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Sample records for premenopausal morbidly women

  1. Osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdahl, Bente L

    2017-07-01

    The scope of this review was to review the newest developments in the context of the existing knowledge on premenopausal bone fragility. Fragility fractures are common in postmenopausal women and men and diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis have been agreed and multiple pharmacological treatments have been developed over the last 25 years. In premenopausal women, fragility fractures and very low bone mass are uncommon and osteoporosis in premenopausal women has therefore attracted much less interest. Recent studies have highlighted that lifestyle and dietary habits affect premenopausal bone mass. Bone mass may be improved by sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D together with increased physical activity in premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis. If pharmacological treatment is needed, teriparatide has been demonstrated to efficiently increase bone mass; however, no fracture studies and no comparative studies against antiresorptive therapies have been conducted. Pregnancy affects bone turnover and mass significantly, but pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare and heterogeneous condition. The diagnosis of osteoporosis should only be considered in premenopausal women with existing fragility fractures, diseases or treatments known to cause bone loss or fractures. Secondary causes of osteoporosis should be corrected or treated if possible. The women should be recommended sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin and physical activity. In women with recurrent fractures or secondary causes that cannot be eliminated, for example glucocorticoid or cancer treatment, pharmacological intervention with bisphosphonates or teriparatide (not in the case of cancer) may be considered.

  2. A comparative study of bone mineral density between premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and healthy premenopausal women.

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    Boonya-Ussadorn, Trirat; Punkaew, Boondharika; Sriassawaamorn, Narongchai

    2010-11-01

    To compare bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) analyzed by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and in healthy premenopausal women. Cross-sectional study included 49 premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism and 49 healthy premenopausal women. Age, weight and body mass index (BMI) were comparable in both groups. All subjects had a BMD measurement by DXA in the region of L1-L4, TH and FN and the unpaired t-test was used to analyze. The mean BMD of premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism at L1-L4, TH and FN was 0.928, 0.838 and 0.774 g/cm2, which were lower than those of healthy premenopausal women; 0.991, 0.917 and 0.832 g/cm2 respectively (p-value is less than 0.05). Time interval that had elapsed for active hyperthyroidism was not associated with the decrease of BMD at L1-L4, TH and FN in hyperthyroid women. The BMD of L1-L4, TH and FN in premenopausal women with hyperthyroidism were significantly lower than those of healthy premenopausal women. Therefore, overt hyperthyroidism could be associated with bone loss and may be a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. However, time interval of active hyperthyroidism was not related to the decrease of BMD in hyperthyroid women.

  3. Calcium status in premenopausal and post menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.J.; Hussain, G.; Bashir, M.U.; Latif, N.; Riaz, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In postmenopausal women, the two major causes of bone loss are oestrogen deficiency after menopause and age related processes. Bone turnover increases to high levels and oestrogen deficiency may induce calcium loss by indirect effects on extra skeletal calcium homeostasis. Objective of this study was to evaluate calcium status in pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in 34 premenopausal women and 33 postmenopausal women, in Department of Physiology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore. Height and weight of each woman were taken to find out the body mass index (BMI). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin levels of each subject were determined. Results: Premenopausal women were obese (BMI>30 Kg/m/sup 2/) while postmenopausal women were overweight (BMI>25 Kg/m/sup 2/). Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in pre-menopausal women, while serum parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal woman. Serum calcitonin level was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women are calcium deficient and have increased bone turnover as indicated by increased serum parathyroid hormone levels. (author)

  4. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women.

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    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Gibson, Ann-Marie; J Reilly, John; Gaoua, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI) test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) test was used to assess planning executive function. For memory assessment, the Delayed Match to Sample (DMS), Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM), and Spatial Span (SSP) tests were used to assess forced choice recognition memory, visual pattern recognition memory, and working memory capacity, respectively. 36 (36.7%) were morbidly obese, 22 (22.4%) obese, and 23 (23.5%) overweight. Performance on RTI and SOC planning ability were not associated with body mass index (BMI). DMS mean time to correct response, when stimulus is visible or immediately hidden (0 ms delay), was higher by 785 ± 302 ms (milliseconds) ( p =0.011) and 587 ± 259 ms ( p =0.026) in morbidly obese women compared to normal weight women. Memory span length was significantly lower in overweight (5.5 ± 1.3, p =0.008) and obese women (5.6 ± 1.6, p =0.007) compared to normal weight (6.7 ± 0.9). DEXA-assessed body fat (%) showed similar associations as BMI, and latency to correct response on DMS and PRM was positively correlated with percentage of body fat, but not with VO 2 max. In otherwise healthy premenopausal women, obesity did not impact accuracy on cognitive tasks related to attention, memory, or planning executive function, but morbid obesity was associated with higher latency to correct response on memory-specific tasks and lower memory span length.

  5. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women

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    Abdulaziz Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. Methods. From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC test was used to assess planning executive function. For memory assessment, the Delayed Match to Sample (DMS, Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM, and Spatial Span (SSP tests were used to assess forced choice recognition memory, visual pattern recognition memory, and working memory capacity, respectively. Results. 36 (36.7% were morbidly obese, 22 (22.4% obese, and 23 (23.5% overweight. Performance on RTI and SOC planning ability were not associated with body mass index (BMI. DMS mean time to correct response, when stimulus is visible or immediately hidden (0 ms delay, was higher by 785 ± 302 ms (milliseconds (p=0.011 and 587 ± 259 ms (p=0.026 in morbidly obese women compared to normal weight women. Memory span length was significantly lower in overweight (5.5 ± 1.3, p=0.008 and obese women (5.6 ± 1.6, p=0.007 compared to normal weight (6.7 ± 0.9. DEXA-assessed body fat (% showed similar associations as BMI, and latency to correct response on DMS and PRM was positively correlated with percentage of body fat, but not with VO2 max. Conclusion. In otherwise healthy premenopausal women, obesity did not impact accuracy on cognitive tasks related to attention, memory, or planning executive function, but morbid obesity was associated with higher latency to correct response on memory-specific tasks and lower memory span length.

  6. [Osteoporosis in premenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitringer, Antje; Pietschmann, P

    2002-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of bone, which is characterized by decreased bone mass and changes in the microarchitecture of bone tissue followed by brittleness of bones and increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis frequently is a disease of postmenopausal women, nevertheless, in rare cases, osteoporosis can also occur in young adults. There are only few studies on the pathophysiology of "premenopausal osteoporosis"; in addition to idiopathic forms, osteoporosis in young women can be caused by glucocorticoid treatment, by eating disorders or can be associated with pregnancy.

  7. Endocrinology and hormone therapy in breast cancer: Endocrine therapy in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine therapy remains important in premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Ovarian ablation, used alone, is effective in delaying recurrence and increasing survival in such women. When added to chemotherapy, it is less clear that it is effective perhaps because of the endocrine ablative effect of chemotherapy. Trials comparing ovarian ablation with or without tamoxifen to CMF-type chemotherapy suggest that the endocrine therapy is equivalent to or better than this chemotherapy in women whose tumors have estrogen and/or progesterone receptor. Tamoxifen is also effective in preventing recurrence and prolonging survival in the adjuvant setting in premenopausal women. While most of the available data deals with tamoxifen given alone, it appears to have a similar beneficial effect when added to chemotherapy in the premenopausal adjuvant setting. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors should not be used in premenopausal women

  8. Premenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding and risk of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennant, M E; Mehta, R; Moody, P; Hackett, G; Prentice, A; Sharp, S J; Lakshman, R

    2017-02-01

    Endometrial biopsies are undertaken in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding but the risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia is unclear. To conduct a systematic literature review to establish the risk of endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2015. Studies reporting rates of endometrial cancer and/or atypical hyperplasia in women with premenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and cross-checked. For each outcome, the risk and a 95% CI were estimated using logistic regression with robust standard errors to account for clustering by study. Sixty-five articles contributed to the analysis. Risk of endometrial cancer was 0.33% (95% CI 0.23-0.48%, n = 29 059; 97 cases) and risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia was 1.31% (95% CI 0.96-1.80, n = 15 772; 207 cases). Risk of endometrial cancer was lower in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) (0.11%, 95% CI 0.04-0.32%, n = 8352; 9 cases) compared with inter-menstrual bleeding (IMB) (0.52%, 95% CI 0.23-1.16%, n = 3109; 14 cases). Of five studies reporting the rate of atypical hyperplasia in women with HMB, none identified any cases. The risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding is low. Premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding should first undergo conventional medical management. Where this fails, the presence of IMB and older age may be indicators for further investigation. Further research into the risks associated with age and the cumulative risk of co-morbidities is needed. Contrary to practice, premenopausal women with heavy periods or inter-menstrual bleeding rarely require biopsy. © 2016 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal

  9. Bio-Social Predictors of Hypertension Among Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

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    Renu Tyagi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the contribution of various biological and lifestyle factors toward progression to hypertension are examined among menopausal and postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study among 245 women of 20 to 65 years was conducted. Besides blood pressure, fat percentage using bio-electric impedance analyzer and adiposity indices such as body mass index (BMI, waist–hip ratio (WHR, and waist–height ratio (WHtR were taken. Mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic were used to analyze the data. Statistically significant differences (p< .001 for blood pressure among postmenopausal and premenopausal women were found. Among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the prehypertensive and hypertensive group showed significant differences with the normotensive women for body weight (p< .005, regional obesity, and general obesity. Low educational level, working status of women, socioeconomic status, nuclear family setup, postmenopausal status, and obesity were found to be the likely risk factors for prehypertension or hypertension among women.

  10. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

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    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

  11. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women

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    Yongqiang Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA and metabolic syndrome (MS in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ≥468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ≥328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002 in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001. The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008 and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08 in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03 and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03 in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in

  12. Beneficial effects of recreational football on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P. R.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....

  13. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women: a need for therapeutic intervention?

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    Hadji, P; Gnant, M; Body, J J; Bundred, N J; Brufsky, A; Coleman, R E; Guise, T A; Lipton, A; Aapro, M S

    2012-10-01

    Current clinical treatment guidelines recommend cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or both (with targeted therapy if indicated) for premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer, depending on the biologic characteristics of the primary tumor. Some of these therapies can induce premature menopause or are specifically designed to suppress ovarian function and reduce circulating estrogen levels. In addition to bone loss associated with low estrogen levels, cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a direct negative effect on bone metabolism. As a result, cancer treatment-induced bone loss poses a significant threat to bone health in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Clinical trials of antiresorptive therapies, such as bisphosphonates, have demonstrated the ability to slow or prevent bone loss in this setting. Current fracture risk assessment tools are based on data from healthy postmenopausal women and do not adequately address the risks associated with breast cancer therapy, especially in younger premenopausal women. We therefore recommend that all premenopausal women with breast cancer be informed about the potential risk of bone loss prior to beginning anticancer therapy. Women who experience amenorrhea should have bone mineral density assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and receive regular follow-up to monitor bone health. Regular exercise and daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended. Women with a Z-score <-2.0 or Z-score ≤-1.0 and/or a 5-10% annual decrease in bone mineral density should be considered for bisphosphonate therapy in addition to calcium and vitamin D supplements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The cost of reproduction in women: Reproductive effort and oxidative stress in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women.

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    Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Frumkin, Amara; Zhang, Yawei; Sancilio, Amelia; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade-off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women. Serum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (mean age 53.4 years), controls in the Connecticut Thyroid Health Study, between May 2010 and December 2013. Samples were analyzed for levels of 8-OHdG and Cu/Zn-SOD using immunoassay method. Levels of oxidative damage (8-OHdG) but not oxidative defense (Cu/Zn-SOD) were negatively associated with parity and number of sons in premenopausal women (r = -0.52 for parity, r = -0.52 for number of sons, P reproductive effort, women's BMI, age, and menopausal status explained around 15% of variance in level of 8-OHdG. No association between reproductive effort characteristics and oxidative damage was found for postmenopausal women. We found no evidence of a trade-off between somatic maintenance as measured by 8-OHdG and reproductive effort in women from this American population. On the contrary, higher gravidity and parity in premenopausal women was associated with lower damage to cellular DNA caused by oxidative stress. These results highlight the importance of population variation and environmental conditions when testing the occurrence of life-history trade-offs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of bone mineral density in premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Zahedan, Southeast Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Z.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the BMD in premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 60 premenopausal women with type-2 diabetes mellitus and 60 normal premenopausal subjects. The groups were not completely matched regarding BMI; but they were in the range of obesity. Bone mineral density was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to define bone mineral density (BMD) in second to fourth lumbar vertebrae and the neck of the femur (g/cm/sup 2/). Results: The results showed that BMD, T- and Z-score of femoral neck, total femur, L2, and Ward's were not significantly different between type 2 diabetic and normal premenopausal women (p>0.5). A significant increase of L3 BMD and L2-L4 Z-score was observed in diabetic group (p<0.05). In addition BMD, T- and Z-score of L4 were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic women than normal premenopausal women (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher BMD was noted over the spine in diabetic group which may be due to higher BMI in this group. (author)

  16. Oral contraceptive therapy increases oxidative stress in pre-menopausal women

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    Jui Tung Chen

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of OCT may increase oxidative stress levels, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in pre-menopausal women, providing new insights to the primary prevention of vascular complications in these subjects.

  17. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y; Rolden, Herbert J A; Grutters, Janneke P C; Ulrich, Lian; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists. In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Almudena Ramírez Balas; Rafael Timón Andrada; Guillermo J. Olcina Camacho; Diego Muñoz Marín; María Concepción Robles Gil; Marcos Maynar Mariño

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10) and over 35 years (n = 10). The experimental subjects under...

  19. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women.

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    Mohr, M; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M; Nielsen, H P; Mortensen, J; Weihe, P; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21; FTG) and a control group (n = 20; CON). FTG performed 45 ± 1 1-h small-sided football training sessions during the 15-week intervention period. BP, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. After 15 weeks, systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, were lowered more (P endurance level 1 test performance increased more (P training resulted in a marked reduction in BP and induced multiple improvements in fitness and cardiovascular health profile of untrained, premenopausal women with mild hypertension. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Optimal systemic therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowitz, Rachel C; McGuire, Kandace P; Davidson, Nancy E

    2013-08-01

    Although systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of therapy for premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer, there remain many unknowns regarding its optimal use. By accident of clinical trial design, much clinical investigation in premenopausal women has focused on chemotherapy. More recently the value of endocrine therapy (tamoxifen and ovarian suppression/ablation via surgery, LHRH agonists, or chemotherapy-induced menopause) has become apparent, and some form of endocrine therapy is viewed as standard for virtually all premenopausal women with early stage invasive breast cancer that expresses estrogen and/or progesterone receptor. Critical open questions include type and duration of endocrine therapy and the development of prognostic/predictive markers to help identify patients who are likely to benefit from chemotherapy in addition to endocrine therapy. For some years, five years of tamoxifen has been viewed as the standard endocrine therapy for premenopausal hormone-responsive breast cancer, although the ATLAS trial suggests that an additional five years of tamoxifen can be considered. The MA17 trial also suggests that an additional five years of an aromatase inhibitor can be considered for women who become postmenopausal during tamoxifen therapy. Information about the value of ovarian suppression continues to emerge, most recently with the demonstration of excellent outcome with goserelin plus tamoxifen in the ABCSG12 trial. The SOFT and TEXT trials, whose accrual is now complete, should help to define optimal endocrine therapy. In addition, use of the 21-gene recurrence score assay may help to delineate the additional value of chemotherapy for patients with node-negative breast cancer, and its utility in the setting of women with 1-3 positive lymph nodes is under study in the RxPONDER trial. Nonetheless, the need for other predictive biomarkers to select appropriate therapy remains real. Finally, attention to long term benefits and side effects

  1. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki

    2005-01-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress

  2. Comparison of myocardial function between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women: evaluation by gated myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K. H.; Choa, Won Sick; Yoon, Min Ki [Gachon Medical School, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In addition to inhibiting coronary atherosclerosis, estrogen is expected to have protective effects on cardiac myocytes. We investigated the difference in myocardial functional parameters evaluated by gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress between post-menopausal and pre-menopausal healthy women. This study included 22 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age: 53.0 yr) and 20 pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43.0 yr) who performed Tc-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial SPECT after adenosine-stress. Measured hemodynamic parameters, EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, cardiac output and cardiac index were compared between the two groups. For comparison, similar-aged two male groups with matched numbers were also studied. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters. EDV, ESV, stroke volume, EF, or cardiac output between the post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women. However, post-menopausal women have a smaller cardiac index (mean: 1.95 L/min/m2 vs 2.20 L/min/m2; p=0.045) and adenosine-induced HR increase (mean : 80.5/min vs 89.7/min ; p=0.03), compared to the pre-menopausal women. On the contrary, the two male groups of the same age range and numbers with the women groups showed no significant difference in any myocardial parameters. These results suggest that menopause may be correlated with reduced increase in cardiac index and HR increase after adenosine-stress.

  3. Hormonal modulation of breast cancer gene expression: implications for intrinsic subtyping in pre-menopausal women

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    Sarah M Bernhardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinics are increasingly adopting gene expression profiling to diagnose breast cancer subtype, providing an intrinsic, molecular portrait of the tumour. For example, the PAM50-based Prosigna test quantifies expression of 50 key genes to classify breast cancer subtype, and this method of classification has been demonstrated to be superior over traditional immunohistochemical methods that detect proteins, to predict risk of disease recurrence. However, these tests were largely developed and validated using breast cancer samples from post-menopausal women. Thus, the accuracy of such tests has not been explored in the context of the hormonal fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone that occur during the menstrual cycle in pre-menopausal women. Concordance between traditional methods of subtyping and the new tests in pre-menopausal women is likely to depend on the stage of the menstrual cycle at which the tissue sample is taken, and the relative effect of hormones on expression of genes versus proteins. The lack of knowledge around the effect of fluctuating estrogen and progesterone on gene expression in breast cancer patients raises serious concerns for intrinsic subtyping in pre-menopausal women, which comprise about 25% of breast cancer diagnoses. Further research on the impact of the menstrual cycle on intrinsic breast cancer profiling is required if pre-menopausal women are to benefit from the new technology of intrinsic subtyping.

  4. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. We conducted an online survey in women aged between 40 and 66. Eating behavior was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in premenopausal (N = 318) and postmenopausal women (N = 250). All participants rated their self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and reported their weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. 15.7% of all participants showed clinically meaningful scores on restrained eating. Postmenopausal women showed significantly higher scores on the EDE-Q subscale of restrained eating as compared to premenopausal women, but when controlling for body mass index, however, this finding was no longer significant. Further exploratory analyses suggest that particularly low or high self-esteem levels are associated with restrained eating. Self-esteem might serve as a mediator between menopausal status and restrained eating, however results of these additional analyses were inconsistent. Restrained eating may appear in middle-aged women. Particularly in postmenopausal women, restrained eating might be associated with lower and higher self-esteem.

  5. Palbociclib Combined with Fulvestrant in Premenopausal Women with Advanced Breast Cancer and Prior Progression on Endocrine Therapy: PALOMA-3 Results.

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    Loibl, Sibylle; Turner, Nicholas C; Ro, Jungsil; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Iwata, Hiroji; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Loi, Sherene; André, Fabrice; Harbeck, Nadia; Verma, Sunil; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Puyana Theall, Kathy; Hoffman, Justin; Zhang, Ke; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was assessed in premenopausal women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ET). One hundred eight premenopausal endocrine-refractory women ≥18 years with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ABC were among 521 women randomized 2:1 (347:174) to fulvestrant (500 mg) ± goserelin with either palbociclib (125 mg/day orally, 3 weeks on, 1 week off) or placebo. This analysis assessed whether the overall tolerable safety profile and significant progression-free survival (PFS) improvement extended to premenopausal women. Potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and ovarian suppression with goserelin were assessed via plasma pharmacokinetics and biochemical analyses, respectively. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01942135) RESULTS: Median PFS for premenopausal women in the palbociclib ( n  = 72) versus placebo arm ( n  = 36) was 9.5 versus 5.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.87), and consistent with the significant PFS improvement in the same arms for postmenopausal women. Any-grade and grade ≤3 neutropenia, leukopenia, and infections were among the most frequent adverse events reported in the palbociclib arm with concurrent goserelin administration. Hormone concentrations were similar between treatment arms and confirmed sustained ovarian suppression. Clinically relevant DDIs were not observed. Palbociclib combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for premenopausal women with prior endocrine-resistant HR+/HER2- ABC. Inclusion of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women in pivotal combination ET trials facilitates access to novel drugs for young women and should be considered as a new standard for clinical trial design. PALOMA-3, the first registrational

  6. [Effects of self-foot reflexology on stress, fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soo Hyun; Kim, Kye Ha

    2009-10-01

    This study was to examine the effects of self-foot reflexology on stress, fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 59 premenopausal, middle-aged women in their 40s and 60s living in G city: 30 in the experiment group and 29 in the control group. Data were collected from May to August 2008. Self-foot reflexology was performed three times a week for 6 weeks for 40 min at each session. The results showed that self-foot reflexology was effective in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and helped blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. Self-foot reflexology may be an effective nursing intervention in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and in improving blood circulation.

  7. Gingival Crevicular Fluid Turnover Markers in Premenopausal vs Postmenopausal Women receiving Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitra, Anusha; Rani, B Jhansi; Agarkar, Sanket S; Parihar, Anuj S; Vynath, Gopinath P; Grover, Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Orthodontic treatment is one of the commonly used dental treatments. Orthodontic forces act on the bone by modulating the biomolecules, chiefly the osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) (OPG ligand). Hormonal changes are known to cause marked alteration in the levels of these biomolecules. Hence, we planned this study to evaluate the response of bone biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in postmenopausal women undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy. This study included assessment of 50 subjects who underwent orthodontic treatment from June 2012 to July 2016. All the patients were divided into two study groups with 25 patients in each group: premenopausal group and postmenopausal group. Similar orthodontic wires were used for controlling the forces applied in subjects of both the study groups and their GCF levels of RANKL, and OPN was assessed at baseline and 24 hours after the activation of orthodontic forces. All the results were compiled, assessed, and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16.0. Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the assessment of the level of significance. The mean values of RANKL and OPN in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups were found to be 241.52 and 317.15 pg/μL respectively. The mean values of RANKL at baseline in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups were found to be 7.15 and 3.84 pg/μL respectively. Nonsignificant results were obtained while comparing mean OPN and RANKL level alteration in between the two study groups. The mean alterations in the GCF levels of bone biomarkers are similar for both premenopausal and postmeno-pausal women. For women with either premenopausal or postmenopausal status, orthodontic treatment appears to be equally safer.

  8. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

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    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men.

  10. Acupuncture in Premenopausal Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Prospective Cohort Pilot Study

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    Susan H. Oakley, MD, FACOG

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In this cohort of premenopausal women with HSDD, 5 weeks of acupuncture therapy was associated with significant improvements in sexual function, particularly desire. This supports a role for acupuncture as a therapeutic option for women with low desire.

  11. Can bone loss be reversed by antithyroid drug therapy in premenopausal women with Graves' disease?

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    Belsing Tina Z

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Hyperthyroidism can lead to reduced bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk particularly in postmenopausal women, but the mechanism behind is still unclear. Objective Prospective examination of the influence of thyroid hormones and/or thyroid autoantibodies on BMD in premenopause. Design We have examined 32 premenopausal women with untreated active Graves' disease from time of diagnosis, during 18 months of antithyroid drug therapy (ATD and additionally 18 months after discontinuing ATD. Variables of thyroid metabolism, calcium homeostasis and body composition were measured every 3 months. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured at baseline, 18 ± 3 and 36 ± 3 months. Data were compared to base line, a sex- and age matched control group and a group of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with non-suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Results The study showed significantly (p Conclusion The results indicated a clinically relevant impact of thyroid function on bone modulation also in premenopausal women with Graves' disease, and further indicated the possibility for a direct action of TRAb on bones.

  12. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

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    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Coping Strategies of Tri-Dimensional Problems of Premenopausal Women – A Community Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Enu; Jamil, MD; Roy, Aakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pre-menopause in women presents with diverse symptoms, encompassing the tri-dimensional spheres of physical, social and psychological domains, which requires development of appropriate coping strategies to overcome these problems. Aim To assess level of knowledge about tri-dimensional problems in pre-menopausal women and evaluate effectiveness of self instruction module on coping strategies of these problems by pre-test and post-test analysis. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional, community based study, in pre-menopausal women aged 40-49years baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was assessed in 300 pre-menopausal women, selected by convenient sampling after satisfying selection criteria, by a pre-formed questionnaire. This was followed by administration of a pre-tested, Self-Instructional Module (SIM). The SIM dealt with imparting knowledge about coping strategies regarding pre-menopausal problems and the participants were required to read and retain the SIM. Post-test was conducted using same questionnaire after seven days. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test/ Paired t-test was used for comparing ratios. A ‘p-value’ <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Baseline knowledge of tridimensional problems was adequate in 10%, moderate in 73% and inadequate in 17% women with a pre-test mean knowledge score of 8.66±2.45. The post-test mean knowledge score was higher (19.11±3.38) compared to the pre-test score. The post-test mean knowledge difference from pre-test was -10.45 with a highly significant paired t-value of -47.45 indicating that the self-instructional module was effective in increasing the knowledge score of pre- menopausal women under study. Conclusion Administration of self instructional module was shown to significantly increase the knowledge scores in all areas of pre-menopausal tri-dimensional problems. Such self-instructional module can be used as an effective educational tool in increasing the knowledge

  14. Correlation between Body Mass Index and Insulin Levels in Premenopausal Women

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    Anastasia Sachinidou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the most important problems of modern societies, and is considered a modern plague which tends to evolve to a global pandemic. Premenopausal women, most of the times, manifest hormonal dysfunctions and dysfunctions in their metabolism. The consequences are weight gain, heart diseases, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine if vitamin D levels and Glycosylated hemoglobin are affected by exercise and if there is a connection between Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin. Method: The research involved 48 healthy premenopausal women who answered questionnaires which included questions about their height, weight, waist circumference, lifestyle and history of menstruation. This questionnaire, after due electronic approval, was based on a model of the German Sports and Research Centre (Karlsruhe Institut Fuer Sport und Sportwissenschaft. Women, after having completed a consent form, were also subjected to laboratory testing to determine their insulin, vitamin D levels and Glycosylated hemoglobin levels. To specify the vitamin D and insulin levels a method of direct chemiluminescence was used, and Glycosylated hemoglobin identification was specified using an automated light metering method. Statistical analysis performed using ΙΒΜ SPSS 22. Results: At the premenopausal women (41+/-7ετών (BMI24+/-4 kg/m2 a significant impact during the time of the exercises in the glycosylated hemoglobin (p = 0.038 0.05 regarding the levels of Glycosylated hemoglobin and the combination of exercise with other physical activities. Finally, a significant correlation between BMI and insulin (p=0.001<0.05 was detected. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference found in vitamin D levels relative to physical activity. Conclusion: During the research it was found that BMI influences the secretion of insulin, and insulin resistance that is a metabolism disorder, is a result of

  15. Metabolic syndrome and its effect on aortic stiffness in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkova, A; Bulas, J; Balogova, S; Reptova, A; Kisa, B; Luha, J; Kinova, S

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of proatherogenic risk factors (RF) (abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes mellitus, higher blood pressure or antihypertensive therapy) that move patients into a higher risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. The preclinical (subclinical) target organ diseases (SOD) are early signs of atherosclerosis. An increased aortic stiffness characterised by an increased pulse wave velocity in aorta (PWV Ao) is one of SOD.The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS) on aortic wall stiffness and the risk profile in premenopausal women. The aortic stiffness was measured using Arteriograph-Tensiomed, based on oscillometric measurement and analysis of the shape of brachial pulse wave, giving the PWV Ao. The results of measurements characterise a global aortic stiffness. We examined 81 premenopausal women (without history of CVD). The MS (according to the 2009 "harmonizing" definition) was present in 31 women (mean age 41.5 y), in the control group, there were 50 women (39 y). The most frequent components of MS were abdominal obesity (93 % vs 42%), arterial hypertension (68 % vs 10 %) and dyslipidemia (29 % vs 8 %). The PWV Ao was significantly higher in women with MS (9.26 m/s) compared to the control group (7.44 m/s). The aortic stiffness in women with MS compared to controls was significantly higher despite a presumed general protective hormonal effect on cardiovascular system in women with child-bearing potential (Tab. 4, Ref. 25).

  16. The influence of a physical activity program on the body and the cardio vascular parameters of premenopausal women

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    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the life cycle of a woman's body figure is changed gradually, but on reaching middle age, as a result of follicular loss of ovarian function among others, are emphasized the physiological changes and increase health risk and welfare. Androgyny in association with obesity increases the risk for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, gallstones, osteoarthritis, arthritis, cancers and other disorders of female middle age. Physical activity has gained importance increasing in therapy in the climacteric. It has demonstrated the positive effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease and weight maintenance. This study investigates the influence of a physical activity program for five months on cardiovascular risk factors like high blood pressure and body composition in premenopausal women. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10, and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of blood pressure and body composition before and after an aerobic training. Results indicate greater extent in reducing diastolic blood pressure and body fat in over 35 years premenopausal women. Therefore, performing aerobics, step and toning improves factors cardiovascular risk as high blood pressure and body composition in over 35 premenopausal women.

  17. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  18. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  19. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

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    Ruby P. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. Materials and Methods A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100–200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia ( T -score: −2.26 ± 0.5 among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T -score. Conclusion Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years.

  20. Inflammatory markers in a 2-year soy intervention among premenopausal women

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    Franke Adrian A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic evidence supports a role of soy foods in breast cancer etiology. Because chronic inflammation appears to be a critical component in carcinogenesis, we examined the potential anti-inflammatory effects of soy foods. Methods The original 2-year dietary intervention randomized 220 premenopausal women of whom 183 women (90 in the intervention group and 93 in the control group were included in the current investigation; 40% were of Asian ancestry. The intervention group consumed two daily soy servings containing 50 mg of isoflavones (aglycone equivalents, whereas the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples obtained at month 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 were analyzed for interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, leptin, and adiponectin by ELISA. For statistical analysis, mixed models were applied to incorporate the repeated measurements. Results: The levels of all analytes were lower in Asian than Caucasian women. Overweight women had significantly higher levels of CRP, IL-6, and leptin and lower levels of adiponectin than normal weight women. We did not observe a significant effect of soy foods on the four markers, but leptin increased in the control and not in the intervention group (p = 0.20 for group-time effect; this difference was significant for Asian (p = 0.01 and obese women (p = 0.005. Conclusion During this 2-year intervention, soy foods did not modify serum levels of CRP, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin in premenopausal women although leptin levels remained stable among women in the intervention group who were obese or of Asian ancestry. Further studies with diverse markers of inflammation are necessary to clarify the specific effect of soy on immune responses.

  1. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  2. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.Z., E-mail: pollacka@mail.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mumford, S.L. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wactawski-Wende, J. [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  3. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

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    Ho Seok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13±2.87 to 23.98±4.10, p=0.015 and placebo treatment (from 20.06±2.64 to 23.78±3.28, p=0.003. However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.702. KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction.

  4. Risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women from poor economic backgrounds in Colombia

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    Londono J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available John Londono,1 Paula Valencia,1 Ana María Santos,1 Luisa F Gutiérrez,2 Roberto Baquero,1 Rafael Valle-Oñate1,3 1Rheumatology Department, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 2Preventive Care Ltd, Research Unit, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, 3Rheumatology Department, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, DC, Colombia Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women along with associated risk factors has not been well elucidated. Recent studies have shown that poverty is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in a group of premenopausal women of poor economic background in Colombia. Materials and methods: The study comprised 1483 women between 35 and 53 years of age with at least one risk factor for osteoporosis. Demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, comorbidities, and risk factors for osteoporosis were evaluated. Lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4 and the femur neck were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Of the 1483 patients, 1443 (97.3% had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis and 40 (2.7% had no risk factors. Patients with one risk factor were referred to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which 795 women completed. Osteopenia was found in 30.5% and osteoporosis in 4.8% of these women. The majority of these women were homemakers, and 18.5% of the patients with osteoporosis were also illiterate (P < 0.001. The risk factors identified in this population were: hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–16, age over 45 years old (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.0–1.2, a history of malnutrition or low birth weight (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.0–5.2, or early-onset menopause (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.2. Conclusion: Premenopausal Colombian women from impoverished areas showed increased rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared with the data described in the current literature

  5. Comparison of 3 dimensional sonohysterography and hysteroscopy in Premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser I. Abd Elkhalek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: 3-D sonohysterography is a very safe, well tolerated and effective modality for evaluation of intracavitary uterine abnormalities and is an accurate alternative technique for hysteroscopy among the premenopausal women that suffers from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB.

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mohamed; El-Mazny, Akmal; Ramadan, Wafaa; Hatem, Dina; Abdel-Hafiz, Aly; Hammam, Mohamed; Nada, Adel

    2016-03-16

    Ultrasonography has been extensively used in women suspected of having a gynecological malignancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This cross-sectional study included 78 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding scheduled for hysteroscopy and endometrial curettage. The endometrial thickness (ET), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), and endometrial volume (EV) and 3D power Doppler vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were measured and compared with hysteroscopic and histopathologic findings. The ET (P benign and malignant endometrium was the VI with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88 at a cutoff value of 0.81%. 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler, especially endometrial VI, may be useful for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  7. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    and after a 12-week period of high-intensity aerobic cycle training. LV internal diastolic diameter and LV mass were similar in the 2 groups at baseline and increased by ≈2% to 8% (P=0.04-0.0007) with training in both groups. Left atrial end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were similar for both groups......BACKGROUND: We examined the role of menopause on cardiac dimensions and function and assessed the efficacy of exercise training before and after menopause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of healthy premenopausal (n=36, 49.4±0.3 years) and postmenopausal (n=37, 53.5±0.5 years) women with no history...... and increased by 23% to 36% (P=0.0006-0.0001) with training. Systolic function assessed by mean global strain was similar in both groups at baseline and increased by ≈8% (P=0.0004) with training in the postmenopausal group. LV displacement increased by ≈3% (P=0.04) in the premenopausal women only. Diastolic...

  8. Quality of life and pain in premenopausal women with major depressive disorder: the POWER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jill M; Berger, Ann; Baker, Karen; Bolle, Jacques; Handel, Daniel; Mannes, Andrew; Pereira, Donna; St Germain, Diane; Ronsaville, Donna; Sonbolian, Nina; Torvik, Sara; Calis, Karim A; Phillips, Terry M; Cizza, Giovanni

    2006-01-18

    Whereas it is established that organic pain may induce depression, it is unclear whether pain is more common in healthy subjects with depression. We assessed the prevalence of pain in premenopausal women with major depression (MDD). Subjects were 21- to 45-year-old premenopausal women with MDD (N = 70; age: 35.4 +/- 6.6; mean +/- SD) and healthy matched controls (N = 36; age 35.4 +/- 6.4) participating in a study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteopenia/Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Patients received a clinical assessment by a pain specialist, which included the administration of two standardized forms for pain, the Brief Pain Inventory - Short Form, and the Initial Pain Assessment Tool, and two scales of everyday stressors, the Hassles and Uplifts Scales. In addition, a quality-of-life instrument, the SF-36, was used. The diagnosis of MDD was established by a semi-structured interview, according to the DSM-IV criteria. Substance P (SP) and calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP), neuropeptides which are known mediators of pain, were measured every hour for 24 h in a subgroup of patients (N = 17) and controls (N = 14). Approximately one-half of the women with depression reported pain of mild intensity. Pain intensity was significantly correlated with the severity of depression (r2 = 0.076; P = 0.04) and tended to be correlated with the severity of anxiety, (r2 = 0.065; P = 0.07), and the number of depressive episodes (r2 = 0.072; P = 0.09). Women with MDD complained of fatigue, insomnia, and memory problems and experienced everyday negative stressors more frequently than controls. Quality of life was decreased in women with depression, as indicated by lower scores in the emotional and social well-being domains of the SF-36. SP (P pain more frequently than controls, had a lower quality of life, and complained more of daily stressors. Assessment of pain may be important in the clinical evaluation of women with MDD. SP and CGRP

  9. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  10. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and its components in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis on observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallajzadeh, Jamal; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Izadi, Neda; Karamzad, Nahid; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Ayubi, Erfan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Pakzad, Reza; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Sullman, Mark J M; Safiri, Saeid

    2018-05-21

    To perform a meta-analysis on the global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women. The meta-analysis also sought to measure the relationship menopause status has with MetS and its components. The Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL, DOAJ, and Google Scholar were all searched using the relevant keywords. Articles published during the period 2004 to 2017 that met our inclusion criteria and reported the prevalence of MetS among premenopausal and postmenopausal women were included. In the presence of heterogeneity, random-effects models were used to pool the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs), as measures of association in cross-sectional and comparative cross-sectional studies, respectively. The prevalence of MetS among postmenopausal women (119 studies [n = 95,115]) and the OR comparing the prevalence of MetS among postmenopausal and premenopausal women (23 studies [n = 66,801]) were pooled separately. The pooled prevalence of MetS among postmenopausal women was found to be 37.17% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.00%-39.31%), but varied from 13.60% (95% CI 13.55%-13.64%) to 46.00% (95% CI 1.90%-90.09%), depending upon the diagnostic criteria used. The overall pooled OR for MetS in postmenopausal women, compared with premenopausal women, was OR 3.54 (95% CI 2.92-4.30), but this ranged from OR 2.74 (95% CI 1.32-5.66) to OR 5.03 (95% CI 2.25-11.22), depending upon the criteria used. Furthermore, the odds of high fasting blood sugar (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.11-5.83), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03-2.03), high blood pressure (OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.01-7.78), high triglycerides (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.37-4.31), and high waist circumference (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.80-4.21) were all found to be higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The prevalence of MetS is relatively high in postmenopausal women and was more prevalent among postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy

  12. Beneficial impact of aerobic exercises on bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women under caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Iman Abbas; Elghawabi, Hamed Samir; Younan, Wael Bahat Fahmy; Sabbour, Adly Aly; Gobrial, Mona Abdel Messih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caloric restriction diet versus caloric restriction diet combined with aerobic exercises on bone mineral density (BMD) in obese premenopausal women. Forty premenopausal obese women were classified randomly into two groups equal in number. The first group (group A) received caloric restriction diet, while the second (group B) received caloric restriction diet combined with a program of aerobic exercises, over 3 months. The variables measured in this study included age, weight, height, body mass index, fat weight, lean mass, fat percent, basal metabolic rate, and BMD. The comparison between group A and group B showed significantly higher post-treatment lean mass, basal metabolic rate, and BMD in weight-bearing bones (L2-L4 lumbar spine and total hip) in group B compared to group A. In contrast to the BMD of the weight-bearing bones, the BMD of the radius showed significant decrease between the pre- and post-treatment results in groups A and B with no significant differences between the two groups. A greater improvement in the BMD of weight-bearing bones was observed in obese premenopausal women undergoing caloric restriction combined with exercise than in those not undergoing exercise. Anaerobic exercises incorporated into weight loss programs help offset the adverse effects of dietary restriction on bone.

  13. Mammographic density changes following discontinuation of tamoxifen in premenopausal women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Young-Seon; Yi, Ann

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate the changes in mammographic density after tamoxifen discontinuation in premenopausal women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers and the underlying factors METHODS: A total of 213 consecutive premenopausal women with breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment after curative surgery and underwent three mammograms (baseline, after tamoxifen treatment, after tamoxifen discontinuation) were included. Changes in mammographic density after tamoxifen discontinuation were assessed qualitatively (decrease, no change, or increase) by two readers and measured quantitatively by semi-automated software. The association between % density change and clinicopathological factors was evaluated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. After tamoxifen discontinuation, a mammographic density increase was observed in 31.9% (68/213, reader 1) to 22.1% (47/213, reader 2) by qualitative assessment, with a mean density increase of 1.8% by quantitative assessment compared to density before tamoxifen discontinuation. In multivariate analysis, younger age (≤ 39 years) and greater % density decline after tamoxifen treatment (≥ 17.0%) were independent factors associated with density change after tamoxifen discontinuation (p density change with a mean density increase of 1.8%, which was associated with younger age and greater density change after tamoxifen treatment. • Increased mammographic density after tamoxifen discontinuation can occur in premenopausal women. • Mean density increase after tamoxifen discontinuation was 1.8%. • Density increase is associated with age and density decrease after tamoxifen.

  14. Women's experience of maternal morbidity: a qualitative analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, S

    2016-07-01

    Maternal morbidity refers to pregnancy-related complications, ranging in severity from acute to chronic. In Ireland one in 210 maternities will experience a severe morbidity. Yet, how women internalize their experience of morbidity has gone largely unexplored. This study aimed to explore women\\'s experiences of maternal morbidity.

  15. Estimation of tissue and crevicular fluid oxidative stress marker in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rampalli Viswa; Sailaja, Sistla; Reddy, Aileni Amarender

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tissue and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis and menopause induces oxidative stress. According to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria, women diagnosed with periodontitis were subdivided into three groups of 31 participants each 1. Premenopausal 2. Perimenopausal and 3. Postmenopausal. GCF and gingival tissue samples were collected from sites with maximum probing depth. Tissue DNA was extracted from the gingival sample and 8-OHdG in the extracted DNA, and GCF samples were measured using ELISA. There was a highly significant difference in the overall GCF 8-OHdG levels among the three groups with the pairwise difference being highly significant between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups. However, no overall significant differences in tissue 8-OHdG levels were found among the three groups. Pairwise, highly significant differences were found between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups for tissue 8-OHdG levels. No significant correlations were found between various measure of periodontal disease and GCF/tissue 8-OHdG levels among all the groups. Premenopausal-postmenopausal and perimenopausal-postmenopausal transition resulted in significant increase in tissue and GCF 8-OHdG levels. However, no association was found between stages of reproductive ageing and tissue levels of 8-OHdG. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aju; Davidson, Nancy E

    2015-11-01

    Multiple strategies for endocrine treatment of premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer have been assessed and results have been presented over the last two years. These include tamoxifen for 5-10 years (ATLAS and aTTom), tamoxifen for 5 years followed by aromatase inhibitor (AI) for 5 years for women who have become postmenopausal (MA-17); ovarian ablation (OA) by surgery (EBCTCG overview); ovarian function suppression (OFS) by LHRH agonist (LHRH agonist meta-analysis); or combinations of approaches including OFS plus tamoxifen or AI (SOFT, TEXT, ABCSG 12 and E3193). Many of these trials have taken place in the backdrop of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy which can confound interpretation because such therapy can suppress ovarian function either transiently or permanently. Nonetheless these trials suggest in aggregate that 10 years of tamoxifen are better than 5 years and that a program of extended adjuvant therapy of tamoxifen for 5 years followed by aromatase inhibitor for 5 years is effective for suitable candidates. The SOFT and E3193 trials do not show a major advantage for use of OFS + tamoxifen compared to tamoxifen alone. The joint SOFT/TEXT analysis and ABCGS12 trials both suggest that outcomes can be excellent with the use of combined endocrine therapy alone in properly selected patients but give conflicting results with regard to potential benefits for OFS + AI compared with OFS + tamoxifen. Further work will be needed to ascertain long-term outcomes, identify factors that predict who will benefit from extended adjuvant endocrine therapy, and assess role of OFS by medical or surgical means. It is clear, however, that endocrine therapy is a critical part of the adjuvant regimen for most premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer, and a subset of these women with luminal A-type tumors can be safely treated with endocrine therapy alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogen and peptide YY are associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, J L; Toombs, R J; Ducher, G; Gibbs, J C; Williams, N I; De Souza, M J

    2011-08-01

    In women with anorexia nervosa, elevated fasting peptide YY (PYY) is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Prior research from our lab has demonstrated that fasting total PYY concentrations are elevated in exercising women with amenorrhea compared to ovulatory exercising women. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between fasting total PYY, average monthly estrogen exposure and BMD in non-obese premenopausal exercising women. Daily urine samples were collected and assessed for metabolites of estrone 1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnandiol glucuronide (PdG) for at least one menstrual cycle if ovulatory or a 28-day monitoring period if amenorrheic. Fasting serum samples were pooled over the measurement period and analyzed for total PYY and leptin. BMD and body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine whether measures of body composition, estrogen status, exercise minutes, leptin and PYY explained a significant amount of the variance in BMD at multiple sites. Premenopausal exercising women aged 23.8±0.9years with a mean BMI of 21.2±0.4kg/m(2) exercised 346±48min/week and had a peak oxygen uptake of 49.1±1.8mL/kg/min. Thirty-nine percent (17/44) of the women had amenorrhea. Fasting total PYY concentrations were negatively associated with total body BMD (p=0.033) and total hip BMD (p=0.043). Mean E1G concentrations were positively associated with total body BMD (p=0.033) and lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD (p=0.047). The proportion of variance in lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD explained by body weight and E1G cycle mean was 16.4% (R(2)=0.204, p=0.012). The proportion of variance in hip BMD explained by PYY cycle mean was 8.6% (R(2)=0.109, p=0.033). The proportion of variance in total body BMD explained by body weight and E1G cycle mean was 21.9% (R(2)=0.257, p=0.003). PYY, mean E1G and body weight are associated with BMD in premenopausal exercising women. Thus, elevated

  18. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Calorie Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy I

    2004-01-01

    This proposal entitled "effects of moderate aerobic exercise combined with caloric restriction on circulating estrogens and IGF-1 in premenopausal women" will provide important contributions regarding...

