assay to satin the apoptotic comets detected in the comet assay. The apoptotic comets were TUNEL positive and the normal comets were TUNEL negative. This indicates that the apoptotic comets were formed from DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxy ends that are generated as cells undergo apoptosis. Therefore, it was understood that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay corresponds to cells undergoing apoptosis. (author)

  3. Introducing MINA--The Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticle Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutov, Roman V; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; de Vargas-Sansalvador, Isabel Perez; Chianella, Iva; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2014-03-26

    A new ELISA- (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)-like assay is demonstrated in which no elements of biological origin are used for molecular recognition or signaling. Composite imprinted nanoparticles that contain a catalytic core and which are synthesized by using a solid-phase approach can simultaneously act as recognition/signaling elements, and be used with minimal modifications to standard assay protocols. This assay provides a new route towards replacement of unstable biomolecules in immunoassays. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced 14 CO 2 from L-[U- 14 C] malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 μg niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays

  5. Radioenzymatic assay of DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.; Gren, J.M.; Kupiecki, R.

    1978-01-01

    We modified the single-isotope radioenzymatic assay for catecholamines [Life Sci. 21, 625(1977)] to assay 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). DOPA decarboxylase is used to convert DOPA to dopamine, which concurrently is converted to [ 3 H]-3-O-methyldopamine in the presence of catechol-O-methyltransferase and [methyl- 3 H]-S-adenosylmethionine and assayed radioenzymatically. For assay of plasma DOPA, 50 μl of untreated plasma is added directly into the incubation mixture. A duplicate mixture containing an internal standard requires a second 50-μl aliquot of plasma. Because the assay measures both DOPA and endogenous dopamine, two additional aliquots of plasma must be assayed for dopamine in the absence of the decarboxylase by the differential assay; DOPA is estimated by difference. The assay is sensitive to 25 pg (500 ng/liter of plasma). Analysis of DOPA (DOPA plus dopamine) and the concurrent differential assay of catecholamines in at least 10 samples can be done in a single working day. Plasma DOPA concentrations for 42 normotensive adults were 1430 +- 19 ng/liter (mean +- SEM). In contrast, dopamine concentrations for these same subjects averaged 23 +- 20 ng/liter. Values for the 24 women subjects (1510 +- 62 ng/liter) significantly (P = 0.04) exceeded those for the men

  6. Initial Operating Experience with the ''NPD'' Reactor; Experience recueillie pendant les premiers mois de fonctionnement du reacteur NPD; Pervyj opyt po ehkspluatatsii reaktora NPD; Experiencia inicial de funcionamiento del reactor NPD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, L. G. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-10-15

    Canada's first nuclear power station, the Nuclear Power Demonstration station (NPD), is intended to serve as a means of proof-testing the performance of the Canadian type of station using natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator and coolant. It reached full power on 28 June 1962. Although designed for base-load operation it will, during the early stages, be operated part of the time on high-capacity.runs and part of the time on improvement periods. Progress has been favourable so far; the first high-capacity run of six weeks'duration yielded a capacity factor of 70%. Improvements already made have increased safety, improved performance and demonstrated potential methods of capital-cost reduction for future stations. For example, shaft seals on primary coolant pumps have been modified for better performance, freezer-type vapour recovery equipment has been replaced in favour of absorption columns to reduce heavy-water vapour loss, and flow limiters are being installed in sample lines to reduce losses of heavy water in the event of joint failures. During December 1962 two simultaneous leaks from the on-power refuelling machine led to an unusual sequence of events in which a considerable amount of hot high-pressure heavy water was spilled into the reactor vault where it suffered a slight downgrading in isotopic purity. It was upgraded and the reactor returned to operation by the end of the month. All safety devices operated correctly during the incident as did the provisions for containment of heavy water. (author) [French] La premiere centrale nucleaire du Canada, NPD, est une centrale de demonstration, qui doit servir a verifier les performances des reacteurs fonctionnant a l'uranium naturel et utilisant de l'eau lourde comme ralentisseur et comme fluide de refroidissement. Elle a atteint sa pleine puissance le 28 juin 1962 bien que concue pour etre exploitee comme centrale de base, elle fonctionnera au debut comme centrale d'appoint, ce qui permettra d

  7. Plasma catecholamine content using radioenzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Masaru; Togashi, Hiroko; Koike, Yuichi; Shimamura, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Noriko

    1980-01-01

    Catecholamine (CA) contents in blood plasma of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human blood plasma were measured by radioenzymatic assay (REA) and trihydroxyindol (THI) fluorescent method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and both measurement methods were compared. The standard curve of REA showed a good linear relationship between total CA contents and separated CA contents. Though there was a danger of exposure to β-ray when REA was performed, this method was useful for measurement of CA contents in blood of small animals and small quantity of blood because CA content of only 50 μg of blood plasma could be measured by this method. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) contents in men with normal blood pressure measured by REA was 250 +- 61 pg/ml and 37 +- 22 pg/ml, respectively. NE and E contents in patients with mild hypertension were 460 +- 128 pg/ml and 50 +- 20 pg/ml, respectively. There was not a significant difference between NE and E contents in men with normal blood pressure and those in patients with mild hypertension. Total CA content in blood plasma of SHR killed by decapitation was 5,000 +- 1,131 pg/ml, which was 5 times NE and E contents in blood plasma obtained from femoral vein of anesthetized SHR (816 +- 215 pg/ml and 209 +- 44 pg/ml). Total CA content in the same sample was measured by REA and HPLC. As a result, total CA content measured by REA was higher than that measured by HPLC, but there was a good relationship between total CA content measured by REA and that measured by HPLC. NE content in men with normal blood pressure measured by HPLC was elevated significantly according to an increase in their age, but this tendency was not observed in patients with hypertension. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Rapid quantitative assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.R.; Morency, C.A.; Russian, K.O.

    1987-01-01

    Measuring the expression of exogenous genetic material in mammalian cells is commonly done by fusing the DNA of interest to a gene encoding an easily-detected enzyme. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) is a convenient marker because it is not normally found in eukaryotes. CAT activity has usually been detected using a thin-layer chromatographic separation followed by autoradiography. An organic solvent extraction-based method for CAT detection has also been described, as well as a procedure utilizing HPLC analysis. Building on the extraction technique, they developed a rapid sensitive kinetic method for measuring CAT activity in cell homogenates. The method exploits the differential organic solubility of the substrate ([ 3 H] or [ 14 C]acetyl CoA) and the product (labeled acetylchloramphenicol). The assay is a simple one-vial, two-phase procedure and requires no tedious manipulations after the initial setup. Briefly, a 0.25 ml reaction with 100mM Tris-HCL, 1mM chloramphenicol, 0.1mM [ 14 C]acetyl CoA and variable amounts of cell homogenate is pipetted into a miniscintillation vial, overlaid with 5 ml of a water-immiscible fluor, and incubated at 37 0 C. At suitable intervals the vial is counted and the CAT level is quantitatively determined as the rate of increase in counts/min of the labeled product as it diffuses into the fluor phase, compared to a standard curve. When used to measure CAT in transfected Balb 3T3 cells the method correlated well with the other techniques

  9. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

  10. BROMATOMATRIC ASSAY OF GATIFLOXACIN IN PHARMACEUTICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALSANG THARPA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three new, simple, and cost-effective visible spectrophotometric methods are proposed for determination of gatifloxacin (GTF using bromate-bromide mixture, and three dyes, methyl orange, indigocarmine and thymol blue, as reagents.The methods engross the addition of a known excess of bromate-bromide mixture to GTF in hydrochloric acid medium followed by determination of residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange andmeasuring the absorbance at 520 nm (method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (method B or thymol blue and measuring the absorbance at 550 nm (method C. In all the methods, the amount of brominereacted corresponds to the amount of GTF, and the absorbance is found to increase linearly with the concentration of GTF. Under the optimum conditions, GTF could be assayed in the concentration range 0.25-1.5, 0.5-6.0, and 0.5-10μg/mL by method A, method B and method C, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities are calculated to be 1.6x105, 4.0x104 and 3.2x104 L mol-1 cm-1 for the method A, method B and method C, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.0025, 0.010 and 0.012 μg/cm2. The intra-day and inter-day precision, and the accuracy of the methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the determination of GTF in pharmaceutical preparations without the interference from any of the pharmaceutical adjuvants.

  11. Assessment and reduction of comet assay variation in relation to DNA damage: studies from the European Comet Assay Validation Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Möller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2010-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has become a widely used method for the detection of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. Still, it has been difficult to compare results from different investigators because of differences in assay conditions and because the data...... are reported in different units. The European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG) was established for the purpose of validation of the comet assay with respect to measures of DNA damage formation and its repair. The results from this inter-laboratory validation trail showed a large variation in measured level...... reliability for the measurement of DNA damage by the comet assay but there is still a need for further validation to reduce both assay and inter-laboratory variation....

  12. Measurement of thyroid-stimulating autoantibodies using a radioreceptor-assay (TRAK-assay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Reiners, C.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Autoantibodes against TSH-receptors were determined with a new radioreceptorassay (TRAK-assay) in 37 patients with untreated toxic diffus goitre and in 73 patients with non immunogenic thyroid diseases (41 healthy controls, respectively patients with euthyroid diffus or nodular goitres as well as 32 patients with toxic nodular goitre). The upper limit of normal is a TRAK-Titer of 20% without considerable fluctuations during titers in follow-up. According to this preliminary results it seems to be recommendable to treat patients with TRAK-titer F 20% (expected risk of relapse) primarily by operation or radioiodine. (orig.) [de

  13. Development of a rapid agglutination latex test for diagnosis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in developing world: defining the biomarker, antibody and method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia B Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens.First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates.EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world.RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency.

  14. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  15. FLIPR assays of intracellular calcium in GPCR drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Bø; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes sensitive to changes in intracellular calcium have become increasingly popular in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug discovery for several reasons. First of all, the assays using the dyes are easy to perform and are of low cost compared to other assays. Second, most non...

  16. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  17. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...

  18. Developing a yeast-based assay protocol to monitor total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A yeast-based assay protocol developed for detecting oestrogenic activity in activated sludge (AS) supernatant is described. The protocol used Saccharomyces cerevisiae construct RMY/ER-ERE with human oestrogen receptor (ERα) and lacZ reporter genes, and was developed by modifying existing assays for use with AS ...

  19. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges

  20. a positive control plasmid for reporter gene assay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... qualification as a positive control for luciferase reporter gene assays. Key words: Reporter gene plasmid, luciferase assay, cytomegalovirus promoter/enhancer, human melanoma cell line. INTRODUCTION. Reporter genes, often called reporters, have become a precious tool in studies of gene expression ...

  1. 40 CFR 79.64 - In vivo micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... micronucleus assay. (a) Purpose. The micronucleus assay is an in vivo cytogenetic test which uses erythrocytes... that, because it contains RNA, can be differentiated by appropriate staining techniques from a normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE), which lacks RNA. In one to two days, a PCE matures into a NCE. (c) Test method...

  2. An improved plating assay for determination of phage titer | Yang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an improved plating assay was developed for detection of the number of recombinant phage Cap-T7 present in a test solution at a certain dilution point by counting the plaque forming units. The data demonstrated that the improved plating assay is fast, useful, and convenient for the determination of the phage ...

  3. A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of diminazene residues in animal tissues. ... After six washes with buffer, enzyme activity was determined by adding tetramethyl-benzidine and hydrogen peroxide as substrate. The assay detection limits for diminazene were 2.4 ng/g in muscle, 2.5 ...

  4. Radioenzymatic assay for trimethoprim in very small serum samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Tan-Pong, L

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the methotrexate radioassay kit (supplied by New England Enzyme Center) enabled determination of trimethoprim levels in 5-microliter serum samples. An excellent correlation between this assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay was found. These preliminary results suggest that with this method rapid determination of trimethoprim levels in very small samples (5 to 10 microliters) can be achieved.

  5. Radioenzymatic assay for trimethoprim in very small serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogev, R.; Melick, C.; Tan-Pong, L.

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the methotrexate radioassay kit (supplied by New England Enzyme Center) enabled determination of trimethoprim levels in 5-microliter serum samples. An excellent correlation between this assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay was found. These preliminary results suggest that with this method rapid determination of trimethoprim levels in very small samples (5 to 10 microliters) can be achieved

  6. Metabolism Retrofit Strategies for ToxCast Assays (BOSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening assays (HTS) to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A limitation of many HTS assays used for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes...

  7. Reagents for the assay of cardenolide glycosides and aglycones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, S.

    1976-01-01

    Some novel reagents are described for use in the radioimmunoassay of the 3-glycone derivatives of cardenolides (cardiac glycosides) and more especially digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, periplocin and lanatosides. Using these reagents these cardenolides and their derivatives may be assayed both in aqueous solution and in urine. A method is also described for performing such assays, including a suitable kit. (U.K.)

  8. Assay of spent fuel by a simple reactivity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.M.; Lindquist, L.O.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for the assay of spent-fuel assemblies has been developed that eliminates the need for external isotopic neutron sources, yet retains the advantages of an active interrogation system. The assay is accomplished by changing the reactivity of the system and correlating the measurements to burnup. 7 figures

  9. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei, E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2015-01-15

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  10. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein-particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  11. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay to determine apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using single cell gel electrophoresis assay. The present report demonstrates that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay ...

  12. Determination of antipsychotic drug in human serum by radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jinchang; Jiang Yimin

    1989-01-01

    Serum antipsychotic drug in 50 psychosis cases were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and the values were compared in parallel with that by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that the RRA values were lower than the RIA values, but both assays gave significant correlation between the serum drug level and antipsychotic dose

  13. A radioreceptor assay for measurement of plasma glucocorticoid binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jie

    1990-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay (RRA) for plasma glucocorticoid binding activity (GCBA) has been developed using glucocorticoid receptor in rat thymocytes. Unlike other assays for natural and certain synthetic corticosteroids, RRA measures the GCBA of all natural and synthetic GC in plasma. The range of standard curve was 0 ∼ 1.00 mg/L. The sensitivity was 0.01 mg/l. The recovery rate was 92.1%, and the intra and inter assay CV was 0.7% (n = 3) and 4.4% (n = 3) respectively. The level of corticosterone in 9 rat plasma samples was determined by RRA and CBG-isotope binding assay. There was a general correlation over a wide range between the values determined by the two assays (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). The measuring condition was described in detail