  19. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy I

    2004-01-01

    This proposal entitled "Effects of moderate aerobic exercise combined with caloric restriction on circulating estrogens and IGF-1 in premenopausal women" will provide important contributions regarding...

  20. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined with Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The proposal entitled "Effects of moderate aerobic exercise combined with caloric restriction on circulating estrogens and IGF-I in premenopausal women will provide important scientific contributions...

  1. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  2. Prevalence of functional disorders of androgen excess in unselected premenopausal women: a study in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchón, Raúl; Gambineri, Alessandra; Alpañés, Macarena; Martínez-García, M Ángeles; Pasquali, Renato; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2012-04-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. On the contrary, the prevalences of other disorders of androgen excess such as idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism remain unknown. We aimed to obtain an unbiased estimate of the prevalence in premenopausal women of (i) signs of androgen excess and (ii) PCOS, idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism. A multicenter prevalence survey included 592 consecutive premenopausal women (393 from Madrid, Spain and 199 from Bologna, Italy) reporting spontaneously for blood donation. Immediately before donation, we conducted clinical and biochemical phenotyping for androgen excess disorders. We determined the prevalence of (i) hirsutism, acne and alopecia as clinical signs of androgen excess and (ii) functional disorders of androgen excess, including PCOS, defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institute of Health criteria, idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism. Regarding clinical signs of hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and acne were equally frequent [12.2% prevalence; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.5-14.8%], whereas alopecia was uncommon (1.7% prevalence, 95% CI: 0.7-2.7%). Regarding functional disorders of androgen excess, PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism were equally frequent (5.4% prevalence, 95% CI: 3.6-7.2) followed by idiopathic hyperandrogenism (3.9% prevalence, 95% CI: 2.3-5.4). Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and functional disorders of androgen excess show a high prevalence in premenopausal women. The prevalences of idiopathic hyperandrogenism and idiopathic hirsutism are similar to that of PCOS, highlighting the need for further research on the pathophysiology, consequences for health and clinical implications of these functional forms of androgen excess.

  3. Practice points in gynecardiology: Abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women taking oral anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.E.M.; Euler, M.; Bongers, M.Y.; Rolden, H.J.A.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Ulrich, L.; Schenck-Gustafsson, K.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular menstrual

  4. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit L Jagtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  5. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: collaborative reanalysis of seven prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships of circulating concentrations of oestrogens, progesterone and androgens with breast cancer and related risk factors in premenopausal women are not well understood. Methods Individual data on prediagnostic sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were contributed by 7 prospective studies. Analyses were restricted to women who were premenopausal and under age 50 at blood collection, and to breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 50. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer associated with hormone concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression in up to 767 cases and 1699 controls matched for age, date of blood collection, and day of cycle, with stratification by study and further adjustment for cycle phase. The associations of hormones with risk factors for breast cancer in control women were examined by comparing geometric mean hormone concentrations in categories of these risk factors, adjusted for study, age, phase of menstrual cycle and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were two-sided. Findings ORs for breast cancer associated with a doubling in hormone concentration were 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.35) for oestradiol, 1.17 (1.03–1.33) for calculated free oestradiol, 1.27 (1.05–1.54) for oestrone, 1.30 (1.10–1.55) for androstenedione, 1.17 (1.04–1.32) for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 1.18 (1.03–1.35) for testosterone and 1.08 (0.97–1.21) for calculated free testosterone. Breast cancer risk was not associated with luteal phase progesterone (for a doubling in concentration OR=1.00 (0.92–1.09)), and adjustment for other factors had little effect on any of these ORs. The cross-sectional analyses in control women showed several associations of sex hormones with breast cancer risk factors. Interpretation Circulating oestrogens and androgens are positively associated with the risk for breast cancer in premenopausal women. PMID:23890780

  6. Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, Peter Riis; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2010-01-01

    We examined long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac adaptations elicited by recreational football (FG, n=9) and running (RG, n=10) in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with a control group (CG, n=9). Training was performed for 16 months ( approximately 2 weekly 1-h sessions). For FG, right...

  7. Nutrient intake and hormonal status of premenopausal vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists and premenopausal nonvegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, T D; Leklem, J E

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and prolactin levels was investigated in 14 premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist vegetarian (SV) women and 9 premenopausal non-Seventh-day Adventist nonvegetarian (NV) women. The SV subjects consumed less fat, especially saturated fat, and used significantly less fried food than the NV subjects. Plasma levels of estrone and estradiol-17 beta in the SV subjects were significantly lower than in the NV subjects. SV estradiol-17 beta and estriol levels were positively correlated with linoleic acid and protein intake, while NV prolactin levels were significantly correlated with intakes of oleic and linoleic acids and total fat. The data suggest that specific dietary nutrients were related to the hormonal milieu of these SV and NV subjects.

  8. Ovarian failure and cancer treatment: Incidence and interventions for premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ovarian failure may be a long-term consequence of cancer treatment for premenopausal women. Caused by several treatments, including radiation therapy and the alkylating agents, it produces signs and symptoms associated with menopause: hot flashes, amenorrhea, dyspareunia, loss of libido, and irritability. Critical factors that determine ovarian functioning after treatment for cancer are the patient's age at the time of therapy, the amount of radiation that the ovaries received, and the dose of the antineoplastic agent(s). Medical interventions, such as hormonal therapy and surgical repositioning of the ovaries, may maintain ovarian function for some women. Nursing intervention includes assessment, education, and counseling. Counseling focuses on how the prematurely menopausal patient feels about herself as indicated by self-esteem, body image, and sexuality

  9. Ovarian failure and cancer treatment: Incidence and interventions for premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Ovarian failure may be a long-term consequence of cancer treatment for premenopausal women. Caused by several treatments, including radiation therapy and the alkylating agents, it produces signs and symptoms associated with menopause: hot flashes, amenorrhea, dyspareunia, loss of libido, and irritability. Critical factors that determine ovarian functioning after treatment for cancer are the patient's age at the time of therapy, the amount of radiation that the ovaries received, and the dose of the antineoplastic agent(s). Medical interventions, such as hormonal therapy and surgical repositioning of the ovaries, may maintain ovarian function for some women. Nursing intervention includes assessment, education, and counseling. Counseling focuses on how the prematurely menopausal patient feels about herself as indicated by self-esteem, body image, and sexuality.

  10. Comparison of saline infusion sonohysterography and hysteroscopy in diagnosis of premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soguktas, Suna; Cogendez, Ebru; Kayatas, Semra Eser; Asoglu, Mehmet Resit; Selcuk, Selcuk; Ertekin, Aktug

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic effectiveness of transvaginal sonography (TVS), saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS), and diagnostic hysteroscopy (HS), with the pathologic specimen as a gold standard diagnostic method, in detecting endometrial pathology in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This prospective cohort study was conducted at Zeynep Kamil Education and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, and included 89 premenopausal women. All participants were examined first by TVS, further investigated with SIS and HS, and finally dilatation and curettage was performed when needed. The results obtained from these three methods were compared with the pathologic diagnoses. The positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) of TVS, SIS and HS were calculated by comparison with the final pathological diagnosis. In addition, area under the curve (AUC) values were also calculated. Polypoid lesion was the most common abnormal pathology. LR+ and LR- of TVS, SIS, and HS were 3.13 and 0.15, 9.83 and 0.07, 13.7 and 0.02 respectively in detection of any abnormal pathology, and the AUCs of TVS, SIS, and HS were 0.804, 0.920, and 0.954 respectively. When the three procedures were compared with each other separately, HS had the best diagnostic accuracy, and the diagnostic accuracy of HS and SIS was superior to TVS (p(1)=0.000, p(2)=0.000). For the detection of polypoid lesions, HS was the most accurate diagnostic procedure (AUC=0.947), followed by SIS (AUC=0.894) and TVS (AUC=0.778). HS provides the most accurate diagnosis and allows treatment in the same session in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Scanlon, Anne Blaes, Melissa Geller, Navneet S Majhail, Bruce Lindgren, Tufia Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health.METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up.RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68% and length (66% of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85% and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%. Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up.CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer.

  12. Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Chinami; Akiyoshi, Sayuri; Ishida, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko

    2017-09-01

    For premenopausal women with breast cancer, information on the effects of chemotherapy and the risk of infertility is important. In this study, the effect of chemotherapy on the ovarian function in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer was investigated, with an age-stratified analysis of the appearance of amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation after the use of chemotherapy with anthracyclines or taxanes. Premenopausal women diagnosed with operable Stage I-III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and underwent neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with the standard regimen of anthracyclines and/or taxanes were included. The patients were classified into age groups in 5-year increments, and the rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA), resumption of menstruation, and duration of CIA after chemotherapy were analyzed. The subjects consisted of 101 patients (median age 45 years). CIA occurred in 97 (96%) patients and 40 patients resumed menstruation. In all patients aged ≤39 years menstruation restarted, whereas in all patients aged ≥50 years, menstruation did not restart. For the patients who resumed menstruation, the younger the patients, the sooner menstruation tended to restart. The resumption of menstruation occurred within 1 year for younger patients aged around 30 years, but for those aged ≥35 years, 60% of cases took around 2-3 years for resumption. The incidence of CIA, the resumption of menstruation and duration of CIA after chemotherapy depend greatly on the patient's age.

  13. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  14. Recreational football training decreases risk factors for bone fractures in untrained premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Aagaard, P; Jakobsen, M D

    2010-01-01

    untrained Danish premenopausal women were randomized into two training groups (F and R) that trained 1.8+/-0.3 (+/-SD) and 1.9+/-0.3 h/week, respectively, and these groups were compared with an inactive control group (C). Jumping and dynamic muscle strength were tested and tibial vBMD was measured using...... peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Total vBMD in left and right tibia increased by 2.6+/-2.3% and 2.1+/-1.8% (P

  15. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasonography of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dupuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute-onset pelvic pain is an extremely common symptom in premenopausal women presenting to the emergency department. After excluding pregnancy in reproductive-age women, ultrasonography plays a major role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain, such as hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ovarian torsion, and tubo-ovarian abscess. Its availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation make ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in women of reproductive age. The primary goal of imaging in these patients is to distinguish between adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain that may be managed conservatively or medically, and those requiring emergency/urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention.

  17. Estrogen receptor protein content is different in abdominal than gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Cooper, Elizabeth E; Hickner, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    Premenopausal women demonstrate a distinctive gynoid body fat distribution and circulating estrogen status is associated with the maintenance of this adiposity patterning. Estrogen's role in modulation of regional adiposity may occur through estrogen receptors (ERs), which are present in human adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine regional differences in the protein content of ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) between the abdominal (AB) and gluteal (GL) subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Biopsies of the subcutaneous AB and GL adipose tissue were performed in 15 premenopausal women (7 Caucasian/8 African American, 25.1 ± 1.8 years, BMI 29.5 ± 0.5kg/m(2)). Adipose tissue protein content was measured by western blot analysis and correlation analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between ER protein content and anthropometric indices/body composition measurements. We found that ERα protein was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.0 ± 0.2 vs GL 0.67 ± 0.1 arbitrary units [AU], P=0.02), ERβ protein was higher in GL than AB (AB 0.78 ± 0.12 vs GL 1.3 ± 0.2 AU, P=0.002), ERα/ERβ ratio was higher in AB than GL (AB 1.9 ± 0.4 vs GL 0.58 ± 0.08 AU, P=0.007), and GPER protein content was similar in AB and GL (P=0.80) subcutaneous adipose tissue. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to gluteal ERβ (r(2)=0.315, P=0.03) and positively related to gluteal ERα/ERβ ratio (r(2)=0.406, P=0.01). These results indicate that depot specific ER content may be an important underlying determinant of regional effects of estrogen in upper and lower body adipose tissue of overweight-to-obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Menopausal Symptoms and Depression on the Quality of Life of Premenopausal Women With Breast Cancer in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Ae; Choi, So Young; Lee, Seonah

    2018-04-01

    As breast cancer survivors have increased, improving quality of life of the survivors becomes an important issue. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among menopausal symptoms, depression, and quality of life and to identify the factors affecting the quality of life in premenopausal women with breast cancer. This was a descriptive, correlational study using structured questionnaires for 90 premenopausal women with breast cancer attending the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Korea. Menopausal symptoms ( r = -0.770, p < .001) and depression ( r = -0.715, p < .001) negatively affected the participants' quality of life. The major factors affecting quality of life were employment ( t = -2.065, p = .042), depression ( t = -2.375, p = .020), and menopausal symptoms ( t = -3.863, p < .001). Menopausal symptoms were the strongest negative factor (β = -.508) affecting quality of life. Developing nursing intervention congruent with the culture of Korean breast cancer women with treatment-induced menopausal symptoms is a high priority.

  19. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  20. Apparent diffusion coefficients of normal uterus in premenopausal women with 3 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, F.; Chen, Z.; Zhong, Q.; Fu, L.; Ma, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the normal uterine cervical zonal structures (cervical epithelium, the junctional zone, and myometrium) during different phases of the menstrual cycle among premenopausal women in different age groups. Materials and methods: Seventy healthy women, who were divided into three age groups (group A, 24 women in their twenties; group B, 23 women in their thirties; group C, 23 women in their forties), underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) during the mid-proliferative and the mid-secretory phases. Results: The ADC values of each cervical zonal structure were significantly different from one another (p 0.05). Conclusion: ADC values of normal cervical epithelium and the junctional zone change with different phases of the menstrual cycle, which should be taken into consideration when early cervical disease is detected, when monitoring treatment response, and differentiating early tumour recurrence

  1. Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2013-07-01

    It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

  2. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaboration: A pooling project of studies participating in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Wright, Lauren B.; McGowan, Craig; Brook, Mark N.; McClain, Kathleen M.; Jones, Michael E.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Agnoli, Claudia; Baglietto, Laura; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Blot, William J.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Butler, Lesley; Chen, Yu; Doody, Michele M.; Dossus, Laure; Eliassen, A. Heather; Giles, Graham G.; Gram, Inger T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kitahara, Cari M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Larsson, Susanna C.; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Huiyan; Merritt, Melissa A.; Milne, Roger L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palmer, Julie R.; Peeters, Petra H.; Riboli, Elio; Rohan, Thomas E.; Sadakane, Atsuko; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vatten, Lars; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Sandler, Dale P.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This paper describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. PMID:28600297

  3. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and reproductive hormones in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L A; Troisi, R; Hatch, E E; Titus, L J; Rothman, K J; Harlow, B L

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women in the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with reproductive disorders in women, but little is known about its effects on endogenous hormones. We assessed the association between prenatal DES exposure and reproductive hormones among participants from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC), a longitudinal study of premenopausal women aged 36-45 years from Massachusetts (1995-1999). Prenatal DES exposure was reported at baseline (43 DES exposed and 782 unexposed). Early follicular-phase concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured at baseline and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured through 18 months. We used multivariable logistic and repeated-measures linear regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and percent differences in mean hormone values (β), respectively, comparing DES exposed with unexposed women, adjusted for potential confounders. DES-exposed women had lower mean concentrations of estradiol (pg/ml) (β=-15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -26.5%, -3.2%) and inhibin B (pg/ml) (β=-20.3%, CI: -35.1%, -2.3%), and higher mean concentrations of FSH (IU/I) (β=12.2%, CI: -1.5%, 27.9%) and LH (IU/I) (β=10.4%, CI: -7.2%, 31.3%), than unexposed women. ORs for the association of DES with maximum FSH>10 IU/I and minimum inhibin B<45 pg/ml--indicators of low ovarian reserve--were 1.90 (CI: 0.86, 4.22) and 4.00 (CI: 0.88-18.1), respectively. Prenatal DES exposure was associated with variation in concentrations of FSH, estradiol and inhibin B among women of late reproductive age.

  4. Misoprostol for cervical priming prior to hysteroscopy in postmenopausal and premenopausal nulliparous women; a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasma, M L; Louwerse, M D; Hehenkamp, W J; Geomini, P M; Bongers, M Y; Veersema, S; van Kesteren, P J; Tromp, E; Huirne, J A; Graziosi, G C

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reduction of pain by misoprostol compared with placebo prior to hysteroscopy in postmenopausal and premenopausal nulliparous women. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre double-blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Two Dutch teaching hospitals and one Dutch university medical

  5. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris for the treatment of premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fabiene Bernardes Castro; Zanolla Dias de Souza, Karla; Rezende, Camilla Russi; Geber, Selmo

    2018-05-01

    Although hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual complaint, there is no consensus for the ideal treatment. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of treating premenopausal women with HSDD with Tribulus terrestris and its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 40 premenopausal women reporting diminished libido, receiving T. terrestris or placebo. The questionnaires FSFI and the QS-F were used to evaluate sexual dysfunction before and after treatment. Patients treated with T. terrestris experienced improvement in total score of FSFI (p < .001) and domains "desire" (p < .001), "sexual arousal" (p = .005), "lubrication" (p = .001), "orgasm" (p <.001), "pain" (p = .030) and "satisfaction" (p = .001). Treatment with placebo did not improve the scores for the "lubrication" and "pain". QS-F scores showed that patients using T. terrestris had improvements in "desire" (p = .012), "sexual arousal/lubrication" (p = .002), "pain" (p = .031), "orgasm" (p = .004) and "satisfaction" (p = .001). Women treated with placebo did not score improvements. Women receiving T. terrestris had increased levels of free (p = .046) and bioavailable (p < .048) testosterone. T. terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of premenopausal women with HSDD as it was effective in reducing the symptoms, probably due to an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

  6. Premenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections have lower quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Siobhan S; Guo, Huifang; Raman, Lata; Tambyah, Paul A; Chen, Swaine L; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2018-05-22

    To examine the impact on quality of life of recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection among premenopausal Singaporean women, and to determine the risk factors for lower quality of life among these patients. A total of 85 patients with recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection who were referred to the Urology Department at the National University Hospital, Singapore, were prospectively recruited over a 3-year period to complete the validated Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1. In addition, demographic and clinical details including symptomology and medical history were analyzed for factors impacting quality of life. Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 results were compared with published population norms. After adjusting for age, gender and race, recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection patients had significantly lower quality of life on seven out of eight Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 domains when compared with age-, gender- and race-adjusted population norms for Singapore. Among those with recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection, those who also reported caffeine consumption had significantly lower Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 scores than those who did not. Those who reported chronic constipation also had consistently lower Short Form 36 Health Survey version 1 scores across all domains. Recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection has a negative impact on the quality of life of premenopausal, otherwise healthy women. Recurrent acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection patients who also have chronic constipation or consume caffeine have lower quality of life than those who do not. More studies are required to understand the relationships between these common problems and risk factors. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. META-ANALYSIS OF GENOME-WIDE STUDIES IDENTIFIES WNT16 AND ESR1 SNPS ASSOCIATED WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Karasik, David; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Liu, Ching-Ti; McGuigan, Fiona; Kemp, John P.; Giroux, Sylvie; Lai, Dongbing; Edenberg, Howard J.; Peacock, Munro; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Choh, Audrey C.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Lawlor, Debbie A; Evans, David M; Towne, Bradford; Blangero, John; Carless, Melanie A.; Kammerer, Candace; Goltzman, David; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Spector, Tim D.; Rousseau, Francois; Tobias, Jon H.; Akesson, Kristina; Econs, Michael J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Richards, J. Brent; Kiel, Douglas P.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants in genes associated with variation in bone mineral density (BMD), although most have been carried out in combined samples of older women and men. Meta-analyses of these results have identified numerous SNPs of modest effect at genome-wide significance levels in genes involved in both bone formation and resorption, as well as other pathways. We performed a meta-analysis restricted to premenopausal white women from four cohorts (n= 4,061 women, ages 20 to 45) to identify genes influencing peak bone mass at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Following imputation, age- and weight-adjusted BMD values were tested for association with each SNP. Association of a SNP in the WNT16 gene (rs3801387; p=1.7 × 10−9) and multiple SNPs in the ESR1/C6orf97 (rs4870044; p=1.3 × 10−8) achieved genome-wide significance levels for lumbar spine BMD. These SNPs, along with others demonstrating suggestive evidence of association, were then tested for association in seven Replication cohorts that included premenopausal women of European, Hispanic-American, and African-American descent (combined n=5,597 for femoral neck; 4,744 for lumbar spine). When the data from the Discovery and Replication cohorts were analyzed jointly, the evidence was more significant (WNT16 joint p=1.3 × 10−11; ESR1/C6orf97 joint p= 1.4 × 10−10). Multiple independent association signals were observed with spine BMD at the ESR1 region after conditioning on the primary signal. Analyses of femoral neck BMD also supported association with SNPs in WNT16 and ESR1/C6orf97 (p< 1 × 10−5). Our results confirm that several of the genes contributing to BMD variation across a broad age range in both sexes have effects of similar magnitude on BMD of the spine in premenopausal women. These data support the hypothesis that variants in these genes of known skeletal function also affect BMD during the premenopausal period. PMID:23074152

  8. The contribution of body composition, substrates and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.; Buemann, Benjamin; Christensen, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate use were measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers on a fixed physical program and related to body composition and plasma concentrations of various substrates and thermogenic hormones. Fifty premenopausal women with a wide range of ...

  9. Study on the changes of serum levels of PINP, ICTP and 25-OH-VitD3 in pre-menopausal women and their relationship with BMD changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinshan; Luo Liangping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and 25-OH-VitD 3 in premenopausal women and their relationship with changes of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: BMD (at L 1 -L 4 and hip region) was examined with dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) and serum levels of PINP, ICTP, 25-OH-VitD 3 were determined with RIA in 67 pre-menopausal women. Results: (1) Of the 67 women tested, 19 (28.4%) were found to be with low BMD. The mean BMD values in this group were significantly lower than those in the other 48 women. (2) The serum levels of PINP and ICTP in the 19 women with lower BMD (56.9±18.2 μg/L and 3.78±0.83 μg/L respectively) were much higher than those in the other 48 women (43.8±15.1 μg/L and 3.45±0.98 μg/L respectively, for PINP, P 0.05). The serum 25-OH-VitD 3 levels in the two groups of pre-menopausal women were not significantly different (25.6±7.8 ng/ml vs 27.4±9.2 ng/ml, P>0.05). (3) PINP levels were positively correlated with BMD values (r=0.274∼0.402, P 3 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD levels (r=-0.226∼0.083, P>0.05). PINP levels were weakly positively correlated with 25-OH-VitD 3 levels (r=0.395, P<0.05). Conclusion: There was tendency of increasing rate of bone turnover in pre-menopausal women, which might lead to development of osteoporosis. Early detection with BMD and serum markers of bone resorption (e.q. ICTP) measurement would be highly valuable for implement of prophylactic measures. (authors)

  10. The contribution of reproductive factors and family history towards premenopausal breast cancer risk in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razif, S Mohd; Sulaiman, S; Hanie, S Soraya; Aina, E Nor; Rohaizak, M; Fuad, I; Nurismah, M I; Sharifah, N A

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. This study aimed to determine the reproductive for premenopausal breast cancer risk in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted in 216 histopathologically confirmed cases of premenopausal breast cancer and 216 community-based controls that were matched by age within a 5-year period and ethnicity. The results of this study showed that premenopausal breast cancer risks were strongly related to parity, number of live births and family history of breast cancer. Premenopausal women with these known reproductive and family history risk factors should take extra measures to undergo appropriate screening method for early detection of breast cancer.

  11. Effect of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on markers of cardiovascular risk among premenopausal women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraker, Randi E; Pennell, Michael; Sprangers, Peter; Vitolins, Mara Z; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-08-01

    Low-fat and low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets can have a beneficial effect on longitudinal measures of blood pressure and blood lipids. We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in blood pressure and blood lipids in a population of premenopausal women. We hypothesized that results may differ by level of adherence to the respective diet protocol and baseline presence of hypertension or hyperlipidemia. Overweight or obese premenopausal women were randomized to a low-fat (n=41) or low-carbohydrate (n=38) diet. As part of the 52-week Lifestyle Eating and Fitness (LEAF) intervention trial, we fit linear mixed models to determine whether a change in outcome differed by treatment arm. Within-group trends in blood pressure and blood lipids did not differ (p>0.30). Across study arms, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP, 3 mm Hg, p=0.01) over time, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not change significantly over the course of the study. Blood lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoproteins [LDL], and high-density lipoproteins [HDL]) all exhibited nonlinear trends over time (p0.20). We observed a decline in SBP among women who were hypertensive at baseline (p0.40). Our results support that dietary interventions may be efficacious for lowering blood pressure and blood lipids among overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, a decrease in SBP was the only favorable change that was sustained in this study population. These changes can be maintained over the course of a 1-year intervention, yet changes in blood lipids may be less sustainable.

  12. Does the addition of saline infusion sonohysterography to transvaginal ultrasonography prevent unnecessary hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, John; Sharp, Benjamin; Elliot, Nikki; McEwing, Rachael; McGeoch, Graham; Shand, Brett; Holland, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    This observational case series in 65 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding evaluated whether transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) prevented unnecessary hysteroscopy. Although SIS indicated that hysteroscopy was unnecessary in eight women, this benefit was offset by the invasive nature of the scan, the number of endometrial abnormalities falsely detected by SIS and the cost of the additional investigation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Using micronized progesterone for treatment of premenopausal age women suffering from severe premenstrual syndrome

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    Horbatiuk Olha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we carried out the clinical and laboratory research of severe PMS (premenstrual syndrome treatment in premenopausal age women. Herein, 37 women were examined and observed before the beginning of treatment and three months after it. Medication containing micronized progesterone was used for treatment (sublingually, 100 mg from 11 to 25 days of menstrual cycle. After three months of micronized progesterone treatment, 86.5% of all women-participants of the study were observed to have full regression of clinical symptoms, while 13.5% of all patients were observed to have decrease in clinical symptoms of severe PMS. Moreover, hormonal research results revealed significant (1.3 times decrease in LH (Luteinizing hormone level and (1.3 times increase in progesterone level after three months of treatment (р<0.05. The high bio-accessibility of the medication and its natural structure made it possible to decrease the dose and avoid risks of hepatotoxicity.

  14. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

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    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  15. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women

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    Shenghui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI, and high-intensity training group (HI. Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50–56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI or 65–70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI. Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI. Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  16. Serum Müllerian inhibiting substance levels are lower in premenopausal women with breast precancer and cancer

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    Sticca Robert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In preclinical studies, müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS has a protective affect against breast cancer. Our objective was to determine whether serum MIS concentrations were associated with cancerous or precancerous lesions. Blood from 30 premenopausal women was collected and serum extracted prior to their undergoing breast biopsy to assess a suspicious lesion found on imaging or physical examination. Based on biopsy results, the serum specimens were grouped as cancer (invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ, precancer (atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ, or benign. Findings Serum from women with cancer and precancer (p = .0009 had lower MIS levels than serum from women with benign disease. Conclusion Our findings provide preliminary evidence for MIS being associated with current breast cancer risk, which should be validated in a larger population.

  17. The impact of gastric bypass surgery on sex hormones and menstrual cycles in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mette Mandrup; Madsbad, Sten; Hougaard, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has adverse effects on ovulation, menstrual cyclicity and oocyte development leading to clinical symptoms such as infertility and menstrual disorders. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and may improve ovarian function. In 31 premenopausal...... women, 18 eu- and 13 oligo-/amenorrhoic, we followed the changes in follicular phase sex hormones 3, 6 and 12 month after RYGB. The average weight loss during the first postoperative year was 39.6 kg. The insulin sensitivity and serum insulin improved markedly especially within the first three...

  18. The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages and liver enzymes among healthy premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony, Maya K; Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ahrens, Katherine A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Rotman, Yaron; Perkins, Neil J; Pollack, Anna Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), added sugar, and total fructose and serum concentrations of liver enzymes among healthy, reproductive-age women. A prospective cohort of 259 premenopausal women (average age 27.3 ± 8.2 years; BMI 24.1 ± kg/m(2)) were followed up for up to two menstrual cycles, providing up to eight fasting blood specimens/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women with a history of chronic disease were excluded. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) were measured in serum samples. Linear mixed models estimated associations between average SSB, added sugar, and total fructose intake and log-transformed liver enzymes adjusting for age, race, body mass index, total energy and alcohol intake, and Mediterranean diet score. For every 1 cup/day increase in SSB consumption and 10 g/day increase in added sugar and total fructose, log ALT increased by 0.079 U/L (95 % CI 0.022, 0.137), 0.012 U/L (95 % CI 0.002, 0.022), and 0.031 (0.012, 0.050), respectively, and log AST increased by 0.029 U/L (-0.011, 0.069), 0.007 U/L (0.000, 0.014), and 0.017 U/L (0.004, 0.030), respectively. Women who consumed ≥1.50 cups/day (12 oz can) SSB versus less had 0.127 U/L (95 % CI 0.001, 0.254) higher ALT [percent change 13.5 % (95 % CI 0.1, 28.9)] and 0.102 (95 % CI 0.015, 0.190) higher AST [percent change 10.8 % (95 % CI 1.5, 20.9)]. Sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with higher serum ALT and AST concentrations among healthy premenopausal women, indicating that habitual consumption of even moderate SSB may elicit hepatic lipogenesis.

  19. Meta-analysis of genome-wide studies identifies WNT16 and ESR1 SNPs associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Daniel L; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Karasik, David; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Liu, Ching-Ti; McGuigan, Fiona; Kemp, John P; Giroux, Sylvie; Lai, Dongbing; Edenberg, Howard J; Peacock, Munro; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Choh, Audrey C; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Evans, David M; Towne, Bradford; Blangero, John; Carless, Melanie A; Kammerer, Candace; Goltzman, David; Kovacs, Christopher S; Prior, Jerilynn C; Spector, Tim D; Rousseau, Francois; Tobias, Jon H; Akesson, Kristina; Econs, Michael J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Richards, J Brent; Kiel, Douglas P; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-03-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants in genes associated with variation in bone mineral density (BMD), although most have been carried out in combined samples of older women and men. Meta-analyses of these results have identified numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of modest effect at genome-wide significance levels in genes involved in both bone formation and resorption, as well as other pathways. We performed a meta-analysis restricted to premenopausal white women from four cohorts (n = 4061 women, aged 20 to 45 years) to identify genes influencing peak bone mass at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. After imputation, age- and weight-adjusted bone-mineral density (BMD) values were tested for association with each SNP. Association of an SNP in the WNT16 gene (rs3801387; p = 1.7 × 10(-9) ) and multiple SNPs in the ESR1/C6orf97 region (rs4870044; p = 1.3 × 10(-8) ) achieved genome-wide significance levels for lumbar spine BMD. These SNPs, along with others demonstrating suggestive evidence of association, were then tested for association in seven replication cohorts that included premenopausal women of European, Hispanic-American, and African-American descent (combined n = 5597 for femoral neck; n = 4744 for lumbar spine). When the data from the discovery and replication cohorts were analyzed jointly, the evidence was more significant (WNT16 joint p = 1.3 × 10(-11) ; ESR1/C6orf97 joint p = 1.4 × 10(-10) ). Multiple independent association signals were observed with spine BMD at the ESR1 region after conditioning on the primary signal. Analyses of femoral neck BMD also supported association with SNPs in WNT16 and ESR1/C6orf97 (p women. These data support the hypothesis that variants in these genes of known skeletal function also affect BMD during the premenopausal period. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Bone Mineral Density Is Positively Related to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Findings From a Population-Based Study in Adolescents and Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Monika; Deere, Kevin; Lawlor, Debbie A; Benfield, Li; Tobias, Jon H; Gregson, Celia L

    2016-12-01

    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are both common causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies, mainly of people older than 60 years, suggest a relationship between these conditions. Our aim was to determine the association between bone characteristics and CVD markers in younger and middle-aged individuals. Women (n = 3366) and their adolescent offspring (n = 4368) from the UK population-based cohort study, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were investigated. We measured total body (TB) and hip bone mineral density (BMD), TB bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by high-resolution ultrasound. Arterial distensibility was calculated as the difference between systolic and diastolic arterial diameters. Linear regression determined associations between bone exposures and cIMT (in adolescents) and both cIMT and arterial distensibility (in women), generating partial correlation coefficients. Mean (SD) age of women was 48 (4.2) years, body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 (5.0) kg/m 2 , and 71% were premenopausal. In confounder-adjusted analyses (age, height, lean mass, fat mass, menopause, smoking, estrogen replacement, calcium/vitamin D supplementation, and education) TB and hip BMD were both positively associated with cIMT (0.071 [0.030, 0.112], p = 0.001; 0.063 [0.025, 0.101], p = 0.001, respectively). Femoral neck BMD and TB BMD, BMC, and BA were positively associated with arterial distensibility. Mean (SD) age of adolescents was 17 (0.4) years, BMI was 23 (4.1) kg/m 2 , and 44.5% were male. Total hip and TB measurements were positively associated with cIMT, with similar magnitudes of association to those found in their mothers. In contrast to most published findings, we identified weak positive associations between BMD and cIMT in predominantly premenopausal women and their adolescent offspring. We found greater femoral neck

  1. Replication of associations between LRP5 and ESRRA variants and bone density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, S; Elfassihi, L; Cole, D E C; Rousseau, F

    2008-12-01

    Replication is a critical step to validate positive genetic associations. In this study, we tested two previously reported positive associations. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) Val667Met and lumbar spine bone density are replicated. This result is in line with results from large consortiums such as Genomos. However, the estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA) repeat in the promoter is not replicated although the polymorphism studied was functional and could have been a causative variant. We sought to validate associations previously reported between LRP5 V667M polymorphism and lumbar spine (LS, p = 0.013) and femoral neck (FN, p = 0.0002) bone mineral density (BMD), and between ESRRA 23 base pair repeat polymorphism and LS BMD (p = 0.0036) in a sample of premenopausal Caucasian women using an independent sample. For the replication sample, we recruited 673 premenopausal women from the Toronto metropolitan area. All women were Caucasian and had BMD measured. LRP5 V667M was genotyped by allele-specific PCR and ESRRA repeats by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels. We reproduced the same association as we reported previously between LRP5 V667M and LS BMD (p = 0.015) but not with FN BMD (p = 0.254). The combined data from the two populations indicate an effect size of 0.28SD for LS BMD (p = 0.00048) and an effect size of 0.26 SD for FN BMD (p = 0.00037). In contrast, the association we reported earlier between ESRRA repeats and LS BMD was not replicated in the sample from Toronto (p = 0.645). The association between LRP5 V667M and LS BMD is confirmed but not that between ESRRA repeats and LS BMD. This result indicates that it is imperative to validate any positive association in an independent sample.

  2. Influence of number of deliveries and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density in premenopausal and young postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (posteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do Bilateral Vertical Jumps With Reactive Jump Landings Achieve Osteogenic Thresholds With and Without Instruction in Premenopausal Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissold, Tracey L; Winwood, Paul W; Cronin, John B; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2018-04-01

    Jumps have been investigated as a stimulus for bone development; however, effects of instruction, jump type, and jump-landing techniques need investigation. This study sought to identify whether ground reaction forces (GRFs) for bilateral vertical jumps (countermovement jumps and drop jumps) with reactive jump-landings (ie, jumping immediately after initial jump-landing), with instruction and with instruction withdrawn, achieve magnitudes and rates of strain previously shown to improve bone mass among premenopausal women. Twenty-one women (Mean ± SD: 43.3 ± 5.9 y; 69.4 ± 9.6 kg; 167 ± 5.5 cm; 27.5 ± 8.7% body fat) performed a testing session 'with instruction' followed by a testing session performed 1 week later with 'instruction withdrawn.' The magnitudes (4.59 to 5.49 body weight [BW]) and rates of strain (263 to 359 BW·s -1 ) for the jump-landings, performed on an AMTI force plate, exceeded previously determined thresholds (>3 BWs and >43 BW·s -1 ). Interestingly, significantly larger peak resultant forces, (↑10%; P = .002) and peak rates of force development (↑20%; P jump-landing (postreactive jump). Small increases (ES = 0.22-0.42) in all landing forces were observed in the second jump-landing with 'instruction withdrawn.' These jumps represent a unique training stimulus for premenopausal women and achieve osteogenic thresholds thought prerequisite for bone growth.

  4. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  5. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women

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    Fernando Zapata-Gonzalez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2. We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127. It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032, and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women.

  6. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  7. Vitamin D Intake among Premenopausal Women Living in Jeddah: Food Sources and Relationship to Demographic Factors and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani A. Zareef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saudi women depend on food sources to maintain their serum 25(OH D concentrations because covering by traditional clothing and time spent indoors limit their sun exposure. Little is known about vitamin D intake and its main food sources in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the association between vitamin D and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in young women is not well researched. Objectives. To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake among Saudi women as compared to the estimated average requirements (EARs, to identify dietary vitamin D sources, to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake, and to assess bone health and the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with BMD. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 257 premenopausal women aged 20–50 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Dietary vitamin D and calcium were assessed by the Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a subset of women n=102 at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Results. Sixty-five percent of women were below the EAR for vitamin D, and 61% fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products, supplements, and fish contributed most to vitamin D intake. Increased age was an independent determinant of sufficient vitamin D intake p<0.001. The prevalence of osteopenia was 33% in the lumbar spine and 30% in the femur neck. There was a significant positive association between calcium intake and BMD at the lumbar spine p=0.043 after controlling for body mass index and energy intake. Vitamin D intake was not significantly different between women with low and normal bone mass. Conclusion. Premenopausal women in Jeddah have insufficient vitamin D and calcium intakes. Public health strategies to improve nutrition in young women are needed, and expanding fortification programs to include all dairy products would be useful.

  8. Ethnic differences in the nutrient intake adequacy of premenopausal US women: results from the Third National Health Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Carriquiry, Alicia; Steck-Scott, Susan; Gaudet, Mia M

    2003-08-01

    To examine the adequacy of dietary intake of calcium; folate; and vitamins C, D, E, B-6, and B-12 in premenopausal US women of differing ethnicity. Analyses of single and duplicate 24-hour recalls were conducted to determine dietary intake during the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Three thousand five hundred eighty-five randomly selected women aged 20 to 50 years from across the United States who were not pregnant or lactating were examined between 1988 and 1994. Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the Iowa State University method for adjustment of the distribution. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to determine the proportion of women with inadequate intake for each nutrient in each ethnic group. More than 75% of women irrespective of ethnic group had usual intakes of calcium lower than the new Adequate Intake. More than 90% of the women had inadequate intakes of folate and vitamin E from food sources alone. More than half of smokers had inadequate intakes of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were low in less than 10% of these women. This article provides evidence that a high proportion of premenopausal US women are underconsuming a variety of nutrients. Dietary intakes alone are not currently adequate to meet the new recommended intakes. Nutritional supplement use is widespread and effective, but does not eliminate the concerns for at-risk populations. Awareness of the general inadequacies in intakes of vitamin E and folic acid at large, and in many women vitamin C as well, can help direct individual dietary recommendations and place the emphasis in group counseling on nutrients that are of widespread concern. In addition, foods rich in vitamins B-6 and of general nutritional benefit should be emphasized among African American women in the United States as a substantial proportion of this group is still showing inadequate intakes from foods.

  9. Lack of influence of simple premenopausal hysterectomy on bone mass and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lind, C; Nilas, L

    1995-01-01

    urinary calcium corrected for creatinine excretion. RESULTS: Women who had undergone premenopausal hysterectomy had similar bone mineral densities compared with women with an intact uterus in all compartments, apart from a 6% to 11% higher bone mineral density (p

  10. [Prevalence, awareness, status of treatment and control on type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49 in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Wang, Z Q; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2018-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the rates on prevalence, awareness, status on treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49, in 2013. Methods: Data on China Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance in year 2013 was used for analysis. Source of data covered 302 surveillance points which were selected by Multi-stage cluster random sampling method that including 176 534 adults over 18 years of age, with 46 674 premenopausal women aged 18-49. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were determined after a 10-hour overnight fast for all the participants, before a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among participants without a self-reported history of diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes was defined according to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria-fasting blood glucose level as ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 h) level as ≥11.1 mmol/L. After being weighed, according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the sample was used to estimate the rates of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus by age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 5.6% among the Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49. No statistical difference on the prevalence rates (5.7% and 5.4%, respectively) was seen, between participants from the rural or the urban areas. Prevalence rates in the eastern, central or western geographic areas were 5.8%, 6.2% and 4.4% respectively. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes appeared as 29.3%, 27.9% and 29.4% in childbearing women aged 18-49. The rate of treatment was 95.4% among those who knew their diabetic situation in childbearing women aged 18-49 years. The control rate of diabetes was 38.9% among those who had taken measures to control glucose, in 18-49-year-old childbearing women. The rate of awareness on diabetes in childbearing

  11. Listening to women's voices: the quality of care of women experiencing severe maternal morbidity, in Accra, Ghana.

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    Ozge Tunçalp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women who survive severe obstetric complications can provide insight into risk factors and potential strategies for prevention of maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. We interviewed 32 women, in an urban facility in Ghana, who had experienced severe morbidity defined using a standardized WHO near-miss definition and identification criteria. Women provided personal accounts of their experiences of severe maternal morbidity and perceptions of the care they received. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study took place in a referral facility in urban Accra, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who had either a maternal near miss (n = 17 or a potentially life-threatening complication (n = 15. The most common themes surrounding the traumatic delivery were the fear of dying and concern over the potential (or actual loss of the baby. For many women, the loss of a baby negatively influenced how they viewed and coped with this experience. Women's perceptions of the quality of the care highlighted several key factors such as the importance of information, good communication and attitudes, and availability of human (i.e., more doctors and physical resources (i.e., more beds, water at the facility. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that experiences of women with severe maternal morbidity may inform different aspects of quality improvement in the facilities, which in turn have a positive impact on future health seeking behavior, service utilization and reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality.

  12. Sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women could be related to hormonal profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fabiene Bernardes Castro; Coimbra, Bruna Barbosa; Lopes, Gerson Pereira; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a public health problem that affects women's quality of life. Although the relationship between some hormones and the FSD has been described, it is not well established for all hormones. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association between hormonal dysfunction and sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women. We performed a cross-sectional study with 60 patients with regular menstrual cycles, with age ranging from 18 to 44 years, with previous diagnosis of FSD. All patients were evaluated using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire and had the levels of total testosterone, prolactin (PRL), thyroid-releasing hormone and free testosterone index measured. Among the 60 patients, 43 (71.7%) were diagnosed with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), 9 (15%) had anorgasmy and 8 (3.3%) had sexual pain dysfunction. Hormonal evaluation, demonstrated that 79.1% of patients with HSDD, 78.4% of patients with anorgasmy and 50% of patients with sexual pain dysfunction had female androgen insensitivity. We can conclude that there is an important association between low levels of total and free testosterone and FSD. This finding offers a new alternative for diagnosis and treatment of HSDD. Moreover, given the potential role of androgens in sexual function, randomized controlled trials with adequate long-term follow-up are essential to confirm its possible effect.

  13. Thyroid hormones and menstrual cycle function in a longitudinal cohort of premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Howards, Penelope P; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Spencer, Jessica B; Terrell, Metrecia L; Marcus, Michele

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies have reported that hyperthyroid and hypothyroid women experience menstrual irregularities more often compared with euthyroid women, but reasons for this are not well-understood and studies on thyroid hormones among euthyroid women are lacking. In a prospective cohort study of euthyroid women, this study characterised the relationship between thyroid hormone concentrations and prospectively collected menstrual function outcomes. Between 2004-2014, 86 euthyroid premenopausal women not lactating or taking hormonal medications participated in a study measuring menstrual function. Serum thyroid hormones were measured before the menstrual function study began. Women then collected first morning urine voids and completed daily bleeding diaries every day for three cycles. Urinary oestrogen and progesterone metabolites (estrone 3-glucuronide (E 1 3G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G)) and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured and adjusted for creatinine (Cr). Total thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations were positively associated with Pd3G and E 1 3G. Women with higher (vs lower) T 4 had greater luteal phase maximum Pd3G (Pd3G = 11.7 μg/mg Cr for women with high T 4 vs Pd3G = 9.5 and 8.1 μg/mg Cr for women with medium and low T 4 , respectively) and greater follicular phase maximum E 1 3G (E 1 3G = 41.7 ng/mg Cr for women with high T 4 vs E 1 3G = 34.3 and 33.7 ng/mg Cr for women with medium and low T 4 , respectively). Circulating thyroid hormone concentrations were associated with subtle differences in menstrual cycle function outcomes, particularly sex steroid hormone levels in healthy women. Results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between thyroid function and the menstrual cycle, and may have implications for fertility and chronic disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A cross-sectional study of different patterns of oral contraceptive use among premenopausal women and circulating IGF-1: implications for disease risk

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    Knight Julia A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is important in normal growth, development, and homeostasis. Current use of oral contraceptives (OC decreases IGF-1 concentrations; however, the effect of past use, age/timing of use, and type of OC used on IGF-1 levels is unknown. OC are the most commonly used form of birth control worldwide. Both IGF-1 and OC use have been linked to premenopausal breast and colorectal cancers, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Understanding the effects of different patterns of OC use on IGF-1 levels may offer insight into its influence on disease risk in young women. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 328 premenopausal women ages 18 to 21 and 31 to 40 we examined the relationship between different patterns of OC use and circulating IGF-1 using adjusted linear regression analysis. Information on OC use was obtained through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Plasma IGF-1 was assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Among women aged 18 to 21, ever OC use was significantly associated with decreased IGF-1 levels compared to never use (β = -57.2 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval (CI: -88.7, -25.8. Among women aged 31 to 40, past users who first used OC at 25 years of age or older (β = 43.8 ng/ml, 95% CI: 8.8, 78.8, in the last 15 years (β = 35.1 ng/ml, 95% CI: 9.3, 61.0 or after 1995 (β = 46.6 ng/ml, 95% CI: 13.4, 79.8 had significantly higher IGF-1 levels compared to never users. Conclusion This is the first study to highlight the long term effects of OC use after cessation on IGF-1 levels among premenopausal women, which previously were thought to be transitory. Future studies of past use and IGF-1 levels are required and must consider age/timing of use and type/generation of OC used. Additional studies are needed to confirm the potential mediation of IGF-1 levels in the links between OC use and health outcomes.

  15. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A; Gerweck, Anu V; Barber, Lauren A; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21-45 y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (pbone formation. A six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor of P1NP. GH replacement in abdominally obese premenopausal women for 6 months increased bone turnover and bone marrow fat. Reductions in abdominal fat, and inflammation, and increases in IGF-1, lean mass and vitamin D were associated with increased bone formation. The increase in bone marrow fat may

  16. Age and body mass index-dependent relationship between correction of iron deficiency anemia and insulin resistance in non-diabetic premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, A.; Sevnic, C.; Selamaet, U.; Kamaci, B.; Atalay, S.

    2007-01-01

    No prospective studies have evaluated the effects of correction of iron deficiency anemia on insulin resistance in non-diabetic premenopausal women with iron deficiency anemia. All patients were treated with oral iron preparations. Insulin resistance was calculated with the Homeostasis Model Assessment formula. All patients were dichotomized by the median for age and BMI to assess how the relationship between iron deficiency anemia and insulin resistance was affected by the age and BMI. Although the fasting glucose levels did not change meaningfully, statistically significant decreases were found in fasting insulin levels following anemia treatment both in the younger age ( = 40 years) and the high BMI (>-27Kg/m) subgroups. Post-treatment fasting insulin levels were positively correlated both with BMI (r=0.386, P=0.004) and post-treatment hemoglobin levels. (r=0.285, P=0.036). Regression analysis revealed that the factors affecting post-treatment insulin levels were BMI (P=0.001) and post-treatment hemoglobin levels (p=0.030). Our results show that following he correction of iron deficiency anemia, insulin levels and HOMA scores decrease in younger and lean non-diabetic premenopausal women. (author)

  17. Body mass index had different effects on premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risks: a dose-response meta-analysis with 3,318,796 subjects from 31 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanzi; Liu, Li; Zhou, Quan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Cai, Jialin; Wang, Yaxuan; Qi, Minjie; Sun, Panpan; Ping, Zhiguang; Fu, Xiaoli

    2017-12-08

    There is sufficient evidence supporting a relationship between increased body mass index (BMI) and an increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. However, most studies have found a decreased risk for premenopausal breast cancer. This study was conducted to find out the different effects of BMI on the risk of breast cancer among premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and explore the potential factors that influence the associations. A dose-response meta-analysis with 3,318,796 participants from 31 articles was conducted. Cohort studies that included BMI and corresponding breast cancer risk were selected through various databases including PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Scientific Journals (VIP). Random effects models were used for analyzing the data. The summary relative risks (RRs) were 1.33 (95%CI: 1.20-1.48) and 0.94(95%CI: 0.80-1.11) among postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively. The dose-response meta-analysis indicated a positive non-linear association between BMI and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women, and compared to the mean level of the normal BMI category (21.5 kg/m 2 ) the RR in total postmenopausal women were1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.05) per 1 kg/m 2 increment. However, no statistically significant association among total premenopausal women was detected. In subgroup analysis among European premenopausal women, the summary RR was 0.79(95%CI: 0.70-0.88). The non-linear relationship showed a negative non-linear association between BMI and breast cancer risk among European premenopausal women. When compared to the mean level of the normal BMI category, the RRs were 0.98 (95%CI: 0.96-1.00) per 1 kg/m 2 increment, respectively. In line with previous studies BMI had different effects on pre-menopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, contrary to previous studies, a high BMI was not associated with decreased risk in total pre-menopausal women

  18. What is the current status of ovarian suppression/ablation in women with premenopausal early-stage breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michaela J; Davidson, Nancy E

    2009-01-01

    The role of ovarian suppression/ablation (OS/OA) in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer has been evolving for more than a century. It is clear that OS/OA is an effective adjuvant therapy for these women, but despite numerous studies enrolling thousands of women, many unanswered questions remain. In particular, a major question is whether additional benefit is gained with combination treatment comprising luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists and tamoxifen over tamoxifen alone. Ongoing trials also are assessing the coupling of aromatase inhibitors (traditionally contraindicated in these patients because of paradoxic stimulation of estrogen production) and LH-RH agonists. Any potential disease-free or overall survival advantage of combination treatment must be balanced against a possible increase in adverse effects and impairment of quality of life. This review focuses on new data on how to incorporate OS/OA into the rational treatment of this challenging patient population.

  19. Successful treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer in premenopausal women with an aromatase inhibitor after failure with oral or intrauterine progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Straubhar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young women with endometrial intraepithelial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrial carcinoma are potential candidates for conservative fertility sparing therapy utilizing progesterone rather than hysterectomy. High-dose progesterone treatment is associated with 55–80% initial response but high relapse rates. Using aromatase inhibitors in conjunction with high-dose progesterone has largely been unstudied. Case descriptions: Three obese premenopausal women with endometrial cancer failed to respond to oral or intrauterine progesterone as first line therapy. Due to their desire to continue to pursue fertility sparing treatment options, an aromatase inhibitor was added to their treatment regimen. This resulted in resolution of their malignancy in each case. Discussion: In obese premenopausal women, the mechanism of malignant transformation in endometrial carcinoma is considered to be an association with relatively high levels of serum estrogen from peripheral conversion of androgens to estrone in adipose tissue with a deficiency in progesterone exposure due to chronic anovulation. Using aromatase inhibitors seems reasonable as an adjunct to progesterone given the high likelihood that this population has a significant proportion of their estrogen production coming from peripheral conversion in adipose tissue. This case series is unique in that each woman initially failed to respond to progesterone but had resolution when an aromatase inhibitor was added to their treatment regimen. This would suggest that obese women with low grade malignancy or hyperplasia who have no radiographic evidence of deep myometrial invasion, ovarian or retroperitoneal metastases and who wish to retain their fertility may be treated with intrauterine progesterone and an aromatase inhibitor.

  20. HFE C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes are at low risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrin, Lyle C; Bertalli, Nadine A; Dalton, Gregory W; Osborne, Nicholas J; Constantine, Clare C; McLaren, Christine E; English, Dallas R; Gertig, Dorota M; Delatycki, Martin B; Nicoll, Amanda J; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Anderson, Gregory J; Olynyk, John K; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J

    2009-07-01

    The risk of hemochromatosis-related morbidity is unknown among HFE compound heterozygotes (C282Y/H63D). We used a prospective population-based cohort study to estimate the prevalence of elevated iron indices and hemochromatosis-related morbidity for compound heterozygotes. In all, 31,192 subjects of northern European descent were genotyped for HFE C282Y and H63D. An HFE-genotype stratified random sample of 1,438 subjects, followed for an average of 12 years to a mean age of 65 years, completed questionnaires and gave blood. Clinical examinations were blinded to HFE genotype. A total of 180 (84 males) clinically examined C282Y/H63D participants were compared with 330 (149 males) controls with neither HFE mutation; 132 (65 males) and 270 (122 males), respectively, had serum iron measures at both timepoints. Mean serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TS) were significantly greater for male and female compound heterozygotes than for wild-types at baseline and follow-up (all P females who were premenopausal at baseline, where SF was similar in both genotype groups. For subjects with serum measures from both baseline and follow-up, mean SF and TS levels did not change significantly for men or for postmenopausal women, but for premenopausal women SF levels increased from 43 to 109 microg/L for compound heterozygotes and from 35 to 64 microg/L for wild-types (both P female compound heterozygotes had a similar prevalence of hemochromatosis-related morbidity to wild-types. One of 82 males and zero of 95 females had documented iron overload-related disease. For male compound heterozygotes, mean iron indices do not change during middle age but for female compound heterozygotes menopause results in increased mean SF. Although compound heterozygotes might maintain elevated iron indices during middle age, documented iron overload-related disease is rare.

  1. Uptake of tamoxifen in consecutive premenopausal women under surveillance in a high-risk breast cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, L S; Evans, D G; Wiseman, J; Fox, J; Greenhalgh, R; Affen, J; Juraskova, I; Stavrinos, P; Dawe, S; Cuzick, J; Howell, A

    2014-04-02

    Randomised trials of tamoxifen versus placebo indicate that tamoxifen reduces breast cancer risk by approximately 33%, yet uptake is low. Approximately 10% of women in our clinic entered the IBIS-I prevention trial. We assess the uptake of tamoxifen in a consecutive series of premenopausal women not in a trial and explore the reasons for uptake through interviews. All eligible women between 33 and 46 years at ≥17% lifetime risk of breast cancer and undergoing annual mammography in our service were invited to take a 5-year course of tamoxifen. Reasons for accepting (n=15) or declining (n=15) were explored using semi-structured interviews. Of 1279 eligible women, 136 (10.6%) decided to take tamoxifen. Women >40 years (74 out of 553 (13.4%)) and those at higher non-BRCA-associated risk were more likely to accept tamoxifen (129 out of 1109 (11.6%)). Interviews highlighted four themes surrounding decision making: perceived impact of side effects, the impact of others' experience on beliefs about tamoxifen, tamoxifen as a 'cancer drug', and daily reminder of cancer risk. Tamoxifen uptake was similar to previously ascertained uptake in a randomised controlled trial (IBIS-I). Concerns were similar in women who did or did not accept tamoxifen. Decision making appeared to be embedded in the experience of significant others.

  2. Assessment of bone metabolism in premenopausal females with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchendler, Dominika; Bolanowski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the commonest metabolic diseases of bone. Its possible causes may include thyroid hormonal dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on osseous tissue metabolism in premenopausal women. 38 women with hyperthyroidism, 40 with hypothyroidism and 41 healthy women participated in this study. Initially after 6 and 12 months, each patient underwent selected hormonal, immunological and biochemical tests, measurement of concentrations of bone turnover markers and densitometry were also performed. On initial evaluation, lower cortical bone density was found in patients with hyperthyroidism (femoral neck). After 12 months, an increase in BMD was seen, but it was still lower than in the control group. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of bone turnover markers, decreasing from the sixth month of treatment, were noted only in the group with hyperthyroidism. Statistically significant differences were not noted in the femoral neck nor in the lumbar spine BMD in patients with hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism poses a negative effect on bone metabolism. Hypothyroidism in premenopausal females does not have any influence on bone density.

  3. Physical activity patterns in morbidly obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Mohammad, Jamal; Samuel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    To compare physical activity patterns between morbidly obese and normal-weight women. Daily physical activity of 18 morbidly obese and 7 normal-weight women aged 30-58 years was measured for 2 days using the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) device. The obese group spent about 2 hr/day less standing and 30 min/day less walking than did the normal-weight group. Time spent standing (standing time) was positively associated with time spent walking (walking time). Age- and walking time-adjusted standing time did not differ according to weight status. Promoting standing may be a strategy to increase walking.

  4. Independent and combined influence of the FTO rs9939609 and MC4Rrs17782313 polymorphisms on hypocaloric diet induced changes in body mass and composition and energy metabolism in non-morbid obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labayen, Idoia; Margareto, Javier; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; Gorostegi, Ilargi; Illera, Maitane; Medrano, María; Barrenechea, Lurdes; Larrarte, Eider

    2015-05-01

    To examine the independent and combined influence of the FTOrs9939609 and the MC4Rrs17782313 polymorphisms on changes in fat mass (FM), resting energy expenditure (REE), leptin, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, after a 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention in non-morbid premenopausal obese women. Fat mass (dual X-ray absorptiometry), REE (indirect calorimetry) and plasma leptin and thyrotropin levels were measured (before and after the intervention) in 77 obese (BMI: 33.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) women (age: 36.8 ± 7.0y). There were no significant differences across FTOrs9939609 genotype groups (TT vs. A allele carriers, Ps>0.1) on changes in body mass (-8.6 ± 3.2% vs. -8.7 ± 3.3 %), FM (12.8 ± 4.7% vs. -12.9 ± 6.3%), REE (-11.3 ± 4.7 vs. -9.4 ± 8.1%), leptin (-34.1 ± 25.1% vs. -43.5 ± 24.1%) or TSH (5.2 ± 34.5% vs. -1.7 ± 27.1%) levels. Moreover, it was not observed any significant difference on changes in body mass (-8.6 ± 3.6% vs. -8.9 ± 2.6%), FM (-12.7 ± 6.1% vs. -13.4 ± 5.3%), REE (-9.8 ± 7.4% -9.4 ± 9.4%), leptin (-39.0 ± 26.9% vs. -44.8 ± 18.4%) or TSH (-1.0 ± 30.0% vs. 1.5 ± 26.5%) levels between non-C allele carriers and C allele carriers of the MC4Rrs17782313 (Ps>0.3). Finally, there were no significant difference on changes in body mass and composition, REE, leptin or TSH levels among non-risk allele carriers, carriers of the C allele risk of the MC4Rrs17782313, carriers of the A allele of the FTOrs9939609 and carriers of both risk alleles after the 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention (Ps>0.1). Carrying the A risk allele of the FTOrs9939609 and/or the C risk allele of the MC4Rrs17782313 did not influence body mass and FM loss, or REE decrease in obese women after a 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene polymorphisms and increased DNA damage in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luperini, B C O; Almeida, D C; Porto, M P; Marcondes, J P C; Prado, R P; Rasera, I; Oliveira, M R M; Salvadori, D M F

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased adipose tissue mass resulting from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Furthermore, there is a clearly defined relationship among fat mass expansion, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; leading to ROS-related pathological events. In the past years, genome-wide association studies have generated convincing evidence associating genetic variation at multiple regions of the genome with traits that reflect obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the relationships among the gene polymorphisms ghrelin (GHRL-rs26802), ghrelin receptor (GHSR-rs572169), leptin (LEP-rs7799039), leptin receptor (LEPR-rs1137101) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO-rs9939609) and obesity. The relationships among these gene variants and the amount of DNA damage were also investigated. Three hundred Caucasian morbidly obese and 300 eutrophic (controls) women were recruited. In summary, the results demonstrated that the frequencies of the GHRL, GHSR, LEP and LEPR polymorphisms were not different between Brazilian white morbidly obese and eutrophic women. Exceptions were the AA-FTO genotype and allele A, which were significantly more frequent in obese women than in the controls (0.23% vs. 0.10%; 0.46 vs. 0.36, respectively), and the TT-FTO genotype and the T allele, which were less frequent in morbidly obese women (p<0.01). Furthermore, significant differences in the amount of genetic lesions associated with FTO variants were observed only in obese women. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the analyzed SNPs were not closely associated with morbid obesity, suggesting they are not the major contributors to obesity. Therefore, our data indicated that these gene variants are not good biomarkers for predicting risk susceptibility for obesity, whereas ROS generated by the inflammatory status might be one of the causes of DNA damage in obese women, favoring

  6. [Quality of life and related factors among climacteric women from south Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Dino R S; Saciloto, Bruno; Artico, Graziela R; Fontana, Sabrina K R

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life in climacteric and associated factor among women from Southeast Brazil. A cross-section study of 506 women aged between 45 and 60 years old attended at a university climacteric clinic from South Brazil from June to October 2002. Hysterectomized women, as well as hormonal therapy or hormonal contraceptive users were excluded. The quality of life was evaluated by the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. The average of the age among the studied women was 51.3 (+/- 4.5) years old. About 15.4% were premenopausal, 34.4% perimenopausal and 50.2% postmenopausal women. The quality of life showed up deteriorated among the studied women. The factors related with quality of life were: the educational level (p < 0.01), the confirmation of smoking in the last year (p < 0.01), regular physical activity (p < 0.01), the confirmation of previous co-morbidities (p < 0.01) and the menopausal status (p < 0.01). A higher educational level, as well as the confirmation of regular physical activity led to a significant increase on their life quality. Smoking and previous clinical co-morbidities were responsible for the lower scores of quality of life. The pre-menopause was associated with a higher life quality level if compared to peri and post menopause. No differences in relation to the scores of life were identified among the perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless the menopausal status showed up associated to the quality of life, the results of the study pointed out that the climacteric is not just influenced by biological factors, but also by psychosocial and cultural factors.

  7. Effects of reproductive morbidity on women's lives and costs of accessing treatment in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, Jocelyn; Bahubaishi, Najia; Attal, Bothaina

    2012-12-01

    Research on the consequences of reproductive morbidity for women's lives and their economic and social roles is relatively under-developed. There is also a lack of consensus on appropriate conceptual frameworks to understand the social determinants of reproductive morbidity as well as their social and economic implications. We report here on an exploratory study in Yemen using quantitative (n=72 women) and qualitative methods (n=35 women), in 2005 and 2007 respectively, with women suffering from uterine prolapse, infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It explored women's views on how reproductive morbidity affected their lives, marital security and their households, and the burden of paying for treatment. We also interviewed six health professionals about women's health care-seeking for these conditions. Sixty per cent of women reported that treatment was not affordable, and 43% had to sell assets or take out a loan to pay for care. Prolapse and PID interfered particularly in subsistence and household activities while infertility created social pressure. Reproductive morbidity is not a priority in Yemen, given its multiple public health needs and low resources, but by failing to provide comprehensive and affordable services for women, the country incurs developmental losses. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Schnohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women...... is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. METHODS: We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27...... years (range 0-37). RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25-3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity...

  9. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = -0.15; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race.

  10. Accuracy of technetium-99m sestamibi scintimammography and X-ray mammography in premenopausal women with suspected breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumachi, F.; Ferretti, G.; Povolato, M.; Geatti, O.; Marzola, M.C.; Zucchetta, P.; Bui, F.; Brandes, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of technetium-99m sestamibi scintimammography (SSM) and combined use of SSM and X-ray mammography (MG) in premenopausal patients with small (≤2 cm) suspicious breast lesions. Eighty-seven premenopausal women (median age 47 years, range 32-52) with breast lesions ranging from 4 to 20 mm in greatest diameter (median 12 mm) and detected by MG, underwent SSM prior to open breast biopsy. A planar camera and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) technique were used in 23 (26.4%) and 64 (73.6%) patients, respectively. At histological examination, 72 (82.8%) breast cancers (pT1a=3, pT1b=27, pT1c=42) and 15 (17.2%) benign masses were found. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of MG and SSM were 80.6% vs 80.6%, 60.0% vs 93.3% (P<0.05), 90.6% vs 98.3%, 39.1% vs 50.0% and 77.0% vs 82.8%, respectively. MG + SSM together had a sensitivity of 94.4% (P<0.05 vs SSM alone) and an accuracy of 82.8% for the detection of breast cancer. Tumours undetected by both MG and SSM were significantly (P<0.05) smaller than those correctly diagnosed. Patients with false-negative MG were younger (P<0.05) than those with tumours correctly detected, while SSM sensitivity was independent (P=NS) of age. In conclusion, in premenopausal patients with small breast lesions, the sensitivity of SSM and MG is similar (P=NS), whereas the specificity of SSM is significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of MG. Furthermore, the combination of MG and SSM offers significantly improved sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the individual techniques, suggesting a complementary role of SSM in the detection of breast cancer in younger patients. (orig.)

  11. A frequent regulatory variant of the estrogen-related receptor alpha gene associated with BMD in French-Canadian premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Nathalie; Giroux, Sylvie; Loredo-Osti, J Concepción; Elfassihi, Latifa; Dodin, Sylvie; Blanchet, Claudine; Morgan, Kenneth; Giguère, Vincent; Rousseau, François

    2005-06-01

    Genes are important BMD determinants. We studied the association of an ESRRA gene functional variant with BMD in 1335 premenopausal women. The ESRRA genotype was an independent predictor of L2-L4 BMD, with an effect similar to smoking and equivalent to a 10-kg difference in weight. Several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with osteoporosis or osteoporosis fractures, but no functional effect has been shown for most of these gene variants. Because functional studies have implicated estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA) in bone metabolism, we evaluated whether a recently described regulatory variant of the ESRRA gene is associated with lumbar and hip BMD as measured by DXA and with heel bone parameters as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Heel bone parameters were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 1335 healthy French-Canadian premenopausal women, and one-half of these women also had their BMD evaluated at two sites: femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) by DXA. All bone measures were tested separately for association with the ESRRA genotype by analysis of covariance. The significance of the ESRRA contribution to the model was also assessed by two different permutation tests. A statistically significant association between ESRRA genotype and lumbar spine BMD was observed: women carrying the long ESRRA genotype had a 3.9% (0.045 g/cm2) higher lumbar spine BMD than those carrying the short ESRRA genotype (p = 0.004), independently of other risk factors measured. This effect of ESRRA genotype is similar to the effect of smoking and equivalent to a 10-kg difference in weight. This association was confirmed by permutation tests (p = 0.004). The same trend was observed for femoral neck BMD (2.6%, p = 0.07). However, no association was observed between ESRRA and QUS heel bone measures. These results support the genetic influence of this ESRRA regulatory variant on BMD.

  12. Dyadic sexual communication in pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia and their partners: associations with sexual function, sexual distress and dyadic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Verhaeghe, Johan; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Enzlin, Paul

    2015-02-01

    While there is increasing interest in studying aspects of communication processes in sex research, the association between dyadic sexual communication and relationship and sexuality outcomes has not yet been examined in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia. To examine the associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual distress, sexual function and dyadic adjustment in women with self-reported dyspareunia and their male partners. Pre-menopausal women (n=38; M age=24.92, SD=6.12) with self-reported dyspareunia from a community sample and their partners (n=38; M age=26.71, SD=6.59) completed an online survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used in order to investigate both actor and partner effects. Both members of the couple completed: (i) the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale and (ii) the Dyadic Adjustment Scale; women also completed (iii) the Female Sexual Function Index, (iv) the Female Sexual Distress Scale, and (v) a Visual Analogue Scale on pain during intercourse; and men also completed (vi) the International Index of Erectile Functioning. Controlling for relationship duration, women's better dyadic sexual communication was significantly associated with their higher levels of sexual function (P=0.028), lower levels of sexual distress (P=0.003) and higher levels of dyadic adjustment (P=0.005), but not with their pain or men's sexual function or dyadic adjustment. Controlling for relationship duration, men's better dyadic sexual communication was associated with their higher levels of dyadic adjustment (P=0.027) but not with their sexual function, nor with women's sexual function or dyadic adjustment. These findings contribute to the theoretical knowledge on interaction processes in couples with dyspareunia and suggest that it may be important to enhance open and direct communication about sexual matters in couples with dyspareunia. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L M; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting blood pressure (BP) in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R)-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001) and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001) F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50) and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65), four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5) were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  14. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country--a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazliza Ramly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many observational studies linked vitamin D to cardiometabolic risks besides its pivotal role in musculoskeletal diseases, but evidence from trials is lacking and inconsistent. AIM: To determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency can improve cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life (HRQOL. DESIGN: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 192 vitamin D deficient (0.05 between two groups. There was a small but significant improvement in HRQOL in the components of vitality (mean difference: 5.041; 95% CI: 0.709 to 9.374 and mental component score (mean difference: 2.951; 95% CI: 0.573 to 5.329 in the intervention group compared to placebo group. CONCLUSION: Large and less frequent dosage vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency. However, there was no improvement in measured cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women. Conversely vitamin D supplementation improves some components of HRQOL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000452897.

  15. Clinical Trial of Acolbifene in Premenopausal Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Zalles, Carola M; Phillips, Teresa A; Metheny, Trina; Petroff, Brian K; Havighurst, Thomas C; Kim, KyungMann; Bailey, Howard H; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) acolbifene as a breast cancer prevention agent in premenopausal women. To do so, we assessed change in proliferation in benign breast tissue sampled by random periareolar fine-needle aspiration (RPFNA) as a primary endpoint, along with changes in other risk biomarkers and objective and subjective side effects as secondary endpoints. Twenty-five women with cytologic hyperplasia ± atypia and ≥2% of breast epithelial cells staining positive for Ki-67, received 20 mg acolbifene daily for 6-8 months, and then had benign breast tissue and blood risk biomarkers reassessed. Ki-67 decreased from a median of 4.6% [interquartile range (IQR), 3.1%-8.5%] at baseline to 1.4% (IQR, 0.6%-3.5%) after acolbifene (P breast density. Subjective side effects were minimal with no significant increase in hot flashes, muscle cramps, arthralgias, or fatigue. Objective measures showed a clinically insignificant decrease in lumbar spine bone density (DEXA) and an increase in ovarian cysts but no change in endometrial thickness (sonography). In summary, acolbifene was associated with favorable changes in benign breast epithelial cell proliferation and estrogen-inducible gene expression but minimal side effects, suggesting a phase IIB placebo-controlled trial evaluating it further for breast cancer prevention. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Kirti

    2012-06-01

    The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia--7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women--9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [pcaste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum morbidity affecting women in the first few days after delivery in a low-resource setting. Health programmes should invest to ensure that all women receive early postpartum visits after

  17. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  18. Differential genetic basis for pre-menopausal and post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L M Herrera

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension affects 75% of post-menopausal women in the United States causing greater cardiovascular complications compared with age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. Hormone replacement and current anti-hypertensive therapies do not correct this post-menopausal increased risk suggesting a distinct pathogenic framework. We investigated the hypothesis that distinct genetic determinants might underlie susceptibility to salt sensitive hypertension in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal states. To determine whether distinct genetic loci contribute to post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension, we performed a genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting blood pressure (BP in 16-month old post-menopausal F2 (Dahl S×R-intercross female rats characterized for blood pressure by radiotelemetry. Given identical environments and high salt challenge, post-menopausal BP levels were significantly higher than observed in pre-menopausal (post-menopausal versus pre-menopausal SBP, P<0.0001 and ovariectomized (post-menopausal versus ovariectomized SBP, P<0.001 F2-intercross female rats. We detected four significant to highly significant BP-QTLs (BP-pm1 on chromosome 13, LOD 3.78; BP-pm2 on chromosome 11, LOD 2.76; BP-pm3 on chromosome 2, LOD 2.61; BP-pm4 on chromosome 4, LOD 2.50 and two suggestive BP-QTLs (BP-pm5 on chromosome 15, LOD 2.37; BP-f1 on chromosome 5, LOD 1.65, four of which (BP-pm2, BP-pm3, BP-pm4, BP-pm5 were unique to this post-menopausal cohort. These data demonstrate distinct polygenic susceptibility underlying post-menopausal salt-sensitive hypertension providing a pathway towards the identification of mechanism-based therapy for post-menopausal hypertension and ensuing target-organ complications.

  19. The role of the addition of ovarian suppression to tamoxifen in young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer who remain premenopausal or regain menstruation after chemotherapy (ASTRRA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Nam, Seok Jin; Park, Seho; Ro, Jungsil

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian function suppression (OFS) has been shown to be effective as adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. However, it is currently unclear if addition of OFS to standard tamoxifen therapy after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy results in a survival benefit. In 2008, the Korean Breast Cancer Society Study Group initiated the ASTRRA randomized phase III trial to evaluate the efficacy of OFS in addition to standard tamoxifen treatment in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients who remain or regain premenopausal status after chemotherapy. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with definitive surgery were enrolled after completion of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Ovarian function was assessed at the time of enrollment and every 6 months for 2 years by follicular-stimulating hormone levels and bleeding history. If ovarian function was confirmed as premenopausal status, the patient was randomized to receive 2 years of goserelin plus 5 years of tamoxifen treatment or 5 years of tamoxifen alone. The primary end point will be the comparison of the 5-year disease-free survival rates between the OFS and tamoxifen alone groups. Patient recruitment was finished on March 2014 with the inclusion of a total of 1483 patients. The interim analysis will be performed at the time of the observation of the 187th event. This study will provide evidence of the benefit of OFS plus tamoxifen compared with tamoxifen only in premenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer treated with chemotherapy

  20. Cholesterol testing among men and women with disability: the role of morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1–3,* Sara JT Guilcher,1,3,4,* Lauren Webster,1 Richard H Glazier,1–3 Susan B Jaglal,1 Ahmed M Bayoumi,1,3 1Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 4Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Despite more frequent use of health services by people living with disability, the quality of preventive care received may be suboptimal. In this retrospective cohort study, we used administrative data to examine the relationship between cholesterol testing and levels of disability and morbidity among women and men in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We linked multiple provincial-level databases in this study. In stratified analyses for women and men, we used multivariable logistic regression to examine differences in cholesterol testing, and we tested for an interaction effect between disability and morbidity. In a secondary analysis, we tested for a three-way interaction between sex, disability, and morbidity on the entire cohort. Results: There was an interaction between morbidity and disability for both women and men. Women and men with no chronic conditions appeared to be least likely to be up-to-date on cholesterol testing, and among this group, those with moderate disability were more likely to be up-to-date on cholesterol testing than those with no disability (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.90 for women; AOR =1.16; 95% CI 1.00–1.34 for men. Among women and men who had one chronic condition, having severe disability put them at significant disadvantage versus those with no disability. Only 58.5% of men with no disability and no chronic conditions were up-to-date on cholesterol testing. Conclusion: An intermediate level

  1. The sequencing of radiation therapy and chemotherapy after mastectomy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, S.; Gursel, B.; Meydan, D.; Yildiz, L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the sequencing of radiation therapy and chemotherapy after mastectomy in high-risk premenopausal women with breast cancer in addition to other known prognostic factors in the literature. In this retrospective study, 176 premenopausal women with breast cancer were evaluated. The median age at referral was 39 years (range, 28-59 years); 106 patients had stage II and 70 had stage III disease. All were subjected to mastectomy. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 19. The influence of age, histological grade, number of nodes removed, number of positive nodes, tumor size, estrogen receptor status, lymphovascular invasion and sequencing of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on 5-year locoregional disease-free survival, 5-year systemic disease-free survival, 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year cancer-specific survival were studied. The 5-year locoregional disease-free survival was 94% for the entire patient population. Because of the small number of locoregional recurrences, none of the evaluated factors was prognostically significant for locoregional recurrence. The 5-year systemic disease-free, disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 72, 70 and 77%, respectively. On multi-variate analysis of host, tumor and treatment-related factors, the number of positive nodes [risk ratio (RR) 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-2.63), RR 2 (1.46-2.84) and RR 1.8 (1.3-2.71), respectively], histopathological grade [RR 1.8 (95% CI: 1.24-2.65), RR 1.9 (1.34-2.88), RR 2.5 (1.65-4.07), respectively], estrogen receptor status [RR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.5-8.6), RR 3.9 (1.64-9.41), RR 2.5 (1.05-6.24), respectively] and the sequencing of radiotherapy and chemotherapy [RR 1.6 (95% CI: 1.17-2.39), RR 1.7 (1.25-2.54), RR 1.6 (1.14-2.43), respectively] were all significant independent predictors of outcome. Our results show that in addition to traditional prognostic factors, the sequencing of radiation therapy

  2. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  3. Antenatal care and morbidity profile of pregnant women in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, N; Prasuna, J G; Vibha, M D

    2011-06-01

    The burden of antenatal morbidities and health care services utilization during antenatal period serve an important role in defining service needs and to assess reproductive health status of women. To evaluate the burden of antenatal morbidities in women and to assess the health care utilization by study subjects during antenatal period. A community based follow up study was carried out in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. All pregnant women in the study area were enrolled and followed for two more visits to collect information about morbidities suffered and health care services utilized during pregnancy. Appropriate tests of significance were applied. Of 358 women enrolled, three hundred could be followed for two more visits. Majority of women (80.3%) suffered one or more morbidities during their current pregnancy but overall care sought for illness during pregnancy was poor. Visits for routine preventive check up was made by most of women (95% and above) but recommended three antenatal visits was significantly low among women of age more than thirty (OR=16.6; 2.2-125.9), of lower middle socio economic status (OR=2.84; 1.16-6.93) and parity three or more (OR=4.37; 1.07-17.83). Women with education status of high school and above had significantly lower odd ratio (OR=0.33; 0.11-0.99) for having less than three antenatal visits. Care sought for antenatal morbidities is still poor among women of urban resettlement colonies and age, parity and education of women has a significant bearing on antenatal visits.

  4. Assessment of sexually related personal distress accompanying premenopausal sexual dysfunction with an Arabic version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Shaaban, Mohamed M; Meky, Heba K

    2017-10-01

    To assess sexually related personal distress among premenopausal women with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) via a validated Arabic version of the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, between May 2015 and July 2016. In a pilot study to evaluate test-retest reliability and internal consistency, 42 sexually active premenopausal women (aged ≥20 years) completed the Arabic FSDS at recruitment and 2 weeks later. Subsequently, premenopausal sexually active women (aged 20-45 years) were asked to complete the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire; those with FSD (FSFI score ≤26.55) were invited to return to complete the validated version of the Arabic FSDS. The Arabic FSDS showed good test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.93-0.98) and internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.83-0.92). Overall, 140 (58.1%) of 241 women who completed the FSFI had sexual dysfunction, of whom 51 (36.4%) had sexually related personal distress. Marriage duration was significantly increased among women with FSD (P<0.001). All FSFI sexual domains except lubrication were negatively correlated with FSDS. FSD and sexually related personal distress were highly interrelated and prevalent. An Arabic version of the FSDS was found to be valid and reliable for evaluation of sexually related personal distress. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Morbidity and medicine prescriptions in a nationwide Danish population of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. DESIGN: A National Register-based study. METHODS: Patients with PCOS (PCOS...... Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age......-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. RESULTS: The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia...

  6. Coronary heart disease risk factors in adult premenopausal white women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with a healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Our specific aim was to determine whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients were independent of their higher body mass index (BMI) and centripetal obesity. In adult, premenopausal, white women, CHD risk factors were compared between 488 patients with well-defined PCOS and 351 healthy free-living population controls from the Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS). After excluding women with irregular menses (putative PCOS phenotypes), comparisons were also made between the 261 PFS women with a history of regular menses and the 488 women with PCOS. Fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin secretion, blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were measured. Compared with both the full cohort of 351 PFS women and the subgroup of 261 PFS women with regular menses, women with PCOS had higher BMI, waist circumference, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR (all Ps PCOS, compared with the 351 and 261 PFS women, had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P PCOS women with normal BMI (PCOS cannot be exclusively attributed to their preponderant centripetal obesity. Identification of women with clinical features of PCOS should alert the clinician to potentially increased risk for CHD and prompt CHD risk factor testing.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Morbidity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long-term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance. Available data from register-based and data linkage studies support that metabolic-vascular and thyroid diseases, asthma, migraine, depression and cancer are diagnosed more frequently in PCOS, whereas fracture risk is decreased. Drug prescriptions are significantly more common in PCOS than controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long-term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, Western-style diet and smoking, whereas lifestyle intervention including weight loss may partly or fully resolve the symptoms of PCOS and could improve the long-term prognosis. In this review, the possible implications of increased morbidity for the clinical and biochemical evaluation of patients with PCOS at diagnosis and follow-up is further discussed along with possible modifying effects of medical treatment. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Effect of estrogen supplementation on exercise thermoregulation in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R T; Lambert, G P; Moseley, P L; Chapler, F K; Gisolfi, C V

    1998-12-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 days of estrogen supplementation (ES) on thermoregulation during exercise in premenopausal (20-39 yr) adult women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Subjects (11 control, 10 experimental) performed upright cycle ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal O2 consumption in a neutral environment (25 degreesC, 30% relative humidity) for 20 min. Subjects were given placebo (P) or beta-estradiol (2 mg/tablet, 3 tablets/day for 3 days). All experiments were conducted between 6:30 and 9:00 AM after ingestion of the last tablet. Heart rate, forearm blood flow (FBF), mean skin temperature, esophageal temperature (Tes), and forearm sweat rate were measured. Blood analysis for estrogen and progesterone reflected the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Maximal O2 consumption (37.1 +/- 6.2 in P vs. 38.4 +/- 6.3 ml. kg-1. min-1 in ES) and body weight-to-surface area ratio (35.58 +/- 2.85 in P vs. 37.3 +/- 2.7 in ES) were similar between groups. Synthesis of 70-kDa heat shock protein was not induced by 3 days of ES. Neither the threshold for sweating (36.97 +/- 0.15 in P vs. 36.90 +/- 0.22 degreesC in ES), the threshold for an increase in FBF (37.09 +/- 0. 22 in P vs. 37.17 +/- 0.26 degreesC in ES), the slope of sweat rate-Tes relationship (0.42 +/- 0.16 in P vs. 0.41 +/- 0.17 in ES), nor the FBF-Tes relationship (10.04 +/- 4.4 in P vs. 9.61 +/- 3.46 in ES) was affected (P > 0.05) by 3 days of ES. We conclude that 3 days of ES by young adult women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle have no effect on heat transfer to the skin, heat dissipation by evaporative cooling, or leukocyte synthesis of 70-kDa heat shock protein.

  9. SLCO1B1*5 polymorphism (rs4149056) is associated with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Toralf; Kempert, Sarah; Gerber, Bernd; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Hartmann, Steffi; Koczan, Dirk

    2016-05-27

    Because inheritance is recognized as playing a role in age at menarche and natural menopause, the development of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) might depend on inherited genetic factors; however, studies that explore such a correlation are few and have received scant attention. Given the importance of this topic we conducted a comprehensive genotype study in young women (≤45 years) with early-stage breast cancer. Our approach tested the effect of variant polymorphisms in drug metabolism enzymes (DMEs) using a predesigned pharmacogenomics panel (TaqMan® OpenArray®, Life Technologies GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) in premenopausal women (n = 50). Patients received contemporary chemotherapy; in all cases a cyclophosphamide-based regimen with a dose of at least 500 mg/m(2) for six cycles. CIA was considered to be present in women with no resumption of menstrual bleeding within 12 months after completion of chemotherapy or goserelin. Twenty-six patients (52 %) showed CIA during follow-up whereas 24 women (48 %) remained premenopausal. Of all the DMEs studied, only the SLCO1B1*5 (rs4149056) genotype was associated with the development of CIA (P = 0.017). Of the 26 patients who were homozygous for the T/T allele SLCO1B1*5, 18 (69.2 %) developed CIA compared with 8 (30.8 %) of the 22 patients who were heterozygous (C/T allele). The association of heterozygous SLCO1B1*5 allele (OR 0.038; 95%CI: 0.05-0.92) with a lower risk of developing CIA remained significant in a binary logistic regression analysis that include age, SLCO1B1*5 allele variants, and goserelin therapy. Patient age and SLCO1B1*5 allele variants predict the likelihood of young women with breast cancer developing CIA.

  10. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, syndecan-1 and connective tissue growth factor in benign and malignant breast tissue from premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, M; Zhang, H; Löfgren, L; Masironi, B; von Schoultz, E; von Schoultz, B; Sahlin, L

    2017-05-01

    Stromal factors have been identified as important for tumorigenesis and metastases of breast cancer. From 49 premenopausal women, samples were collected from benign or malignant tumors and the seemingly normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. The factors studied, with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, were cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2), syndecan-1 (S-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). COX-1 and S-1 mRNA levels were higher in the malignant tumors than in normal and benign tissues. The COX-2 mRNA level was lower in the malignant tumor than in the normal tissue, while CTGF mRNA did not differ between the groups. COX-1 immunostaining was higher in stroma from malignant tumors than in benign tissues, whereas COX-2 immunostaining was higher in the malignant tissue. Glandular S-1 immunostaining was lower in malignant tumors compared to benign and normal tissues, and the opposite was found in stroma. Conclusively, mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2 were oppositely regulated, with COX-1 being increased in the malignant tumor while COX-2 was decreased. S-1 protein localization switched from glandular to stromal cells in malignant tissues. Thus, these markers are, in premenopausal women, localized and regulated differently in normal/benign breast tissue as compared to the malignant tumor.

  11. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  12. The association between subjective assessment of menstrual bleeding and measures of iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal African-American women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Lia A; Ghant, Marissa S; Andrade, Carolina; Recht, Hannah; Marsh, Erica E

    2016-08-15

    Both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common in the United States with a prevalence amongst women of 12 % and 4 % respectively. These numbers are even higher in African-American women (AAW) and are often a result of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). The primary objective of this study was to determine if perceived assessment of menstrual bleeding was associated with objective and subjective measures of anemia in AAW. Quantitative cross-sectional pilot study with surveys and venipuncture. 44 premenopausal AAW (mean age 37.9 years ± 9. 4) participated in the study. Iron deficiency was present in 68.2 % of the participants and 18.2 % were anemic. Almost half of the participants reported that their menses were heavy or very heavy, and there was a relationship between perceived heaviness of menstrual flow and anemia (P = 0.021). Of the individuals who reported that their menses were heavy or very heavy, 35.0 % were anemic. AAW who reported heavy or very heavy menses had significantly lower hemoglobin (P = 0.015), hematocrit (P = 0.003), and ferritin (P = 0.012) levels, as well as more general (P = 0.006) and menses-associated symptoms of anemia (P = 0.015) than those who reported normal or light menses. This pilot study of premenopausal AAW found that a significant percentage of women who report HMB are not only iron deficient, but also anemic. AAW should be educated on the consequences of HMB and counseled to seek care with a women's health provider when they perceive HMB. More importantly, providers should be aware that when AAW report HMB, evaluation for iron deficiency and anemia are essential.

  13. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background: Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Design: Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Results: Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = −0.15; 95% CI: −0.26, −0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race. PMID:22237060

  14. Expression of Progesterone and Androgen Receptors in the Breast of Premenopausal Women, Considering Menstrual Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2018-03-01

    Progesterone and androgens are important for normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 premenopausal women were obtained. The progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) and the androgen receptor (AR) were determined in malignant and benign breast tumors and control tissues. The PRB and AR mRNA levels were highest in tumors. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were higher in malignant tumors compared to their paired normal tissues. PRA protein showed most immunostaining in benign tumors. PRB immunostaining varied according to menstrual phase. AR immunostaining was highest in the glands of malignant tumors. Progesterone and androgen receptors are differently regulated in tumors compared to normal breast tissues. A malignant breast tumor could appear PR-negative if collected in the luteal phase, but positive in the follicular phase. This finding may have clinical implications. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. MORBIDITY PROFILE OF WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY: A HOSPITAL RECORD BASED STUDY IN WESTERN UP

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    Ranjana Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the morbidity pattern and relationship of these morbidities with socio-economic and demographic factors. Material and method: Present study was conducted at the Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences,Hapur,(U.P. among pregnant patients during the study period of one year. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16, using tabulation with percentage and Pearson's chi-square test was used for testing the crude associations. Results: In the present study a total of 338 pregnant women were included for the study material, out of which 67.46% of the antenatal women reported illness during antenatal period and majority 277(81.95% of the pregnant women were anemic.Thecommon non-obstetric morbidities reported were gastrointestinal disorder (24.68%, genital tuberculosis (16.88%, renal & gall bladder disease (7.79% and congenital anomaly (6.49% ect. (ii The obstetric morbidities included were pre-eclampsia(14.56%, urinary tract infection(9.71%, rupture of membrane(8.74%,hyperemesis gravidarum(9.22%and abnormal presentation in (2.43%patients . Conclusion: Maternal morbidity is notably high, although most of the common problems were not life-threatening. They are more likely to have marked influence on their wellbeing and health status in the long run. Most conditions could be addressed through provision of health promotion and preventive interventions.