  14. Establishment of immunoradiometric assay for free prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lianxue

    2009-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of free prostate specific antigen (F-PSA) in serum was established. One monoclonal antibody against total PSA (T-PSA) was coated on the plastic tubes, the other against F-PSA was labeled with 125 I. The sensitivity of assay was 0.04 μg/L (n=20, +2s), the CVs were 2.9%-4.0% for the intra-assay and 3.5%-10.5% for the inter-assay and the average recovery was 102.7%. The correlative equation comparing with the FPSA-RIA (CIS BIO) is y=0.965 1 χ -0.001 1, and r=0.996 4. This F-PSA IRMA is a sensitive and precise method in detecting F-PSA and fit for the vitro assay. (authors)

  15. Substrate coated with receptor and labelled ligand for assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the procedures for assaying ligands are described. The assay consists of a polystyrene tube on which receptors are present for both the ligand to be assayed and a radioactively labelled form of the ligand. The receptors on the bottom portion of the tube are also coated with labelled ligands, thus eliminating the necessity for separate addition of the labelled ligand and sample during an assay. Examples of ligands to which this method is applicable include polypeptides, nucleotides, nucleosides and proteins. Specific examples are given in which the ligand to be assayed is digoxin, the labelled form of the ligand is 3-0-succinyl digoxyigenin tyrosine ( 125 I) and the receptor is digoxin antibody. (U.K.)

  16. Nondestructive assay system development for a plutonium scrap recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A plutonium scrap recovery facility is being constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The safeguards groups of the Los Alamos National Laboratory have been working since the early design stage of the facility with SRP and other national laboratories to develop a state-of-the-art assay system for this new facility. Not only will the most current assay techniques be incorporated into the system, but also the various nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments are to be integrated with an Instrument Control Computer (ICC). This undertaking is both challenging and ambitious; an entire assay system of this type has never been done before in a working facility. This paper will describe, in particular, the effort of the Los Alamos Safeguards Assay Group in this endeavor. Our effort in this project can be roughly divided into three phases: NDA development, system integration, and integral testing. 6 references

  17. Targeted resequencing and variant validation using pxlence PCR assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Coppieters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies had a profound impact on molecular diagnostics. PCR is a popular method for target enrichment of disease gene panels. Using our proprietary primer-design pipeline, primerXL, we have created almost one million assays covering over 98% of the human exome. Here we describe the assay specification and both in silico and wet-lab validation of a selected set of 2294 assays using both next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Using a universal PCR protocol without optimization, these assays result in high coverage uniformity and limited non-specific coverage. In addition, data indicates a positive correlation between the predictive in silico specificity score and the amount of assay non-specific coverage.

  18. Radioisotopic 51Cr-leukocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) assay. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, P.H.; Tangnavarad, K.; Lesnick, G.; Holland, J.F.; Bekesi, J.G.; Perloff, M.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified radioisotopic leukocyte adherence inhibition assay ( 51 Cr-LAI assay) was used to determine tumor-directed immune responses in patients with cancer of the breast. Essential steps in development of this assay are the standardization of conditions for optimal 51 Cr uptake by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the inclusion of autologous or normal AB serum in the incubation media. A dextrose salt mixture (GNK) was found to enhance intracellular uptake of 51 Cr significantly (8-fold) without affecting viability of the cells or without causing selective loss of lymphocyte subpopulations. The presence of 10% autologous or normal AB serum prevented non-specific LAI responses to unrelated tumor antigens. Experimental results are presented and it is seen that this short term (4 h) 51 Cr-LAI assay provides reproducible and specific results analogous to those using tube-LAI assay. The test has the advantages of being accurate, sensitive and free from technical bias. (Auth.)

  19. Individual response to ionising radiation: What predictive assay(s) to choose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granzotto, A.; Viau, M.; Devic, C.; Maalouf, M.; Thomas, Ch.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Granzotto, A.; Vogin, G.; Balosso, J.; Joubert, A.; Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Colin, C.; Malek, K.; Balosso, J.; Colin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Individual response to ionizing radiation is an important information required to apply an efficient radiotherapy treatment against tumour and to avoid any adverse effects in normal tissues. In 1981, Fertil and Malaise have demonstrated that the post-irradiation local tumor control determined in vivo is correlated with clonogenic cell survival assessed in vitro. Furthermore, these authors have reminded the relevance of the concept of intrinsic radiosensitivity that is specific to each individual organ (Fertil and Malaise, 1981) [1]. To date, since clonogenicity assays are too time-consuming and do not provide any other molecular information, a plethora of research groups have attempted to determine the molecular bases of intrinsic radiosensitivity in order to propose reliable and faster predictive assays. To this aim, several approaches have been developed. Notably, the recent revolution in genomic and proteomics technologies is providing a considerable number of data but their link with radiosensitivity still remains to be elucidated. On another hand, the systematic screening of some candidate genes potentially involved in the radiation response is highlighting the complexity of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DNA damage sensing and signalling and shows that an abnormal radiation response is not necessarily due to the impairment of one single protein. Finally, more modest approaches consisting in focusing some specific functions of DNA repair seem to provide more reliable clues to predict over-acute reactions caused by radiotherapy. In this review, we endeavored to analyse the contributions of these major approaches to predict human radiosensitivity. (authors)

  20. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dipstick assay for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. Rogier; Koelewijn, Rob; Hofwegen, Henk; Gilis, Henk; Wetsteyn, Jose C. F. M.; Wismans, Pieter J.; Sarfati, Claudine; Vervoort, Tony; van Gool, Tom

    2007-01-01

    A homemade enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Academic Medical Center ELISA [AMC-ELISA]) and a dipstick assay for the detection of anti-Strongyloides stercoralis antibodies in serum were developed and evaluated together with two commercially available ELISAs (IVD-ELISA [IVD Research, Inc.

  1. Bulk media assay using backscattered neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarized a systematic study of bulk media assay using backscattered neutron spectrometry. The source-sample-detector geometry used for the measurements of leakage and elastically backscattered (EBS) spectra of neutrons is shown. Neutrons up to about 14 MeV were produced via 2 H (d,n) and 9 Be (d,n) reactions using different deuteron beam energies between 5 and 10 MeV at the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI (Debrecen). Neutron yields of the Pu-Be and 252 Cf sources were 5.25 x 10 6 n/s and 1.8 x 10 6 n/s, respectively. Flux density distributions of thermal and primary 14 MeV neutrons were measured for graphite, water and coal samples in various moderator (M)-sample (S)-reflector (R) geometries. Relative fractions and integrated yields of 252 Cf, Pu-Be and 14 MeV neutrons above the (n,n'γ) reaction thresholds for 12 C, 16 O and 28 Si isotopes vs sample thickness have also been determined. It was found that the integrated reaction rate vs sample thickness decreasing exponentially with different attenuation coefficients depending on the neutron spectrum and the composition of the sample. The spectra of neutrons from sources passing through slabs of water, graphite, sand, Al, Fe and Pb up to 20 cm in thickness have been measured by a PHRS system in the 1.2 to 1.5 MeV range. The leakage neutron spectra from a Pu-Be source placed in the center of 30 cm diameter sphere filled with water, paraffin oil, SiO 2 , zeolite and river sand were also measured. The measured spectra have been compared with the calculated results obtained by the three dimensional Monte-Carlo code MCNP-4A and point-wise cross sections from the ENDF/B-4, ENDF/B-6, ENDF/E-1, BROND-2 and JENDL-3.1 data files. New results were obtained for validation of different data libraries from a comparison on the measured and the calculated spectra. Some typical results for water, Al, sand and Fe are shown. A combination of the backscattered neutron spectrometry with the surface gauge used both for the

  2. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    equations concerning different methods of presenting two-phase flows with those proposed in the literature. As a result a detailed study has been made of the work of C.G. TELETOV, S.S. KUTATELADZE, M.A. STYRIKOVICH and N. ZUBER; a summary of this work presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite des equations generales de conservation de la masse, de la quantite de mouvement et de l'energie pour un ecoulement diphasique. Ces equations sont presentees sous plusieurs formes a partir des equations integrales qui sont posees a priori. 1. Equations aux variables locales instantanees et conditions d'interface; 2. Equations aux variables instantanees moyennees dans une section et applications pratiques: ces equations renferment une donnee experimentale interessante qui est le rapport de la section de passage d'une phase sur la section totale d'une conduite. 3. Equations aux moyennes statistiques locales et equations moyennees dans le temps: une tentative plus poussee pour relier experience et theorie consiste a prendre les moyennes statistiques des equations locales. On obtient alors des equations ou interviennent des variables moyennees dans le temps par application d'une hypothese ergodique. 4. Combinaisons des moyennes statistiques et des moyennes dans une section: on considere dans cette etude des variables locales moyennees statistiquement, puis moyennees dans la section et egalement des variables moyennees dans la section puis moyennees statistiquement. 5. Equations generales relatives aux emulsions: dans ce cas, une phase se presente (localement sous un aspect tres divise. Cette particularite permet de definir une concentration volumique locale et d'etablir des equations aux applications multiples. On a complete et precise certains points de la premiere partie de ce rapport concernant les equations generales de conservation des ecoulements diphasiques. On a introduit dans les equations generales les termes correspondant a la tension interfaciale. Les conditions d

  3. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    equations concerning different methods of presenting two-phase flows with those proposed in the literature. As a result a detailed study has been made of the work of C.G. TELETOV, S.S. KUTATELADZE, M.A. STYRIKOVICH and N. ZUBER; a summary of this work presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite des equations generales de conservation de la masse, de la quantite de mouvement et de l'energie pour un ecoulement diphasique. Ces equations sont presentees sous plusieurs formes a partir des equations integrales qui sont posees a priori. 1. Equations aux variables locales instantanees et conditions d'interface; 2. Equations aux variables instantanees moyennees dans une section et applications pratiques: ces equations renferment une donnee experimentale interessante qui est le rapport de la section de passage d'une phase sur la section totale d'une conduite. 3. Equations aux moyennes statistiques locales et equations moyennees dans le temps: une tentative plus poussee pour relier experience et theorie consiste a prendre les moyennes statistiques des equations locales. On obtient alors des equations ou interviennent des variables moyennees dans le temps par application d'une hypothese ergodique. 4. Combinaisons des moyennes statistiques et des moyennes dans une section: on considere dans cette etude des variables locales moyennees statistiquement, puis moyennees dans la section et egalement des variables moyennees dans la section puis moyennees statistiquement. 5. Equations generales relatives aux emulsions: dans ce cas, une phase se presente (localement sous un aspect tres divise. Cette particularite permet de definir une concentration volumique locale et d'etablir des equations aux applications multiples. On a complete et precise certains points de la premiere partie de ce rapport concernant les equations generales de conservation des ecoulements diphasiques. On a introduit dans les equations generales les termes correspondant a la tension

  4. Comprehensive analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation by five different assays: TUNEL assay, SCSA, SCD test and alkaline and neutral Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; García-Peiró, A; Fernández-Encinas, A; Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Prada, E; Navarro, J; Benet, J

    2013-09-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is becoming an important test to assess male infertility. Several different tests are available, but no consensus has yet been reached as to which tests are most predictive of infertility. Few publications have reported a comprehensive analysis comparing these methods within the same population. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences between the five most common methodologies, to study their correlations and to establish their cut-off values, sensitivity and specificity in predicting male infertility. We found differences in SDF between fertile donors and infertile patients in TUNEL, SCSA, SCD and alkaline Comet assays, but none with the neutral Comet assay. The alkaline COMET assay was the best in predicting male infertility followed by TUNEL, SCD and SCSA, whereas the neutral COMET assay had no predictive power. For our patient population, threshold values for infertility were 20.05% for TUNEL assay, 18.90% for SCSA, 22.75% for the SCD test, 45.37% for alkaline Comet and 34.37% for neutral Comet. This work establishes in a comprehensive study that the all techniques except neutral Comet are useful to distinguish fertile and infertile men. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  6. Complementing in vitro screening assays with in silico ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput in vitro assays offer a rapid, cost-efficient means to screen thousands of chemicals across hundreds of pathway-based toxicity endpoints. However, one main concern involved with the use of in vitro assays is the erroneous omission of chemicals that are inactive under assay conditions but that can generate active metabolites under in vivo conditions. To address this potential issue, a case study will be presented to demonstrate the use of in silico tools to identify inactive parents with the ability to generate active metabolites. This case study used the results from an orthogonal assay designed to improve confidence in the identification of active chemicals tested across eighteen estrogen receptor (ER)-related in vitro assays by accounting for technological limitations inherent within each individual assay. From the 1,812 chemicals tested within the orthogonal assay, 1,398 were considered inactive. These inactive chemicals were analyzed using Chemaxon Metabolizer software to predict the first and second generation metabolites. From the nearly 1,400 inactive chemicals, over 2,200 first-generation (i.e., primary) metabolites and over 5,500 second-generation (i.e., secondary) metabolites were predicted. Nearly 70% of primary metabolites were immediately detoxified or converted to other metabolites, while over 70% of secondary metabolites remained stable. Among these predicted metabolites, those that are most likely to be produced and remain

  7. Evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickinger, Eva; Braun, Hans-Bertram; Praast, Gerald; Stieler, Myriam; Gundlach, Cordelia; Birkenbach, Claudia; Prostko, John; Palafox, Mary Ann; Frias, Edwin; Hsu, Stephen; Matias, Matthew; Pucci, Dominick; Hausmann, Michael; Sagel, Ulrich; Smith, Darwin

    2009-07-01

    Development of the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay has been done to assist the clinician in acute Toxoplasma gondii infection detection, especially in pregnant women. Its use, in conjunction with ARCHITECT Toxo IgG and Toxo Avidity assays, will provide an array of assays particularly useful in the monitoring of pregnant females to determine the risk of maternal transmission of the parasite. Specificity results from 2 testing sites, using populations of pregnant females, hospital patients, and blood donors, demonstrated that the assay has an overall resolved relative specificity of 99.89% (confidence interval, 99.68-99.98%). Relative specificity for pregnant female specimens was 99.95% (n = 2031). Excellent seroconversion sensitivity was observed for the ARCHITECT Toxo IgM assay, which was similar to the Abbott AxSYM Toxo IgM assay (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). In more than 90% of the panels tested, the 1st bleed detected in the serial bleeds was the same for both assays.