  16. MORBIDITY PROFILE OF WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY: A HOSPITAL RECORD BASED STUDY IN WESTERN UP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the morbidity pattern and relationship of these morbidities with socio-economic and demographic factors. Material and method: Present study was conducted at the Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences,Hapur,(U.P. among pregnant patients during the study period of one year. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16, using tabulation with percentage and Pearson's chi-square test was used for testing the crude associations. Results: In the present study a total of 338 pregnant women were included for the study material, out of which 67.46% of the antenatal women reported illness during antenatal period and majority 277(81.95% of the pregnant women were anemic.Thecommon non-obstetric morbidities reported were gastrointestinal disorder (24.68%, genital tuberculosis (16.88%, renal & gall bladder disease (7.79% and congenital anomaly (6.49% ect. (ii The obstetric morbidities included were pre-eclampsia(14.56%, urinary tract infection(9.71%, rupture of membrane(8.74%,hyperemesis gravidarum(9.22%and abnormal presentation in (2.43%patients . Conclusion: Maternal morbidity is notably high, although most of the common problems were not life-threatening. They are more likely to have marked influence on their wellbeing and health status in the long run. Most conditions could be addressed through provision of health promotion and preventive interventions.

  17. Gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality among middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael

    2008-12-01

    We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men.

  18. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

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    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  19. The normal breast microenvironment of premenopausal women differentially influences the behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

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    Ginsburg Erika

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer studies frequently focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment in the promotion of cancer; however, the influence of the normal breast microenvironment on cancer cells remains relatively unknown. To investigate the role of the normal breast microenvironment on breast cancer cell tumorigenicity, we examined whether extracellular matrix molecules (ECM derived from premenopausal African-American (AA or Caucasian-American (CAU breast tissue would affect the tumorigenicity of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We chose these two populations because of the well documented predisposition of AA women to develop aggressive, highly metastatic breast cancer compared to CAU women. Methods The effects of primary breast fibroblasts on tumorigenicity were analyzed via real-time PCR arrays and mouse xenograft models. Whole breast ECM was isolated, analyzed via zymography, and its effects on breast cancer cell aggressiveness were tested in vitro via soft agar and invasion assays, and in vivo via xenograft models. Breast ECM and hormone metabolites were analyzed via mass spectrometry. Results Mouse mammary glands humanized with premenopausal CAU fibroblasts and injected with primary breast cancer cells developed significantly larger tumors compared to AA humanized glands. Examination of 164 ECM molecules and cytokines from CAU-derived fibroblasts demonstrated a differentially regulated set of ECM proteins and increased cytokine expression. Whole breast ECM was isolated; invasion and soft agar assays demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER-, progesterone receptor (PR/PR- cells were significantly more aggressive when in contact with AA ECM, as were ER+/PR+ cells with CAU ECM. Using zymography, protease activity was comparatively upregulated in CAU ECM. In xenograft models, CAU ECM significantly increased the tumorigenicity of ER+/PR+ cells and enhanced metastases. Mass spectrometry analysis of ECM proteins showed that only 1

  20. Non-reproductive Effects of Anovulation: Bone Metabolism in the Luteal Phase of Premenopausal Women Differs between Ovulatory and Anovulatory Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, B; Körner, C; Schmidmayr, M; Luppa, P B; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Several authors have linked subclinical ovulatory disturbances in normal length menstrual cycles to premenopausal fracture risk and bone changes. This study systematically examined the influence of ovulation and anovulation on the bone metabolism of premenopausal women. Participants and Methods: In 176 cycles in healthy premenopausal women, FSH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) as well as bone alkalic phosphatase (BAP), pyridinoline (PYD) and C-terminal crosslinks (CTX) were measured during the follicular and during the luteal phase. The probability and timing of ovulation was self-assessed by a monitoring device. In addition, bone density of the lumbar spine was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at baseline and at the end of the study. Analysis was restricted to blood samples taken more than three days before the following menstruation. Results: 118 cycles out of the 176 collected cycles were complete with blood samples taken within the correct time interval. Of these, 56.8 % were ovulatory by two criteria (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display and LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), 33.1 % were possibly ovulatory by one criterion (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display or LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), and 10.2 % were anovulatory by both criteria). Ovulation in the previous cycle and in the same cycle did not significantly influence the mean absolute concentrations of the bone markers. However, bone formation (BAP) was higher in the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles than in anovulatory cycles (n. s.) and the relative changes within one cycle were significantly different for bone resorption (CTX) during ovulatory vs. anovulatory cycles (p cycles following each other directly, both ovulation in the previous cycle and ovulation in the present cycle influenced CTX, but not the differences of other bone markers. Conclusion: Ovulatory cycles reduce bone resorption in their luteal phase and that of the

  1. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

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    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  2. Taking It One Day at a Time: African American Women Aging with HIV and Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52–65. Topics...

  3. IGF-1 Receptor Expression on Circulating Osteoblast Progenitor Cells Predicts Tissue-Based Bone Formation Rate and Response to Teriparatide in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adi; Kousteni, Stavroula; Bisikirska, Brygida; Shah, Jayesh G; Manavalan, J Sanil; Recker, Robert R; Lappe, Joan; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; McMahon, Donald J; Bucovsky, Mariana; Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; Stubby, Julie; Shane, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    We have previously reported that premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) have profound microarchitectural deficiencies and heterogeneous bone remodeling. Those with the lowest bone formation rate have higher baseline serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and less robust response to teriparatide. Because IGF-1 stimulates bone formation and is critical for teriparatide action on osteoblasts, these findings suggest a state of IGF-1 resistance in some IOP women. To further investigate the hypothesis that osteoblast and IGF-1-related mechanisms mediate differential responsiveness to teriparatide in IOP, we studied circulating osteoblast progenitor (COP) cells and their IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression. In premenopausal women with IOP, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at baseline (n = 25) and over 24 months of teriparatide treatment (n = 11). Flow cytometry was used to identify and quantify COPs (non-hematopoetic lineage cells expressing osteocalcin and RUNX2) and to quantify IGF-1R expression levels. At baseline, both the percent of PBMCs that were COPs (%COP) and COP cell-surface IGF-1R expression correlated directly with several histomorphometric indices of bone formation in tetracycline-labeled transiliac biopsies. In treated subjects, both %COP and IGF-1R expression increased promptly after teriparatide, returning toward baseline by 18 months. Although neither baseline %COP nor increase in %COP after 3 months predicted the bone mineral density (BMD) response to teriparatide, the percent increase in IGF-1R expression on COPs at 3 months correlated directly with the BMD response to teriparatide. Additionally, lower IGF-1R expression after teriparatide was associated with higher body fat, suggesting links between teriparatide resistance, body composition, and the GH/IGF-1 axis. In conclusion, these assays may be useful to characterize bone remodeling noninvasively and may serve to predict early response to

  4. Menopause and metabolic syndrome: A study of 498 urban women from western India

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    Shefali Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Results: Prevalence of MS amongst postmenopausal women was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than that in premenopausal women by both, IDF (premenopausal 45% and postmenopausal 55% and H_MS criteria (premenopausal 44% and postmenopausal 56%. However, this significance disappeared when data was adjusted for the confounding variable of age.

  5. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  6. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies.

  7. Low-fat yogurt consumption reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and inhibits markers of endotoxin exposure in healthy premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ruisong; DiMarco, Diana M; Putt, Kelley K; Martin, Derek A; Gu, Qinlei; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; White, Heather M; Scarlett, Cameron O; Bruno, Richard S; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5-27 and 30-40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.

  8. Emotion processing and regulation in women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Middendorp, H. van; Devaere, L.; Larsen, J.K.; van Ramshorst, B.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional eating, the tendency to eat when experiencing negative affect, is prevalent in morbid obesity and may indicate that ways to deal with emotions are disturbed. Our aim was to compare emotion processing and regulation between 102 women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery and

  9. Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D; Akhter, T; Nordmark, G; Rönnblom, L; Naessen, T

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether high-frequency ultrasound (US) yielding separate assessments of intima and media thickness gives additional information about the vascular morphology compared with the total common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Using a 22 MHz US instrument, we determined the near-wall CCA-IMT, the intima and media layers, and the intima/media (I/M) ratio in 47 premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 healthy women, and 17 postmenopausal women (mean ages 37, 40, and 69 years, respectively). In SLE, the carotid intima was thicker (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm), the media thinner (0.45 ± 0.12 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24 mm), the I/M ratio higher (0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07) (all p women (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mm, p media, and a higher I/M ratio in women with SLE compared to healthy controls and indicated an artery wall status in SLE comparable to 30-years-older healthy women. Separate estimates of carotid intima and media layers may be preferable to CCA-IMT in SLE patients.

  10. Rising frequency of placenta previa and associated morbidity in women with previous casearean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, F.; Nawaz, Q.; Mushtaq, Q.U.A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine rising frequency of placenta previa and its associated morbidity in women with previous caesarean section. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at CMH Kohat from Jul 2010 to Jun 2011. Patients and Methods: This study included all pregnant women undergoing repeat caesarean sections. Of these, total 74 patients were admitted with placenta previa. The frequency and associated morbidity were determined. Results: In our study 74 patients with placenta previa were included. 71.62% were less than 35 yrs of age, while 28.38% were equal to or more than 35 years. The gestational age at presentation was 24-36 weeks in 74.3% and 37 + weeks in 5.7% at presentation, 89% patients were symptomatic and 11% were asympyomatic. The morbidities observed were placenta accrete 47%, urinary tract trauma in 63.51%, caesarean hysterectomy in 62.16%, post operative febrile morbidity in 77.03%, maternal mortality was nil, paralytic ileus in 28.38%, PPH in 82.43%, surgical site infection in 16.21%. Conclusion: Frequency of placenta previa and its associated morbidity was raised due to repeated caesarean section rate which must be reduced to decrease maternal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  11. Body mass index at age 18 years and recent body mass index in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes in white women and African-American women: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiyan; Ursin, Giske; Xu, Xinxin; Lee, Eunjung; Togawa, Kayo; Malone, Kathleen E; Marchbanks, Polly A; McDonald, Jill A; Simon, Michael S; Folger, Suzanne G; Lu, Yani; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Deapen, Dennis M; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie

    2018-01-22

    Although it has been well-documented that obesity is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unclear whether these associations differ among breast cancer subtypes defined by the tumor protein expression status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years and recent BMI in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes, in 6320 women (3934 case-patient participants, 2386 control participants) aged 35-64 years, who participated in one of three population-based case-control studies. We estimated multivariable-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods for case-control comparisons in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. BMI at age 18 years was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly among premenopausal women (≥ 25 vs. women, African-American women). Recent BMI was not associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer after adjustment for BMI at age 18 years; nevertheless, the analysis for the joint effects of BMI at age 18 years and recent BMI showed that premenopausal women in the highest categories of the two BMI measures (≥ 25 kg/m 2 at age 18 years and ≥ 30 kg/m 2 for recent BMI) had 46% lower risk of breast cancer than premenopausal women in the lowest categories of the two BMI measures (breast cancer. Our findings indicate that high BMI near the end of adolescence decreases risk of all ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of premenopausal breast cancer and also suggest that this benefit could be maximized among premenopausal women who consistently have high BMI during their premenopausal years.

  12. Safety of strength training in premenopausal women: musculoskeletal injuries from a two-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Meghan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-01-01

    The health benefits of strength training must be weighed against risks, including injuries. A prior study observed 4.2 injuries that limited usual activities for a day per 1000 strength training sessions among men and women. The analysis herein explores the incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries from strength training in women. Randomized controlled trial. SETTING; Free-living community. A total of 163 injury-free, overweight, sedentary, premenopausal women aged 25 to 44 years. Two years of strength training (n = 81) or standard care (n = 82). The intervention followed published guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) with hypothesized injury prevention strategies. An injury survey was administered at years 1 and 2. Injury was defined as physical activity or strength training associated injuries that limited daily activities for 1 week or more. Denominators for rate calculation were accelerometer-measured physical activity and strength training attendance (strength training only). The between-group probability of injuries was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Injury incidence rates were higher in strength training compared with standard care. In strength training, the injury rates were 3.6 per 1000 strength training sessions (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.8 per 1000) for physical activity-related injuries, and 2.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6 per 1000) for strength training-related injuries. Injury rates varied by definition and denominator. Strength training had lower injury rates than previously reported, providing preliminary support for the prevention strategies. The finding of strength training injuries underscores the need for balancing the benefits against the potential risks of this exercise modality.

  13. [Morbidity and associated factors in climacteric women: a population based study in women with 11 or more years of formal education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vanessa de Souza Santos; Valadares, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Costa-Paiva, Lucia; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate factors associated with morbidities among Brazilian women aged 40-65 years and with 11 or more years of schooling. A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted, using an anonymous self-report questionnaire completed by 377 women. Were evaluated, with this instrument, some morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, insomnia and depression) and sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and reproductive factors. The association between morbidities and independent variables was evaluated by the χ² test. Multiple logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection criteria was used to select the major factors associated with morbid conditions. In the multiple regression analysis, insomnia was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=2.3) and nervousness (OR=5.1). Depression was associated with bad/fair self-perception of health (OR=3.7) and bad/poor leisure (OR=2.8). Hypertension was associated with obesity (OR=3.1) and being in postmenopausal (OR=2.6). Diabetes was associated with age above 50 years (OR=3.9) and obesity (OR=12.5). The prevalence of morbidities was high and a worse self-perception of health and obesity were the main factors associated with morbidity.

  14. Tamoxifen with ovarian function suppression versus tamoxifen alone as an adjuvant treatment for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shunchao; Li, Kai; Jiao, Xin; Zou, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian function suppression (OFS) significantly downregulates the concentration of plasma estrogens. However, it is unclear whether it offers any survival benefits if combined with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in premenopausal women. This meta-analysis was designed to assess data from previous studies involving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment plus OFS in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods Electronic literature databases (PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials published prior to February 1, 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared tamoxifen alone with tamoxifen plus OFS for premenopausal women with breast cancer were selected. The evaluated endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. Results Four randomized controlled trials comprising 6,279 patients (OFS combination, n=3,133; tamoxifen alone, n=3,146) were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant improvement in disease-free survival or overall survival with addition of OFS in either the whole population or the hormone receptor-positive subgroup. The risk of distant recurrence was not reduced with the addition of OFS in the whole population. A subgroup analysis showed that addition of OFS significantly improved overall survival in patients who were administered chemotherapy. Conclusion Based on the available studies, concurrent administration of OFS and adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for premenopausal women with breast cancer has no effect on prolonging disease-free survival and overall survival, excluding patients who were administered chemotherapy. It should not be widely recommended, except perhaps for women who were hormone-receptor positive and who were also administered adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26109867

  15. Relationships between self-reported lifetime physical activity, estimates of current physical fitness, and aBMD in adult premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen G; Walkley, Jeff W; Rich, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common, and physical activity is important in its prevention and treatment. Of the categories of historical physical activity (PA) examined, we found that weight-bearing and very hard physical activity had the strongest relationships with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) throughout growth and into adulthood, while for measures of strength, only grip strength proved to be an independent predictor of aBMD. To examine relationships between aBMD (total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, tibial shaft, distal radius) and estimates of historical PA, current strength, and cardiovascular fitness in adult premenopausal women. One hundred fifty-two adult premenopausal women (40 ± 9.6 years) undertook aBMD (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and completed surveys to estimate historical physical activity representative of three decades (Kriska et al. [1]), while subsets underwent functional tests of isokinetic strength (hamstrings and quadriceps), grip strength (hand dynamometer), and maximum oxygen uptake (MaxV02; cycle ergometer). Historical PA was characterized by demand (metabolic equivalents, PA > 3 METS; PA > 7 METS) and type (weight-bearing; high impact). Significant positive independent predictors varied by decade and site, with weight-bearing exercise and PA > 3 METS significant for the tibial shaft (10-19 decade) and only PA > 7 METS significant for the final two decades (20-29 and 30-39 years; total body and total hip). A significant negative correlation between high impact activity and tibial shaft aBMD appeared for the final decade. For strength measures, only grip strength was an independent predictor (total body, total hip), while MaxV02 provided a significant independent prediction for the tibial shaft. Past PA > 7 METS was positively associated with aBMD, and such activity should probably constitute a relatively high proportion of all weekly PA to positively affect aBMD. The findings warrant more detailed investigations in a prospective

  16. Associations of human skeletal muscle fiber type and insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, and vascular hemodynamics in a cohort of premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Windham, Samuel T; Griffin, Perry; Warren, Jonathan L; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Cardiometabolic disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed nations. Consequently, identifying and understanding factors associated with underlying pathophysiological processes leading to chronic cardio metabolic conditions is critical. Metabolic health, arterial elasticity, and insulin sensitivity (SI) may impact disease risk, and may be determined in part by myofiber type. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that type I myofiber composition would be associated with high SI, greater arterial elasticity, lower blood pressure, and blood lipids; whereas, type IIx myofibers would be associated with lower SI, lower arterial elasticity, higher blood pressure, blood lipids. Muscle biopsies were performed on the vastus lateralis in 16 subjects (BMI = 27.62 ± 4.71 kg/m 2 , age = 32.24 ± 6.37 years, 43% African American). The distribution of type I, IIa, and IIx myofibers was determined via immunohistochemistry performed on frozen cross-sections. Pearson correlation analyses were performed to assess associations between myofiber composition, SI, arterial elasticity, blood pressure, and blood lipid concentrations. The percentage of type I myofibers positively correlated with SI and negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure (MAP); whereas, the percentage of type IIx myofibers were negatively correlated with SI and large artery elasticity, and positively correlated with LDL cholesterol, SBP, and MAP. These data demonstrate a potential link between myofiber composition and cardiometabolic health outcomes in a cohort of premenopausal women. Future research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms in which myofiber composition impacts the pathophysiology of impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as vascular dysfunction.

  17. Hospital morbidity in a medium-sized city: differentials between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: characterize the hospital morbidity of adults living in the city of Maringá, PR, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011, focusing on the differential between men and women. METHOD: this descriptive study was developed based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System in order to investigate the association between groups of hospitalization causes and the average length of hospitalization per gender, in three-year periods. RESULTS: the main groups of hospitalization causes for men were: mental disorders, lesions and circulatory diseases; and, among women: tumors, circulatory and genitourinary diseases. Mental disorders and lesions, tumors, circulatory and genitourinary diseases were significantly associated with the female and male genders across the study period. Although not significant, the mean length of hospitalization dropped across the four three-year periods, and only showed a significant difference between men and women in the second triennium. CONCLUSION: differences in the hospital morbidity profile between men and women underline the need for specific health and nursing actions, especially in primary health care, with a view to reducing hospitalizations due to the main groups of causes in the city.

  18. Goserelin with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function in pre-menopausal women with early breast cancer: menstruation and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M; O'Neill, S; Walsh, G; Smith, I E

    2013-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure and infertility following chemotherapy in early breast cancer (EBC) are major concerns for young women. The role of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists with chemotherapy in EBC in reducing the incidence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause remains uncertain, and long-term data on the recovery of fertility are sparse. We report an audit of our experience with the GnRH agonist, goserelin (Zoladex®), used with chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and maintain fertility. Pre-menopausal women were given goserelin subcutaneously every 28 days during chemotherapy, starting 0-14 days before treatment. The main clinical end point was recovery of menstruation after chemotherapy. The other end points were rate of successful conception and median time to recovery of menses. About 84% of 125 women recovered menstruation with the median time to recovery of 6 months (1-43 months), including 76% of 71 patients aged over 35. Of the 42 patients who attempted pregnancy, 71% (n=30) managed to achieve pregnancies. At the time of analysis, there were 42 pregnancies and 30 healthy deliveries. The GnRH agonist, goserelin, given with chemotherapy for EBC is associated with a low risk of long-term chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea and a high chance of pregnancy. Further randomised trials are needed.

  19. Maternal morbid obesity and obstetric outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to review pregnancy outcomes in morbidly obese women who delivered a baby weighing 500 g or more in a large tertiary referral university hospital in Europe. METHODS: Morbid obesity was defined as a BMI > or =40.0 kg\\/m2 (WHO). Only women whose BMI was calculated at their first antenatal visit were included. The obstetric out-comes were obtained from the hospital\\'s computerised database. RESULTS: The incidence of morbid obesity was 0.6% in 5,824 women. Morbidly obese women were older and were more likely to be multigravidas than women with a normal BMI. The pregnancy was complicated by hypertension in 35.8% and diabetes mellitus in 20.0% of women. Obstetric interventions were high, with an induction rate of 42.1% and a caesarean section rate of 45.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that maternal morbid obesity is associated with an alarmingly high incidence of medical complications and an increased level of obstetric interventions. Consideration should be given to developing specialised antenatal services for morbidly obese women. The results also highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of prepregnancy interventions in morbidly obese women.

  20. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    小濵, 京子; 丸, 光惠; 前田, 留美; 久保田, 俊郎

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. Methods: A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. Results: The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had...

  1. Premeal Low-Fat Yogurt Consumption Reduces Postprandial Inflammation and Markers of Endotoxin Exposure in Healthy Premenopausal Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ruisong; DiMarco, Diana M; Putt, Kelley K; Martin, Derek A; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Bruno, Richard S; Bolling, Bradley W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic endotoxemia is associated with obesity and contributes to postprandial inflammation. Objective We aimed to determine if low-fat yogurt consumption prevents postprandial inflammation and dysmetabolism in healthy women by inhibiting biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia. Methods Premenopausal women defined as obese and nonobese [body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) 30–40 and 18.5–27, respectively, n = 120] were randomly assigned to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (YN, yogurt nonobese; YO, yogurt obese) or 324 g of soy pudding (CN, control nonobese; CO, control obese) for 9 wk (n = 30/group). The intervention foods each supplied 330 kcal with 3 g fat, 66 g carbohydrate, and 4–6 g protein. At weeks 0 and 9, participants ingested 226 g of yogurt or 216 g of soy pudding before a meal providing 56–60 g fat, 82 g carbohydrate, and 28–30 g protein. Plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), LPS activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6), glucose, triglyceride, and insulin were measured hourly for 4 h to assess differences in postprandial responses between groups by 2-factor ANOVA. Results Premeal yogurt consumption prevented the postprandial decrease in sCD14 net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) by 72% in obese individuals at week 0 (P = 0.0323). YN and YO had ≥40% lower net iAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratio and plasma IL-6 concentration than CN and CO, respectively (P yogurt consumption, ΔAUC of LBP-to-sCD14 ratios of YO and YN were less than half of those of the control groups (P = 0.0093). Conclusion Yogurt consumption improved postprandial metabolism and biomarkers of metabolic endotoxemia in healthy premenopausal women. Premeal yogurt consumption is a feasible strategy to inhibit postprandial dysmetabolism and thus may reduce cardiometabolic risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01686204. PMID:29767743

  2. Impaired vascular function in physically active premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is associated with low shear stress and increased vascular tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Mak, Susanna; Harvey, Paula J

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-trained hypoestrogenic premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (ExFHA) exhibit impaired endothelial function. The vascular effects of an acute bout of exercise, a potent nitric oxide stimulus, in these women are unknown. Three groups were studied: recreationally active ExFHA women (n = 12; 24.2 ± 1.2 years of age; mean ± SEM), and recreationally active (ExOv; n = 14; 23.5 ± 1.2 years of age) and sedentary (SedOv; n = 15; 23.1 ± 0.5 years of age) ovulatory eumenorrheic women. Calf blood flow (CBF) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were evaluated using plethysmographic and ultrasound techniques, respectively, both before and 1 hour after 45 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise. Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed at baseline using glyceryl trinitrate. Calf vascular resistance (CVR) and brachial peak shear rate, as determined by the area under the curve (SRAUCpk), were also calculated. FMD and glyceryl trinitrate responses were lower (P .05) the findings. CBF was lower (P .05) between the groups. CBF in ExFHA was increased (P < .05) and CVR decreased (P < .05) to levels observed in ovulatory women. Acute dynamic exercise improves vascular function in ExFHA women. Although the role of estrogen deficiency per se is unclear, our findings suggest that low shear rate and increased vasoconstrictor tone may play a role in impaired basal vascular function in these women.

  3. Insulin-resistance and lipids metabolism in women at menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dmitrуina Gresko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes lipid metabolism in women during premenopausal and considered their relationship with the level of insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity. Examined 20 women aged 46-48 years, with fixed transition to pre-menopause on the bases of menstrual cycle dysfunction or amenorrhea during a year as well as a decrease of visualized follicular reserve according to the results of ultrasonic examination of the organs of the small pelvis, were involved into investigation. Body mass increase with abdominal obese formation and disorders of the lipid metabolism against a background of insulin resistance is observed in women during pre-menopause against a background of sexual hormones deficiency.

  4. Excess fat in the abdomen but not general obesity is associated with poorer metabolic and cardiovascular health in premenopausal and postmenopausal Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor Hng Hang; Hart, William George

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations of various metabolites and hormones and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with obesity. This is a cross-sectional study of 1326 Singaporean women. A DXA-derived percent body fat (PBF) of ≥35% and percent abdominal fat (PAbdF) of >21.8% were used, respectively, to define women with general (GOb) and abdominal (AbdOb) obesity. Higher levels of insulin and glucose, lower levels of HDL, higher levels of TC/HDL and HOMA values, and different levels of some hormones were noted only in the women with abdominal, and not general obesity. The incidence of general and abdominal obesity was higher in postmenopausal women with or without HRT, except that those who were on conjugated estradiol-only HRT had no increase in the incidence of general obesity compared with premenopausal women. Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and with higher risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, whereas general obesity is not. Abdominal obesity may predispose to a higher risk of diabetes. The onset of the menopause tends to increase the incidence of general and abdominal obesity, except that postmenopausal women on conjugated estradiol HRT appear to be relatively protected from general obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined effects of goserelin and tamoxifen on estradiol level, breast density, and endometrial thickness in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Zong, X; Yu, Y; Shao, G; Zhang, L; Qian, C; Bian, Y; Xu, X; Sun, W; Meng, X; Ding, X; Chen, D; Zou, D; Xie, S; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J; He, X; Sun, C; Yu, X; Ni, J

    2013-08-06

    This study is to investigate the effects of geserelin+tamoxifen (TAM) on estradiol level, breast density (BD), endometrial thickness (ET), and blood lipids in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. This study recruited 110 premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer between 22 June 2008 and 31 December 2009 and randomly assigned them to receive either goserelin plus TAM or TAM alone for 1.5 years. Blood levels of sex hormones and lipids and ET were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Contralateral BD was also measured at 0, 12, and 18 months. Five participants dropped out of the goserelin plus TAM group, and two participants dropped out of the TAM-alone group before initiation of endocrine therapy. The rest of patients received scheduled treatment and 3 years of median follow-up. No serious adverse effects were observed, and only two local recurrences have been observed in these patients. Estradiol level and BD were lower in the goserelin plus TAM group than in the TAM-alone group (Pwomen in the TAM-alone group exhibited endometrial thickening over the course of the study. Furthermore, no significant differences in blood lipid levels were reported between the two groups. The data from the current study demonstrated that the addition of goserelin to TAM results in downregulation of estradiol level, followed by significant reduction in BD and ET in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which may eventually lead to better outcome in these patients.

  6. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant FOLFOX for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercek, Andrea; Siegel, Cara L; Capanu, Marinela; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Saltz, Leonard B

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that the incidence of young women diagnosed with colorectal cancer is rising, thus there is an increasing number of female colorectal cancer survivors of premenopausal and child-bearing age. Adjuvant FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy is the most widely used standard treatment for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer. We evaluated the incidence of FOLFOX-induced amenorrhea in women age 50 and younger treated with adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. A search of pharmacy records identified 119 women age 50 or younger who received adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering for stage II or III colorectal cancer from January 2002 and January 2011. Eligible patients were mailed an anonymous questionnaire. The returned surveys were reviewed and the results tallied. Seventy-three patients returned the questionnaire. Twenty-four patients were excluded from analysis: 19 were treated with pelvic radiotherapy, 2 patients had undergone bilateral oophorectomy, 2 had a hysterectomy, and 1 stopped menstruating before diagnosis. Forty-nine patient responses were analyzed. In total, 41% (n = 20) experienced amenorrhea during chemotherapy. Sixteen percent had persistent amenorrhea 1 year after completion of chemotherapy. The incidence of amenorrhea during chemotherapy trended higher in patients aged older than 40 compared with patients aged 40 and younger (59% vs. 31% [P = .075]). There was no statistically significant difference in persistent amenorrhea between the 2 age groups (24% vs. 13%; P = .42). In this retrospective series, there appears to be a trend toward FOLFOX induced amenorrhea during chemotherapy increasing with age. Twenty-four percent of women older than the age of 40 were found to have persistent amenorrhea after FOLFOX therapy. Because of the small sample size, the study is underpowered to detect a statistically significant difference between older and younger patients. Prospective studies

  7. Sexual communication, dyadic adjustment, and psychosexual well-being in premenopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia and their partners: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Verhaeghe, Johan; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Enzlin, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Although research that takes into account partner and relationship factors in dyspareunia is slowly emerging, little is known about how these couples communicate about their sexuality. Additionally, partner psychosexual adjustment has not been examined in a controlled fashion. This study aimed to compare dyadic sexual communication, dyadic adjustment, psychological adjustment, and sexual well-being of women with self-reported dyspareunia and their partners with those of pain-free control women and their partners. Premenopausal women (n = 38; mean [M] age = 24.92) with self-reported dyspareunia, their partners (n = 38; M age = 26.71), as well as pain-free control women (n = 44; M age = 25.86) and their partners (n = 44; M age = 27.95) completed an online survey measuring dyadic sexual communication, dyadic adjustment, anxiety, depression, sexual functioning, and sexual distress. Assessments of women and men's (i) dyadic sexual communication; (ii) dyadic adjustment; (iii) anxiety; (iv) depression; (v) sexual functioning; and (vi) women's sexual distress were the main outcome measures. Compared with pain-free controls, women with dyspareunia reported significantly poorer dyadic sexual communication, a difference not found between partners of women with dyspareunia and control partners. Compared with partners of control women, those of women with dyspareunia reported significantly more impaired sexual functioning. No differences in dyadic adjustment were found between women with dyspareunia and pain-free control women, or between their respective partners. Finally, compared with control women, those with dyspareunia reported significantly more impaired psychological and sexual well-being. Findings suggest that dyspareunia impacts not only the psychosexual adjustment of affected women but also that of their partners. It seems relevant to include both members of the couple in future research and treatment for dyspareunia. © 2014

  8. The impact of socioeconomic position on severe maternal morbidity outcomes among women in Australia: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, A; Noor, N; Sullivan, E; Knight, M

    2015-11-01

    Studies in other developed countries have suggested that socioeconomic position may be a risk factor for poorer pregnancy outcomes. This analysis aimed to explore the independent impact of socioeconomic position on selected severe maternal morbidities among women in Australia. A case-control study using data on severe maternal morbidities associated with direct maternal death collected through the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Australia. 623 cases, 820 controls. Logistic regression analysis to investigate differences in outcomes among different socioeconomic groups, classified by Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Severe maternal morbidity (amniotic fluid embolism, placenta accreta, peripartum hysterectomy, eclampsia or pulmonary embolism). SEIFA quintile was statistically significantly associated with maternal morbidity, with cases being twice as likely as controls to reside in the most disadvantaged areas (adjusted OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.29-3.10). Maternal age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.20 for women aged 35 or over compared with women aged 25-29, 95%CI 1.64-3.15] and previous pregnancy complications (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.21-1.87) were significantly associated with morbidity. A parity of 1 or 2 was protective (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43-0.79), whereas previous caesarean delivery was associated with maternal morbidity (aOR 2.20 for women with one caesarean delivery, 95%CI 1.44-2.85, compared with women with no caesareans). The risk of severe maternal morbidity among women in Australia is significantly increased by social disadvantage. This study suggests that future efforts in improving maternity care provision and maternal outcomes in Australia should include socioeconomic position as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Role of endogenous hormones in premenopausal females with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate hormone levels in premenopausal females with breast cancer at the time of diagnosis and to predict their role as a risk factor of breast cancer in females. Circulating hormone levels were measured in 345 previously untreated premenopausal breast cancer patients during luteal ...

  10. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Aragonès

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS and steatohepatitis (NASH cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients.We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30 and morbidly obese women (n = 97 with or without NAFLD.We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis.These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH.

  11. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  12. Vaginal microbiology of women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J D; Chaim, W

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in the autochthonous vaginal microflora can predispose women to recurring attacks of Candida vaginitis. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from 24 premenopausal women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and from 21 healthy asymptomatic premenopausal women. Lactobacillus species constituted the predominant flora in both groups, with a mean log10 CFU/ml of 8.7, a total isolation rate of 96%, and a mean of 1.6 Lactobacillus species isolated per patien...

  13. Effect of short-term upper-body resistance training on muscular strength, bone metabolic markers, and BMD in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang MT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael TC Liang,1 Lorena Quezada,1 WY Jamie Lau,1 Bulent Sokmen,2 Thomas W Spalding11Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USAAbstract: To examine the effect of a 10-week upper-body resistance training program on bone turnover markers and site-specific bone mineral density (BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius in untrained and healthy young premenopausal women.Methods: Twenty-two subjects (aged 22.1 ± 1.8 years were randomly assigned to a resistance training (n = 12 or no training control (n = 10 group. The following outcome variables were measured before and after 10 weeks of resistance training: (1 bone formation biomarker osteocalcin, and bone resorption biomarker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b; (2 BMD in the wrist and distal half of the ulna and radius; (3 isokinetic strength of the elbow and knee extensors and flexors; (4 dynamic strength of the arm extensors and flexors; and (5 maximum number of push-ups.Results: The 10-week upper body resistance training intervention resulted in improved strength performance in push-ups (resistance training versus control: P < 0.05, chest presses (P < 0.05, and pulldowns (P < 0.05. However, there was no improvement in the BMD of the wrist (P > 0.05, BMD of the distal half of the ulna and radius (P > 0.05, and metabolic biomarkers osteocalcin (P > 0.05 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (P > 0.05, except for the osteocalcin/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b ratio. Also, no improvement in the resistance training group was observed for isokinetic strength of the knee and elbow flexion/extension.Conclusion: Upper-body muscular strength performance, but not bone metabolic markers and BMD of the wrist, can be improved with a 10-week upper body resistance training program of the nonweight-bearing limbs in

  14. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  15. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Kyoko; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-09-30

    To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had severe fatigue. The participants had higher physical activity levels compared with the findings in previous studies, and reported an average of 40 min/day of moderate to vigorous activity. Moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity were derived from essential social activities rather than leisure time exercise. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the lower and higher CRF groups. Our study results suggested that the higher level of physical activity in daily living itself had no relationship with decreasing CRF among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. It would be better to focus on cognitive and psychological factors before introducing physical activity programs and be careful of the characteristics of the participants' physical activity among this population in daily basis.

  16. Bone loss in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    tanderup joergensen, maj-britt; christensen, jesper olund; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although osteoporosis has been investigated and debated in the diabetic population over the past decades, very little is known about the spontaneous changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal type 1 diabetic (T1DM) women...... over time. Aim: To measure spontaneous changes in BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- and postmenopausal T1DM women. Subjects: 53 T1DM women (31 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal) from the outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study in 1993 and 35 (22 premenopausal, 13...... postmenopausal) were reexamined in 1997. Method: BMD was measured at femoral neck (f.n.), spine (L2 - L4), total body and forearm with DXA or SXA in 53 T1DM women. 4 years later a re-scan was carried out on 35 T1DM. Results: In premenopausal subjects a yearly decrease less than 1% at f.n., spine, forearm...

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia : reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Westerveld, H. Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable

  18. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  19. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.01). However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  20. Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Nicolaides, Kypros; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the use of vaginal progesterone in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix (≤ 25 mm) in the midtrimester reduces the risk of preterm birth and improves neonatal morbidity and mortality.......To determine whether the use of vaginal progesterone in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix (≤ 25 mm) in the midtrimester reduces the risk of preterm birth and improves neonatal morbidity and mortality....

  1. Correlation of bone mineral density with biochemical markers in different menopausal statuses of Pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, A.; Nadia, N.; Farzana, A.; Bashir, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The present study is aimed to use bone mineral density (BMD) and various biochemical markers to predict the fracture risk at different menopausal statuses in Pakistani women. Method: Seventy women aged between 28-80 years at various menopausal statuses participated in this study. BMD (T score) of right calcaneus was determined using SAHARA ultrasound bone densitometer that measures the transmission of high frequency from heel. Various biochemical markers such as alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured from the serum of venous blood using standard kits of Randox. Results: Alkaline phosphates was raised in per menopausal, postmenopausal and postmenopausal with hysterectomy and ligation groups of women as compared to premenopausal women but did not achieve significance (P>0.05). Serum calcium level was significantly lower in postmenopausal women than premenopausal women and inorganic phosphorus decrease significantly when compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal with ligation and hysterectomy. BMD (T score) values of postmenopausal osteopenic and postmenopausal osteoprotic women were significantly lower than those of premenopausal women. BMD values of women under study have negative correlation with age, alkaline phosphates and calcium. Conclusion: Our study conclude that in addition to BMD, serum levels of alkaline phosphate, calcium and inorganic phosphorus can be valuable biochemical markers in predicting bone fracture risk at different menopausal states. (author)

  2. No serious late cardiac effects after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in premenopausal women with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Anita; Bendahl, Pear-Ola; Cwikiel, Magdalena; Eskilsson, Jan; Thapper, Kerstin Leofvander; Pahlm, Olle

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess cardiac mortality, coronary artery disease, myocardial dysfunction, and valvular heart disease in women younger than 65 years of age, at least 10 years after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety women (45-64 years old) with Stage II breast cancer without relapse, included in the South Sweden Breast Cancer Trial (premenopausal arm), with or without adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy ± cyclophosphamide were examined with myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography/Doppler, 10-17 years after radiotherapy. Thirty-four patients had been irradiated for left-sided tumors, 33 for right-sided tumors, and 23 patients had not been treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (conventional roentgen, electron beams, and high-energy photon beams combined, in each patient) included the chest wall and the regional lymph nodes, with a specified target dose of 38-48 Gy, administered in daily fractions of 1.9-2.4 Gy, 5 days/week. Results: No cardiac deaths were found among the original 275 patients randomized to adjuvant therapy. In the 90 patients examined, abnormal findings were recorded for ECG (14 patients), exercise test (5 patients), myocardial scintigraphy (6 patients), thickening of valve cusps (14 patients), and mild valvular regurgitation (20 patients). All patients had normal systolic function. Diastolic dysfunction was observed in 6 patients (abnormal relaxation in 4 patients and restrictive filling abnormality in 2 patients). Although no significant differences were found between the 3 study groups, there was a tendency to more abnormal findings after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Women younger than 50 years of age at the time of adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in early breast cancer, had no serious cardiac sequelae 13 years (median) later, despite partly old-fashioned radiation techniques

  3. Maternal morbidities affect tens of millions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1994-02-01

    Various separate studies indicate maternal morbidity is more common than had been believed. A Safe Motherhood Survey was conducted in 1993 in the Philippines among 9000 women, as part of efforts to study women's language and perceptions about pregnancy and symptoms of morbidity. In El Salvador, interviews were conducted among 2000 women on morbidity issues. Preliminary results from a Family Health International (FHI) five-country survey of 16,000 women revealed that 7 out of every 10 women reported a health problem related to maternity or chronic conditions stemming from pregnancy or childbirth. Conditions ranged from obstructed labor, complications from unsafe abortions, and bacterial infections, to anemia, hemorrhage, and eclampsia. The quality of care determines whether the health problems are life threatening. Less serious morbidity cases involve fatigue or back pain, which is exacerbated by poor nutrition and hard physical labor. Other reproductive morbidities are sexually transmitted diseases, side effects from contraceptives, and general gynecological problems. The FHI results from Ghana, Indonesia, and Egypt showed 240-300 morbidities for every maternal death; maternal mortality worldwide is estimated at 500,000 annually. A study of fistula (an injury during labor to the vagina and bladder that results in urinary or fecal incontinence) found that Nigerian community norms and limited access to emergency health care were factors. The women reported costs, poor roads, and transportation problems. A study in Ethiopia found that, in an Addis Ababa hospital between 1983-88, 600 fistulas were repaired every year, of which almost 66% occurred at first delivery. A study in Cairo in 1988 found that nearly 6 out of every 10 women reported a prolapsed uterus. Women in the studies were able to talk openly and willingly about their problems, when concepts and language were appropriate and interviewers were trained. A small study in India confirmed the correlation between

  4. Influence of cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Martins, Luana; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; de Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; Santos de Sousa, Gustavo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 µg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 µg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p cortisol were 9.58 ± 4.86 µg/dL for obese and 9.89 ± 5.61 µg/dL for control groups. Mean values for urinary cortisol were 163.00 ± 100.35 µg/dL and 109.71 ± 34.88 µg/dL for obese and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05). Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  5. Morbidities, concordance, and predictors of preterm premature rupture of membranes among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, T C; Enwereji, J O; Adiri, C O; Onwuka, C I; Iferikigwe, E S

    2016-01-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a challenging complication of pregnancies and an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of morbidities associated with PPROM is fraught with controversy. However, women should be informed of these complications. This article aimed to review the morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM over a 10-year period. This was a retrospective review of morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008. The morbidities, concordance, and predictors of PPROM were expressed by regression analysis output for PPROM. Primigravidae had the highest occurrence of PPROM. Increasing parity does not significantly influence the incidence of PPROM. The concordance and predictors of PPROM are maternal age (P women should be informed of these complications.

  6. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ben Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of menopausal status on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS in Tunisian women. Methods. We analyzed a total of 2680 women aged between 35 and 70 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric indices, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were measured. The MetS was assessed by the modified NCEP-ATPIII definition. Results. The mean values of waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose were significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women, a difference that was no longer present when adjusting for age. Except for hypertriglyceridaemia, the frequency of central obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol was significantly higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. After adjusting for age, the significance persisted only for hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of MetS was 35.9%, higher in postmenopausal (45.7% versus 25.6% than in premenopausal women. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that menopause was independently associated with MetS (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.10–1.82 after adjusting for age, residence area, marital status, family history of cardiovascular disease, education level, and occupation. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that the MetS is highly prevalent in this group of women. Menopause can be a predictor of MetS independent of age in Tunisian women.

  7. Body composition, anthropometrics, energy expenditure, systemic inflammation, in premenopausal women 1 year after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Antonio; Martini, Francesco; Rodolphe, Anty; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Gual, Philippe; Tran, Albert; Hébuterne, Xavier; Gugenheim, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) is currently the most common bariatric procedure and results in a substantial weight loss and recovery from obesity-related comorbidities, both of which are maintained in the long term. However, besides the desired loss of fat mass, LRYGBP is also followed by the loss of fat-free mass (FFM). We aimed to determine the factors associated with the loss of ≥20 % of the initial FFM 1 year after LRYGBP in a prospective series of 115 Caucasian, premenopausal women. Anthropometrics, body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), resting energy expenditure (REE) (indirect calorimetry), inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances were determined before and 1 year after LRYGBP. The mean loss of initial FFM was 15.3 ± 13.8 %. 1 year after LRYGBP, 81 women lost FFM group) and 35 lost ≥20 % (≥20 % FFM group) of the initial FFM. Before surgery, the FFM, weight, BMI, excess BMI, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and REE were significantly higher in the ≥20 % FFM group while inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances were comparable between the two groups. 1 year after LRYGBP, the FFM, weight, BMI, excess BMI, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and REE decreased significantly and were comparable between the two groups. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid disturbances improved comparably between the two groups after surgery. The only variable associated with the loss of ≥20 % of the initial FFM in the multivariable analysis was the presence of more FFM before surgery (67.0 ± 9.9 vs. 53.5 ± 6.7 kg). One year after LRYGBP the loss of ≥20 % of the initial FFM occurred mainly in women with more FFM before surgery and resulted in the same body composition of women who lost FFM.

  8. Salivary Cortisol and Binge Eating Disorder in Obese Women After Surgery for Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Junilla K.; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Background Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Method Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women with...