  8. Pathology consultation on anticoagulation monitoring: factor X-related assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, Geoffrey D; Lu, Chuanyi M

    2013-11-01

    To review various anticoagulation therapies and related laboratory monitoring issues, with a focus on factor X-related chromogenic assays. A case-based approach is used to review pertinent published literatures and product inserts of anticoagulation drugs and to look back on clinical use of factor X-related chromogenic assays. The number of anticoagulants available to clinicians has increased greatly in the past decade. Whether and how these anticoagulants should be monitored are areas of uncertainty for clinicians, which can lead to misuse of laboratory assays and suboptimal patient management. Factor X-related assays are of particular concern because of the similar and often confusing test names. Based on a common clinical case scenario and literature review regarding anticoagulant monitoring, an up-to-date discussion and review of the various factor X-related assays are provided, focusing on the differences in test designs and clinical utilities between the chromogenic anti-Xa and chromogenic factor X activity assays. Anticoagulation therapy and related laboratory monitoring are rapidly evolving areas of clinical practices. A good knowledge of relevant laboratory assays and their clinical applications is necessary to help optimize patient care.

  9. Integrated bioassays in microfluidic devices: botulinum toxin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangru, Shakuntala; Bentz, Bryan L; Davis, Timothy J; Desai, Nitin; Stabile, Paul J; Schmidt, James J; Millard, Charles B; Bavari, Sina; Kodukula, Krishna

    2005-12-01

    A microfluidic assay was developed for screening botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) by using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Molded silicone microdevices with integral valves, pumps, and reagent reservoirs were designed and fabricated. Electrical and pneumatic control hardware were constructed, and software was written to automate the assay protocol and data acquisition. Detection was accomplished by fluorescence microscopy. The system was validated with a peptide inhibitor, running 2 parallel assays, as a feasibility demonstration. The small footprint of each bioreactor cell (0.5 cm2) and scalable fluidic architecture enabled many parallel assays on a single chip. The chip is programmable to run a dilution series in each lane, generating concentration-response data for multiple inhibitors. The assay results showed good agreement with the corresponding experiments done at a macroscale level. Although the system has been developed for BoNT-A screening, a wide variety of assays can be performed on the microfluidic chip with little or no modification.

  10. Quantitative Fissile Assay In Used Fuel Using LSDS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, YongDeok; Jeon, Ju Young; Park, Chang-Je

    2017-09-01

    A quantitative assay of isotopic fissile materials (U235, Pu239, Pu241) was done at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), using lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). The optimum design of LSDS was performed based on economics, easy maintenance and assay effectiveness. LSDS system consists of spectrometer, neutron source, detection and control. LSDS system induces fissile fission and fast neutrons are collected at fission chamber. The detected signal has a direct relation to the mass of existing fissile isotopes. Many current commercial assay technologies have a limitation in direct application on isotopic fissile assay of spent fuel, except chemical analysis. In the designed system, the fissile assay model was setup and the correction factor for self-shield was obtained. The isotopic fissile content assay was performed by changing the content of Pu239. Based on the fuel rod, the isotopic content was consistent with 2% uncertainty for Pu239. By applying the covering (neutron absorber), the effective shielding was obtained and the activation was calculated on the target. From the assay evaluation, LSDS technique is very powerful and direct to analyze the isotopic fissile content. LSDS is applicable for nuclear fuel cycle and spent fuel management for safety and economics. Additionally, an accurate fissile content will contribute to the international transparency and credibility on spent fuel.

  11. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT anti-HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Gesa; Pelzer, Claudia; Beckert, Christian; Hausmann, Michael; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2005-10-01

    The ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay is a fully automated high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). To further enhance the performance of this test, the assay was modified to improve the specificity for blood donor specimens. The specificity of the enhanced ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay was evaluated by screening blood donor samples randomly collected from various German blood banks, as well as hospitalized patient samples derived from Germany and the US. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels and on a commercially available worldwide anti-HCV genotype performance panel. Apparent specificity of the modified ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay in a blood donor population consisting of 3811 specimens was 99.92%, compared to 99.76% for the current on-market assay. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels. Seroconversion sensitivity equivalent to or better than the current on-market product was observed by testing 33 seroconversion panels. This study demonstrates that the modified version of the ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay shows improved specificity for blood donor specimens compared to the current assay on market without compromising sensitivity. With the availability of the improved ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay and the recent launch of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, the ARCHITECT system now offers a full hepatitis/retrovirus menu with excellent performance on a high throughput, random access, automated analyzer, ideally suited for blood screening and diagnostic applications.

  12. 臺灣「邁向頂尖大學」政策之論述分析:後結構主義觀點 A Discourse Analysis on “Stepping Towards Premier University” Policy in Taiwan: The Perspective of Post-structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉國兆 Kuo-Chao Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 近年來受到國際大學評比及世界各國追求大學卓越政策的國際競爭趨勢影響,臺灣自2011年起推動「邁向頂尖大學計畫」。為了深入探討此政策背後潛藏的意識形態及價值預設,本研究採取後結構主義的理論觀點,並以論述分析的研究方法,以解構本政策中理所當然的本質性思維,並發掘政策論述中「權力/知識」的形構歷程,從而以位置性的概念,重新探索「邁向頂尖大學計畫」中的政策主體,並從不同位置去思考「邁向頂尖大學計畫」對於政策主體所具有的意義,進而反思主體突破結構限制的可能。 After being influenced in recent years by international university appraisals and the competitive trend toward the pursuit of excellence in countries all over the world, Taiwan has promoted a policy entitled the “Stepping towards Premier University Plan” since 2011. In order to thoroughly explore the underlying ideology behind this policy and its default values, this study takes a post-structuralism theoretical perspective, and uses discourse analysis to deconstruct the rationale of the policy. We uncover the process of construction of the “power / knowledge” discourse described in the policy, and thus from the positional concept, re-explore the policy body of the “Stepping towards Premier University Plan”. We consider the significance the “Stepping towards Premier University Plan” holds toward the policy body from different positions, and then reflect on the possibility of the policy body breaking through structural constraints.

  13. Genotoxicity testing: Comparison of the γH2AX focus assay with the alkaline and neutral comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Teodora; Marini, Federico; Kaina, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Genotoxicity testing relies on the quantitative measurement of adverse effects, such as chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, and mutations, resulting from primary DNA damage. Ideally, assays will detect DNA damage and cellular responses with high sensitivity, reliability, and throughput. Several novel genotoxicity assays may fulfill these requirements, including the comet assay and the more recently developed γH2AX assay. Although they are thought to be specific for genotoxicants, a systematic comparison of the assays has not yet been undertaken. In the present study, we compare the γH2AX focus assay with the alkaline and neutral versions of the comet assay, as to their sensitivities and limitations for detection of genetic damage. We investigated the dose-response relationships of γH2AX foci and comet tail intensities at various times following treatment with four prototypical genotoxicants, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), mitomycin C, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and we tested whether there is a correlation between the endpoints, i.e., alkali-labile sites and DNA strand breaks on the one hand and the cell's response to DNA double-strand breaks and blocked replication forks on the other. Induction of γH2AX foci gave a linear dose response and all agents tested were positive in the assay. The increase in comet tail intensity was also a function of dose; however, mitomycin C was almost completely ineffective in the comet assay, and the doses needed to achieve a significant effect were somewhat higher for some treatments in the comet assay than in the γH2AX foci assay, which was confirmed by threshold analysis. There was high correlation between tail intensity and γH2AX foci for MMS and H 2 O 2 , less for MNNG, and none for mitomycin C. From this we infer that the γH2AX foci assay is more reliable, sensitive, and robust than the comet assay for detecting genotoxicant-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.Y. [MagQu Co. Ltd., Sindian City, Taipei County 231, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: phyfv001@scc.ntnu.edu.tw; Hong, Chin-Yih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, Nantau County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cyhong@nkut.edu.tw; Yang, H.C. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcyang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Lai, Y.K. [College of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S. [Apex Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  15. A novel clot lysis assay for recombinant plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamialahmadi, Oveis; Fazeli, Ahmad; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant plasminogen activator (r-PA, reteplase) is an engineered variant of alteplase. When expressed in E. coli, it appears as inclusion bodies that require refolding to recover its biological activity. An important step following refolding is to determine the activity of refolded protein. Current methods for enzymatic activity of thrombolytic drugs are costly and complex. Here a straightforward and low-cost clot lysis assay was developed. It quantitatively measures the activity of the commercial reteplase and is also capable of screening refolding conditions. As evidence for adequate accuracy and sensitivity of the current assay, r-PA activity measurements are shown to be comparable to those obtained from chromogenic substrate assay.

  16. A Sensitive Chemotaxis Assay Using a Novel Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing chemotaxis assays do not generate stable chemotactic gradients and thus—over time—functionally measure only nonspecific random motion (chemokinesis. In comparison, microfluidic technology has the capacity to generate a tightly controlled microenvironment that can be stably maintained for extended periods of time and is, therefore, amenable to adaptation for assaying chemotaxis. We describe here a novel microfluidic device for sensitive assay of cellular migration and show its application for evaluating the chemotaxis of smooth muscle cells in a chemokine gradient.

  17. A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodek, J.; Hurum, S.; Feng, J.

    1981-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific assay for vertebrate collagenase has been developed using a [ 14 C]-labeled collagen substrate and a combination of SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and fluorography to identify and quantitate the digestion products. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to permit the detection and quantitation of collagenase activity in 0.1 μl of gingival sulcal fluid, and in samples of cell culture medium without prior concentration. The assay has also been used to detect the presence of inhibitors of collagenolytic enzymes in various cell culture fluids. (author)

  18. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.Y.; Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H.; Horng, H.E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H.C.; Lai, Y.K.; Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  19. A fluorescence sedimentation assay for dsDNA antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, K; Draborg, A H; Güven, E

    2017-01-01

    The Farr assay is a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dsDNA antibodies, based on antibody precipitation using ammonium sulphate and quantification using radio-labelled dsDNA. The RIA-Farr assay offers outstanding clinical specificity and sensitivity for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to other...... on precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fluorescence of EvaGreen intercalated in dsDNA as detection principle. As dsDNA antibodies are quantified using fluorescence, the disadvantages of working with radioactivity are eliminated. The Fluoro-Farr assay was developed and validated, and the diagnostic...

  20. Opportunities and Challenges of Multiplex Assays: A Machine Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfang; Schwarz, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Multiplex assays that allow the simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in small sample quantities have developed into a widely used technology. Their implementation spans across multiple assay systems and can provide readouts of similar quality as the respective single-plex measures, albeit at far higher throughput. Multiplex assay systems are therefore an important element for biomarker discovery and development strategies but analysis of the derived data can face substantial challenges that may limit the possibility of identifying meaningful biological markers. This chapter gives an overview of opportunities and challenges of multiplexed biomarker analysis, in particular from the perspective of machine learning aimed at identification of predictive biological signatures.

  1. A Functional Assay for GPR55: Envision Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi-Goffer, Sharon; Ross, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    AlphaScreen(®) SureFire(®) assay is a novel technology that combines luminescent oxygen channeling technology, nano-beads, and monocloncal antibodies to detect the level of a selected protein in a volume lower than 5 μl. This method is more sensitive compared with the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and can detect an increasing number of new targets. Here, we described a method for AlphaScreen(®) SureFire(®) assay that targets ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a primary downstream signaling pathway that conveys activation of GPR55 by L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and certain cannabinoids.

  2. Radioimmunoassay and radioenzymatic assay of a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, netilmicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, A.; Strong, J.E.; Pickering, L.K.; Knight, J.; Bodey, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay and a radioenzymatic assay for netilmicin, a new aminoglycoside, were developed in our laboratories to assist in the study of the pharmacology of the drug and establish values for use in its monitoring. The assays are sensitive, precise, and rapid, giving results that correlate (r = 0.90) with each other and with those of a microbiological assay in which Klebsiella pneumoniae is used as the test organism. Preliminary pharmacological studies show the drug to have a biological half-life of 135 min, which is comparable to that for other aminoglycosides

  3. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  4. Advances in Assays and Analytical Approaches for Botulinum Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Marks, James D.

    2010-08-04

    Methods to detect botulinum toxin, the most poisonous substance known, are reviewed. Current assays are being developed with two main objectives in mind: 1) to obtain sufficiently low detection limits to replace the mouse bioassay with an in vitro assay, and 2) to develop rapid assays for screening purposes that are as sensitive as possible while requiring an hour or less to process the sample an obtain the result. This review emphasizes the diverse analytical approaches and devices that have been developed over the last decade, while also briefly reviewing representative older immunoassays to provide background and context.

  5. The glycophorin A assay for somatic cell mutations in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this report we briefly review our past experience and some new developments with the GPA assay. Particular emphasis will be placed on two areas that affect the utility of the GPA assay for human population monitoring. The first is our efforts to simplify the GPA assay to make it more generally available for large population studies. The second is to begin to understand some of the characteristics of human hemopoiesis which affect the accumulation and expression of mutant phenotype cells. 11 refs., 4 figs

  6. Six rapid tests for direct detection of Clostridium difficile and its toxins in fecal samples compared with the fibroblast cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, David K; Novicki, Thomas J; Quick, John; Carlson, LaDonna; Miller, Pat; Ulness, Bruce; Cent, Anne; Ashley, Rhoda; Larson, Ann; Coyle, Marie; Limaye, Ajit P; Cookson, Brad T; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2003-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is one of the most frequent causes of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. Risk factors include prior antibiotic therapy, bowel surgery, and the immunocompromised state. Direct fecal analysis for C. difficile toxin B by tissue culture cytotoxin B assay (CBA), while only 60 to 85% sensitive overall, is a common laboratory method. We have used 1,003 consecutive, nonduplicate fecal samples to compare six commercially available immunoassays (IA) for C. difficile detection with CBA: Prima System Clostridium difficile Tox A and VIDAS Clostridium difficile Tox A II, which detect C. difficile toxin A; Premier Cytoclone A/B and Techlab Clostridium difficile Tox A/B, which detect toxins A and B; and ImmunoCard Clostridium difficile and Triage Micro C. difficile panels, which detect toxin A and a species-specific antigen. For all tests, Triage antigen was most sensitive (89.1%; negative predictive value [NPV] = 98.7%) while ImmunoCard was most specific (99.7%; positive predictive value [PPV] = 95.0%). For toxin tests only, Prima System had the highest sensitivity (82.2%; NPV = 98.0%) while ImmunoCard had the highest specificity (99.7%; PPV = 95.0%). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients contributed 44.7% of all samples tested, and no significant differences in sensitivity or specificity were noted between HSCT and non-HSCT patients. IAs, while not as sensitive as direct fecal CBA, produce reasonable predictive values, especially when both antigen and toxin are detected. They also offer significant advantages over CBA in terms of turnaround time and ease of use.