  9. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Falah, Anas

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period. A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed. Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%), followed by hypertension (6.6%), asthma (5.6%) and CHD (2.5%), and the majority of subjects (69.5%) had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was aches in the back and neck (49.2%), night sweat (37.2%), low backache (35.7%), feeling nervous (35.4%) followed by aches in the muscles/joints (34.6%), hot flashes (33.3%), decreased social activities (28.3%), decreased leisure activities (47.6%), difficulty sleeping (28.9%), mood swings (25.4%), and decreased concentration (28.3%), sexual activity (24.1%) and total energy level (26.7%). The lowest reported symptoms were facial hair at 16

  10. Clinical-anamnestic features and quality of life in women with endometrial pathology on the background of uterine myoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronova V.L.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 325 women 35-55 years old suffering from various forms of endometrial pathology were examined. It was found that 110 (33.8% patients had combination of endometrial pathology and uterine myoma. They made up the main group (group MM, the reference group consisted of 215 women without uterine myoma (group K. It was established that group with uterine myoma is characterized by increased extragenital morbidity: cardiomyopathy (p<0.009, hypertension (p<0.03, obesity stage III-IV (p<0.006, iron-deficiency anemia (p<0,02, vegetative-vascular dystonia (p<0,03 and nervous system diseases (p<0,01 were significantly more common. The presence of uterine myoma is associated with increased risk of recurrence of endometrial hyperplasia and polyps. These data suggest that in the pathophysiology of uterine myoma in women of late reproductive and premenopausal age with endometrial pathology somatic and somatoform disorders play a more significant role than concomitant or previous genital pathology. In late reproductive age and menopause period endometrial lesions are combined with uterine myoma in every third patient. Somatic factors have a greater impact on the development of uterine myoma than reproductive. The presence of uterine myoma is an additional criterion of reduce of quality of life and burdens the prognosis of treatment of endometrial pathology in late reproductive age and premenopausal period.

  11. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, S.S.; Kelstrup, Louise

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised...... the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex.RESULTSSeventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range...... with pregnancies with maternal weight gain >5 kg.CONCLUSIONIn this pilot study in obese women with type 2 diabetes, maternal gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with a more proportionate birth weight and less perinatal morbidity....

  12. Psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Organised breast cancer screening is currently one of the best strategies for early-stage breast cancer detection. However, early detection has proven challenging for women with psychiatric disease. This study aims to investigate psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening. We conducted an observational cohort study including women invited to the first organised screening round in the Central Denmark Region. Data on psychiatric diagnosis, psychoactive prescription medicine and consultation with private psychiatrists were obtained from Danish registries and assessed for a period of up to 10 years before the screening date. The cohort comprised 144,264 women whereof 33.0% were registered with an indication of psychiatric morbidity. We found elevated non-participation propensity among women with a psychiatric diagnosis especially for women with schizophrenia and substance abuse. Also milder psychiatric morbidity was associated with higher non-participation likelihood as women who had redeemed psychoactive prescription medicine or have had minimum one consultation with a private psychiatrist were more likely not to participate. Finally, we found that the chronicity of psychiatric morbidity was associated with non-participation and that woman who had a psychiatric morbidity defined as 'persistent' had higher likelihood of non-participation than women with recently active morbidity or inactive psychiatric morbidity. This study showed a strong association between psychiatric morbidity and an increased likelihood of non-participation in breast cancer screening in a health care system with universal and tax-funded health services. This knowledge may inform interventions targeting women with psychiatric morbidity as they have poorer breast cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  15. Increased cortisol bioavailability, abdominal obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Martine; Marquez Pereira, Patricia; Barat, Pascal; Gatta, Blandin; Roger, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to obtain a detailed profile of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity and its differential relationships with body fat distribution and total fat mass in premenopausal obese women. Cortisol responses to stimulation (awakening, food intake, exercise) and suppression (0.25 mg dexamethasone), cortisol metabolism, and tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were studied in 53 premenopausal obese women grouped according to their waist-to hip ratio: women with abdominal body fat distribution (A-BFD; n = 31) and women with peripheral fat distribution (P-BFD; n = 22). Comparatively, A-BFD women had 1) lower awakening salivary cortisol levels; 2) increased salivary responsiveness to a standardized lunch; 3) similar pituitary sensitivity to dexamethasone but decreased sensitivity of monocytes to dexamethasone; 4) similar 24-hour urinary free cortisol but increased 24-hour urinary ratio of cortisone-to-cortisol; and 5) no difference in corticosteroid binding protein parameters. Although abdominal obesity is not very different from generalized obesity in terms of HPA function, subtle variations in HPA axis activity and reactivity are evidenced in A-BFD premenopausal obese women.

  16. Associations of early premenopausal fractures with subsequent fractures vary by sites and mechanisms of fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, R; Tuppurainen, M; Kroger, H; Alhava, E; Puntila, E

    1997-04-01

    In a retrospective population-based study we assessed whether and how self-reported former fractures sustained at the ages of 20-34 are associated with subsequent fractures sustained at the ages of 35-57. The 12,162 women who responded to fracture questions of the baseline postal enquiry (in 1989) of the Kuopio Osteoporosis Study, Finland formed the study population. They reported 589 former and 2092 subsequent fractures. The hazard ratio (HR), with 95% confidence interval (CI), of a subsequent fracture was 1.9 (1.6-2.3) in women with the history of a former fracture compared with women without such a history. A former low-energy wrist fracture was related to subsequent low-energy wrist [HR = 3.7 (2.0-6.8)] and high-energy nonwrist [HR = 2.4 (1.3-4.4)] fractures, whereas former high-energy nonwrist fractures were related only to subsequent high-energy nonwrist [HR = 2.8 (1.9-4.1)] but not to low-energy wrist [HR = 0.7 (0.3-1.8)] fractures. The analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) data of a subsample of premenopausal women who underwent dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during 1989-91 revealed that those with a wrist fracture due to a fall on the same level at the age of 20-34 recorded 6.5% lower spinal (P = 0.140) and 10.5% lower femoral (P = 0.026) BMD than nonfractured women, whereas the corresponding differences for women with a former nonwrist fracture due to high-energy trauma were -1.8% (P = 0.721) and -2.4% (P = 0. 616), respectively. Our results suggest that an early premenopausal, low-energy wrist fracture is an indicator of low peak BMD which predisposes to subsequent fractures in general, whereas early high-energy fractures are mainly indicators of other and more specific extraskeletal factors which mainly predispose to same types of subsequent fractures only.

  17. Incidence of chemotherapy- and chemoradiotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women with stage II/III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Juefeng; Gai, Ya; Li, Guichao; Tao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    The incidence rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in young individuals are increasing. There has been a significant improvement in overall survival in CRC because of advances in adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy over the past decades. However, these procedures may compromise the function of the reproductive system, and ovarian failure and premature menopause may occur. The objective of this analysis was to determine the incidence of long-term amenorrhea (≥ 12 months) in women with CRC aged 40 years and younger after adjuvant treatment. The authors identified 162 premenopausal women with CRC aged 40 years or younger who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from January 2008 to December 2012. One hundred twenty-three patients met all eligibility criteria and had sufficient follow-up for evaluation. The median age at diagnosis in patients with colon and rectal cancers was, respectively, 36 and 35 years (range, 17-40 and 24-40 years). All patients had regular menses before treatment; 3 patients with colon cancer (4.2%) experienced long-term amenorrhea, and 48 patients with rectal cancer (94.1%) experienced long-term amenorrhea. The incidence of amenorrhea was significantly lower in patients with colon cancer (4.2%; 3 of 72) than in patients with rectal cancer (94.1%; 48 of 51) (P amenorrhea in patients with colon and rectal cancers was 4.2% and 94.1%, respectively. We believe our data support the fact that young female patients with CRC, especially those with rectal cancer who are scheduled to undergo pelvic irradiation, should be counseled regarding fertility preservation options, including ovarian transposition and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, embryo, or oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased Serum Levels of Ghrelin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Premenopausal Women With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Masoumeh; Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2018-03-21

    We aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of ghrelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with MetS and its components in premenopausal women. 43 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Participants' body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, BDNF and ghrelin determined. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Participants in MetS group had higher waist-to-hip ratios, elevated SBP and DBP, and higher serum levels of TG, FBS and insulin when compared with the control group. Serum ghrelin and BDNF levels were significantly lower in participants with MetS than in the healthier control subjects. There was a strong, positive correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF levels. Both proteins negatively correlated with TG, FBS, HOMA-IR and positively with HDL-C. Furthermore, serum BDNF levels negatively associated with insulin levels. The findings indicate that variations occur in the circulating level of ghrelin and BDNF proteins in MetS patients. A strong correlation between serum ghrelin and BDNF suggests that production, release or practice of these 2 proteins might be related mechanically.

  19. Surgical Findings and Outcomes in Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Oophorectomy: A Multicenter Review From the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Fellows Pelvic Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara F B; Abramson, Vandana G; Alvarez, Jimena; DeStephano, Christopher; Hur, Hye-Chun; Lee, Katherine; Mattingly, Patricia; Park, Beau; Piszczek, Carolyn; Seifi, Farinaz; Stuparich, Mallory; Yunker, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    To describe the procedures performed, intra-abdominal findings, and surgical pathology in a cohort of women with premenopausal breast cancer who underwent oopherectomy. Multicenter retrospective chart review (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Nine US academic medical centers participating in the Fellows' Pelvic Research Network (FPRN). One hundred twenty-seven women with premenopausal breast cancer undergoing oophorectomy between January 2013 and March 2016. Surgical castration. The mean patient age was 45.8 years. Fourteen patients (11%) carried a BRCA mutations, and 22 (17%) carried another germline or acquired mutation, including multiple variants of uncertain significance. There was wide variation in surgical approach. Sixty-five patients (51%) underwent pelvic washings, and 43 (35%) underwent concurrent hysterectomy. Other concomitant procedures included midurethral sling placement, appendectomy, and hysteroscopy. Three patients experienced complications (transfusion, wound cellulitis, and vaginal cuff dehiscence). Thirteen patients (10%) had ovarian pathology detected on analysis of the surgical specimen, including metastatic tumor, serous cystadenomas, endometriomas, and Brenner tumor. Eight patients (6%) had Fallopian tube pathology, including 3 serous tubal intraepithelial cancers. Among the 44 uterine specimens, 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma and 1 multifocal endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia were noted. Regarding the entire study population, the number of patients meeting our study criteria and seen by gynecologic surgeons in the FPRN for oophorectomy increased by nearly 400% from 2013 to 2015. Since publication of the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial data, bilateral oophorectomy has been recommended for some women with premenopausal breast cancer to facilitate breast cancer treatment with aromatase inhibitors. These women may be at elevated risk for occult abdominal pathology compared with the general population. Gynecologic surgeons

  20. A comparison of survival outcomes and side effects of toremifene or tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast cancer patients: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Ran; Long, Meijun; Chen, Kai; Chen, Lili; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Song, Erwei; Su, Fengxi; Jia, Weijuan; Zeng, Yunjie; Rao, Nanyan; Hu, Yue; Li, Shunrong; Wu, Jiannan; Jin, Liang; Chen, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    In premenopausal women, endocrine adjuvant therapy for breast cancer primarily consists of tamoxifen alone or with ovarian suppressive strategies. Toremifene is a chlorinated derivative of tamoxifen, but with a superior risk-benefit profile. In this retrospective study, we sought to establish the role of toremifene as an endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients with estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer besides tamoxifen. Patients with early invasive breast cancer were selected from the breast tumor registries at the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital (China). Premenopausal patients with endocrine responsive breast cancer who underwent standard therapy and adjuvant therapy with toremifene or tamoxifen were considered eligible. Patients with breast sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, concurrent contralateral primary breast cancer, or with distant metastases at diagnosis, or those who had not undergone surgery and endocrine therapy were ineligible. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were the primary outcomes measured. Toxicity data was also collected and compared between the two groups. Of the 810 patients reviewed, 452 patients were analyzed in the study: 240 received tamoxifen and 212 received toremifene. The median and mean follow up times were 50.8 and 57.3 months, respectively. Toremifene and tamoxifen yielded similar overall survival values, with 5-year overall survival rates of 100% and 98.4%, respectively (p = 0.087). However, recurrence-free survival was significantly better in the toremifene group than in the tamoxifen group (p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that recurrence-free survival improved independently with toremifene (HR = 0.385, 95% CI = 0.154-0.961; p = 0.041). Toxicity was similar in the two treatment groups with no women experiencing severe complications, other than hot flashes, which was more frequent in the toremifene patients (p = 0.049). No patients developed endometrial cancer. Toremifene may be a valid and

  1. Specifying the ovarian cancer risk threshold of 'premenopausal risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy' for ovarian cancer prevention: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Legood, Rosa; Antoniou, Antonis C; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Menon, Usha

    2016-09-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is the most effective intervention to prevent ovarian cancer (OC). It is only available to high-risk women with >10% lifetime OC risk. This threshold has not been formally tested for cost-effectiveness. To specify the OC risk thresholds for RRSO being cost-effective for preventing OC in premenopausal women. The costs as well as effects of surgical prevention ('RRSO') were compared over a lifetime with 'no RRSO' using a decision analysis model. RRSO was undertaken in premenopausal women >40 years. The model was evaluated at lifetime OC risk levels: 2%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Costs and outcomes are discounted at 3.5%. Uncertainty in the model was assessed using both deterministic sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). Outcomes included in the analyses were OC, breast cancer (BC) and additional deaths from coronary heart disease. Total costs and effects were estimated in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); incidence of OC and BC; as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Published literature, Nurses Health Study, British National Formulary, Cancer Research UK, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and National Health Service reference costs. The time horizon is lifetime and perspective: payer. Premenopausal RRSO is cost-effective at 4% OC risk (life expectancy gained=42.7 days, ICER=£19 536/QALY) with benefits largely driven by reduction in BC risk. RRSO remains cost-effective at >8.2% OC risk without hormone replacement therapy (ICER=£29 071/QALY, life expectancy gained=21.8 days) or 6%if BC risk reduction=0 (ICER=£27 212/QALY, life expectancy gained=35.3 days). Sensitivity analysis indicated results are not impacted much by costs of surgical prevention or treatment of OC/ BC or cardiovascular disease. However, results were sensitive to RRSO utility scores. Additionally, 37%, 61%, 74%, 84%, 96% and 99.5% simulations on PSA are cost

  2. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  3. Women's sexuality: from aging to social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringa, Virginie; Diter, Kevin; Laborde, Caroline; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    Studies designed in northern countries show that most women are still sexually active after the age of 50. Many factors other than hormones influence sexual life in and after middle age; they include social status, personal characteristics, physical and psychological conditions, relationship factors, and social representations of sexuality. This study aims to analyze various components of sexuality, including its social representations, among women aged 45-55 years, as they reach menopause. Comparison of three groups: all postmenopausal women (277), postmenopausal women not currently using hormonal treatment (HT) (209), postmenopausal women currently using HT (68), with a reference group of premenopausal women (408). All were recruited in a national general population-based survey of sexual behaviors and interviewed by telephone. Practices, sexual function, satisfaction, and representations and expectations concerning sexuality. The women did not differ according to menopausal status for sexual activity, practices (wide range of practices beyond sexual intercourse), dysfunction, or satisfaction. They also attributed equal importance to sexuality. Nevertheless, although postmenopausal women not using HT did not report less sexual activity than premenopausal women, they were less likely to consider that a 3-month period without sex is a sign of difficulty in a relationship (30.3% vs. 47.7%; odds ratio: 0.35 [0.21-0.57], P=0.000). This difference was not observed between postmenopausal women using HT and premenopausal women. Our results suggest that for middle-aged women who are at the onset of menopause, the biological/hormonal changes characterizing menopause do not negatively affect sexual life. Any negative reported effects on sexuality are more likely due to anticipation or negative representations of sexuality around menopause than to biological or hormonal effects. The effect of menopause at this point in women's lives may thus be more symbolic than biological

  4. Endocrine effects of adjuvant letrozole + triptorelin compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emanuela; Morabito, Alessandro; De Maio, Ermelinda; Di Rella, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Gravina, Adriano; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Nuzzo, Francesco; Pacilio, Carmen; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Botti, Gerardo; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; de Matteis, Andrea

    2008-01-10

    To compare the endocrine effects of 6 months of adjuvant treatment with letrozole + triptorelin or tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer within an ongoing phase 3 trial (Hormonal Adjuvant Treatment Bone Effects study). Prospectively collected hormonal data were available for 81 premenopausal women, of whom 30 were assigned to receive tamoxifen + triptorelin and 51 were assigned letrozole + triptorelin +/- zoledronate. Serum 17-beta-estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Delta4-androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. For each hormone, 6-month values were compared between treatment groups by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney exact test. Median age was 44 years for both groups of patients. Letrozole + triptorelin (+/- zoledronate) induced a stronger suppression of median E2 serum levels (P = .0008), LH levels (P = .0005), and cortisol serum levels (P < .0001) compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin. Median FSH serum levels were suppressed in both groups, but such suppression was lower among patients receiving letrozole, who showed significantly higher median FSH serum levels (P < .0001). No significant differences were observed for testosterone, progesterone, ACTH, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone between the two groups of patients. Letrozole in combination with triptorelin induces a more intense estrogen suppression than tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

  5. Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Meredith M; Pagani, Olivia; Francis, Prudence A; Fleming, Gini F; Walley, Barbara A; Kammler, Roswitha; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Russo, Leila; Szőke, János; Doimi, Franco; Villani, Laura; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Sessa, Fausto; Peg Cámara, Vicente; Rodríguez Peralto, José Luis; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Colleoni, Marco; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Viale, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR, and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional, or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expressions were 95, 90, and 18 % immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER-positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels, though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane + ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane + OFS versus tamoxifen + OFS or tamoxifen alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer.

  6. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey ...

  7. Cancer morbidity in one of the regions of the ecological disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Bul'bulya, M.A.; Shevchenko, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of cancer morbidity (1989) of the population of the Chelyabinsk Region and on 5 territories, exposed to radioactive contamination. As compared to the whole of Russia, total cancer morbidity rates for Chelyabinsk are significantly high, including those of rectal, lung and skin cancer both in men and women. The rates of breast cancer and hemoblatosis morbidity in women were also high. Total cancer morbidity rates on the study territories were lower than the mean district indices. On the tentative territories lip cancer morbidity both in mean and women was higher than the mean district indices; esophageal cancer morbidity rates in women on the same territories was rather high

  8. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  9. Neurology Concepts: Young Women and Ischemic Stroke-Evaluation and Management in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bernard P; Wira, Charles; Miller, Joseph; Akhter, Murtaza; Barth, Bradley E; Willey, Joshua; Nentwich, Lauren; Madsen, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the incidence of ischemic stroke is highest in older populations, incidence of ischemic stroke in adults has been rising particularly rapidly among young (e.g., premenopausal) women. The evaluation and timely diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young women presents a challenging situation in the emergency department, due to a range of sex-specific risk factors and to broad differentials. The goals of this concepts paper are to summarize existing knowledge regarding the evaluation and management of young women with ischemic stroke in the acute setting. A panel of six board-certified emergency physicians, one with fellowship training in stroke and one with training in sex- and sex-based medicine, along with one vascular neurologist were coauthors involved in the paper. Each author used various search strategies (e.g., PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar) for primary research and reviewed articles related to their section. The references were reviewed and evaluated for relevancy and included based on review by the lead authors. Estimates on the incidence of ischemic stroke in premenopausal women range from 3.65 to 8.9 per 100,000 in the United States. Several risk factors for ischemic stroke exist for young women including oral contraceptive (OCP) use and migraine with aura. Pregnancy and the postpartum period (up to 12 weeks) is also an important transient state during which risks for both ischemic stroke and cerebral hemorrhage are elevated, accounting for 18% of strokes in women under 35. Current evidence regarding the management of acute ischemic stroke in young women is also summarized including use of thrombolytic agents (e.g., tissue plasminogen activator) in both pregnant and nonpregnant individuals. Unique challenges exist in the evaluation and diagnosis of ischemic stroke in young women. There are still many opportunities for future research aimed at improving detection and treatment

  10. Morbidity and medicine prescriptions in a nationwide Danish population of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hass Rubin, Katrine; Nybo, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Andersen, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the prevalence of other diseases is not clarified. We aimed to investigate morbidity and medicine prescriptions in PCOS. A National Register-based study. Patients with PCOS (PCOS Denmark and an embedded cohort; PCOS Odense University Hospital (OUH)) and one control population. Premenopausal women with PCOS underwent clinical and biochemical examination (PCOS OUH, n=1217). PCOS Denmark (n=19 199) included women with PCOS in the Danish National Patient Register. Three age-matched controls were included per patient (n=57 483). Diagnosis codes and filled prescriptions. The mean (range) age of the PCOS Denmark group and controls was 30.6 (12-60) years. Patients in PCOS Denmark had higher Charlson index, higher prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension than controls. PCOS was associated with a two times increased risk of stroke and thrombosis, whereas the risk of other cardiovascular diseases was not increased. Thyroid disease, asthma, migraine, and depression were more prevalent in PCOS Denmark vs controls, whereas fractures were rarer. Infertility was increased in patients compared with controls, but the mean number of births was higher in PCOS. Medicine prescriptions within all diagnosis areas were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in controls.In PCOS OUH, polycystic ovaries (PCO) and irregular menses were associated with a more adverse metabolic risk profile, but individual Rotterdam criteria were not associated with cardiometabolic diagnoses. Cardiometabolic and psychiatric morbidity were significantly increased in a Danish population with PCOS. Medical diseases are frequent also in young patients with PCOS. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Li, Ying; Gong, Liya; Yuan, Feifei; Niu, Yucun; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Changhao

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have focused on the effects of calcium intake on serum lipid concentrations in postmenopausal women. However, many premenopausal women are taking calcium supplements in China. To our knowledge, no studies have assessed whether the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipids are similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipid concentrations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia. A total of 190 premenopausal women (30-40 y old) and 182 postmenopausal women (50-60 y old) with dyslipidemia were given 800 mg Ca/d or a placebo for 2 y in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid concentrations, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), dietary nutrient intakes, and physical activity levels were determined at baseline and after 2 y. There was a significant interaction between calcium supplementation and menopausal status on serum cholesterol concentrations (P women (P women with dyslipidemia increases serum total cholesterol concentrations and CIMT. In postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia, calcium supplements should be prescribed with caution. This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org/cn/ as ChiCTR-TRC-12002806.

  12. Sexual dysfunction prevalence in a group of pre- and postmenopausal Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Flor de Durazno Casillas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction To determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in pre and postmenopausal women. Material and methods A cross-sectional, descriptive, comparative study was done in climacteric women from 40 to 59 years of age. Female sexual function was evaluated with the female sexual function index (FSFI) on the day of consultation. The comparison between pre and postmenopausal women and between those with or without sexual dysfunction was done with Mann Whitney U test, χ2, and Spearman’s correlation analysis was done. Results One hundred and ten women were studied, 55 were premenopausal (group 1) and 55 postmenopausal (group 2). The median of age in group 1 was 46 (40-58) years and in group 2 it was 53 (45-60) years. Premenopausal women had higher education level than postmenopausal women (p < 0.023). From those sexually active, 62.1% had sexual dysfunction. No statistically significant difference was found in education level, religion and marital status between women with or without sexual dysfunction. No difference in sexual dysfunction was found between premenopausal (62.1%) and postmenopausal (62.5%) women, but greater sexual dysfunction was found starting from 50 years age. Age negatively correlated with FSFI score (ρ = –0.324, p < 0.001). Conclusion In postmenopausal women, those older had a greater impairment in sexual function.

  13. Aspects of sexual self-schema in premenopausal women with dyspareunia: associations with pain, sexual function, and sexual distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Although it is known that women with dyspareunia suffer from impaired psychological and sexual functioning, the study of the various dimensions of sexual self-schema and their associations with these outcomes has been neglected. To examine whether self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, body image, and feelings and beliefs about one's own genitals contribute to the variance in pain, sexual functioning, and sexual distress. Premenopausal women (n = 231; M age = 24.85, SD = 5.55) with self-reported dyspareunia completed an online survey focusing on self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, body image, female genital self-image, pain during intercourse, sexual functioning, sexual distress, anxiety, and catastrophizing. (i) Pain intensity during intercourse, (ii) the Female Sexual Function Index without the Pain subscale, and (iii) the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Controlling for anxiety and catastrophizing, negative self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration, negative body image, and negative genital self-image together accounted for a portion of the variance in increased pain intensity, sexual dysfunction, and sexual distress. However, only self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = 0.25, P = 0.005) contributed uniquely to the variance in pain intensity, whereas self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = -0.18, P = 0.048) and genital self-image (β = 0.21, P = 0.008) contributed independently to the variance in sexual functioning. Finally, self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration (β = 0.28, P < 0.001), body image (β = 0.24, P < 0.001) and genital self-image (β = -0.14, P = 0.006) each contributed independently to the variance in sexual distress. Findings suggest that self-image cognitions about vaginal penetration and feelings and beliefs about one's own body and genitals are associated with pain and sexuality outcomes in women with dyspareunia. © 2013

  14. Large Prospective Study of Ovarian Cancer Screening in High-risk Women: CA125 Cut-point Defined by Menopausal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates, Steven J.; Mai, Phuong; Horick, Nora K.; Piedmonte, Marion; Drescher, Charles W.; Isaacs, Claudine; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Buys, Saundra S.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Horowitz, Ira R.; Berchuck, Andrew; Daly, Mary B.; Domchek, Susan; Cohn, David E.; Van Le, Linda; Schorge, John O.; Newland, William; Davidson, Susan A.; Barnes, Mack; Brewster, Wendy; Azodi, Masoud; Nerenstone, Stacy; Kauff, Noah D.; Fabian, Carol J.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Nayfield, Susan G.; Kasten, Carol H.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Greene, Mark H.; Lu, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous screening trials for early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women have used the standard CA125 cut-point of 35 U/mL, the 98th percentile in this population yielding a 2% false positive rate, while the same cut-point in trials of premenopausal women results in substantially higher false positive rates. We investigated demographic and clinical factors predicting CA125 distributions, including 98th percentiles, in a large population of high-risk women participating in two ovarian cancer screening studies with common eligibility criteria and screening protocols. Methods Baseline CA125 values and clinical and demographic data from 3,692 women participating in screening studies conducted by the NCI-sponsored Cancer Genetics Network and Gynecologic Oncology Group were combined for this pre-planned analysis. Due to the large effect of menopausal status on CA125 levels, statistical analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal subjects to determine the impact of other baseline factors on predicted CA125 cut-points based on the 98th percentile. Results The primary clinical factor affecting CA125 cut-points was menopausal status, with premenopausal women having a significantly higher cut-point of 50 U/mL while in postmenopausal subjects the standard cut-point of 35 U/mL was recapitulated. In premenopausal women, current oral contraceptive (OC) users had a cut-point of 40 U/mL. Conclusions To achieve a 2% false positive rate in ovarian cancer screening trials and in high-risk women choosing to be screened, the cut-point for initial CA125 testing should be personalized primarily for menopausal status (~ 50 for premenopausal women, 40 for premenopausal on OC, 35 for postmenopausal women). PMID:21893500

  15. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  16. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  17. Neonatal morbidity associated with shoulder dystocia maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Janine E; Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; Colvin, Ryan; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-03-01

    We sought to examine neonatal morbidity associated with different maneuvers used among term patients who experience a shoulder dystocia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women who experienced a clinically diagnosed shoulder dystocia at term requiring obstetric maneuvers at a single tertiary care hospital from 2005 through 2008. We excluded women with major fetal anomaly, intrauterine death, multiple gestation, and preterm. Women exposed to Rubin maneuver, Wood's screw maneuver, or delivery of the posterior arm were compared to women delivered by McRoberts/suprapubic pressure only, which served as the reference group. The primary outcome was a composite morbidity of neonatal injury (defined as clavicular or humeral fracture or brachial plexus injury) and neonatal depression (defined as Apgar dystocia, defined as time from delivery of fetal head to delivery of shoulders. Among the 231 women who met inclusion criteria, 135 were delivered by McRoberts/suprapubic pressure alone (57.9%), 83 women were exposed to Rubin maneuver, 53 women were exposed to Wood's screw, and 36 women were exposed to delivery of posterior arm. Individual maneuvers were not associated with composite morbidity, neonatal injury, or neonatal depression after adjusting for nulliparity and duration of shoulder dystocia. We found no association between shoulder dystocia maneuvers and neonatal morbidity after adjusting for duration, a surrogate for severity. Our results demonstrate that clinicians should utilize the maneuver most likely to result in successful delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuthkochorn, Sorapan; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark G; Jones, Corey S; Palomo, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term effects of teriparatide versus placebo on bone biomarkers, structure, and fracture healing in women with lower-extremity stress fractures: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A. Almirol

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: In this randomized, pilot study, brief administration of TPTD showed anabolic effects that TPTD may help hasten fracture healing in premenopausal women with lower-extremity stress fractures. Larger prospective studies are warranted to determine the effects of TPTD treatment on stress fracture healing in premenopausal women.

  20. Reproductive status is associated with the severity of fibrosis in women with hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Villa

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C is the main cause of death in patients with end-stage liver disease. Prognosis depends on the increase of fibrosis, whose progression is twice as rapid in men as in women. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of reproductive stage on fibrosis severity in women and to compare these findings with age-matched men.A retrospective study of 710 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis C was conducted, using data from a clinical database of two tertiary Italian care centers. Four age-matched groups of men served as controls. Data about demographics, biochemistry, liver biopsy and ultrasonography were analyzed. Contributing factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Liver fibrosis was more advanced in the early menopausal than in the fully reproductive (P<0.0001 or premenopausal (P = 0.042 group. Late menopausal women had higher liver fibrosis compared with the other groups (fully reproductive, P<0.0001; premenopausal, P = <0.0001; early menopausal, P = 0.052. Multivariate analyses showed that male sex was independently associated with more severe fibrosis in the groups corresponding to premenopausal (P = 0.048 and early menopausal (P = 0.004 but not late menopausal pairs. In women, estradiol/testosterone ratio decreased markedly in early (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.002 and vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001 and late menopause (vs. reproductive age: P = 0.001; vs. premenopausal: P<0.0001. In men age-matched with menopausal women, estradiol/testosterone ratio instead increased (reproductive age group vs. early: P = 0.002 and vs. late M: P = 0.001.The severity of fibrosis in women worsens in parallel with increasing estrogen deprivation and estradiol/testosterone ratio decrease. Our data provide evidence why fibrosis progression is discontinuous in women and more linear and severe in men, in whom aging-associated estradiol/testosterone ratio increase occurs too late to noticeably influence the

  1. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in premenopausal breast cancer patients treated with taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy - A translational research project of the SUCCESS A study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Elisabeth; Steidl, J; Rack, B; Kupka, M S; Andergassen, U; Jückstock, J; Kurt, A; Vilsmaier, T; de Gregorio, A; de Gregorio, N; Tzschaschel, M; Lato, C; Polasik, A; Tesch, H; Schneeweiss, A; Beckmann, M W; Fasching, P A; Janni, W; Müller, V

    2017-10-01

    Premenopausal women undergoing chemotherapy are at high risk for premature ovarian failure and its long-term consequences. Data on potential markers to evaluate ovarian reserve pre- and posttreatment are limited. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) known for ovarian reserve in reproductive medicine could be a surrogate marker and was assessed in premenopausal breast cancer patients of the SUCCESS A study (EUDRA-CT no. 2005-000490-21). We identified 170 premenopausal patients, age ≤ 40 years at trial entry, who received FEC-Doc as taxane-anthracylince based chemotherapy. Blood samples were taken at three time points: Before, four weeks after and two years after adjuvant chemotherapy. Serum AMH-levels were evaluated in a central laboratory by a quantitative immunoassay AMH Gen II ELISA (Beckman Coulter, Brea, USA). Median age was 36 years (21-40 years). Median serum AMH-level before chemotherapy was 1.37 ng/ml (range chemotherapy AMH-levels dropped in 98.6% of the patients to chemotherapy induced amenorrhea occurred only in 50.6% of the patients. In this analysis, premenopausal patients showed a high rate of ovarian impairment reflected by low AMH-levels after chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Is menopause a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Chiara; Marzullo, Raffaella; Modena, Maria Grazia

    2012-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men and women worldwide. The apparent cardioprotective effects of endogenous estrogens seem to prevent CVD in premenopausal women. Following menopause and loss of hormonal effects, gender-based differences in CVD are reduced, with the CVD risk being higher in women who develop the metabolic syndrome. In postmenopausal women, many features of the metabolic syndrome emerge with estrogen deficiency. Estrogen deficiency occurring in the menopausal period is associated with 1) dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, reduced HDL, and increased small dense LDL particles); 2) insulin resistance; 3) hypertension; 4) increased central fat and reduction in lean body mass; and 5) increased hypercoagulability and pro-inflammatory state. In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, also early menopause has a negative impact on females. Over the past years, different approaches were found to improve quality of life and cardiovascular health in menopausal women. Since the concept of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), large observational studies and randomized clinical trials have amassed a wealth of data about the effects of menopause and the safety and efficacy of using estrogen replacement therapies to treat menopause symptoms and menopause-related diseases. While there is no question that HRT effectively mitigates troublesome menopause symptoms, conflicting evidence about other effects of HRT has fueled controversy concerning its relative benefits and risks. Moreover, it seems that CVD protection mediated by replacement therapy is maximum when treatment is initiated in the absence of signs of atherosclerosis (typically in the premenopausal period), whereas it vanishes as atherosclerosis progresses (postmenopausal period). However, many questions remain unsolved regarding the effectiveness of hormonal compounds, doses, regimens, and route of administration. On the basis of these

  3. Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, María Del Mar; Gulfo, José; Camps, Núria; Alcalá, Rosa; Monserrat, Laura; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco José; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Alemany, Marià

    2017-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports testosterone and estradiol in plasma. The possibility that SHBG is a mixture of transporting proteins has been postulated. We analyzed in parallel the effects of obesity status on the levels and binding capacity of circulating SHBG and their relationship with testosterone and estradiol. Anthropometric measures and plasma were obtained from apparently healthy young (i.e. 35 ± 7 years) premenopausal women ( n =  32) and men ( n =  30), with normal weight and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m 2 ). SHBG protein (Western blot), as well as the plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and insulin (ELISA) were measured. Specific binding of estradiol and testosterone to plasma SHBG was analyzed using tritium-labeled hormones. Significant differences in SHBG were observed within the obesity status and gender, with discordant patterns of change in testosterone and estradiol. In men, testosterone occupied most of the binding sites. Estrogen binding was much lower in all subjects. Lower SHBG of morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m 2 ) subjects affected testosterone but not estradiol. The ratio of binding sites to SHBG protein levels was constant for testosterone, but not for estradiol. The influence of gender was maximal in morbid obesity, with men showing the highest binding / SHBG ratios. The results reported here are compatible with SHBG being a mixture of at least two functionally different hormone-binding globulins, being affected by obesity and gender and showing different structure, affinities for testosterone and estradiol and also different immunoreactivity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Salivary cortisol and binge eating disorder in obese women after surgery for morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women without BED participated in the study. Means+/-SD: age 43 +/- 15, body mass index 40 +/- 8. Salivary cortisol, anthropometric assessments, and the eating disorder examination interview were taken. Women with BED showed a significantly lower waist-to-hip ratio and cortisol levels during the day than women without BED, whereas the ACR did not differ. Our cross-sectional study in a small sample generates the hypothesis that neuroendocrine regulation differs between obese women with and without BED after obesity surgery. This finding needs replication in future studies that should also examine the causal direction of the observed association.

  5. Interleukins 6 and 8 and abdominal fat depots are distinct correlates of lipid moieties in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Dyer, Roy B; Trushin, Sergey A; Bondar, Olga P; Singh, Ravinder J; Klee, George G

    2016-12-01

    Available data associate lipids concentrations in men with body mass index, anabolic steroids, age, and certain cytokines. Data were less clear in women, especially across the full adult lifespan, and when segmented by premenopausal and postmenopausal status. 120 healthy women (60 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal) in Olmsted County, MN, USA, a stable well studied clinical population. Dependent variables: measurements of 10 h fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. testosterone, estrone, estradiol, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin (by mass spectrometry); insulin, glucose, and albumin; abdominal visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat [abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, total abdominal fat by computerized tomography scan]; and a panel of cytokines (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Multivariate forward-selection linear-regression analysis was applied constrained to P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal fat and interleukin-8 (P = 2.0 × 10 -5 , 16.9 % of variance; and P = 0.0031, 9.4 % of variance, respectively). Premenopausal vs. postmenopausal comparisons identified specific relationships that were stronger in premenopausal than postmenopausal individuals, and vice versa. Age was a stronger correlate of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; interleukin-6 of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein; and both sex-hormone binding globulin and total abdominal fat of non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Conversely, sex-hormone binding globulin, abdominal visceral fat, interleukin-8, adiponectin were stronger correlates of triglycerides; abdominal visceral fat, and testosterone of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and age of both non high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Our data

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding in pre-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn

    2013-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the direct cause of a significant health care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Up to 30% of women will seek medical assistance for this problem during their reproductive years. This guideline replaces previous clinical guidelines on the topic and is aimed to enable health care providers with the tools to provide the latest evidence-based care in the diagnosis and the medical and surgical management of this common problem. To provide current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) among women of reproductive age. Outcomes evaluated include the impact of AUB on quality of life and the results of interventions including medical and surgical management of AUB. Members of the guideline committee were selected on the basis of individual expertise to represent a range of practical and academic experience in terms of location in Canada, type of practice, subspecialty expertise, and general gynaecology background. The committee reviewed relevant evidence in the English medical literature including published guidelines. Recommendations were established as consensus statements. The final document was reviewed and approved by the Executive and Council of the SOGC. This document provides a summary of up-to-date evidence regarding diagnosis, investigations, and medical and surgical management of AUB. The resulting recommendations may be adapted by individual health care workers when serving women with this condition. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and sometimes debilitating condition in women of reproductive age. Standardization of related terminology, a systematic approach to diagnosis and investigation, and a step-wise approach to intervention is necessary. Treatment commencing with medical therapeutic modalities followed by the least invasive surgical modalities achieving results satisfactory to the patient is the ultimate goal of all therapeutic interventions

  7. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  8. Poor sleep in relation to natural menopause: a population-based 14-year follow-up of midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Gross, Stephanie A; Pien, Grace W

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) in midlife women. Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was severity of poor sleep, as reported by participants in annual interviews for 16 years and as evaluated in relation to the FMP. The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at premenopausal baseline, premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep in premenopause were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause than those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (odds ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.50-5.11; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.99-2.47; P = 0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.44-2.21; P menopausal transition. Overall, poor sleep does not increase around the FMP and frequently occurs in the absence of hot flashes, indicating that sleep difficulties in the menopausal transition in generally healthy women are not simply associated with ovarian decline.

  9. Contribution of HIV to Maternal Morbidity Among Refugee Women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C.; Bassil, Kate; Hyman, Ilene; Moineddin, Rahim; Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We compared severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and SMM subtypes, including HIV, of refugee women with those of nonrefugee immigrant and nonimmigrant women. Methods. We linked 1 154 421 Ontario hospital deliveries (2002–2011) to immigration records (1985–2010) to determine the incidence of an SMM composite indicator and its subtypes. We determined SMM incidence according to immigration periods, which were characterized by lifting restrictions for all HIV-positive immigrants (in 1991) and refugees who may place “excessive demand” on government services (in 2002). Results. Refugees had a higher risk of SMM (17.1 per 1000 deliveries) than did immigrants (12.1 per 1000) and nonimmigrants (12.4 per 1000). Among SMM subtypes, refugees had a much higher risk of HIV than did immigrants (risk ratio [RR] = 7.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.64, 11.18) and nonimmigrants (RR = 17.37; 95% CI = 12.83, 23.53). SMM disparities were greatest after the 2002 policy came into effect. After exclusion of HIV cases, SMM disparities disappeared. Conclusions. An apparent higher risk of SMM among refugee women in Ontario, Canada is explained by their high prevalence of HIV, which increased over time parallel to admission policy changes favoring humanitarian protection. PMID:26469648

  10. Menopause-related brain activation patterns during visual sexual arousal in menopausal women: An fMRI pilot study using time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-02-20

    The aging process and menopausal transition are important factors in sexual dysfunction of menopausal women. No neuroimaging study has assessed the age- and menopause-related changes on brain activation areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of regional brain activity associated with sexual arousal evoked by visual stimulation in premenopausal and menopausal women, and further to assess the effect of menopause on the brain areas associated with sexual arousal in menopausal women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty volunteers consisting of 15 premenopausal and 15 menopausal women underwent the fMRI. For the activation condition, volunteers viewed sexually arousing visual stimulation. The brain areas with significantly higher activation in premenopausal women compared with menopausal women included the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using analysis of covariance adjusting for age (psexual arousal. These findings might help elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with sexual dysfunction in menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  12. Family Violence and Maltreatment of Women During the Perinatal Period: Associations with Infant Morbidity in Indian Slum Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta; Decker, Michele R; Boyce, Sabrina C; Ritter, Julie; Naik, D D; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of non-violent, gender-based forms of maltreatment of women by husbands and in-laws [i.e., gender-based household maltreatment (GBHM)] during pregnancy and postpartum; to clarify the role of GBHM in compromising infant health, and whether this role extends beyond that previously observed for intimate partner violence (IPV). Cross-sectional, quantitative data were collected from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants violence and GBHM) and recent infant morbidity (diarrhea, respiratory distress, fever, colic and vomiting). More than one in four women (28.4%) reported IPV during their recent pregnancy and/or during the postpartum period, 2.6% reported perinatal violence from in-laws, and 49.0% reported one or more forms of perinatal GBHM. In adjusted regression models that included all forms of family violence and maltreatment, perinatal GBHM remained significantly associated with infant morbidity (AORs 1.4-1.9); perinatal IPV and in-law violence ceased to predict infant morbidity in models including GBHM. Findings indicate that non-violent expressions of gender inequity (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care during pregnancy) are more strongly associated with poor infant health than physical or sexual violence from husbands or in-laws in urban India. These results strongly suggest the need to expand the conception of gender inequities beyond IPV to include non-violent forms of gendered mistreatment in considering their impact on infant health.

  13. Poor Sleep in Relation to Natural Menopause: A Population-Based 14-Year Follow-up of Mid-Life Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Sammel, Mary D.; Gross, Stephanie A.; Pien, Grace W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and predictors of moderate/severe poor sleep in relation to the final menstrual period (FMP) of mid-life women. Methods Annual assessments were conducted in a population-based cohort of 255 women. All were premenopausal at cohort enrollment and reached natural menopause during the 16-year follow-up. The outcome measure was the severity of poor sleep, as reported by the participants in annual interviews for 16 years and evaluated in relation to the FMP. Results The annual prevalence of moderate/severe poor sleep largely ranged from about 28% to 35%, with no significant differences in any year relative to the FMP for the sample overall. When sleep status was stratified at the premenopausal baseline, the premenopausal sleep status strongly predicted poor sleep around the FMP. Women with moderate/severe poor sleep when premenopausal were approximately 3 ½ times more likely to have moderate/severe poor sleep around menopause compared to those with no poor sleep at baseline in adjusted analysis (OR 3.58, 95% CI: 2.50-5.11, Pmenopause (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 0.99-2.47, P=0.053). There was no significant association between poor sleep and time relative to the FMP among women who had no poor sleep at the premenopausal baseline. Hot flashes were significantly associated with poor sleep (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.44-2.21, Pmenopause transition. Overall, poor sleep did not increase around the FMP and frequently occurred in the absence of hot flashes, indicating that sleep difficulties in the menopause transition in generally healthy women were not simply associated with ovarian decline. PMID:25549066

  14. Health and morbidity among Bedouin women in southern Israel: a descriptive literature review of the past two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we describe health and morbidity characteristics of Bedouin women in southern Israel, based on papers published over the past 20 years. This is a unique population whose customs, tradition, singular circumstances as a population "in transit", and underprivileged socio-economic status are reflected in mental illness, pregnancy course, perinatal morbidity and mortality rates, and acute and chronic disease. Recognition of these characteristics can help the medical team treat various health problems in this population as well as other populations with similar characteristics.

  15. Prognostic impact of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea on premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiong; Yin, Wenjin; Du, Yueyao; Shen, Zhenzhou; Lu, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis of published data to assess the exact prognostic value of adjuvant chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) as a prognostic factor for premenopausal breast cancer. Methods: We searched for all relevant studies published before May 2014 in the PubMed, OVID, and EMBASE databases. Relative risks (RRs) were used to estimate the association between CIA and various survival outcomes, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: This meta-analysis identified 13 eligible studies including 5,513 cases and 2,008 controls for DFS and 5 eligible studies including 2,331 cases and 776 controls for OS. Results demonstrated that CIA is associated with improved DFS (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.74; P < 0.001) and OS (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72; P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, CIA was found to affect DFS (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = 0.001) in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive patients; however, similar results were not observed in ER-negative patients (for DFS: RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.66-1.41; P = 0.858). Participants with CIA achieved a significantly better prognosis than participants without CIA, irrespective of nodal status, chemotherapy regimen, endocrine therapy, or publication year. Conclusions: This meta-analysis clarifies that CIA contributes to improved prognosis in premenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer and is at least partially responsible for the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in these women, which induce chemical castration. PMID:25783467

  16. High carbohydrate diet and physical inactivity associated with central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-08-23

    Prevalence of obesity and overweight is rising in developing countries, including Sri Lanka at a rapid pace due to dietary and lifestyle changes. This study aimed to assess the association between high carbohydrate diet, physical inactivity and central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. A sample of 100 premenopausal women with home duties aged between 20 to 45 years were selected randomly from two divisional secretariats (DS), representing urban and rural sectors in Sri Lanka. Data on basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and physical activity were collected. We defined central obesity as a waist circumference ≥80 cm, which is the WHO recommended cut-off. Independent sample t test was used to compare the mean values. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to find out the relationship and the magnitude of association between central obesity and percentage of energy contributed from carbohydrate and physical activity level, respectively. The women reported an average of 18 starch portions per day, which was well above the national recommendations. Seventy percent of energy in the diet came from carbohydrate. The mean BMI and waist circumference of total sample was 25.4 kgm-2 and 78.5 cm, respectively. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and centrally obesity among total sample was 38%, 34% and 45%, respectively. A significant positive correlation observed between high carbohydrate diet and waist circumference (r = 0.628, p household level to reverse this trend among the housewives in Sri Lanka.

  17. Health after childbirth: patterns of reported postpartum morbidity from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Shayboub, Rawan; Ataya, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    The postpartum period is under-researched in low and middle income countries. The scarce literature reveals heavy burden of ill health experienced in that period and under utilisation of health services. Understanding the postpartum morbidity burden and identifying the care-seeking behaviours is essential to improve service delivery. This paper examines reported postpartum morbidity, care seeking behaviour and whether postpartum morbidity is associated with method of birth. A cross sectional study of women delivering in 18 private hospitals from two regions in Lebanon was undertaken. Women in their second or third trimester of pregnancy, visiting private obstetric clinics affiliated with participating hospitals were interviewed for baseline information. Reported postpartum morbidity was assessed in an interview conducted at women's homes from 40 days up to six months postpartum. Of the 269 women recruited, physical postpartum health problems were reported by 93.6% and psychological health problems by 84.4% of women, with more health problems being reported beyond two months postpartum. Women were less likely to seek professional care for psychological health problems. Reporting postpartum health problems was not associated with method of birth. A heavy burden of postpartum morbidity is experienced by women with gaps in utilisation of relevant health services. Efforts should be directed towards the organisation and delivery of comprehensive maternity care services. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Menopausal women requesting egg/embryo donation: examining health screening guidelines for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Taleen; Bachmann, Gloria; Ayers, Charletta

    2016-07-01

    As more postreproductive women opt to pursue pregnancy with advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART), the menopausal practitioner will become more involved in counseling, screening, and referral of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women for these services. This review was conducted with the aim of (1) evaluating ART screening practices as they pertain to postreproductive women, and (2) reviewing the outcomes of ART using oocyte donation in postreproductive women. A total of 950 unique records were found on PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google Scholar. Of these, 252 records were screened for relevance based on their titles and abstracts. With further review of these 252 records, 93 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 63 were excluded based on relevance to our study. Finally, 30 studies were included in our qualitative synthesis. Despite the increasing use of ART in postreproductive women, there are limited guidelines for determining candidacy with regard to maternal health, the most comprehensive of which are the guidelines from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). Although the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines state that healthy women over 50 who are prepared for parenthood are candidates for ART through oocyte donation, they note that older women should be counseled as to the increased obstetric risk associated with advanced maternal age. With aging, particularly for those women who are menopausal and postmenopausal, the woman and her fetus, however, are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality as compared with younger, healthy pregnant women. Because national trends suggest that women are delaying childbearing, the cohort of postreproductive women looking toward ART using donor oocytes as a fertility option will expand and menopausal practitioners will often participate in the ART counseling of these women. Because maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality increase in

  19. Advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde - the new biological markers of oxidative stress - are elevated in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Tansel; Goktas, Bulent; Mutlu, Mehmet F; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bilgihan, Ayse; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as markers for oxidative stress to evaluate cardiovascular risk in pre- and postmenopausal women and to compare the results with malondialde-hyde (MDA) levels. Twenty premenopausal women and 84 naturally postmenopausal patients were enrolled in the study. AOPP and MDA plasma levels were measured. The postmenopausal group was further subdivided into two groups: postmenopausal age of 40-49 and of 50-59 years. AOPP and MDA levels were compared between premenopausal, 40-49 and 50-59 year old menopausal women. Plasma AOPP and MDA levels in postmenopausal women were increased when compared with their premeno-pausal peers (123.83 ± 55.51 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.05 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). Mean plasma AOPP levels in the two menopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (118.64 ± 59.1 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L; respectively). No significant difference was found in mean AOPP levels between postmenopausal subjects of 40-49 and 50-59 years age (118.64 ± 59.12 μmol/L vs. 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L). Mean plasma MDA levels of each of two postmenopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). However, no statistically significant difference between the two postmenopausal age groups (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L) was found. AOPP and MDA levels are elevated in postmenopausal women as compared to their premenopausal peers, suggesting they can be used as markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  20. Differential impacts of serum vitamin D levels and age at menarche on metabolic syndrome in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: findings from the Korea national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Mok, Ji-Oh; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Bora; Jang, Ji Hyon; Kang, Sukho; Jung, Sang Hee

    2018-07-01

    It is suggested that vitamin D level and age at menarche are related to each other, and the prevalence of low vitamin D status and early menarche in women is increasing worldwide. Moreover, several studies revealed that both of them are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we hypothesized that there are significant associations among vitamin D status, age at menarche, and MetS and that the relationships differ according to menstrual state. We assessed whether the association among MetS, vitamin D, and menarche age is different between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and whether there is a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different age-at-menarche groups. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using 1:1 age-matching for this cross-sectional study. Individuals were stratified into 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels (deficient, D level, was associated with risk of MetS (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.65 [1.18-2.33]). In contrast, in postmenopausal women, vitamin D deficiency, not age at menarche, was associated with risk of MetS (1.39 [1.03-1.87]). In a stratified analysis regarding interactions of a change in risk of MetS according to vitamin D level in different ages at menarche, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with the risk of MetS (1.36 [1.01-1.86]), but this was only in the average-age-at-menarche group. This study suggests that the time of entry into puberty for women may be an important factor in the development of MetS in adulthood, and vitamin D status in women at average menarche age may contribute to the development of MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RAZOR: A Phase II Open Randomized Trial of Screening Plus Goserelin and Raloxifene Versus Screening Alone in Premenopausal Women at Increased Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Ashcroft, Linda; Fallowfield, Lesley; Eccles, Diana M; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ward, Ann; Brentnall, Adam R; Dowsett, Mitchell; Cuzick, Jack M; Greenhalgh, Rosemary; Boggis, Caroline; Motion, Jamie; Sergeant, Jamie C; Adams, Judith; Evans, D Gareth

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ovarian suppression in premenopausal women is known to reduce breast cancer risk. This study aimed to assess uptake and compliance with ovarian suppression using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, goserelin, with add-back raloxifene, as a potential regimen for breast cancer prevention. Methods: Women at ≥30% lifetime risk breast cancer were approached and randomized to mammographic screening alone (C-Control) or screening in addition to monthly subcutaneous injections of 3.6 mg goserelin and continuous 60 mg raloxifene daily orally (T-Treated) for 2 years. The primary endpoint was therapy adherence. Secondary endpoints were toxicity/quality of life, change in bone density, and mammographic density. Results: A total of 75/950 (7.9%) women approached agreed to randomization. In the T-arm, 20 of 38 (52%) of women completed the 2-year period of study compared with the C-arm (27/37, 73.0%). Dropouts were related to toxicity but also the wish to have established risk-reducing procedures and proven chemoprevention. As relatively few women completed the study, data are limited, but those in the T-arm reported significant increases in toxicity and sexual problems, no change in anxiety, and less cancer worry. Lumbar spine bone density declined by 7.0% and visually assessed mammographic density by 4.7% over the 2-year treatment period. Conclusions: Uptake is somewhat lower than comparable studies with tamoxifen for prevention with higher dropout rates. Raloxifene may preserve bone density, but reduction in mammographic density reversed after treatment was completed. Impact: This study indicates that breast cancer risk reduction may be possible using LHRH agonists, but reducing toxicity and preventing bone changes would make this a more attractive option. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 58-66. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Vitamin D insufficiency in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy is not associated with morbidity, mortality or growth impairment in their uninfected infants in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Kathleen; Lockman, Shahin; Smeaton, Laura; Hughes, Michael D; Fawzi, Wafaie; Ogwu, Anthony; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; von Oettingen, Julia; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger L

    2014-11-01

    Low maternal 25(OH)D (vitamin D) values have been associated with higher mortality and impaired growth among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants of antiretroviral (ART)-naive women. These associations have not been studied among HEU infants of women receiving ART. We performed a nested case-control study in the Botswana Mma Bana Study, a study providing ART to women during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Median maternal vitamin D values, and the proportion with maternal vitamin D insufficiency, were compared between women whose HEU infants experienced morbidity/mortality during 24 months of follow-up and women with nonhospitalized HEU infants. Growth faltering was assessed for never hospitalized infants attending the 24-month-of-life visit. Multivariate logistic regression models determined associations between maternal vitamin D insufficiency and infant morbidity/mortality and growth faltering. Delivery plasma was available and vitamin D levels assayable from 119 (86%) of 139 cases and 233 (84%) of 278 controls, and did not differ significantly between cases and controls [median: 36.7 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR): 29.1-44.7 vs. 37.1 ng/mL, IQR: 30.0-47.2, P = 0.32]. Vitamin D insufficiency (HIV disease progression did not show associations between maternal vitamin D insufficiency at delivery and child morbidity/mortality, or 24-month-of-life growth faltering. Vitamin D insufficiency was common among ART-treated pregnant women in Botswana, but was not associated with morbidity, mortality or growth impairment in their HIV-uninfected children.

  3. Perbedaan Keluhan Sindroma Premenopause Pada Ibu-Ibu Dengan Tingkat Ekonomi Menengah Ke Atas Dan Menengah Ke Bawah Di Kelurahan Sumber, Kecamatan Banjarsari, Kotamadya Surakarta Tahun 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Melissa Kumala; Makiyah, Sri Nabawiyati Nurul

    2006-01-01

    Menopause is the last menstrual period or when the last menstrual period occurs. Many symptoms occur in a woman undergoing this period which can cause anxiety andfears. The aim of this research was to compare the symptoms of pre-menopausal syndrome in women with middle to upper economic level and women with middle to lower economic level in Sumber Village, Banjarsari Sub-district, Surakarta in 2005.This was an analytical descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. Primary data was obtain...

  4. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  5. Pattern of mental ill health morbidities following hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disorders among Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morhason-Bello Imran O

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective to compare the pre and post hysterectomy mental ill health (MIH status and also, to determine whether there is any association with the surgical indication. Methodology An observational study, conducted among women scheduled for hysterectomy at the University College Hospital, Ibadan from January till June 2005. The MIH morbidities were assessed using a validated general health questionnaire (GHQ before and after the surgery by trained research assistant. The score of 4 and above was used as the cut off. Cross tabulations were performed to detect any association and also to compare pre and post hysterectomy mental health status. The level of statistical significance was set at P Results Of the 50 women recruited, 45 participated in the study. The age range of the participants was 35 to 63 years with a mean of 48.6 (SD = 0.6 years. Anxiety related disorder was present in 20 (44.4%, and depression in 3 (6.7% before hysterectomy. Post surgery, there was significant increase in those with anxiety by 6.8% and a reduction in the proportion of depressive illness by 2.3%. Uterine fibroid as a preoperative diagnosis, had significant association among those with anxiety related disorder (68.4% and depression (10.5%. Conclusion This study suggests that mental ill health may complicates hysterectomy for benign uterine pathology among Nigerian women, and that anxiety related disorders increases after operation with the highest proportion in those with clinical diagnosis of Uterine Fibroid. We recommend adequate preoperative counseling using properly trained psychologists when affordable to minimize these morbidities.

  6. The Problem of the Pannus: Physician Preference Survey and a Review of the Literature on Cesarean Skin Incision in Morbidly Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Smiley, Sarah G; Schulkin, Jay; Stamilio, David M; Edwards, Rodney K; Stuebe, Alison M

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to determine preferences of a nationally representative sample of obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding cesarean delivery (CD) incision practices for women with morbid obesity (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2)). We conducted an online survey using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists database. We compared physician demographics, practice characteristics, and CD incision type preference. After exclusion of ineligible participants, 247 OB/GYNs completed the survey (42% response rate). In nonemergency CD of morbidly obese women, 84% of physicians preferred a Pfannenstiel skin incision (67% preferring taping the pannus; 17% without taping the pannus). In emergency CD, 66% preferred a Pfannenstiel incision (46% without taping the pannus; 20% with taping the pannus) and 20% a vertical incision. For both emergency and nonemergency CD, there was no difference in incision type preferences by provider years in practice, practice scope, or number of CD performed each year. Given the preference of a Pfannenstiel incision with taping the pannus during CD of morbidly obese women, further investigation is needed to assess the risks and benefits of this incision and the practice of elevating the pannus. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. A histerectomia simples realizada no menacme e a densidade mineral óssea da mulher na pós-menopausa Pre-menopausal simple hysterectomy and post-menopausal female bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Daniel Hobeika

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a densidade mineral óssea de mulheres na pós-menopausa, com o antecedente de histerectomia com conservação ovariana bilateral, realizada no menacme, comparadas a um grupo de mulheres com menopausa natural, não histerectomizadas. Tratou-se de um estudo de corte transversal, com trinta mulheres na pós-menopausa e histerectomizadas no menacme e 102 mulheres menopausadas naturalmente, comparando-se as respectivas densitometrias ósseas, em nível do fêmur e coluna lombar. A análise mostrou que as variáveis idade e índice de massa corporal estavam fortemente associadas à densidade mineral óssea do fêmur e da coluna lombar, sendo o índice de massa corporal diretamente e a idade inversamente associados. Posteriormente, as trinta mulheres histerectomizadas, foram pareadas por idade e índice de massa corporal, com trinta mulheres não-histerectomizadas, não apresentando diferenças estatisticamente significantes da densidade mineral óssea. Esses resultados sugerem que a histerectomia com conservação ovariana bilateral, realizada em mulheres no menacme, não parece ocasionar redução adicional da massa óssea, quando avaliadas na pós-menopausa.This study aimed to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD of post-menopausal women with previous pre-menopausal hysterectomy including bilateral ovarian conservation compared to a group of non-hysterectomized women with natural menopause. Data from a cross-sectional study of 30 pre-menopausally hysterectomized women evaluated in the post-menopause were compared with 102 naturally post-menopausal women, analyzing their respective bone densitometry, measuring the femoral and lumbar spinal BMD. Multiple regression analysis of the 132 women showed that age and body mass index (BMI were heavily associated with femoral and lumbar spinal BMD, BMI directly associated, and age inversely associated with BMD. In addition, 30 hysterectomized women were matched by age and BMI to the

  8. Higher bone resorption excretion in South Asian women vs. White Caucasians and increased bone loss with higher seasonal cycling of vitamin D: Results from the D-FINES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Gossiel, F; Robertson, F; Hunt, J; Hill, T R; Johnsen, S; Berry, J L; Eastell, R; Vieth, R; Lanham-New, S A

    2017-05-01

    Few data exist on bone turnover in South Asian women and it is not well elucidated as to whether Western dwelling South Asian women have different bone resorption levels to that of women from European ethnic backgrounds. This study assessed bone resorption levels in UK dwelling South Asian and Caucasian women as well as evaluating whether seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with bone resorption in either ethnic group. Data for seasonal measures of urinary N-telopeptide of collagen (uNTX) and serum 25(OH)D were analysed from n=373 women (four groups; South Asian postmenopausal n=44, South Asian premenopausal n=50, Caucasian postmenopausal n=144, Caucasian premenopausal n=135) (mean (±SD) age 48 (14) years; age range 18-79years) who participated in the longitudinal D-FINES (Diet, Food Intake, Nutrition and Exposure to the Sun in Southern England) cohort study (2006-2007). A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA (n=192) showed a between subjects effect of the four groups (PAsian and premenopausal Asian groups. Season specific age-matched-pairs analyses showed that in winter (P=0.04) and spring (P=0.007), premenopausal Asian women had a 16 to 20nmolBCE/mmol Cr higher uNTX than premenopausal Caucasian women. The (amplitude/mesor) ratio (i.e. seasonal change) for 25(OH)D was predictive of uNTX, with estimate (SD)=0.213 (0.015) and 95% CI (0.182, 0.245; PAsian women than would be expected for their age, being greater than same-age Caucasian women, and similar to postmenopausal Asian women. This highlights potentially higher than expected bone resorption levels in premenopausal South Asian women which, if not offset by concurrent increased bone formation, may have future clinical and public health implications which warrant further investigation. Individuals with a larger seasonal change in 25(OH)D concentration showed an increased bone resorption, an association which was larger than that of the 25(OH)D yearly average, suggesting it may be as

  9. Genes responsible for vaginal extracellular matrix metabolism are modulated by women's reproductive cycle and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Shynlova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To analyze the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM biogenesis and remodeling in vaginal tissue of women with clinically normal pelvic floor support (defined as controls according to the phase of menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods This study examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs, and the Lysyl oxidase (LOX family genes in the anterior vaginal wall of Caucasian women by real-time RT-PCR. Initially, mRNA expression was assessed in premenopausal controls in the secretory (group 1, n = 10 vs. proliferative (group 2, n = 8 phase of menstrual cycle. In addition, we compared premenopausal controls in the proliferative phase (group 2 vs. postmenopausal controls (group 3, n = 5. Finally, we analyzed postmenopausal controls (group 3 vs. postmenopausal women with advanced POP (group 4, n = 13. Results According to the phase of menstrual cycle, MMP1 was significantly reduced (p = 0.003, whereas the expression of TIMP1 and LOXL4 was significantly up-regulated during proliferative phase (both p < 0.01 when compared to the secretory phase in premenopausal control women. Regarding menopausal status/ageing, all MMPs were down-regulated, while TIMP3, TIMP4 and LOXL2 were significantly up-regulated in postmenopausal control women when compared to premenopausal controls (p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, correspondingly. TIMP4 and LOXL2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in postmenopausal POP patients compared to asymptomatic postmenopausal controls (p < 0.01 for both. Conclusions Our results indicate that ovarian cycle and age-related changes influence the expression of genes encoding proteins responsible for ECM metabolism in human vagina. Moreover, POP is associated with alteration in vaginal ECM components after menopause.

  10. Sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women treated for breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women globally. Early stage diagnosis in young sexually active women, coupled with advances in adjuvant therapy has contributed to an increase in the number of young survivors. A diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the woman's self-esteem, sexuality and intimate ...

  11. Preoperative gender differences in pulmonary gas exchange in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Christou, Nicolas V; Kim, Do Jun; Carli, Franco; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-12-01

    Morbidly obese men may have poorer pulmonary gas exchange compared to morbidly obese women (see Zavorsky et al., Chest 131:362-367, 2007). The purpose was to compare pulmonary gas exchange in morbidly obese men and women at rest and throughout exercise. Twenty-five women (age=38+/-10 years, 164+/-7 cm, body mass index or BMI = 51+/-7 kg/m(2), peak oxygen consumption or VO(2peak)=2.0+/-0.4 l/min) and 17 men (age=43+/-9 years, 178+/-7 cm, BMI=50+/-10 kg/m(2), VO(2peak)=2.6+/-0.8 l/min) were recruited to perform a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer with temperature-corrected arterial blood-gas samples taken at rest and every minute of exercise, including peak exercise. At rest, women were 98% predicted for pulmonary diffusion compared to 88% predicted in men. At rest, women had better pulmonary gas exchange compared to the men which was related to women having a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; por=25 mmHg) at peak exercise, but 75% of the subjects showed inadequate compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise (arterial carbon dioxide pressure >35 mmHg), and both were not different between genders. At rest, morbidly obese men have poorer pulmonary gas exchange and pulmonary diffusion compared to morbidly obese women. The better gas exchange in women is related to the lower WHR in the women. During exercise, few subjects showed disturbances in pulmonary gas exchange despite demonstrating poor compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise.

  12. Interrelation of melatonin with quality of life and personality properties of patients with endometrial pathology in the late reproductive and premenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Korniyenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to investigate the relationship of melatonin with the quality of life and the profile of the personality of women of late reproductive and premenopausal age with the pathology of the endometrium. Materials and methods. 45 women aged 36-55 years with endometrial diseases were examined. All patients underwent hysteroscopy. The personality profile was assessed using the FPI test. To study the quality of life, the SF-36 questionnaire was used. The data was processed using the Spearman rank correlation. Results. As a result of the correlation analysis of data on melatonin concentration and SF-36 scales, our study found that the value of melatonin did not affect the quality of life associated with health. However, if we evaluate trends, then the highest of the reduced correlation coefficients is of some interest. It's about role physical functioning. The correlation coefficients of the melatonin index and the scales of the FPI questionnaire looked as follows: all significant correlation coefficients had a negative sign, that is, the personality properties corresponding to these coefficients were associated with a low concentration of melatonin. The ordering of the FPI scales by decreasing the significance of the correlation coefficients helped to identify the personal profile of hypomelatoninemia in the examined women. First of all, he was characterized by high levels of depressiveness and emotional lability. Conclusions. In the psychopathological structure of the personality of women of late reproductive and pre-menopausal age with endometrial pathology burdened with hypomelatoninemia, depressive and emotional lability is predominate. Reducing the secretion of melatonin is also associated with increased spontaneous aggressiveness, neuroticism and irritability.

  13. Incidence of breast cancer in HIV-infected women seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer and HIV/AIDS are two major issues in women's health at the beginning of the second decade of the 21ST century. Both conditions affect predominantly premenopausal women in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa. Literature on breast cancer in women with HIV are still few and most of them are case reports ...

  14. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women∗: ∗2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  15. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the concentration of individual carotenoids in lipoproteins of premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Johnson, E J; Lanza, E; Graubard, B I; Beecher, G R; Muesing, R

    1998-01-01

    Because premenopausal women experience cyclic fluctuations of plasma carotenoids and their lipoprotein carriers, it is hypothesized that carotenoid concentrations in lipoprotein fractions fluctuate by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women ate a standard set of carotenoid-rich foods daily for two cycles under isoenergetic conditions. In the second cycle, hormones and carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions were measured in the early and late follicular and luteal phases. alpha-Carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction were lower in the early than in the late follicular phase (P = 0.03) on the basis of regression analysis. beta-carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction and the HDL2 subfraction were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations in the LDL and HDL fractions were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). In each phase, 80% of alpha-carotene, 82% of beta-carotene, 85% of lycopene, and 64% of lutein/zeaxanthin were distributed in the LDL fraction. Among the hydrocarbon cartenoids, 18% of alpha-carotene and of beta-carotene and 13% of lycopene were distributed in the HDL fraction, with slightly more in the HDL2 than in the HDL3 subfraction. In contrast 34% of lutein/zeaxanthin was distributed in the HDL fraction with more concentrated in the HDL3 than in the HDL2 subfraction. Less than 4% of any carotenoid was found in the VLDL + IDL (intermediate-density-lipoprotein) fractions. Thus, the hydrocarbon carotenoids were highly concentrated in the LDL fraction and xanthophyll was more evenly distributed in the LDL and HDL fractions. The cyclic fluctuations of these carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions add another dimension to the understanding of their transport and physiologic function.

  16. Static Mechanical Loading Influences the Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Proteins in Vaginal Cells Derived From Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufaishi, Hala; Alarab, May; Drutz, Harold; Lye, Stephen; Shynlova, Oksana

    2016-08-01

    Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP-HVCs) demonstrate altered cellular characteristics as compared to cells derived from asymptomatic women (control-HVCs). Using computer-controllable Flexcell stretch unit, we examined whether POP-HVCs react differently to mechanical loading as compared to control-HVCs by the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell-ECM adhesion proteins, and ECM degrading and maturating enzymes. Vaginal tissue biopsies from premenopausal patients with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System stage ≥3 (n = 8) and asymptomatic controls (n = 7) were collected during vaginal hysterectomy or repair. Human vaginal cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion, seeded on collagen (COLI)-coated plates, and stretched (24 hours, 25% elongation). Total RNA was extracted, and 84 genes were screened using Human ECM and Adhesion Molecules polymerase chain reaction array; selected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stretch-conditioned media (SCM) were collected and analyzed by protein array, immunoblotting, and zymography. In mechanically stretched control-HVCs, transcript levels of integrins (ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGAV, and ITGB1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8, and 13 were downregulated (P SCM from POP-HVCs compared to control-HVCs. Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse and control-HVCs react differentially to in vitro mechanical stretch. Risk factors that induce stretch may alter ECM composition and cell-ECM interaction in pelvic floor tissue leading to the abatement of pelvic organ support and subsequent POP development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Two cases of group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults in a sexual health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Susan; Morgan, Jane

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of group A streptococcus (GAS) causing vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults are described. A review of the literature of genital GAS is made, as this is an uncommon cause of vulvovaginitis in premenopausal adults. Contrasts are made between anogenital carriage of GAS and group B streptococcus (GBS) to highlight the differences in anogenital carriage between these two organisms.

  18. Morbidly obese women with and without endometrial cancer: are there differences in measured physical fitness, body composition, or hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Susan C; Geffel, Dyanna L; Via, Jennifer; L Weltman, Arthur

    2012-03-01

    Exercise is potentially protective against cancer for obese women. The objectives were to examine differences in activity, body composition, and hormones in overweight/obese women with and without endometrial cancer. Women ≥ 50 years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2) scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled. Demographics, physical activity, and quality of life (QOL) data were collected. Body composition/fitness was evaluated using Air Displacement Plethysmography (BodPod) and a standardized treadmill. Adiponectin, androstenedione, leptin, estradiol, estrone, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin and glucose were measured. Thirty-eight women enrolled in this pilot study; 22 had endometrial cancer. Mean age was 58.3 years, mean BMI, fat weight and percent body fat were 41.3 kg/m(2), 55 kg and 51% respectively. Fitness levels were poor; 90% of women had peak oxygen uptakes below the 10th percentile of population normals yet 80% still rated their fitness level as equivalent to other women. Women with and without cancer did not differ in age, BMI, co-morbidities, energy expenditures, body composition, hormones or QOL although glucose levels were higher in women with cancer (119.5 vs. 90.7 mg/dl; p=0.049). Cancer subjects scored worse on every fitness measurement, reaching statistical significance for VO(2 peak) (15.0 vs. 17.9 ml/kg/min; p=0.033). Current exercisers had a lower BMI (p=0.039), decreased fat weight (p=0.024), decreased waist circumference (p=0.05) and improved vitality compared to non-exercisers. Physical fitness levels were abysmal in these morbidly obese subjects and worse for cancer patients. Exercise correlated with improved body composition and vitality. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The impact of menstrual phase on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation during handgrip exercise in healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urzo, Katrina A; King, Trevor J; Williams, Jennifer S; Silvester, Morgan D; Pyke, Kyra E

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase on flow-mediated dilatation in response to sustained, exercise-induced increases in shear stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed, for the first time, that in healthy, premenopausal women the flow-mediated dilatation stimulated by exercise-induced increases in shear stress did not fluctuate across two phases of the menstrual cycle, despite significant fluctuations in oestrogen. This suggests that endothelial function is not consistently augmented in the high-oestrogen phase. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in response to a sustained shear-stress stimulus (e.g. via handgrip exercise; HGEX) is emerging as a useful tool for assessing endothelial function; however, the impact of menstrual phase on HGEX-FMD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HGEX-FMD fluctuates with cyclical changes in oestrogen concentrations over two discrete phases (low and high oestrogen) of the menstrual cycle. Brachial artery (BA) diameter and blood velocity were assessed with two-dimesional and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Shear stress was estimated using shear rate (SR = BA blood velocity/BA diameter). Participants (12 healthy, regularly cycling women, 21 ± 2 years of age) completed two experimental visits: (i) low oestrogen (early follicular, EF); and (ii) high oestrogen (late follicular, LF). Reactive hyperaemia-stimulated FMD (RH-FMD) and HGEX-FMD (6 min of handgrip exercise) were assessed during each visit. Results are mean values ± SD. Oestrogen increased from the EF to LF phase (EF, 33 ± 9 pg ml -1 ; LF, 161 ± 113 pg ml -1 , P = 0.003). However, neither the SR stimuli (HGEX, P = 0.501; RH, P = 0.173) nor the FMD responses differed between phases (EF versus LF: HGEX-FMD, 4.8 ± 2.8 versus 4.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.601; RH-FMD, 7.9 ± 4.3 versus 6.4 ± 3.1%, P = 0.071). These results extend

  20. Expressão da proteína Bax no tecido mamário normal de mulheres no menacme tratadas com raloxifeno Expression of Bax protein in normal tissue of premenopausal women treated with raloxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Furtado-Veloso

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a expressão do antígeno Bax no epitélio mamário normal de mulheres na pré-menopausa tratadas com raloxifeno. MÉTODOS: estudo randomizado duplo-cego, envolvendo 33 mulheres pré-menopáusicas com fibroadenoma. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos: Placebo, (n=18 e Raloxifeno 60 mg, (n=15. A medicação foi usada durante 22 dias, começando no primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual. Uma biópsia foi realizada no 23º dia do ciclo menstrual, durante a qual uma amostra do tecido mamário normal adjacente ao fibroadenoma foi coletada e submetida a estudo imuno-histoquímico utilizando o anticorpo policlonal anti-Bax para avaliar a expressão da proteína Bax. A imunorreação para a proteína Bax foi avaliada, levando-se em consideração a intensidade e a fração de células coradas, cuja combinação resultou em um escore final de 0 a 6. Os casos com escore final >3 foram classificados como positivos para proteína Bax. O teste do c2 foi usado para análise estatística dos dados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the expression of Bax antigen in the normal mammary epithelium of premenopausal women treated with raloxifene. METHODS: a randomized double-blind study was conducted in 33 ovulatory premenopausal women with fibroadenoma. Patients were divided into two groups: Placebo, (n=18 and Raloxifene 60 mg, (n=15. The medication was used for 22 days, beginning on the first day of the menstrual cycle. An excisional biopsy was carried out on the 23rd day of the menstrual cycle and a sample of normal breast tissue adjacent to the fibroadenoma was collected and submitted to immunohistochemical study using anti-Bax polyclonal antibody to evaluate the expression of Bax protein. Immunoreaction for Bax was evaluated taking into consideration intensity and fraction of stained cells, whose combination resulted in a final score ranging from 0 to 6. Cases with a final score >3 were classified as positive for Bax. The c2 test was used for statistical

  1. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  2. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  3. Site of delivery contribution to black-white severe maternal morbidity disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Egorova, Natalia N; Balbierz, Amy; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Hebert, Paul L

    2016-08-01

    The black-white maternal mortality disparity is the largest disparity among all conventional population perinatal health measures, and the mortality gap between black and white women in New York City has nearly doubled in recent years. For every maternal death, 100 women experience severe maternal morbidity, a life-threatening diagnosis, or undergo a life-saving procedure during their delivery hospitalization. Like maternal mortality, severe maternal morbidity is more common among black than white women. A significant portion of maternal morbidity and mortality is preventable, making quality of care in hospitals a critical lever for improving outcomes. Hospital variation in risk-adjusted severe maternal morbidity rates exists. The extent to which variation in hospital performance on severe maternal morbidity rates contributes to black-white disparities in New York City hospitals has not been studied. We examined the extent to which black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals can be explained by differences in the hospitals in which black and white women deliver. We conducted a population-based study using linked 2011-2013 New York City discharge and birth certificate datasets (n = 353,773 deliveries) to examine black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals. A mixed-effects logistic regression with a random hospital-specific intercept was used to generate risk-standardized severe maternal morbidity rates for each hospital (n = 40). We then assessed differences in the distributions of black and white deliveries among these hospitals. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 8882 deliveries (2.5%) and was higher among black than white women (4.2% vs 1.5%, P rates among New York City hospitals ranged from 0.8 to 5.7 per 100 deliveries. White deliveries were more likely to be delivered in low-morbidity hospitals: 65% of white vs 23% of black deliveries occurred in hospitals in the lowest

  4. The menopausal experience among indigenous women of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Alwi, S A R; Lee, P Y; Awi, I; Mallik, P S; Md Haizal, M N

    2009-12-01

    To document the common menopausal symptoms and quality of life in indigenous women of Sarawak in Malaysia. A face-to-face interview using the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire was conducted with 276 indigenous Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years to determine the mean age of menopause and common symptoms (divided into vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual domains) associated with menopause. The mean age at menopause of postmenopausal women was 50.78 +/- 2.47 years (range 47.3-58.2 years). The most common symptoms reported were aching in muscles and joints (82.6%), lack of energy (77.5%) and low backache (77.2%). The typical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, night sweats, sweating and vaginal dryness were experienced by 42.4%, 34.8%, 29.7% and 49.3%, respectively of the women studied. Perimenopausal women (n = 114) experienced the most physical and psychosocial symptoms, while postmenopausal women (n = 102) experienced most sexual symptoms. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were reported to suffer more than premenopausal women (p < 0.001) within the four domains of symptoms (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual). The menopausal symptoms in this study correspond to those in other studies on Asian women but the prevalence of typical and classical menopausal symptoms was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. The perimenopausal women had the most significant decrease in quality of life, followed by postmenopausal women and premenopausal women. Vasomotor symptoms had a predominant influence on the quality of life.

  5. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  6. Effects of Lycopene on the Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) System in Premenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors and Women at High Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Dorien W.; Vrieling, Alina; Korse, Catharina M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Bonfrer, Johannes M. G.; van Doorn, Jaap; Kaas, Reinie; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Verhoef, Senno; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important growth factor associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial to evaluate whether tomato-derived lycopene supplementation (30 mg/day for 2 mo) decreases

  7. Effects of lycopene on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in premenopausal breast cancer survivors and women at high familial breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Dorien W.; Vrieling, Alina; Korse, Catharina M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Bonfrer, Johannes M. G.; van Doorn, Jaap; Kaas, Reinie; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Verhoef, Senno; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important growth factor associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial to evaluate whether tomato-derived lycopene supplementation (30 mg/day for 2 mo) decreases

  8. Clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in detecting preinvasive cervical lesions in post- menopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmak, Aytekin; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Oz, Murat; Akbay, Serap; Erkaya, Salim; Gungor, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in PAP test in post-menopausal women and compare with reproductive age women. A total of 367 patients who referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic were included to the study between September 2012 and August 2013. Data for 164 post-menopausal (group 1) and 203 pre-menopausal (group 2) women with ASCUS cytology were evaluated retrospectively. Immediate colposcopy and endocervical curettage was performed for both groups and conization for all women with a result suggestive of CIN2-3. Histopathological results and demographic features of patients were compared between the two groups. Mean age of the patients was 54.6±6.5 years in group 1 and 38±6.6 years in group 2. Some 14 (8.5%) of post- menopausal women and 36 (17.7%) of pre-menopausal women were current smokers (p=011). Totals of 38 (23.2%) post-menopausal and 64 (31.5%) pre-menopausal women were assessed for HPV-DNA. High risk HPV was detected in 7 (4.3%) and 21 (10.3%), respectively (p=0.029). Final histopathological results recorded were normal cervix, low grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), and high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3). In group 1 results were 84.8%, 12.2% and 1.8%, respectively, and in group 2 were 71.9%, 23.2% and 4.9%. There were no cases of micro invasive or invasive cervical carcinoma in either group. Two cases were detected as endometrial carcinoma in the menopausal group (1.2%). In current study we found that preinvasive lesions were statistically significantly higher in pre-menopausal women than post- menopausal women with ASCUS. Cervicitis was more common in menopausal women. Therefore, we think that in case of ASCUS in a post-menopausal woman there is no need for radical management.

  9. Effect of Oestrogen on Altering the Serum and Urinary Levels of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium in Hysterectomised Women Compared to Natural Menopausal South Indian Women: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonu, Yeldose; Avinash, S S; Sreekantha; Arun Kumar, K; Malathi, M; Shivashankara, A R

    2016-07-01

    Given the paucity of studies conducted to know the effect of suddenness and earlier onset of endocrinological changes associated with hysterectomy, on the serum and urinary levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate the present study was conducted to compare the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and urine of hysterectomised and natural menopausal south Indian women. This is a cross-sectional observational study. The study included three groups of 30 healthy premenopausal, 30 early surgical menopausal and 30 natural post menopausal women. Women suffering from any endocrine disease were excluded. Analysis was performed in serum and urine sample. The levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and calcium/creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphate/creatinine ratio were estimated in urine by spectrophotometric method. Hysterectomised women (serum calcium: 8.7 ± 0.09 mg/dl; urine calcium/creatinine: 0.16 ± 0.02) have significantly low serum calcium (p women (serum magnesium: 2.1 ± 0.03; serum phosphate: 4.4 ± 0.16; urinary calcium/creatinine: 0.17 ± 0.02; urinary magnesium/creatinine: 0.09 ± 0.01) have significantly high serum magnesium (p = 0.016), serum phosphate (p = 0.043) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002), magnesium/creatinine ratio (p = 0.025) compared to healthy pre menopausal women. Post menopausal women (serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.08) have significantly high serum calcium and phosphate compared to hysterectomised women (serum phosphate: 3.93 ± 0.11). Hysterectomised women have significantly low serum calcium, oestrogen and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal women and low serum calcium and low serum phosphate compared to natural postmenopausal women. Natural postmenopausal women had low serum oestrogen and high serum magnesium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium creatinine ratio and urinary magnesium creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal

  10. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. METHODS: We conducted an online...

  11. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  12. [Employment during pregnancy and neonatal morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, H S; Bruppacher, R

    1984-01-01

    Neonatal morbidity was higher among the babies of 521 women who were gainfully employed during pregnancy compared to those of 475 non working women of the same area (Aarau, Switzerland). The difference was lower (6%) in the part time employed than in those working full time (11%.) It was almost entirely due to the higher number of primiparae and of smokers among those women who were working during pregnancy.

  13. Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D; Muldowney, James A; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E; Niswender, Kevin D

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5±2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5±2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CONSUMING A BALANCED HIGH FAT DIET FOR 16 WEEKS IMPROVES BODY COMPOSITION, INFLAMMATION AND VASCULAR FUNCTION PARAMETERS IN OBESE PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J.; Kang, Hakmook; Keil, Charles D.; Muldowney, James A.; Kocalis, Heidi; Fazio, Sergio; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: a) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD+placebo, HFD+stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD+linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach. PMID:24559846

  15. A Cross-sectional study to assess knowledge, practice and self- reported morbidity symptoms of pesticide use among farm women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srujana Medithi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inevitable pesticide use in Indian agriculture has posed an increased risk of exposure to the farmers, which may lead to adverse health manifestations. Therefore, it is essential that the farmers must be aware of the harmful effects of pesticides. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge, practice and identify self-reported morbidity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm women in the identified villages of Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to carry out the survey among farmwomen. Results: 129 women working in agricultural farms were included in the study. Meagre knowledge regarding route of pesticide exposure was observed. Majority of them were not aware of toxicity symbols and never read the precautions on the pesticide containers. Inaccessibility was the main reason for insubstantial use of personal protective equipments (PPEs. Unsafe storage and disposal practices of containers were observed. Weakness (57.3%, headache (52% and itching of skin (51.1% were the common morbidity symptoms. Significant association was found between morbidity symptoms and use of PPE and hygienic practices, indicating importance of such practices. Conclusion: Improving knowledge which influences their practices and encouraging PPE use might be useful to remediate these issues. Monitoring studies may further aid to obtain the outcome of the awareness programmes and subsequently improved intervention methods can also be implemented.

  16. Morbidity figures from general practice: sex differences in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Grosicar, Janja

    2010-08-01

    Trauma prevention starts with to find out the extent of the problem and who it affects. Insight into morbidity figures is therefore necessary. To explore sex differences in traumatology and secondary medical care utilization in primary care related to age and socio-economic status (SES). Data were obtained from an academic continuous morbidity registration project in the Netherlands in the period from 1996 to 2006, in which 13,000 patients were followed in 10 successive years. Sex differences showed a male excess from childhood to 45 years and women showing almost double trauma rates in the elderly. Low SES was associated with the greatest incidence of traumas. The largest sex difference in incidence above 65 years appeared in the high SES with more traumas in women compared with men. From this age on, female morbidity in traumatology outnumbered male morbidity regardless of SES. Considering use of referrals, we found that in the age group 15-45 years men made a greater use of secondary medical care. However, the vastest gender influence in medical care utilization was noticed in the age group over 65 years, outnumbered with women. Young men and old women are the most at risk for traumatic health problems: men presenting with traumata of the skull, the tibia and ocular trauma's and women with fractures of the femur, humerus and wrist. For both men and women the greatest incidence is in the low SES. Family physicians can play a pivotal role in prevention to focus on their patients with high risks.

  17. Endovascular Interventions for the Morbidly Adherent Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kaufman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly adherent placentas are a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from placental invasion of the myometrium to invasion past the myometrium and muscular layers into adjacent structures. This entity is becoming more prevalent recently with increased number of cesarean deliveries. Given the high risk of morbidity and mortality, this was traditionally treated with pre-term planned cesarean hysterectomy. However, recently, uterine preservation techniques have been implemented for those women wishing to preserve future fertility or their uterus. Early identification is crucial as studies have shown better outcomes for women treated at tertiary care facilities by a dedicated multidisciplinary team. Interventional radiologists are frequently included in the care of these patients as there are several different endovascular techniques which can be implemented to decrease morbidity in these patients both in conjunction with cesarean hysterectomy and in the setting of uterine preservation. This article will review the spectrum of morbidly adherent placentas, imaging, as well as the surgical and endovascular interventions implemented in the care of these complex patients.

  18. Reproductive effects on skeletal health in Shuar women of Amazonian Ecuador: a life history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological research suggest that bone mineral density (BMD) in women is shaped by various reproductive factors such as parity and lactation patterns. However, the extent of these effects on BMD remains unclear because of contradictory findings and a focus on industrialized populations. Because fertility patterns in these groups are vastly different than those of women from non-Western, subsistence populations, our current understanding of the reproductive effects on skeletal health is incomplete. Using a life history perspective, this study examines the relationship between reproductive factors and bone density among women from the Indigenous Shuar population, an Amazonian Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist group. This preliminary, cross-sectional study included 130 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (14-86 years old) from the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador. Anthropometrics were recorded, as was estimated BMD using a calcaneal ultrasonometer. A reproductive history questionnaire was administered that included questions regarding menarche, parity, lactation patterns, and menopause. Among postmenopausal women, early menarche and greater stature were significantly associated with higher bone density values. Among premenopausal women, few significant relationships between bone values and reproductive variables were documented; effects of lactation appeared to be transient and restored following weaning. Although preliminary and not based on longitudinal data, these findings suggest that the effects of reproduction are transient as the system of calcium homeostasis in premenopausal women efficiently restores the bone loss that results from metabolically active reproductive states. Further, this research suggests that the timing of early life history events may canalize bone density phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Biomarkers of vascular function in pre- and recent post-menopausal women of similar age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Seidelin, Kåre; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function, however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched pre- and post-menopausal...... women before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Thirteen pre-menopausal and ten recently post-menopausal (1.6±0.3 (mean±SEM) years after final menstrual period) women only separated by three years (48±1 vs. 51±1 years) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular...... adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1...

  20. Fertility in female survivors of hodgkin's lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Biasoli, I.; Falorio, S.; Luminari, S.; Spector, N.; Federico, M.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most curable types of cancer. Patients are often young and so the long-term morbidities of treatment have become of increasing concern. Among these, infertility is one of the most challenging consequences for patients in reproductive age. Premature ovarian failure in premenopausal women is a serious long-term sequel of the toxicity of chemotherapy. The main consequence of this syndrome is infertility, but women also present other symptoms related to...