  7. Mouse Assay for Determination of Arsenic Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Accurate assessment of human exposure estimates from arsenic-contaminated soils depends upon estimating arsenic (As) soil bioavailability. Development of bioavailability assays provides data needed for human health risk assessments and supports development and valida...

  8. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolics, Antiradical Assay and Cytotoxicity of Processed Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Bush Mango ( Irvingia gabonensis ) Kernels. ... Nigerian Food Journal ... Phenolic constituents (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins), comparative antiradical potency and cytotoxicity of processed mango (Mangifera ...

  10. Development of novel IVD assays: a manufacturer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    IVD manufacturers are heavily reliant on novel IVD assays to fuel their growth and drive innovation within the industry. They represent a key part of the IVD industry's value proposition to customers and the healthcare industry in general, driving product differentiation, helping to create demand for new systems and generating incremental revenue. However, the discovery of novel biomarkers and their qualification for a specific clinical purpose is a high risk undertaking and the large, risky investments associated with doing this on a large scale are incompatible with IVD manufacturer's business models. This article describes the sources of novel IVD assays, the processes for discovering and qualifying novel assays and the reliance of IVD manufacturers on collaborations and in-licensing to source new IVD assays for their platforms.

  11. Monitoring cyclodextrin-polyviologen pseudopolyrotaxanes with the Bradford assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, Jason M; Nelson, Alshakim; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2006-01-21

    Self-assembled multivalent pseudopolyrotaxanes, composed of lactoside-bearing cyclodextrin (CD) rings threaded on linear polyviologen polymers, have been introduced recently as flexible and dynamic neoglycoconjugates. In the course of this research, it was found that polyviologens are responsive to the Bradford assay, which is traditionally highly selective for proteins. The response of the pseudopolyrotaxanes to the Bradford assay was dependant on, and thus indicative of, the degree of threading of the CD rings onto the polyelectrolyte. The assay was then used to report on the threading and dethreading of native and lactoside-bearing alpha-CD rings onto and off of polyviologen chains, a phenomenon which demonstrates the utility of biochemical assays to address problems unique to supramolecular chemistry.

  12. Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane filtration technique in the quantification and monitoring of microbial indicator organisms – seasonal variations in the activities of coliforms and E. coli, temperature and pH.

  13. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  14. Development of fluorescent methods for DNA methyltransferase assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueying; Zou, Xiaoran; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation modified by DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays an important role in regulating gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation. The aberrant DNA MTase activity may lead to a variety of human diseases including cancers. Therefore, accurate and sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is crucial to biomedical research, clinical diagnostics and therapy. However, conventional DNA MTase assays often suffer from labor-intensive operations and time-consuming procedures. Alternatively, fluorescent methods have significant advantages of simplicity and high sensitivity, and have been widely applied for DNA MTase assay. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of fluorescent methods for DNA MTase assay. These emerging methods include amplification-free and the amplification-assisted assays. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and future directions of this area.

  15. Techniques for laser processing, assay, and examination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Mitchell, R.C.; Rogell, M.L.

    1981-11-01

    Fuel examination studies were performed which have application to interim spent fuel storage. These studies were in three areas, i.e., laser drilling and rewelding demonstration, nondestructive assay techniques survey, and fuel examination techniques survey

  16. Colorimetric Assay Of Naproxen Tablets by Derivatization Using 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Orita UI, ... The assay methods employed ..... Instrumental Methods of Analysis, 7th ... Binding in: Physical Pharmacy: Physical. Chemical. Principles in the.

  17. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Evaluating In Vitro DNA Damage Using Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanxin; Liu, Yang; Yang, Chunzhang

    2017-10-11

    DNA damage is a common phenomenon for each cell during its lifespan, and is defined as an alteration of the chemical structure of genomic DNA. Cancer therapies, such as radio- and chemotherapy, introduce enormous amount of additional DNA damage, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to limit cancer progression. Quantitative assessment of DNA damage during experimental cancer therapy is a key step to justify the effectiveness of a genotoxic agent. In this study, we focus on a single cell electrophoresis assay, also known as the comet assay, which can quantify single and double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. The comet assay is a DNA damage quantification method that is efficient and easy to perform, and has low time/budget demands and high reproducibility. Here, we highlight the utility of the comet assay for a preclinical study by evaluating the genotoxic effect of olaparib/temozolomide combination therapy to U251 glioma cells.

  19. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for population stratification test ... phenotypes and unlinked candidate loci in case-control and cohort studies of ... Key words: Chinese, Japanese, population stratification, ancestry informative ...

  20. Quantitative Assays for RAS Pathway Proteins and Phosphorylation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI CPTAC program is applying its expertise in quantitative proteomics to develop assays for RAS pathway proteins. Targets include key phosphopeptides that should increase our understanding of how the RAS pathway is regulated.

  1. Cholinesterase assay by an efficient fixed time endpoint method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Benabent

    2014-01-01

    The method may be adapted to the user needs by modifying the enzyme concentration and applied for simultaneously testing many samples in parallel; i.e. for complex experiments of kinetics assays with organophosphate inhibitors in different tissues.

  2. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Brenner

    Full Text Available Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  3. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Gereau, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  4. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  5. Battery operated preconcentration-assisted lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheonjung; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Han, Sung Il; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Dohwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Chung, Seok; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2017-07-11

    Paper-based analytical devices (e.g. lateral flow assays) are highly advantageous as portable diagnostic systems owing to their low costs and ease of use. Because of their low sensitivity and detection limits for biomolecules, these devices have several limitations in applications for real-field diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a paper-based preconcentration enhanced lateral flow assay using a commercial β-hCG-based test. Utilizing a simple 9 V battery operation with a low power consumption of approximately 81 μW, we acquire a 25-fold preconcentration factor, demonstrating a clear sensitivity enhancement in the colorimetric lateral flow assay; consequently, clear colors are observed in a rapid kit test line, which cannot be monitored without preconcentration. This device can also facilitate a semi-quantitative platform using the saturation value and/or color intensity in both paper-based colorimetric assays and smartphone-based diagnostics.

  6. Immunoradiometric assay for cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, P.E.; Cleator, G.M.; Prinja-Wolks, D.; Morris, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (radio-immunosorbent test; RIST) for the detection of IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 4 [human cytomegalovirus (CMV)] has been developed. The technique utilizes CMV antigen passively adsorbed to a polyvinyl microtitration plate and a radiolabelled murine monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody to detect binding of human antibody to the 'solid phase' reagent. The assay was optimized, and its specifity confirmed by testing paired acute and convalescent sera from patients with acute CMV or other human herpesvirus infections. To determine the assay's sensitivity 1433 blood donor sera were examined. The RIST was more sensitive than a standard complement fixation (CFT). Use of a monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody in the RIST reduced non-specific binding to the control uninfected cell antigen such that blood donor sera could be tested in the assay using only a CMV antigen without generating an unacceptable false positive rate. (author). 23 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay of (E)-piplartine by the Ames test. AA Morandim-Giannetti, F Cotinguiba, LO Regasini, MC Frigieri, EA Varanda, A Coqueiro, MJ Kato, VS Bolzani, M Furlan ...

  8. Study on quantification of HBs-antibody by immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yuichi; Itoi, Yoshihiro; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    1989-01-01

    Quantification of HBs-antibody assay was carried out using a commercialized assay kit and standard solutions of HBs-antibody recognised as 1 st reference preparation of hepatitis B immunogloblin by WHO. Standard curve of HBs-antibody was drawn with the function of 3D-spline and the correlation factor was obtained as r = 0.999. Coefficient of intra-assay variance was 3.8 % and that of inter-assay variance was 7.8 %. Dilution tests showed satisfactory results in the range of 2-16 times. Correlation between value of cut-off indices and concentration of HBs-antibody was obtained as the formula of y = 2.599 x-3.894 (r = 0.992) and 2.1 of cut-off index corresponded to about 5 mIU/ml of HBs-antibody concentration. (author)

  9. Multiplexed Dosing Assays by Digitally Definable Hydrogel Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack

    2016-01-01

    Stable and low-cost multiplexed drug sensitivity assays using small volumes of cells or tissue are in demand for personalized medicine, including patientspecific combination chemotherapy. Spatially defined projected light photopolymerization of hydrogels with embedded active compounds is introduc...

  10. Fissile Content Assay of Spent Fuel Using LSDS System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je

    2016-01-01

    About 1.5 % fissile materials still exist in the spent fuel. Therefore, for reutilization of fissile materials in spent fuel at SFR, resource material is produced through the pyro process. Fissile material contents in the resource material must be analyzed before fabricating SFR fuel for reactor safety and economics. The new technology for an isotopic fissile material content assay is under development at KAERI using a lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS). LSDS is very sensitive to distinguish fission signals from each fissile isotope in spent and recycled fuel. In an assay of fissile content of spent fuel and recycled fuel, an intense radiation background gives limits the direct analysis of fissile materials. However, LSDS is not influenced by such a radiation background in a fissile assay. Based on the decided LSDS geometry set up, a self shielding parameter was calculated at the fuel assay zone by introducing spent fuel or pyro produced nuclear material. When nuclear material is inserted into the assay area, the spent fuel assembly or pyro recycled fuel material perturbs the spatial distribution of slowing down neutrons in lead and the prompt fast fission neutrons produced by fissile materials are also perturbed. The self shielding factor is interpreted as how much of the absorption is created inside the fuel area when it is in the lead. The self shielding effect provides a non-linear property in the isotopic fissile assay. When the self shielding is severe, the assay system becomes more complex and needs a special parameter to treat this non linear effect. Additionally, an assay of isotopic fissile content will contribute to an accuracy improvement of the burn-up code and increase the transparency and credibility for spent fuel storage and usage, as internationally increasing demand. The fissile contents result came out almost exactly with relative error ∼ 2% in case of Pu239, Pu241 for two different plutonium contents. In this study, meaningful results were

  11. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Human Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Claudia; Lu, Yan; Higa, Naomi; Nakasone, Noboru; Chinen, Isabel; Baschkier, Ariela; Rivas, Marta; Iwanaga, Masaaki

    2003-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.

  12. The assay of encapsulated alpha-bearing waste: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, R.G.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains a review of potentially applicable techniques for the determination of actinide isotopes in radioactive waste and a summary of results obtained with various prototype instruments. A schematic design of a complete assay station is derived with consideration given to practical aspects like remote handling, maintenance etc. and recommendations for further work are made. The place of waste assay in the overall quality assurance of packaged waste is also considered. (author)

  13. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2007-01-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we ...

  14. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table

  15. Analytical applications of MIPs in diagnostic assays: future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Thomas S; Whitcombe, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Many efforts have been made to produce artificial materials with biomimetic properties for applications in binding assays. Among these efforts, the technique of molecular imprinting has received much attention because of the high selectivity obtainable for molecules of interest, robustness of the produced polymers, simple and short synthesis, and excellent cost efficiency. In this review, progress in the field of molecularly imprinted sorbent assays is discussed-with a focus on work conducted from 2005 to date.

  16. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  17. Nondestructive assay instrument for measurement of plutonium in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, D.G.; Hsue, F.; Li, T.K.; Canada, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    A nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument that measures the 239 Pu content in solutions, using a passive gamma-ray spectroscopy technique, has been developed and installed in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. A detailed evaluation of this instrument has been performed. The results show that the instrument can routinely determine 239 Pu concentrations of 1 to 500 g/l with accuracies of 1 to 5% and assay times of 1 to 2 x 10 3 s

  18. Determination of Nitrate Reductase Assay Depending on the Microbial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid micro-dilution assay for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of different bacterial isolates was developed. This assay is based on the ability of the most of viable organisms to reduce nitrates. The MIC or MBC could be determined by nitrate reductase (NR) only after 30 to 90 min of incubation depending on the behaviour of microbial growth. Bacterial viability is detected by a positive nitrite reduction rather than visible turbidity. The nitrate reduction assay was compared with standard micro-assay using 250 isolates of different taxa against 10 antibiotics belonging to different classes. An excellent agreement of 82.5 % was found between the two methods and only 17.5 % of 1794 trials showed difference in the determined MIC by tow-dilution interval above or below the MIC determined by the turbidimetric method under the same test conditions. However, the nitrate reduction assay was more rapid and sensitive in detecting viable bacteria and so, established an accurate estimate of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or the minimal bacterial concentration (MBC). The nitrate reduction assay offers the additional advantage that it could be used to determine the MBC without having to subculture the broth. 232 cases of resistance were detected by NR and 4 different media were tested for susceptibility test. The bacterial isolates were exposed to ultra violet (UV) light for different period

  19. A 252Cf based nondestructive assay system for fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Crane, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    A modulated 252 Cf source assay system 'Shuffler' based on fast-or-thermal-neutron interrogation combined with delayed-neutron counting has been developed for the assay of fissile material. The 252 Cf neutron source is repetitively transferred from the interrogation position to a shielded position while the delayed neutrons are counted in a high efficiency 3 He neutron well-counter. For samples containing plutonium, this well-counter is also used in the passive coincidence mode to assay the effective 240 Pu content. The design of an optimized neutron tailoring assembly for fast-neutron interrogation using a Monte Carlo Neutron Computer Code is described. The Shuffler system has been applied to the assay of fuel pellets, inventory samples, irradiated fuel and plutonium mixed-oxide fuel. The system can assay samples with fissile contents from a few milligrams up to several kilograms using thermal-neutron interrogation for the low mass samples and fast-neutron interrogation for the high mass samples. Samples containing 235 U- 238 U, or 233 U-Th, or UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel mixtures have been assayed with the Shuffler system. (Auth.)

  20. First 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay for general chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Chen, Xiaoru; Tran, Kiet; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2015-03-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the predominant circulating form of vitamin D, is an accurate indicator of the general vitamin D status of an individual. Because vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to several pathologies (including osteoporosis and rickets), accurate monitoring of 25(OH)D levels is becoming increasingly important in clinical settings. Current 25(OH)D assays are either chromatographic or immunoassay-based assays. These assays include HPLC, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme-immunosorbent, immunochemiluminescence, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. All these assays use heterogeneous formats that require phase separation and special instrumentations. In this article, we present an overview of these assays and introduce the first homogeneous assay of 25(OH)D for use on general chemistry analyzers. A special emphasis is put on the unique challenges posed by the 25(OH)D analyte. These challenges include a low detection limit, the dissociation of the analyte from its serum transporter and the inactivation of various binding proteins without phase separation steps.