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and severe maternal morbidity: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Carina R; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Parpinelli, Mary A; Silveira, Carla; Andreucci, Carla B; Ferreira, Elton C; Santos, Juliana P; Zanardi, Dulce M; Souza, Renato T; Cecatti, Jose G

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among women experiencing a severe maternal morbidity event and associated factors in comparison with those without maternal morbidity. In a retrospective cohort study, 803 women with or without severe maternal morbidity were evaluated at 6 months to 5 years postpartum for the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Interviews were conducted by telephone and electronic data was stored. Data analysis was carried out by using χ2, Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression analysis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to a previous severe maternal morbidity experience. There were also no differences in diagnostic criteria for severe maternal morbidity (hypertensive syndromes, hemorrhage, surgical intervention or intensive care unit admission required, among other management criteria). Low parity (2.5-fold risk) and increasing age were factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A severe maternal morbidity episode is not associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms within five years of the severe maternal morbidity event and birth. However, a more advanced maternal age and primiparity increased the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This does not imply that women who had experienced a severe maternal morbidity event did not suffer or need differentiated care.

  2. Obstetric interventions and maternal morbidity among women who experience severe postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, K; Ramachandran, B; Hegde, P; Riley, E T; El-Sayed, Y Y; Nelson, L M; Butwick, A J

    2017-05-01

    Compared to vaginal delivery, women undergoing cesarean delivery are at increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Management approaches may differ between those undergoing prelabor cesarean delivery compared to intrapartum cesarean delivery. We examined surgical interventions, blood component use, and maternal outcomes among those experiencing severe postpartum hemorrhage within the two distinct cesarean delivery cohorts. We performed secondary analyses of data from two cohorts who underwent prelabor cesarean delivery or intrapartum cesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric center in the United States between 2002 and 2012. Severe postpartum hemorrhage was classified as an estimated blood loss ≥1500mL or receipt of a red blood cell transfusion up to 48h post-cesarean delivery. We examined blood component use, medical and surgical interventions and maternal outcomes. The prelabor cohort comprised 269 women and the intrapartum cohort comprised 278 women. In the prelabor cohort, one third of women received red blood cells intraoperatively or postoperatively, respectively. In the intrapartum cohort, 18% women received red blood cells intraoperatively vs. 44% postoperatively (Pcesarean delivery had the highest rates of morbidity, with 18% requiring hysterectomy and 16% requiring intensive care admission. Our findings provide a snapshot of contemporary transfusion and surgical practices for severe postpartum hemorrhage management during cesarean delivery. To determine optimal transfusion and management practices in this setting, large pragmatic studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Information, support, and follow-up offered to women who experienced severe maternal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Mary; Conroy, Molly; Filoche, Sara; MacDonald, E Jane; Geller, Stacie E; Lawton, Beverley

    2018-06-01

    To determine what information, support, and follow-up were offered to women who had experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM). The present retrospective case review included patients who experienced SMM (admission to intensive care during pregnancy or up to 42 days postpartum) who had previously been reviewed for potential preventability as part of a nationwide New Zealand study performed between January 1 and December 31, 2014. Data were audited to ascertain documented evidence of an event debrief or explanation; referral to social support and/or mental health services; a detailed discharge letter; and a follow-up appointment with a specialist. Of 257 patients who experienced SMM, 23 (8.9%) were offered all four components of care, 99 (38.5%) an event debrief, 102 (39.7%) a referral to social support and/or mental health services, 148 (57.6%) a detailed discharge letter, and 131 (51.0%) a follow-up appointment. Many women who had experienced SMM did not receive explanatory information about their illness, an offer of psychosocial support, or a follow-up appointment prior to discharge from hospital. It is incumbent on clinicians and the maternity care system to improve these aspects of care for all women experiencing a potentially life-changing SMM event to minimize the risk and burden of long-term mental illness. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Correlation between quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcinosis and bone density of the spine and femur in Arabian women: Relation to menopausal status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Suhaili, A.R.; Saadi, H.F.; Reed, R.L.; Carter, A.O.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus is being frequently used to screen for osteoporosis. This technique correlates very well with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and femur, and predicts fracture risk in postmenopausal women. The correlation between QUS and DXA in premenopausal women with prevalent vitamin D deficiency however is not known. We assessed the correlation between both techniques in 55 pre- and postmenopausal Arabian women, a population with high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Methods: BMD of the right calcaneus was estimated by Sahara ultrasound (Hologic, Waltham, MA). Spine and right total femur BMD was determined by DXA scan (Lunar Expert XL, Madison, WI). Results: Overall, the correlation between calcaneal BMD estimated by QUS and spine and femur BMD measured by DXA in pre- and postmenopausal United Arab Emirates women was statistically significant (r=0.41; p=0.002 for spine and r=0.44; p=0.001 for femur, respectively). In postmenopausal women, all correlations between DXA and QUS parameters were statistically significant. In contrast, only BUA and SOS correlated significantly with spine BMD in premenopausal women. Conclusion: The correlation between DXA and QUS is statistically significant in postmenopausal United Arab Emirates women. However, this correlation is much weaker in premenopausal UAE women suggesting that other factors such as vitamin D deficiency may influence this correlation

  5. Estimating Benzathine Penicillin Need for the Treatment of Pregnant Women Diagnosed with Syphilis during Antenatal Care in High-Morbidity Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melanie M.; Nurse-Findlay, Stephen; Zhang, Xiulei; Hedman, Lisa; Kamb, Mary L.; Broutet, Nathalie; Kiarie, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital syphilis continues to be a preventable cause of global stillbirth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Shortages of injectable penicillin, the only recommended treatment for pregnant women and infants with syphilis, have been reported by high-morbidity countries. We sought to estimate current and projected annual needs for benzathine penicillin in antenatal care settings for 30 high morbidity countries that account for approximately 33% of the global burden of congenital syphilis. Methods Proportions of antenatal care attendance, syphilis screening coverage in pregnancy, syphilis prevalence among pregnant women, and adverse pregnancy outcomes due to untreated maternal syphilis reported to WHO were applied to 2012 birth estimates for 30 high syphilis burden countries to estimate current and projected benzathine penicillin need for prevention of congenital syphilis. Results Using current antenatal care syphilis screening coverage and seroprevalence, we estimated the total number of women requiring treatment with at least one injection of 2.4 MU of benzathine penicillin in these 30 countries to be 351,016. Syphilis screening coverage at or above 95% for all 30 countries would increase the number of women requiring treatment with benzathine penicillin to 712,030. Based on WHO management guidelines, 351,016 doses of weight-based benzathine penicillin would also be needed for the live-born infants of mothers who test positive and are treated for syphilis in pregnancy. Assuming availability of penicillin and provision of treatment for all mothers diagnosed with syphilis, an estimated 95,938 adverse birth outcomes overall would be prevented including 37,822 stillbirths, 15,814 neonatal deaths, and 34,088 other congenital syphilis cases. Conclusion Penicillin need for maternal and infant syphilis treatment is high among this group of syphilis burdened countries. Initiatives to ensure a stable and adequate supply of benzathine penicillin for treatment

  6. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  7. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Mary Gayle; Schmidt-Dalton, Tarin A; Weiss, Patrice M; Madsen, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. Causes include polycystic ovary syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, and use of antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Women 35 years or older with recurrent anovulation, women younger than 35 years with risk factors for endometrial cancer, and women with excessive bleeding unresponsive to medical therapy should undergo endometrial biopsy. Treatment with combination oral contraceptives or progestins may regulate menstrual cycles. Histologic findings of hyperplasia without atypia may be treated with cyclic or continuous progestin. Women who have hyperplasia with atypia or adenocarcinoma should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist, respectively. Ovulatory abnormal uterine bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be caused by thyroid dysfunction, coagulation defects (most commonly von Willebrand disease), endometrial polyps, and submucosal fibroids. Transvaginal ultrasonography or saline infusion sonohysterography may be used to evaluate menorrhagia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an effective treatment for menorrhagia. Oral progesterone for 21 days per month and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also effective. Tranexamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovulatory bleeding, but is expensive. When clear structural causes are identified or medical management is ineffective, polypectomy, fibroidectomy, uterine artery embolization, and endometrial ablation may be considered. Hysterectomy is the most definitive treatment.

  8. Expanding the scope beyond mortality: burden and missed opportunities in maternal morbidity in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Vitri; Khotijah; Balgis

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia still faces challenges in maternal health. Specifically, the lack of information on community-level maternal morbidity. The relatively high maternal healthcare non-utilization in Indonesia intensifies this problem. To describe the burden of community-level maternal morbidity in Indonesia. Additionally, to evaluate the extent and determinants of missed opportunities in women with maternal morbidity. We used three cross-sectional surveys (Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey, IDHS 2002, 2007 and 2012). Crude and adjusted proportions of maternal morbidity burden were estimated from 43,782 women. We analyzed missed opportunities in women who experienced maternal morbidity during their last birth (n = 19,556). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to evaluate the determinants of non-utilization in IDHS 2012 (n = 6762). There were significant increases in the crude and adjusted proportion of maternal morbidity from IDHS 2002 to IDHS 2012 (p Indonesia. The prevalence of maternal morbidity in Indonesia is relatively high, especially during labor. This condition is amplified by the concerning missed opportunities in maternal healthcare. Efforts are needed to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity, as well as increasing healthcare coverage for the vulnerable population.

  9. No. 292-Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Pre-Menopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhbir; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy Lynn

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the direct cause of a significant health care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Up to 30% of women will seek medical assistance for this problem during their reproductive years. This guideline replaces previous clinical guidelines on the topic and is aimed to enable health care providers with the tools to provide the latest evidence-based care in the diagnosis and the medical and surgical management of this common problem. To provide current evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) among women of reproductive age. Outcomes evaluated include the impact of AUB on quality of life and the results of interventions including medical and surgical management of AUB. Members of the guideline committee were selected on the basis of individual expertise to represent a range of practical and academic experience in terms of location in Canada, type of practice, subspecialty expertise, and general gynaecology background. The committee reviewed relevant evidence in the English medical literature including published guidelines. Recommendations were established as consensus statements. The final document was reviewed and approved by the Executive and Council of the SOGC. This document provides a summary of up-to-date evidence regarding diagnosis, investigations, and medical and surgical management of AUB. The resulting recommendations may be adapted by individual health care workers when serving women with this condition. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and sometimes debilitating condition in women of reproductive age. Standardization of related terminology, a systematic approach to diagnosis and investigation, and a step-wise approach to intervention is necessary. Treatment commencing with medical therapeutic modalities followed by the least invasive surgical modalities achieving results satisfactory to the patient is the ultimate goal of all therapeutic interventions

  10. Clinical review: Cardiovascular consequences of ovarian disruption: a focus on functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in physically active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Harvey, Paula J

    2011-12-01

    Evidence indicates that hypoestrogenemia is linked with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Premenopausal women presenting with ovulatory disruption due to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) are characterized by hypoestrogenemia. One common and reversible form of FHA in association with energy deficiency is exercise-associated amenorrhea (EAA). Articles were found via PubMed search for both original and review articles based on peer review publications between 1974 and 2011 reporting on cardiovascular changes in women with FHA, with emphasis placed on women with EAA. Despite participation in regular exercise training, hypoestrogenic women with EAA demonstrate paradoxical changes in cardiovascular function, including endothelial dysfunction, a known permissive factor for the progression and development of atherosclerosis. Such alterations suggest that the beneficial effects of regular exercise training on vascular function are obviated in the face of hypoestrogenemia. The long-term cardiovascular consequences of altered vascular function in response to ovulatory disruption in women with EAA remain to be determined. Retrospective data, however, suggest premature development and progression of coronary artery disease in older premenopausal women reporting a history of hypothalamic ovulatory disruption. Importantly, in women with EAA, estrogen therapy, folic acid supplementation without change in menstrual status, and resumption of menses restores endothelial function. In this review, we focus on the influence of hypoestrogenemia in association with energy deficiency in mediating changes in cardiovascular function in women with EAA, including endothelial function, regional blood flow, lipid profile, and autonomic control of blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex sensitivity. The influence of exercise training is also considered. With the premenopausal years typically considered to be cardioprotective in association with normal ovarian function

  11. Age at natural menopause in women on long-term methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Tomasz; Hajdyla-Banas, Iwona; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Niewegłowska, Dorota; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Ludwin, Artur; Knafel, Anna; Ludwin, Inga

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the natural menopause ages of healthy women with those of women with methotrexate (MTX)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to specifically assess the effect of disease onset and activity and the use of MTX on the age of the last menstruation. We performed a retrospective review of medical records to identify the ages at which menopause occurred in women with premenopausal RA treated with MTX and in women with postmenopausal onset, irrespective of therapy. Natural menopause ages were also compared between participants with and without RA. Women with premenopausal onset of RA underwent menopause at a significantly younger age than did healthy women (P Menopause also occurred at younger ages in participants with postmenopausal disease onset than in healthy controls (P = 0.012). The study suggested that menopause age was positively correlated with the age at which RA was diagnosed (R = 0.51; P menopause (P = 0.008). The age at which menopause occurs in a patient with RA depends on the patient's age at the time of disease onset and its duration, but is not influenced by MTX treatment.

  12. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Zafar

    Full Text Available For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries.Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%, late pregnancy (35% and the postnatal period (31% among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727 and Malawi (1732. Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity.One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective. Both infective (Pakistan and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon ( 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001, intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02 were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings.Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  13. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P; van den Broek, Nynke R

    2015-01-01

    For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests is available, to ensure more robust assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity.

  14. A single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid presence and size is strongly predictive of future uterine procedure: 8-year follow-up of randomly sampled premenopausal women aged 35-49 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, D D; Saldana, T M; Shore, D L; Hill, M C; Schectman, J M

    2015-12-01

    How well can a single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid burden (presence or absence of fibroids and size of largest, if present) predict future probability of having a major uterine procedure? During an 8-year follow-up period, the risk of having a major uterine procedure was 2% for those without fibroids and increased with fibroid size for those with fibroids, reaching 47% for those with fibroids ≥ 4 cm in diameter at baseline. Uterine fibroids are a leading indication for hysterectomy. However, when fibroids are found, there are few available data to help clinicians advise patients about disease progression. Women who were 35-49 years old were randomly selected from the membership of a large urban health plan; 80% of those determined to be eligible were enrolled and screened with ultrasound for fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. African-American and white premenopausal participants who responded to at least one follow-up interview (N = 964, 85% of those eligible) constituted the study cohort. During follow-up (5822 person-years), participants self-reported any major uterine procedure (67% hysterectomies). Life-table analyses and Cox regression (with censoring for menopause) were used to estimate the risk of having a uterine procedure for women with no fibroids, small (women, importance of a clinical diagnosis of fibroids prior to study enrollment, and the impact of submucosal fibroids on risk were investigated. There was a greater loss to follow-up for African-Americans than whites (19 versus 11%). For those with follow-up data, 64% had fibroids at baseline, 33% of whom had had a prior diagnosis. Of those with fibroids, 27% had small fibroids (women during follow-up. The estimated risk of having a procedure in any given year of follow-up for those with fibroids compared with those without fibroids increased markedly with fibroid-size category (from 4-fold, confidence interval (CI) (1.4-11.1) for the small fibroids to 10-fold, CI (4.4-24.8) for the medium

  15. Ascorbic acid selectively improves large elastic artery compliance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Kerrie L; Gavin, Kathleen M; Plum, Angela E; Seals, Douglas R

    2005-06-01

    The compliance of large elastic arteries in the cardiothoracic region decreases with advancing age/menopause and plays an important role in the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. We determined whether oxidative stress contributes to the reduced large elastic artery compliance of postmenopausal women. Carotid artery compliance was measured during acute intravenous infusions of saline (baseline control) and supraphysiological doses of the potent antioxidant ascorbic acid in premenopausal (n=10; 23+/-1; mean+/-SE) and estrogen-deficient postmenopausal (n=21; 55+/-1 years) healthy sedentary women. Carotid artery compliance was 56% lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women during baseline control (PAscorbic acid infusion increased carotid artery compliance by 26% in postmenopausal women (1.11+/-0.07 to 1.38+/-0.08 mm2/mm Hgx10(-1); Pascorbic acid. In the pooled population, the change in arterial compliance with ascorbic acid correlated with baseline waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.56; P=0.001), plasma norepinephrine (r=0.58; P=0.001), and LDL cholesterol (r=0.54; P=0.001). These results suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mechanism contributing to the reduced large elastic artery compliance of sedentary, estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Increased abdominal fat storage, sympathetic nervous system activity, and LDL cholesterol may be mechanistically involved in oxidative stress-associated suppression of arterial compliance in postmenopausal women.

  16. Recovery of menstruation after long-term chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in pre-menopausal patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao

    2011-04-01

    A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist and tamoxifen (TAM) are used in hormonal therapy following pre- and post-operative chemotherapy in pre-menopausal advanced breast cancer patients who are positive for hormone receptors. However, it remains to be clarified how often patients recover menstruation after long-term LH-RH agonist plus TAM therapy. In this study, the incidence of menstruation recovery after therapy was examined. The subjects included 125 pre-menopausal patients with breast cancer who were positive for hormone receptors and had undergone surgery at our institution. They were treated with four cycles of the CEF regimen and four cycles of docetaxel (Doc) before surgery as adjuvant chemotherapy. Thereafter, they were treated with an LH-RH agonist plus TAM for 24 months and followed to determine menstruation recovery. Menstruation resumed in 24 cases (19.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. It took 7.3 ± 2.8 months for the patients to recover menstruation. The rate of menstruation recovery was 42.1% in patients aged 40 or younger and 9.2% in those aged 41 or older; the difference was significant. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. The menstruation recovery rate after therapy was higher in younger women. However, since ovarian function may be lost even in younger patients, the potential consequences of this therapy should be fully explained beforehand to patients who may wish to become pregnant.

  17. Ethnic variations in severe maternal morbidity in the UK- a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Nair

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed a higher risk of maternal morbidity amongst black and other minority ethnic (BME groups, but were unable to investigate whether this excess risk was concentrated within specific BME groups in the UK. Our aim was to analyse the specific risks and to investigate reasons for any disparity.Unmatched case-control analysis using data from the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS, February 2005-January 2013. Cases were 1,753 women who experienced severe morbidity during the peripartum period. Controls were 3,310 women who delivered immediately before the cases in the same hospital. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to adjust for known confounders and to understand their effects.Compared with white European women, the odds of severe maternal morbidity were 83% higher among black African women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.39-2.40, 80% higher among black Caribbean (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.14-2.82, 74% higher in Bangladeshi (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.05-2.88, 56% higher in other non-whites (non-Asian (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.05-2.33 and 43% higher among Pakistani women (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07-1.92. There was no evidence of substantial confounding. Anaemia in current pregnancy, previous pregnancy problems, inadequate utilisation of antenatal care, pre-existing medical conditions, parity>3, and being younger and older were independent risk factors but, the odds of severe maternal morbidity did not differ by socioeconomic status, between smokers and non-smokers or by BMI.This national study demonstrates an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity among women of ethnic minority backgrounds which could not be explained by known risk factors for severe maternal morbidity.

  18. Parathyroid hormone, but not vitamin D, is associated with the metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese women and men: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hager Helle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism is high among morbidly obese subjects. Further, low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH]D and magnesium have been associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome (MS, and recently, a possible link between PTH and MS has been reported. Although it is well known that the synthesis and secretion of PTH is regulated by serum levels of calcium, phosphate, magnesium and 25(OHD, less is known about the possible clustered affiliation of these parameters with MS. We aimed to explore whether MS is associated with abnormal serum levels of PTH, 25(OHD and magnesium in a population of morbidly obese patients. Methods Fasting serum levels of 25(OHD, PTH and magnesium were assessed in a cross-sectional cohort study of 1,017 consecutive morbidly obese patients (68% women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent effect of PTH, 25(OHD and magnesium on the odds for MS (National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] after adjustment for confounding factors. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients had MS. Patients with MS had lower mean serum magnesium (P Conclusion The PTH level, but not the vitamin D level, is an independent predictor of MS in treatment seeking morbidly obese Caucasian women and men. Randomized controlled clinical trials, including different therapeutic strategies to lower PTH, e.g. calcium/vitamin D supplementation and weight reduction, are necessary to explore any cause-and-effect relationship.

  19. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  20. Relationship between visceral fat and PAI-1 in overweight men and women before and after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Leenen, R.; Seidell, J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in healthy, obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, 25 men and 25 premenopausal women, aged between 26 and 49 years, with an

  1. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  2. Factors associated with severe maternal morbidity in Kelantan, Malaysia: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Aniza, Abd Aziz; Sulaiman, Zaharah

    2016-07-26

    Knowledge on the factors associated with severe maternal morbidity enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy. However, various definitions of severe maternal morbidity have been applied, leading to inconsistencies between studies. The objective of this study was to identify the sociodemographic characteristics, medical and gynaecological history, past and present obstetric performance and the provision of health care services as associated factors for severe maternal morbidity in Kelantan, Malaysia. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals in 2014. Postpartum women with severe morbidity and without severe morbidity who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were eligible as cases and controls, respectively. The study population included all postpartum women regardless of their age. Pregnancy at less than 22 weeks of gestation, more than 42 days after the termination of pregnancy and non-Malaysian citizens were excluded. Consecutive sampling was applied for the selection of cases and for each case identified, one unmatched control from the same hospital was selected using computer-based simple random sampling. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed using Stata Intercooled version 11.0. A total of 23,422 pregnant women were admitted to these hospitals in 2014 and 395 women with severe maternal morbidity were identified, of which 353 were eligible as cases. An age of 35 or more years old [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.6 (1.67, 4.07)], women with past pregnancy complications [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 1.7 (1.00, 2.79)], underwent caesarean section deliveries [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 6.8 (4.68, 10.01)], preterm delivery [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 3.4 (1.87, 6.32)] and referral to tertiary centres [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.7 (1.87, 3.97)] were significant associated factors for severe maternal morbidity. Our study suggests the enhanced

  3. Insulin Resistance Is Not Conserved in Myotubes Established from Women with PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette; Pørneki, Ann Dorte; Skov, Vibe

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among premenopausal women, who often develop insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an intrinsic defect, by investigating...

  4. Report: a study of morbidity of induced abortion data from women belonging to Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Farah; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity of induced abortion in relation to facilities, service providers and social responses of general population of women, from Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to December 2010, through a researcher-administered questionnaire from 61 randomly selected women, who underwent for Induced Abortion, aged 18-50 years. The questionnaire included open and closed ended questions, regarding demography, facilities, service providers and various complications observed. Overall, 98 immediate health problems were reported by 40 (65.5%) of the respondents, 153 late adverse effects or chronic by 46 (75.4%); while 101 mental complications had been reported by 45 (73.8%) of the 61 aborting women; respectively. Private clinics surfaced as the most frequently adopted source as reported by 40.7% of the respondents. Two third majorities had the procedure in satisfactory, good hygienic conditions by skilled professionals. Around 59% of the aborting women were aware of the religious perspective of the subject. Marked incidence of complications had been registered, regardless of type of method adopted, hygienic condition of the procedure or skill of the provider. Although, awareness of religious perspective of the subject was there, still quite a lot opted for abortion. This suggests that strong socioeconomic factors influence women to take peril of such an attempt. It also reveals the existence of a big gap for the awareness services for educating the risks involved to the women's health. Study revealed that services are easily accessible; without any legal, religious or social barriers. Semi or un-educated women, mostly from low socioeconomic sector are opting the procedure in majority, being less aware and stalwartly influenced by environmental factors; hence excessive availability of abortion services should be revisited. Lack of deep awareness of the consequences also contributes for deteriorating

  5. Study of Morbidity Profile of a Rural Population in Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshkumar, P.; Katta, Ajitha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the reported morbidity profile of people according to age, gender and organ system affected using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, in a demographically defined area in Tamil Nadu in order to identify their health care needs and to plan appropriate interventions strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a-cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 12308 persons sceened from the 41 panchayat units of the Kattankulathur block, comprising 90 villages with a population of about 2,00,890, over a period of one year. Diagnosis made were coded using ICD 10 version and data collected was analysed by appropriate statistical methods to explain the distribution of morbidity profile among the study population. Result: Out of total, 38.1% screened were males and 61.9% were females. Underfives were 5.3%, school going children 43.3%, adults 39.2% and elderly 12.3%. Majority had illness affecting respiratory system (20%), ‘symptoms and signs’ (19%), musculo-skeletal system (16.1%) and digestive system(11.9%). ‘Symptoms and signs’ classification, is a group of conditions which is of nonspecific diseases, signs, symptoms, abnormal findings and complaints, apart from the system specific conditions diagnosed properly and not elsewhere classified, More males were affeced with respiratory, digestive and illnesses with ‘symptoms and signs’ while more women were affected with musculo-skeletal problems. Only 9.7 % of patients reported with non-communicable diseases. Among them, 55 % women and 42.3 % men had osteoarthritis and 15.7 % women and 21.3 % men had cataract. About 15.8 % women and 18.1 % men had hypertension and other heart diseases while 9.7 % women and 8.4 % men had diabetes and 10.0 % men and 3.9 % women had chronic respiratory diseases. Conclusion: School going children and adults have higher levels of morbidity when compared to elderly and under five children. More females reported with illness but morbidity was

  6. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher

  7. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  8. Validity of resting energy expenditure predictive equations before and after an energy-restricted diet intervention in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan R Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the validity of REE predictive equations before and after 12-week energy-restricted diet intervention in Spanish obese (30 kg/m(2>BMI<40 kg/m(2 women. METHODS: We measured REE (indirect calorimetry, body weight, height, and fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM, dual X-ray absorptiometry in 86 obese Caucasian premenopausal women aged 36.7±7.2 y, before and after (n = 78 women the intervention. We investigated the accuracy of ten REE predictive equations using weight, height, age, FFM and FM. RESULTS: At baseline, the most accurate equation was the Mifflin et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 241-247 when using weight (bias:-0.2%, P = 0.982, 74% of accurate predictions. This level of accuracy was not reached after the diet intervention (24% accurate prediction. After the intervention, the lowest bias was found with the Owen et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 1-19 equation when using weight (bias:-1.7%, P = 0.044, 81% accurate prediction, yet it provided 53% accurate predictions at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation in the accuracy of REE predictive equations before and after weight loss in non-morbid obese women. The results acquire especial relevance in the context of the challenging weight regain phenomenon for the overweight/obese population.

  9. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S; Goldenberg, Don L; Hurwitz, Shelley; Adler, Gail K

    2003-04-01

    To determine activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Premenopausal women with FM (n = 24) and premenopausal healthy women (n = 27) were studied. IGF-1 was measured in 23 patients with FM and 25 controls. GH was measured during a stepped hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure (blood glucose decreased from 90 to 40 mg/dl every 30 min in 10 mg/dl decrements) in 12 FM and 13 control subjects. IGF-1 concentrations were similar in the FM (200 +/- 71 ng/ml, mean +/- SD) and control (184 +/- 70 ng/ml) groups. By multiple variable analysis, IGF-1 was negatively associated with age (p = 0.0006), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.006), and 24 h urinary free cortisol (p = 0.007) in healthy controls. Even after accounting for these factors, there was no association between FM and IGF-1. The average peak GH achieved during hypoglycemia was lower in patients with FM (range 5 to 58 ng/ml, median 13 ng/ml) versus controls (6 to 68 ng/ml, median 21 ng/ml) (p = 0.04). However, BMI was a significant predictor of average peak GH in FM (r = -0.62, p BMI, there was no significant association between FM subjects and the average peak GH (p = 0.20). In this sample of premenopausal women with FM, the activity of the GH-IGF-1 axis was similar to that of healthy controls. Increases in age and obesity were both strongly associated with lower activity of this axis, suggesting that these factors must be considered when studying activity of the GH-IGF-1 axis in FM.

  10. Quality of life and psychological morbidity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: body mass index, age and the provision of patient information are significant modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L; Burke, V; Stuckey, B G A

    2007-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has clinical features and implications for long-term health that may lead to decreased quality of life (QoL) and psychological morbidity. We studied QoL in women with PCOS, compared the findings with population norms and assessed whether they correlated with reported quality of patient information received. Cross-sectional study. Women with PCOS by National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria, diagnosis confirmed by one endocrinologist. Four questionnaires were mailed: the Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOSQ), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and an assessment of information quality and sources, the Patient Information Questionnaire (PIQ). Questionnaires were sent to 443 women with PCOS from one endocrinologist's database; 203 women aged 15-65 years agreed to participate. To compare with Australian population norms, data from those women aged 18-44 years (n = 173) were used. Of these, 64% were obese, 18% overweight and 18% of normal weight. The demographics, socioeconomic status and untreated biochemistry of the responders and the total patient group were not significantly different. SF-36 scores were significantly lower than the age- and sex-matched Australian population (P PCOSQ was similar to other published studies. GHQ-28 identified psychological morbidity in 62.4%, compared with 26.4% in a matched Australian population (P < 0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with QoL (P < 0.01). There was a positive association between the psychological domain of QoL and the subjective assessment of the quality of health-related information in general (P < 0.001), for hirsutism (P < 0.01) and for menstrual irregularity (P < 0.05). We have shown impaired QoL and increased prevalence of psychological morbidity in PCOS compared with population norms. The perception of inadequate information about the condition correlated with poorer QoL scores

  11. Knowledge, satisfaction with information, decisional conflict and psychological morbidity amongst women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morgan, Simone; Redman, Sally; D'Este, Catherine; Rogers, Kris

    2011-07-01

    To assess knowledge, satisfaction with information, decisional conflict and psychological morbidity amongst women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to explore the factors associated with less knowledge and greater confusion about DCIS. A cross-sectional survey of women diagnosed with DCIS in Australia (N=144). This study found misunderstanding and confusion amongst women diagnosed with DCIS and a desire for more information about their breast disease. Approximately half of participants worried about their breast disease metastasizing; approximately half expressed high decisional conflict; 12% were anxious and 2% were depressed. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that worry about dying from the breast disease was significantly associated with not knowing that DCIS could not metastasize (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.03-14.25); and confusion about whether DCIS could metastasize was significantly associated with dissatisfaction with information (OR 12.5; 95% CI 3.8-40.2). Good communication about how DCIS differs from invasive breast cancer is essential to alleviating the confusion and worry amongst women with DCIS. Recommendations about how best to communicate a diagnosis of DCIS, including the uncertainties, are needed to guide health professionals to promote better understanding about DCIS and increase the well-being of women with DCIS. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk : Mendelian Randomization Analyses of Data from 145,000 Women of European Descent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Dunning, Allison; Bojesen, Stig E; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Casey, Graham; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dumont, Martine; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fostira, Florentia; Gammon, Marilie; Giles, Graham G; Guénel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jasmine, Farzana; Jenkins, Mark; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Michael E; Kabisch, Maria; Kibriya, Muhammad; Knight, Julia A; Koppert, Linetta B; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Luben, Robert; Lubinski, Jan; Malone, Kathi E; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olson, Janet E; Perez, Jose I A; Perkins, Barbara; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pylkäs, Katri; Rudolph, Anja; Santella, Regina; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmutzler, Rita K; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shrubsole, Martha J; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Toland, Amanda E; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Ursin, Giske; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Verhoef, Senno; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shilin; Hall, Per; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Pharoah, Paul; Hunter, David; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or

  13. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...... to important biologic mechanisms operating between a sedentary lifestyle and an increased breast cancer risk....

  14. Reproductive hormone levels and anthropometry in postmenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a 21-year follow-up study of women diagnosed with PCOS around 50 years ago and their age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Brännström, Mats; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Dahlgren, Eva

    2011-07-01

    The hormonal and anthropometric profile of premenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is well described, but there is a lack of data concerning changes in these variables into the postmenopausal period. Our objective was to examine whether PCOS women differ from normal women regarding levels of reproductive hormones, anthropometry, and presence of hirsutism/climacteric symptoms also after menopause. In this prospective study, women with PCOS (61-79 yr) and age-matched controls, examined in 1987, were reinvestigated at a university hospital. Twenty-five PCOS patients (Rotterdam criteria) and 68 controls (randomly allocated from the Gothenburg WHO MONICA study) participated. Reexamination and hormonal measurements were done 21 yr after previous visit. FSH, LH, TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, prolactin, estrone, estradiol, SHBG, androstenedione, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free androgen index, and anthropometry were determined. Presence of climacteric symptoms, hirsutism, and menopausal age were recorded. PCOS women had higher free androgen index (P = 0.001) but lower FSH (P PCOS and controls. Women with PCOS reported hirsutism more frequently (P symptoms (P PCOS women differ from controls with regard to levels of certain reproductive hormones also after menopause, but the established premenopausal increase in waist to hip ratio in PCOS patients disappeared after menopause, mainly due to weight gain among controls. A novel finding was the lower prevalence of hypothyroidism in PCOS women.

  15. Is Trabecular Bone Score Valuable in Bone Microstructure Assessment after Gastric Bypass in Women with Morbid Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Pia Marengo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health raise many concerns. Trabecular bone score (TBS is obtained through the analysis of lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA images and allows an indirect assessment of skeletal microarchitecture (MA. The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD and alterations in bone microarchitecture assessed by TBS in morbidly obese women undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, over a three-year follow-up. Material/Methods: A prospective study of 38 morbidly obese white women, aged 46.3 ± 8.2 years, undergoing RYGB was conducted. Biochemical analyses and DXA scans with TBS evaluation were performed before and at one year and three years after surgery. Results: Patients showed normal calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations throughout the study. However, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD3 decreased, and 71% of patients had a vitamin D deficiency at three years. BMD at femoral neck and lumbar spine (LSBMD significantly decreased 13.53 ± 5.42% and 6.03 ± 6.79%, respectively, during the three-year follow-up; however Z-score values remained above those for women of the same age. TBS was within normal ranges at one and three years (1.431 ± 106 and 1.413 ± 85, respectively, and at the end of the study, 73.7% of patients had normal bone MA. TBS at three years correlated inversely with age (r = −0.41, p = 0.010, body fat (r = −0.465, p = 0.004 and greater body fat deposited in trunk (r = −0.48, p = 0.004, and positively with LSBMD (r = 0.433, p = 0.007, fat mass loss (r = 0.438, p = 0.007 and lean mass loss (r = 0.432, p = 0.008. In the regression analysis, TBS remained associated with body fat (β = −0.625, p = 0.031; R2 = 0.47. The fracture risk, calculated by FRAX® (University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, with and without adjustment by TBS, was low. Conclusion: Women undergoing RYGB in the mid-term have a preserved bone MA, assessed by TBS.

  16. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... pre-menopausal black women living in Bloemfontein in South Africa. .... nity health worker explained the purpose of the study to possible participants. .... was almost three times higher than the RDA of 130 g/day. .... The beneficial metabolic effects of a ... disease viewpoint, excessive dietary fat intake may be.

  17. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: talking story about menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette L; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multiethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i, describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared with peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause.

  18. Reference intervals for serum osteocalcin concentrations in adult men and women from the study of health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Spielhagen, Christin; Rettig, Rainer; Ittermann, Till; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-03-13

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone-specific protein produced primarily by osteoblasts during bone formation. Besides its role in bone formation, osteocalcin may play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and male fertility. To interpret serum OC data, reference intervals adapted to a specific laboratory method are needed. A healthy reference population was selected from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum OC concentrations were measured with the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay on the IDS-iSYS Automated System (Immunodiagnostic Systems, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). The reference interval was defined as the central 95% range (2.5th-97.5th percentile). Age-specific reference intervals were calculated by quantile regression for 1107 men (25-79 years) and 545 premenopausal women (25-54 years). The reference interval for 498 postmenopausal women (50-79 years) was calculated irrespective of age. Median (1st-3rd quartile) serum OC concentrations were 15.4 ng/mL (12.0-19.4 ng/mL) in men, 14.4 ng/mL (11.3-18.5 ng/mL) in premenopausal women, and 18.6 ng/mL (13.6-25.6 ng/mL) in postmenopausal women. Serum OC concentrations were highest in men and premenopausal women aged 25-29 years, were stable during midlife, and rose again after 65 years of age in men and at transition to menopause in women. Serum OC concentrations were lower in women taking oral contraceptives or who were under hormone replacement therapy after menopause and in subjects with diabetes mellitus or with body mass index  30 kg/m2 than in subjects without these conditions. We established sex-specific adult reference intervals for the serum OC concentration measured by the IDS-iSYS N-Mid Osteocalcin assay.

  19. Evaluation of Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Buffer in Pre, Post & Post Menopausal Women on HRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D R, Mahesh; G, Komali; K, Jayanthi; D, Dinesh; T V, Saikavitha; Dinesh, Preeti

    2014-02-01

    Climateric is considered to be a natural phase of life which by definition is the period of life starting from decline in ovarian activity until after the end of ovarian function. It is accompanied by various health consequences that include the changes in saliva too. This study was carried out to evaluate the salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity in pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and post-menopausal women on HRT. (1) To evaluate the salivary flow rate, pH of resting saliva and stimulated saliva and buffer capacity of stimulated saliva in pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and post-menopausal women on Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). (2) To compare the above salivary findings between pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and post-menopausal women on HRT. The study was carried out on 60 patients. These patients were divided into three groups of 20 patients: Group 1: Pre-menopausal women (control), Group 2: post-menopausal women (case), Group 3: post-menopausal women on HRT (case). The control group consisted of 20 women volunteers, having regular ovulatory menstrual cycles with no known systemic illness and deleterious habits and Group 2 consists of 20 post-menopausal women and Group 3 will consist of 20 post-menopausal women on HRT. After clearing the mouth by swallowing, stimulated saliva was collected after chewing paraffin for 10 mins in to a glass centrifuge tube graded in 0.1 mL increments up to 10mL.in rare cases the collection time will be reduced or extended (5-15 min), salivary flow rate will be determined as ml/min, immediately after collection, pH was determined by dipping pH test paper directly into the sample of oral fluid, salivary buffer capacity was determined by using saliva check buffer kit (GC corporation). The data obtained was statistically evaluated using chi-square test, fisher exact test ANOVA analysis. In our study we found salivary flow rate significantly lower in the post-menopausal women in comparison with the menstruating women and also

  20. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorders among Jordanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Alefishat, Eman; Farha, Rana Abu; Tashman, Lina; Hijjih, Enas; AlKhatib, Rasha

    2017-12-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, associated factors, and management approaches of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in Jordanian women. Three hundred premenopausal women completed a self-administered questionnaire. Moderate-severe PMS was reported by 29% of women, while 14% had PMDD. Younger unmarried women had the more severe condition. Herbal remedies and no medication were the most common approaches used to manage PMS/PMDD. High rates of PMS and PMDD found in this study highlight the need to increase awareness to this condition among health providers in order to facilitate its identification, diagnosis, and management. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prognostic value of metabolic syndrome for the development of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villegas, Elsy Aidé; Lerman-Garber, Israel; Flores-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Márquez González, Horacio; Villa-Romero, Antonio Rafael

    2015-04-08

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. In lupus patients there is an increased cardiovascular risk due to an accelerated atherogenesis. Furthermore, Metabolic Syndrome (MS) adds an independent risk for developing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in the population. Therefore, it is important to determine whether lupus patients have an increased risk of developing Cardiovascular Disease in the presence of MS. To estimate the prognostic value of MS in the incidence of cardiovascular events in a cohort of premenopausal patients with SLE. Cohort study in 238 patients was carried out. Clinical, biochemical, dietetic and anthropometric evaluations were performed. Patients were classified according to the prevalence of MS in 2001. There was a patient follow-up from 2001 to 2008. In 2008, after studying the records, we obtained the "cases" (patients with CVD) and the "no cases" (patients without CVD). The basal prevalence of MS in the cohort was of 21.8% (ATPIII). The MS component with the highest prevalence in the population studied in 2001 was low HDL-Cholesterol (<50mg/dL) with a prevalence of 55.0%. The cumulative incidence of CVD in the group with MS was 17.3% and in the group without MS it was 7.0% with a Relative Risk (RR) of 2.48 (1.12-5.46) and p<0.05. In the multivariable analysis it was noted that MS is a predictive factor of CVD. We observed the prognostic value of MS for an increased risk of cardiovascular damage in premenopausal patients with lupus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  3. Gender and the use of hormonal contraception in women are not associated with cerebral cortical 5-HT 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, V G; Erritzoe, D; Madsen, J

    2009-01-01

    to frontolimbic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and to be more pronounced in women, again, the effect of gender was not significant (P=0.42, n=127). Also, the use of hormonal contraception (n=14) within the group of pre-menopausal women (total n=29) was not associated with cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (P=0.......31). In conclusion, neither gender, nor the use of hormonal contraception in premenopausal women was associated with cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding....... binding it is not clear if gender or use of hormonal contraception exhibits associations with 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. We found no significant effect of gender on cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (P=0.15, n=132). When adjusting for the personality trait neuroticism, known to be positively correlated...

  4. Short-term effects of teriparatide versus placebo on bone biomarkers, structure, and fracture healing in women with lower-extremity stress fractures: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirol, Ellen A; Chi, Lisa Y; Khurana, Bharti; Hurwitz, Shelley; Bluman, Eric M; Chiodo, Christopher; Matzkin, Elizabeth; Baima, Jennifer; LeBoff, Meryl S

    2016-09-01

    In this pilot, placebo-controlled study, we evaluated whether brief administration of teriparatide (TPTD) in premenopausal women with lower-extremity stress fractures would increase markers of bone formation in advance of bone resorption, improve bone structure, and hasten fracture healing according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Premenopausal women with acute lower-extremity stress fractures were randomized to injection of TPTD 20-µg subcutaneous (s.c.) (n = 6) or placebo s.c. (n = 7) for 8 weeks. Biomarkers for bone formation N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and osteocalcin (OC) and resorption collagen type-1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) and collagen type 1 cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) were measured at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. The area between the percent change of P1NP and CTX over study duration is defined as the anabolic window. To assess structural changes, peripheral quantitative computed topography (pQCT) was measured at baseline, 8 and 12 weeks at the unaffected tibia and distal radius. The MRI of the affected bone assessed stress fracture healing at baseline and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment, bone biomarkers P1NP and OC increased more in the TPTD- versus placebo-treated group (both p ≤ 0.01), resulting in a marked anabolic window (p ≤ 0.05). Results from pQCT demonstrated that TPTD-treated women showed a larger cortical area and thickness compared to placebo at the weight bearing tibial site, while placebo-treated women had a greater total tibia and cortical density. No changes at the radial sites were observed between groups. According to MRI, 83.3% of the TPTD- and 57.1% of the placebo-treated group had improved or healed stress fractures (p = 0.18). In this randomized, pilot study, brief administration of TPTD showed anabolic effects that TPTD may help hasten fracture healing in premenopausal women with lower-extremity stress fractures. Larger prospective studies are warranted to determine

  5. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  6. Evidence for Stress-like Alterations in the HPA-Axis in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Johannes; König, Johanna; Homuth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Using oral contraceptives has been implicated in the aetiology of stress-related disorders like depression. Here, we followed the hypothesis that oral contraceptives deregulate the HPA-axis by elevating circulating cortisol levels. We report for a sample of 233 pre-menopausal women increased...

  7. Maternal Super Obesity and Neonatal Morbidity after Term Cesarean Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Manuck, Tracy A; Boggess, Kim A; Stamilio, David M

    2016-10-01

    Objective To estimate the association between maternal super obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 50 kg/m(2)) and neonatal morbidity among neonates born via cesarean delivery (CD). Methods Retrospective cohort of singleton neonates delivered via CD ≥ 37 weeks in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry. Maternal BMI at delivery was stratified as 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and ≥ 50 kg/m(2). Primary outcomes included acute (5-minute Apgar score neonatal injury, and/or transient tachypnea of the newborn) and severe (grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, seizure, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meconium aspiration, ventilator support ≥ 2 days, sepsis and/or neonatal death) neonatal morbidity. Odds of neonatal morbidity were estimated for each BMI category adjusting for clinical and operative characteristics. Results Of 41,262 maternal-neonatal dyads, 36% of women were nonobese, 49% had BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 12% had BMI of 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and 3% were super obese. Compared with nonobese women, super obese women had twofold odds of acute (5 vs. 10%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.59-2.73) and severe (3 vs. 6%; aOR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.59-2.73) neonatal morbidity. Conclusion Among term infants delivered via CD, maternal super obesity is associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. INTERRELATION AMONG SERUM LITHIUM LEVELS AND BONE METABOLISM AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN PRE AND POST-MENAUPOSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruken Esra Demirdöğen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study is to determine the interrelation among serum Li level on bone metabolism (Ca, P, Parathormon, and Vitamin-D, sex and metabolic hormones (estrogen, FSH, LH and TSH, and some biochemical parameters in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The study is carried out with 10 women: 5 premenopausal and 5 postmenopausal women. The serum Li levels, bone metabolism indicators (i.e., ALP, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and some biochemical parameters such as serum tryglyceride, alkalene phosphatase, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and cholesterol levels were determined. The estrogen blood level of women in menopause period was found to be lower than that of women in pre-menopause period (p<0.01 and the FSH level was found to be higher (p<0.01. In the lipid profile the triglyceride level in the post-menopause period was found to be low (p<0.05 and HDL (p<0.001, LDL (p<0.001 and the cholesterol levels were found to be high (p<0.001. The alkalene phosphatase (p<0.001 and Vitamin-D levels (p<0.001 were found to decrease. When the mineral levels were investigated no meaningful difference was observed in the serum magnesium and copper levels while zinc (p<0.01 and phosphorus (p<0.005 levels were observed to increase, the calcium levels (p<0.05 decreased and Li levels considerably decreased (p<0.0001. According to the results obtained it was determined for the first time that Li defficiency can be related with menopause and the related diseases and thus Li therapy can be used in developing new treatment protocols of menopause as an alternative method.

  9. Hormonal therapy and risk of breast cancer in mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Amadou

    Full Text Available The use of hormonal therapies, including hormonal contraceptives (HC and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT have been shown to influence breast cancer (BC risk. However, the variations of these effects among populations and ethnic groups are not completely documented, especially among Hispanic women. We evaluated the association between HC and premenopausal BC risk, and between HRT and postmenopausal BC risk in Mexican women. Data from a Mexican multi-center population-based case-control study ofwomen aged 35 to 69 years were analysed. A total of 1000 cases and 1074 matched controls were recruited between 2004 and 2007. Information on hormonal therapy was collected through a structured questionnaire. Results were analysed using conditional logistic regression models. Overall, HC were used by 422/891 (47.3% premenopausal women and HRT was used by 220/1117 (19.7% postmenopausal women. For HC, odds ratios (ORs for BC were 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.82, 1.49 for current users and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.67, 4.21 for ever-users. No clear effect of duration of use was observed. For HRT, the OR for BC was significantly increased in ever users (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.08. A non-significant increased risk was observed for combined estrogen/progestin, (OR =  1.85; 95% CI: 0.84, 4.07 whereas no effect was observed for the use of estrogen alone (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.91. Our results indicate that, HC had a non-significant effect on the risk of pre-menopausal BC, but suggested that injected contraceptives may slightly increase the risk, whereas HRT had a significant effect on post-menopausal BC in this population. This study provides new information about the effects of HC and HRT on BC risk in a Mexican population, which may be of relevance for the population of Latin America as a whole.

  10. Increased detection of co-morbidities with evaluation at a dedicated adult Turner syndrome clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, A J; Nguyen, H H; Ranasinha, S; Vollenhoven, B

    2017-10-01

    Turner syndrome (TS), resulting from complete/partial X chromosomal monosomy, is associated with multiple co-morbidities and increased mortality. Although multidisciplinary management is recommended, TS women's health care is sub-optimal. This study evaluates a multidisciplinary adult TS service. Retrospective cohort study of 82 patients attending the quarterly TS clinic from December 2003 to December 2014. Evaluation included (1) demographics, (2) TS standardized co-morbidity screening, and (3) estrogen therapy use. Data analysis involved frequency statistics, T tests and polychoric correlation analysis. Median age at TS diagnosis was 14 years (range 0-65 years), with 12% of women aged >18 years. Median age at initial consultation was 31 years (range 16-65 years). Only 14% of patients were transition program referrals. XO karyotype occurred in 30%. Primary amenorrhea predominated; however, 37% of TS women were not taking estrogen therapy. The proportion of patients not previously screened (44-76%) and those with positive screening diagnoses (5-53%) varied according to co-morbidity. The mean (± standard deviation) number of co-morbidities identified increased following TS clinic screening (7.0 ± 2.6 post-screening vs. 4.4 ± 2.3 pre-screening; p < 0.0001). Polychoric correlation analysis identified particular co-morbidity groupings (including metabolism-related) and increased co-morbidities with primary amenorrhea. A multidisciplinary adult TS clinic improves health surveillance with increased identification of co-morbidities and initiation of estrogen therapy.

  11. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence in Postmenopausal Non-Diabetic Adult Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Il Yoon

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between insulin resistance (IR and urinary incontinence in Korean adult women by analyzing the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES 2007-2009.A nationally representative sample of 5318 non-diabetic Korean women ≥19-years-of-age (3043 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal women was included from KNHANES 2008-2010. IR was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR. Participants in the highest and lowest quartile of HOMA-IR were defined as insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive respectively. Women who have current physician-diagnosed urinary incontinence were classified as having urinary incontinence.Incontinence was found in 9.18% of the total population, 8.51% of the premenopausal population, and 10.86% of the postmenopausal population. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age, reaching a peak at 60-69-years-of-age. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increased significantly with higher HOMA-IR quartiles in pre- and post-menopausal women (p for linear association = 0.0458 and 0.0009 respectively. Among post-menopausal women, those in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence compared to those in the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.77]. However premenopausal population exhibited no association between incontinence and HOMA-IR quartiles.Our results suggest that the prevalence of incontinence increased across HOMA-IR in non-diabetic adult women, and especially, IR might be a risk factor for incontinence in postmenopausal non-diabetic women.

  12. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant goserelin (Zoladex and adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased health care costs have made it incumbent on health-care facilities and physicians to demonstrate both clinical and cost efficacy when recommending treatments. Though studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer, few have compared the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin to adjuvant chemotherapy alone in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective study at one hospital, the records of 152 patients with stage Ia to IIIa ER + breast cancer who received goserelin or chemotherapy were reviewed. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were interviewed to evaluate their quality of life using the European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30, version 4.0, and to obtain the utility value by the standard gamble (SG and visual scale (VS methods. Total medical cost was assessed from the (National Health Insurance NHI payer's perspective. Results Survival at 11 years was significantly better in the groserelin group (P Conclusions Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

  13. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  14. Campaign for the prevention of maternal mortality and morbidity. Abortion: we shall no longer be silent about it] Sixth call for action, International Day of Action for Women's Health, May 28, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The annual Campaign for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality and Morbidity to be held on May 28 will focus upon abortion-related maternal mortality with the goal of mobilizing women to discuss abortion and turn it into an issue of public debate. First, however, people must stop blaming women for abortion. People say women are responsible for abortion because they failed to use contraception, they had sexual intercourse outside of marriage, they were behaving immorally, and/or they violated religious precepts. However, blaming women for abortion simply denies reality. This paper explains what is known and not known about abortion and its related maternal morbidity and mortality, and counters some myths about the criminalization and legalization of abortion, religious prohibition of abortion, who has abortions, whether women will always be traumatized by an abortion, the health risks of induced abortion, and the need for abortion services. The history of the campaign is also described.

  15. Vegan diet and blood lipid profiles: a cross-sectional study of pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yee-Wen; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chang, Hui-Chin; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lung, Chia-Chi; Lin, Long-Yau; Ho, Chien-Chang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2014-04-08

    Vegan diet has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, partly due to its effects on serum lipid profiles. Lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] have not been fully elucidated either in pre and postmenopausal vegans or in ovo-lacto vegetarians. This study aimed to compare lipid profiles among vegans, ovo-lacto vegetarians and omnivores. Demographic data and lipid profiles were obtained from the 2002 Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine factors significantly and independently associated with different categories of veganism and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles in the dietary types. A total of 2397 premenopausal and 1154 postmenopausal participants who did not receive lipid lowering drugs were enrolled. Premenopausal vegans had significantly lower HDL-C and higher TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C compared with omnivores. For postmenopausal women, vegans had lower TC while ovo-lacto vegetarians were observed with low HDL-C when compared with omnivores. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets decreased HDL-C levels in premenopausal women (β = -7.63, p = 0.001 and β = -4.87, p = 0.001, respectively). There were significant associations between lower LDL-C and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (β = -7.14, p = 0.008) and also between TG and vegan diet (β = 23.37, p = 0.008), compared with omnivorous diet. Post-menopausal women reported to have consumed either a vegan or an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet were at the risk of having low HDL-C unlike those that consumed omnivorous diets (β = -4.88, p = 0.015 and β = -4.48, p = 0.047). There were no significant changes in LDL-C in both pre and postmenopausal vegans. Vegan diet was

  16. Tobacco use and self-reported morbidity among rural Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    Aim To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population. Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation. During 2010-2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective. Findings Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54-0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36-2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of

  17. Breast density in multiethnic women presenting for screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Bridget A; Dash, Chiranjeev; O'Neill, Suzanne; Li, Yinan; Makambi, Kepher; Pien, Edward; Makariou, Erini; Coleman, Tesha; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2018-05-01

    Data on ethnic variations in breast density are limited and often not inclusive of underrepresented minorities. As breast density is associated with elevated breast cancer risk, investigating racial and ethnic difference may elucidate the observed differences in breast cancer risk among different populations. We reviewed breast density from initial screening of women from the Capital Breast Care Center and Georgetown University Hospital from 2010 to 2014. Patient demographics including race, age at screening, education, menopausal status, and body mass index were abstracted. We recorded the BI-RADS density categories: (1) "fatty," (2) "scattered fibroglandular densities," (3) "heterogeneously dense," and (4) "extremely dense." Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to identify predictors of breast density. Density categorization was recorded for 2146 women over the 5-year period, comprising Blacks (n = 940), Hispanics (n = 893), and Whites (n = 314). Analysis of subject characteristics by breast density showed that high category is observed in younger, Hispanic, nulliparous, premenopausal, and nonobese women (t-test or chi-square test, P-values density. Being Hispanic, premenopausal, and nonobese were predictive of high density on logistic regression. In this analysis of density distribution in a diverse sample, Hispanic women have the highest breast density, followed by Blacks and Whites. Unique in our findings is women who identify as Hispanic have the highest breast density and lower rates of obesity. Further investigation of the impact of obesity on breast density, especially in the understudied Hispanic group is needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight ( p = 0.007), body mass index ( p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures ( p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity ( p foods such as staple foods ( p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods ( p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  19. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miae Doo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007, body mass index (p = 0.003, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively, prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016, and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026 and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044 than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330. However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  20. Antiphospholipid Syndrome: primary or secondary to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Description of a clinical case of avitaminosis D in premenopausal woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Turrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D levels have been described in obese individuals and in some autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE and primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS. In particular, more than 50% of premenopausal women with pAPS have hypovitaminosis D. In this issue we report a case of an obese, premenopausal, and hypertensive woman with pseudo-Cushing syndrome, affected by deep venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism after rib fracture who presented hypovitaminosis D. 7 years before, diagnosis of pAPS had been made after the detection of thrombocytopenia (present at a young age and arterial ischemia of a lower limb. For seven years she was treated with acetylsalicylic acid without complications. We found positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, a triple antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL positivity and levels of vitamin D < 4 µg/l. The case report arises some questions: is vitamin D deficiency due to obesity or APS? Is the positivity of anti-dsDNA indicative of progression to SLE? Is preventive therapy with hydroxychloroquine indicated? Does the high-risk aPL profile justify a high-intensity and life-long anticoagulation regimen?http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i2.912

  1. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  2. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required.

  3. Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Ho; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Cho, Sung-Hee; Chung, Bong Chul; Lee, Eun Jig

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr) and post-menopausal female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr), and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr) patients with PTC. After comparing the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21 ± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr), the levels of steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and menopausal variations. Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men, while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between pre- and post-menopausal PTC women (P < 0.001). In particular, the metabolic ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol, which could reveal the enzyme activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, showed gender differences in PTC patients (P < 1 × 10 -7 ). These results are expected be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic differences in PTC according to gender and menopausal conditions

  4. Causes, Patterns, and Severity of Androgen Excess in 1205 Consecutively Recruited Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Yasir S; Idkowiak, Jan; Smith, Karen; Asia, Miriam; Gleeson, Helena; Webster, Rachel; Arlt, Wiebke; O'Reilly, Michael W

    2018-03-01

    Androgen excess in women is predominantly due to underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is a lack of clarity regarding patterns and severity of androgen excess that should be considered predictive of non-PCOS pathology. We examined the diagnostic utility of simultaneous measurement of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), and testosterone (T) to delineate biochemical signatures and cutoffs predictive of non-PCOS disorders in women with androgen excess. Retrospective review of all women undergoing serum androgen measurement at a large tertiary referral center between 2012 and 2016. Serum A4 and T were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS by immunoassay. Patients with at least one increased serum androgen underwent phenotyping by clinical notes review. In 1205 women, DHEAS, A4, and T were measured simultaneously. PCOS was the most common diagnosis in premenopausal (89%) and postmenopausal women (29%). A4 was increased in all adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cases (n = 15) and T in all ovarian hyperthecosis (OHT) cases (n = 7); all but one case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; n = 18) were identified by increased levels of A4 and/or T. In premenopausal women, CAH was a prevalent cause of severe A4 (59%) and T (43%) excess; severe DHEAS excess was predominantly due to PCOS (80%). In postmenopausal women, all cases of severe DHEAS and A4 excess were caused by ACC and severe T excess equally by ACC and OHT. Pattern and severity of androgen excess are important predictors of non-PCOS pathology and may be used to guide further investigations as appropriate.

  5. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2012-11-10

    The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly

  6. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors, quality of information at their disposal as well as economic factors.[3] Studies have shown a wide range of opinion of women on the interpretation of menopause, associated morbidities and possible intervention to cope with the state.[4,5] Sexual activity during menopause has been reported with conflicting results.

  7. The effects of 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone on anthropometric and biochemical measures of adiposity in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mesut; Gelisgen, Remise; Topcuoglu, Ata; Guralp, Onur; Topcuoglu, Deniz; Simsek, Gonul; Uludag, Seyfettin; Uzun, Hafize

    2012-11-01

    To assess whether there are changes on anthropometric and biochemical measures of adiposity in pre- and postmenopausal women and in the latter before and after 6 months treatment with 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone. Twenty postmenopausal and 20 premenopausal women were enrolled in a prospective comparative study. Postmenopausal women received 1 mg 17β-estradiol plus 2 mg drospirenone daily for 6 months. Measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio and plasmatic levels of insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, leptin, adiponectin, orexin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were performed in premenopausal (group 1) and postmenopausal women and in the latter before (group 2a) and after (group 2b) 6 months treatment with 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone. No significant changes in BMIs, insulin and glucose were observed between group 1 and 2a; and group 2a and 2b. GLP-1 levels were significantly increased in group 1 compared to group 2a (p = 0.035). Leptin levels were significantly increased (p = 0.001) and GLP-1 levels were significantly decreased (p = 0.021) in group 2b compared to group 2a. HDL was significantly decreased while LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly increased in group 2a compared to group 1. (p = 0.030, p = 0.001, p = 0.020; respectively) LDL was significantly decreased (p = 0.010) in group 2b compared to group 2a. GLP-1 had a positive correlation with orexin-A (p correlation with leptin (p = 0.008, r = -0.345). Leptin was significantly higher and GLP-1 was significantly lower in women receiving 17β-estradiol plus drospirenone treatment. GLP-1 levels were significantly lower after the menopause compared to premenopausal levels. Orexin-A and GLP-1 were positively correlated.

  8. Changes in Australian women's perception of the menopause and menopausal symptoms before and after the climacteric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Perz, J

    1994-12-01

    The symptoms and perceptions of menopause of 60 Australian women were studied, by questionnaire, when they were premenopausal and 10 years later when they were postmenopausal. Menopausal symptoms expected and experienced by the women were compared, fewer women experiencing hot flushes, headache, depression and nervousness and more experiencing insomnia, increase in appetite, abdominal fullness, numbness and muscular problems. The symptoms women thought were due to hormonal changes at menopause were compared. In 1993 more women cited osteoporosis, insomnia, loss of libido, obesity and loss of muscle tone as due to hormone change while fewer cited depression. The premenstrual symptoms and their severity experienced by a woman when she was premenopausal significantly predicts the type and severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced by the woman. The expected menopausal symptoms and their severity cited by a woman also significantly predicts the type of severity of the menopausal symptoms experienced. More premenstrual symptoms predict the menopausal symptoms than those menopausal symptoms the women expected. The expectation menopause will be 'a relief' or 'a nuisance' significantly predicted the overall menopause experience described by the women. Their negative attitudes about doctors' understanding and information available about menopause remained unchanged but they forget menstrual cycle problems over the 10 years. The results suggest a possible physiological basis for premenstrual and menopausal symptoms. Assistance for women with their premenstrual and menstrual cycle symptoms may improve their quality of life at menopause.

  9. Symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J A; Taylor, D L

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perimenopausal symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women with particular emphasis upon estrogen-related menopause symptoms (day sweats, hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness). A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was used to generate symptom experience data for 165 Filipina Americans between the ages of 35 and 56 who self-identified as Filipina American and were English-language proficient. The community-based sample completed questionnaires composed of sample characteristic questions and a 51-item menstrual symptom checklist with menopause-related symptoms embedded in it. Sample characteristics and symptom experience were compared among age groups of 35 to 39 (n = 39), 40 to 44 (n = 40), 45 to 49 (n = 37), and 50 to 56 (n = 49) and by perimenopausal phase, defined as premenopausal (n = 85), transitional (n = 33), and menopausal/postmenopausal (n = 47). The most reported individual symptoms were "felt energetic" (86.1%) and "well-being" (83.6%). Estrogen-related menopause symptoms were reported as "vaginal dryness" (39.4%), "hot flashes" (37.6%), "day sweats" (27.9%), and "night sweats" (24.2%) by the total sample. Distress associated with estrogen-related menopause symptoms was reported by 17% (n = 28) of all women. Subjects' chi 2 tests indicated that 50-to-56-year-old women were more likely to report fatigue/sleep symptoms, physical symptoms, and estrogen-related menopause symptoms than all other age groups. When compared by perimenopausal phase, transitional women were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity for day sweats. Premenopausal women were more likely to report minimal or mild severity and women in the perimenopausal transition were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity on estrogen-related menopause symptoms. Filipino American midlife women appear to consider the perimenopausal transition in a positive light and experience little distress associated with

  10. Injustice at work and incidence of psychiatric morbidity: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, J E; Head, J; Shipley, M J; Vahtera, J; Marmot, M G; Kivimäki, M

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies of organisational justice and mental health have mostly examined women and have not examined the effect of change in justice. To examine effects of change in the treatment of employees by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) on minor psychiatric morbidity, using a cohort with a large proportion of men. Data are from the Whitehall II study, a prospective cohort of 10 308 white-collar British civil servants (3143 women and 6895 men, aged 35-55 at baseline) (Phase 1, 1985-88). Employment grade, relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, physical illness, and psychiatric morbidity were measured at baseline. Relational justice was assessed again at Phase 2 (1989-90). The outcome was cases of psychiatric morbidity by Phases 2 and 3 (1991-93) among participants case-free at baseline. In analyses adjusted for age, grade, and baseline physical illness, women and men exposed to low relational justice at Phase 1 were at higher risk of psychiatric morbidity by Phases 2 and 3. Adjustment for other psychosocial work characteristics, particularly social support and effort-reward imbalance, partially attenuated these associations. A favourable change in justice between Phase 1 and Phase 2 reduced the immediate risk (Phase 2) of psychiatric morbidity, while an adverse change increased the immediate and longer term risk (Phase 3). This study shows that unfair treatment by supervisors increases risk of poor mental health. It appears that the employers' duty to ensure that employees are treated fairly at work also has benefits for health.

  11. Obesity and Associated Cardiometabolic Risk among Women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Purnajita; Das, Sandeep; Hore, Samrat; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Choudhuri, Dipayan

    2017-01-01

    Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25-65 years) from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  12. Obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk among women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnajita Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25–65 years from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. Results: The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. Conclusion: The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  13. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B; Weihe, P; Uth, J; Mortensen, J; Mohr, M

    2017-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. Over one year, mean arterial pressure decreased more in SOC than in CON (-5±7 vs +4±5 mmHg; Pendurance level 1 (122±105 vs 2±21%) and 20-m sprint performance (6±6 vs -1±2%) increased more (Ptraining resulted in broad-spectrum improvements in the health profile of untrained, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculo-skeletal benefits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. VAGINAL PROGESTERONE IN WOMEN WITH AN ASYMPTOMATIC SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX IN THE MIDTRIMESTER DECREASES PRETERM DELIVERY AND NEONATAL MORBIDITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PATIENT DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMERO, Roberto; NICOLAIDES, Kypros; CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; TABOR, Ann; O’BRIEN, John M.; CETINGOZ, Elcin; DA FONSECA, Eduardo; CREASY, George; KLEIN, Katharina; RODE, Line; SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; FUSEY, Shalini; CAM, Cetin; ALFIREVIC, Zarko; HASSAN, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of vaginal progesterone in asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix in the mid-trimester reduces the risk of preterm birth and improves neonatal morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN Individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Five trials of high quality were included with a total of 775 women and 827 infants. Treatment with vaginal progesterone was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth <33 weeks (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42–0.80), <35 weeks (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55–0.88) and <28 weeks (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30–0.81), respiratory distress syndrome (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30–0.76), composite neonatal morbidity and mortality (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40–0.81), birth weight <1500 g (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.80), admission to NICU (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59–0.94), and requirement for mechanical ventilation (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44–0.98). There were no significant differences between the vaginal progesterone and placebo groups in the rate of adverse maternal events or congenital anomalies. CONCLUSION Vaginal progesterone administration to asymptomatic women with a sonographic short cervix reduces the risk of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:22284156

  15. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriche...

  16. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolrasoul Safaeiyan; Bahram Pourghassem-Gargari; Rasoul Zarrin; Javid Fereidooni; Mohammad Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enric...

  17. Ovarian transposition in young women and fertility sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, B; Schimberni, M; Di Benedetto, L; Mossa, S

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian transposition is a highly effective surgical procedure used to preserve ovarian function in premenopausal patients with cancers requiring postoperative or primary pelvic radiotherapy. Pelvic irradiation determines severe damage of ovarian DNA and iatrogenic ovarian failure with premature menopause, necessity of long-term hormone replacement therapy and infertility. We conducted an extensive research of the literature in Medline between January 2000 and April 2015 using the key-words "ovarian transposition radiotherapy", "radiotherapy gonadal function", radiotherapy fertility sparing". The population included young women with normal ovarian function affected by cancers that required pelvic radiotherapy. We have examined 32 articles reporting on 1189 women undergoing ovarian transposition. Median age was 32.5 years, follow up was median 48 months. The procedure has been performed in patients less than 40 years of age. Surgery has been achieved by laparotomy or laparoscoy. We have analyzed effects of radiotherapy on ovarian function. The proportion of women treated by ovarian transposition preserved ovarian function was 70%. About 86% of patients did not develop ovarian cysts and in 98-99% of cases did not occur any metastatic disease. Ovarian transposition is associated with significant preservation of ovarian function and a low frequency of complications as cysts and metastasis. In 31% of cases the procedure can fail. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of ovarian transposition and the follow up. Ovarian transposition should be discussed at the time of cancer diagnosis in every premenopausal woman requiring pelvic radiotherapy.

  18. Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Sham, Aprille

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents' attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married, and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. Postmenopausal women tended to have more positive attitude toward menopause. Although menopause status did not seem to be associated with QoL, attitude toward menopause, self-reported health status, as well as social and lifestyle factors were associated with QoL in Chinese midlife women.

  19. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  20. POSTPARTUM PHYSICAL MORBIDITIES AMONG POSTNATAL MOTHERS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mohandas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Puerperium refers to the six-week period following childbirth. This is a dynamic period when the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy resolve and the body system return to their pre-pregnant state. Many of the complications leading to postpartum maternal morbidity arise during labour and delivery and in the first 1-2 weeks following delivery. The complication during immediate postpartum periods is managed in hospital itself. But, there is a risk of persisting these complications and from the postnatal checkup, the magnitude of the postpartum morbidity of these women are assessed. The aim of the study is to assess the postpartum physical morbidities among postnatal mothers and determine the association of those with selected variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive study. Sample in this study consists of 406 consecutive cases of postnatal mothers after 6 weeks of postpartum period who are visiting Family Planning Outpatient Department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, for postnatal checkup. Each woman was assessed by using interview schedule. The findings were presented under the following headings. Sociodemographic data, postpartum morbidities and association between selected variable and postpartum morbidities. Study Setting and Design- The design adopted is descriptive research design. 406 postnatal mothers attending the Family Planning Outpatient Department of Sree Avittom Thirunal Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, for postnatal checkup after 6 weeks postpartum are allocated. Each woman was assessed by interview schedule. The physical postpartum morbidities among postnatal women were assessed. RESULTS Data was analysed using SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics based on the objective using frequency and Chi-square test. CONCLUSION In the present study, 57.6% of women had morbidities of which 29.3% had postpartum anaemia, 45.5% had backache, 15% had perineal pain, 16

  1. Type of Labour in the First Pregnancy and Cumulative Maternal Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Baskett, Thomas F; O'Connell, Colleen M

    2015-08-01

    To estimate cumulative maternal morbidity among women who delivered at term in their first pregnancy on the basis of type of labour in the first pregnancy. Using a 25-year population-based cohort (1988 to 2012) derived from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, we determined the type of labour in successive pregnancies in low-risk, nulliparous women at term in their first pregnancy (who had at least one subsequent pregnancy), and the maternal outcomes in subsequent deliveries based on the type of labour in the first pregnancy. A total of 36 871 pregnancies satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria, 1346 of which were delivered by Caesarean section without labour in the first pregnancy. Rates of most adverse maternal outcomes were low (≤1%). The type of labour in the first pregnancy influenced the subsequent risk of postpartum hemorrhage and blood transfusion, and the risks increased with successive deliveries when labours were spontaneous in onset or were induced. The risks for abnormal placentation were low with subsequent deliveries, including following CS without labour in the first pregnancy, and risks for overall severe maternal morbidity were less than 10% for all subsequent deliveries. The absolute risks for severe maternal morbidity outcomes in a population of women without a high number of subsequent pregnancies were small (regardless of type of labour in the first pregnancy); this provides important information for women, families, and caregivers when considering pregnancy outcomes related to type of labour.

  2. Morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among elderly population of Raichur district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanna Susan George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is an “aging nation” with 7.7% of its population being above 60 years of age. It has resulted in a rise of both physical and mental health morbidities. Aims: This study aimed to gather information regarding the morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among the elderly residing in the rural villages of Raichur, to understand the need for geriatric health-care facilities. Settings and Design: This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six rural villages of Raichur District, of which 230 elderly were selected randomly. Subjects and Methods: The data were collected using a questionnaire, clinical history, examination, and cross-checking of medical records. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Epi Info version-3.5.3. Results: The prevalence of morbidity was 91.7% with an average of 3/person. Females (58.9% had more morbidities than men (41.1%. The 3 most common morbidities were orthopedic (50.5%, cataract (50.4%, and respiratory (31.3%. 26.6% suffered from gastrointestinal morbidities while 23.9% had dental problems. 20.9% had hypertension with equal prevalence among both sexes. Only 17.4% were diabetics with majority being women. Central nervous system morbidities were 14.2% while 9.6% suffered from hearing loss and varicose veins. 8.2% had genitourinary-urinary morbidities and incontinence (1.7% was common among both sexes. Depression (71.1% and dermatological morbidities (4.7% were prevalent among women. Only 3.5% suffered from cardiac morbidity and 0.4% from cancer. Significant association was found between age and morbidity and also between socioeconomic class and morbidity pattern. Conclusions: Geriatric care should become an integral part of primary health care. Regular screening and Information, Education, and Communication activities need to be provided early in life for ensuring healthy aging.

  3. Severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes in the early post-natal period: a prospective cohort study from one English maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has identified potential issues of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding among women who experience severe maternal morbidity associated with pregnancy and birth, but evidence in the UK maternity population was scarce. We explored the association between severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes (uptake and prevalence of partial and exclusive breastfeeding) at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum in a UK sample. Data on breastfeeding outcomes were obtained from a large cohort study of women who gave birth in one maternity unit in England to assess the impact of women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorder or high dependency unit/intensive care unit admission) on their post-natal health and other important outcomes including infant feeding. Results indicated that among women who responded (n = 1824, response rate = 53%), there were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes between women who did or did not experience severe morbidity, except for women with severe hypertensive disorder who were less likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum. Rather, breastfeeding outcomes were related to multi-dimensional factors including sociodemographic (age, ethnicity, living arrangement), other pregnancy outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission, mode of birth, women's perceived control during birth) and post-natal psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Women who experience severe maternal morbidity can be reassured that establishing successful breastfeeding can be achieved. More studies are required to understand what support is best for women who have complex health/social needs to establish breastfeeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and validation of a questionnaire to identify severe maternal morbidity in epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpinelli Mary A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective to develop and validate a questionnaire on severe maternal morbidity and to evaluate the maternal recall of complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Design: validity of a questionnaire as diagnostic instrument. Setting: a third level referral maternity in Campinas, Brazil. Population: 386 survivors of severe maternal complications and 123 women that delivered without major complications between 2002 and 2007. Methods eligible women were traced and interviewed by telephone on the occurrence of obstetric complications and events related to their treatment. Their answers were compared with their medical records as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios plus their correspondent 95% confidence intervals were used as main estimators of accuracy. Main outcomes: diagnosis of severe maternal morbidity associated with past pregnancies, including hemorrhage, eclampsia, infections, jaundice and related procedures (hysterectomy, admission to ICU, blood transfusion, laparotomy, inter-hospital transfer, mechanical ventilation and post partum stay above seven days. Results Women did not recall accurately the occurrence of obstetric complications, especially hemorrhage and infection. The likelihood ratios were Conclusion Process indicators are better recalled by women than obstetric complication and should be considered when applying a questionnaire on severe maternal morbidity.

  5. Maternal welfare, morbidity and mortality 6-15 years after a pregnancy complicated by alcohol and substance abuse: a register-based case-control follow-up study of 524 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Sarkola, Taisto; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Halmesmäki, Erja

    2010-10-01

    A register-based retrospective case-control study to investigate the long-term morbidity, mortality, and welfare among women with alcohol and/or substance misuse identified during pregnancy. Cohort of 524 women followed-up ante- and perinatally 1992-2001 at special out-patient clinics of maternity hospitals in the capital area of Finland. The control group of 1792 women with no evidence of alcohol or substance misuse was matched for maternal age, parity, date of birth and hospital of index delivery. Both groups were followed-up until end of 2007. 7.9% (42/524) of the cases and 0.2% (4/1792) of the controls had died by the end of the median follow-up of 9 years (OR 38, 95% CI 14-108). The cases displayed significant morbidity requiring in-patient care in the areas of mental disorders (AOR 8.8, 95% CI 6.5-11.9), viral (AOR 23.5, 95% CI 8.8-62.7) and bacterial (AOR 6.1, 95% CI 3.5-10.4) infections, skin diseases (AOR 3.9, 95% CI 2.0-7.8) and injury and poisoning (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 3.1-5.6). The cases displayed more out-patient visits (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.7-2.8). Their mean length of hospital stay was longer compared to controls (10.3 vs. 4.4 days, p<0.001). The risk of pension granted due to a disorder, disease or disability (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.0-13.0) and the risk for minimum unemployment benefit were higher compared to controls (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.5). These women display significant long-term morbidity, mortality and loss of productivity after delivery. The results emphasize the importance of adequate postnatal follow-up and treatment for misuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short Report: Psychiatric Morbidity among Infertile Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study included 107 women with primary infertility in the study group and 99 healthy fertile women in the control group. The 12th version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and were administered to both groups to determine their levels of psychological ...

  7. Randomized trial of adjuvant ovarian suppression in 926 premenopausal patients with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, R; Lê, M G; Spielmann, M; Mauriac, L; Bonneterre, J; Namer, M; Delozier, T; Hill, C; Tursz, T

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this multicenter trial was to evaluate the role of ovarian suppression in patients with early breast cancer previously treated with local surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Nine hundred and twenty-six premenopausal patients with completely resected breast cancer and either axillary node involvement or histological grade 2 or 3 tumors were randomized after surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy alone (control arm) or adjuvant chemotherapy plus ovarian suppression (ovarian suppression arm). Ovarian suppression was obtained by either radiation-induced ovarian ablation or triptorelin for 3 years. The analyses were performed with Cox models stratified by center. Median follow-up was 9.5 years. Mean age was 43 years. Ninety per cent of patients had histologically proven positive axillary nodes, 63% positive hormonal receptors and 77% had received an anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimen. Ovarian suppression was by radiation-induced ovarian ablation (45% of patients) or with triptorelin (48%). At the time of randomization, all patients had regular menses or their follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels indicated a premenopausal status. The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 49% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44% to 54%] in both arms (P = 0.51). The 10-year overall survival rates were 66% (95% CI 61% to 70%) for the ovarian suppression arm and 68% (95% CI 63% to 73%) for the control arm (P = 0.19). There were no variations in the treatment effect according to age, hormonal receptor status or ovarian suppression modality. However, in patients suppression significantly decreased the risk of recurrence (P = 0.01). The results of this trial, after at least 10 years of follow-up, do not favor the use of ovarian suppression after adjuvant chemotherapy. The potential beneficial effect in younger women with hormono-dependent tumors should be further assessed.

  8. Risk of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in relation to maternal co-morbid mood and migraine disorders during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Swee May; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated the risks of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among pregnant women with mood and migraine disorders, using a cohort study of 3432 pregnant women. Maternal pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy (migraine diagnoses were ascertained from interview and medical record review. We fitted generalised linear models to derive risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for women with isolated mood, isolated migraine and co-morbid mood-migraine disorders, respectively. Reported RR were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, marital status, parity, smoking status, chronic hypertension or pre-existing diabetes mellitus, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. Women without mood or migraine disorders were defined as the reference group. The risks for preterm delivery and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were more consistently elevated among women with co-morbid mood-migraine disorders than among women with isolated mood or migraine disorder. Women with co-morbid disorders were almost twice as likely to deliver preterm (adjusted RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.05, 3.34) compared with the reference group. There was no clear evidence of increased risks of preterm delivery and its subtypes with isolated migraine disorder. Women with mood disorder had elevated risks of pre-eclampsia (adjusted RR=3.57, 95% CI 1.83, 6.99). Our results suggest an association between isolated migraine disorder and pregnancy-induced hypertension (adjusted RR=1.42, 95% CI 1.00, 2.01). This is the first study examining perinatal outcomes in women with co-morbid mood-migraine disorders. Pregnant women with a history of migraine may benefit from screening for depression during prenatal care and vigilant monitoring, especially for women with co-morbid mood and migraine disorders. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Morbidade febril puerperal em pacientes infectadas pelo HIV Puerperal morbidity in HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Marcos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as taxas de morbidade febril puerperal em pacientes infectadas pelo HIV e sua correlação com a via de parto, duração do trabalho de parto, tempo de rotura de membranas, número de células CD4+ e carga viral do HIV periparto. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 207 gestantes infectadas pelo HIV, com seguimento pré-natal e parto entre maio de 1997 e dezembro de 2001, sendo 32 submetidas a parto vaginal e 175 a cesárea. Do total de pacientes, 62,8% foram submetidas a cesárea eletiva. A idade média no grupo analisado foi de 27,4 anos, 25,6% eram nulíparas e 26% primíparas, com idade gestacional média de 37,8 semanas no momento do parto. A contagem média de células CD4+ foi de 481 células /mm³ e da carga viral do HIV de 49.100 cópias/mL, ambas no final da gestação. RESULTADOS: a morbidade febril puerperal ocorreu em 34 pacientes, sendo 33 pós-cesárea e 1 pós-parto vaginal. O tipo mais comum de intercorrência infecciosa pós-cesárea foi infecção de cicatriz cirúrgica (13% dos casos de infecção. Os fatores analisados, como duração do trabalho de parto, tempo de rotura de membranas, contagem de células CD4+ ou carga viral do HIV periparto, não interferiram na taxa de morbidade febril puerperal. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de morbidade febril puerperal foi de 16,8%, sendo mais freqüente pós-cesárea (18,9% que pós-parto vaginal (3,1%. Os demais fatores não mostraram relação significativa com a taxa de morbidade febril puerperal.PURPOSE: the morbidity in HIV-positive patients due to puerperal fever was studied and correlated to the method and duration of labor, the duration of premature rupture of the membranes, CD4+ cell count and the viral load (VL at peridelivery. METHODS: a total of 207 HIV-positive women with prenatal examinations and deliveries between May 1997 and December 2001 were enrolled. Of these, 32 had natural childbirth and 175 had a cesarean section. Of the total of enrolled patients, 62

  10. High bone turnover is associated with low bone mass in both pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Fledelius, C; Rosenquist, C

    1996-01-01

    of CrossLaps and OCN-Mid corrected for height and weight, had 6%-11% lower bone mass in all regions (p r = -0.13 to r = -0.28, p ....05. In postmenopausal women, the difference in bone mass between the highest and lowest quartiles was 8%-14% (p r = -0.14 to r = -0.32, p r = -0.06 to r = -0.......20 for premenopausal women, NS to p r = -0.01 to r = -0.23, NS to p

  11. Fibroblast growth factor-21 and omentin-1 hepatic mRNA expression and serum levels in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluga, M; Kukla, M; Zorniak, M; Kajor, M; Liszka, L; Dyaczynski, M; Kowalski, G; Zadlo, D; Waluga, E; Olczyk, P; Buldak, R J; Berdowska, A; Hartleb, M

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and omentin-1 have been recognized as potent antidiabetic agents with potential hepatoprotective activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression as well as their serum levels as predictive markers of liver injury and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during the bariatric surgery. Hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while their serum concentrations were measured with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The FGF21 serum level was significantly higher in patients with a greater extent of steatosis (grade 2 and 3) compared to those without or with mild steatosis (grade 0 and 1) (P = 0.049). Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, however, showed poor discriminant power for the FGF21 serum levels in differentiating between more and less extensive steatosis with an AUC = 0.666. There was a tendency towards higher levels of hepatic FGF21 mRNA in patients with lobular inflammation and fibrosis and towards lower levels in the case of hepatocyte ballooning and steatosis. There was a positive mutual correlation between hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA levels (r = 0.78; P hepatic omentin-1 mRNA levels showed a tendency to be lower in patients with advanced steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning. In conclusion, our study, which focused on hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression, confirmed marked expression of both molecules in the liver of morbidly obese patients with NAFLD. More extensive steatosis was associated with evident changes in the serum FGF21 concentration in morbidly obese women with NAFLD, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The vast amount of fat, both visceral and subcutaneous, in severely obese patients may be the additional source and influence

  12. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  13. Morbidity Pattern among the Elderly Population in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study also sought to determine the relationships between morbidity and socio-demographic and health characteristics in Nigerian elderly hospital attendees at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. A hospital based ... Nutritional status indicated a relatively high prevalence (42.6%) of malnutrition. Women ...

  14. Cardiopulmonary functional capacity and the role of exercise in improving maximal oxygen consumption in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Bidzińska-Speichert, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive disorder in premenopausal women and is frequently accompanied by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been recognized that PCOS women are characterized by cardiopulmonary impairment. Reduced cardiopulmonary functional capacity and the autonomic dysfunction associated with abnormal heart rate recovery might be responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS. Exercise training has beneficial effects on cardiopulmonary functional capacity and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women.

  15. Leptin expression in breast nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and serum is influenced by body mass index (BMI) but not by the presence of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, E R; Garofalo, C; Hewett, J; Hewett, J E; Morelli, C; Surmacz, E

    2004-05-01

    While obesity is a known risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. Systemic levels of leptin, the product of the ob (obesity) gene, are increased in obese individuals (body mass index, BMI, over 25) and are higher in women than men. Leptin has been found to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. Our goal was to determine whether leptin was 1) present in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), and 2) whether NAF leptin levels were associated with a) levels in serum, b) obesity, and c) breast cancer. We collected and evaluated NAF specimens from 83 subjects and serum specimens from 49 subjects. NAF leptin was detectable in 16/41 (39 %) of premenopausal and 21/42 (50 %) postmenopausal subjects. NAF leptin was significantly lower (p = 0.042) in premenopausal than postmenopausal women with a BMI < 25, but not in those with a higher BMI. NAF leptin was significantly associated with BMI in premenopausal (p = 0.011) but not in postmenopausal women. Serum leptin was associated with BMI in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women (p = 0.0001 for both). NAF and serum leptin were associated in premenopausal (p = 0.02) but not postmenopausal women. Neither NAF nor serum leptin was associated with premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancer. Our findings include that 1) leptin is present in the breast and detectable in a subset of NAF samples, 2) NAF leptin in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women parallels serum leptin levels, and 3) neither NAF nor serum levels of leptin were associated with premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancer.

  16. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND LIPID PROFILE IN NON OBESE YOUNG INDIAN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Malathi; Balamurugan; Gomathi

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT (BACKGROUND): Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathy of premenopausal women and is a most frequent cause of infertility. There are more stringent reports of cardiovascular events and infrequent investigations of lipid levels in lean PCOS. AIMS: To assess the cardiac autonomicity using Heart Rate Variabi...

  17. Physical activity and body composition, body physique, and quality of life in premenopausal breast cancer patients during endocrine therapy--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan, Katarzyna; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Milecki, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    Endocrine therapy (ET) is a common method of treatment in breast cancer patients; however, its negative impact on body composition, body physique (physical body shape/measurements), and quality of life (QoL) remains controversial. Previous studies have shown physical exercise can have a positive effect on QoL in breast cancer patients, especially premenopausal subjects. In this feasibility study, we sought to assess the impact that physical exercise had on body composition and QoL in premenopausal breast cancer patients undergoing ET, and to determine the appropriateness of further testing of this intervention in this patient group. This study involved 41 premenopausal female breast cancer patients before and after six, 12, and 18 months of ET. Aerobic training began in the 6th month and resistance training was added in the 12th month. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, body physique was evaluated using anthropometric measurement techniques, and QoL was evaluated using questionnaires from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The initial period of ET with no exercise resulted in a reduction in fat-free body mass (FFBM), an increase in fat body mass (FBM), and a decline in QoL scores. Adding aerobic training resulted in a reduction of FBM and percentage of android fat, and improved QoL scores. The introduction of resistance training further reduced percentage of android and gynoid fat, increased FFBM, and further improved QoL scores. ET negatively impacts body composition, body physique, and QoL of premenopausal breast cancer patients. This feasibility study shows that physical activity may improve QoL and reduce adverse effects of ET on body composition and body physique, indicating appropriateness for further investigation on the use of exercise programs in premenopausal breast cancer patients to improve the outcomes of therapy.

  18. Correction ofvitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and assessment of 24-hour blood pressure parameters in perimenopausal women with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Walerjewna Jankowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both arterial hypertension and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in the general population. Aim of the study was to assess blood pressure and its dynamics in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM while correcting the vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in perimenopausal women, who have grade 2 arterial hypertension. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 50 premenopausal women [48 (45–50 years] and 52 women in early (up to 5 years postmenopausal period [52 (50–54 years]. Total 25-(OHD blood plasma levels were assessed by immunoenzyme assay using DRG kit (Marburg, Germany. The total 25-(OHD blood plasma levels below 20 ng/ml were considered as vitamin D insufficiency, the concentration of 20–30 ng/ml – as deficiency, and the levels 30–60 ng/ml were considered normal. In the group of women with 25-(OHD deficiency/insufficiency two subgroups were isolated: IB subgroup (n = 25 and IIB (n = 21, which were introduced with treatment algorithm, including cholecalciferol administration at a daily dose of 2000 IU for 3 months. Results: Cholecalciferol therapy at a dose of 2000 IU per day for a period of 3 months has allowed reaching the optimum concentration of vitamin D in 80% of premenopausal hypertensive women, and in 76.2% of women in the early postmenopausal period. Correction of plasma vitamin D deficiency achieved by taking cholecalciferol, while using combined antihypertensive therapy (ramipril + indapamide allows to improve the following parameters assessed in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in premenopausal women: the mean daytime and nighttime systolic blood pressure, time index of 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure variability, systolic and diastolic blood pressure morning surge, and normalization of nighttime:daytime blood pressure ratio; in postmenopausal women the treatment allowed: the reduction of morning surge of

  19. Serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Mellemkjær, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and breast cancer risk in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women. IGF-II and estrogen receptor (ER) status has never been investigated. We examined the association between IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF...

  20. Circulating and PBMC Lp-PLA2 associate differently with oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation in nonobese women (menopausal status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kyung Paik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2 (Lp-PLA(2 activity in circulation and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in nonobese women and according to menopausal status. Lp-PLA(2 activity, a marker for cardiovascular risk is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighty postmenopausal women (53.0±4.05 yr and 96 premenopausal women (39.7±9.25 yr participated in this study. Lp-PLA(2 activities, interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IL-1β in plasma as well as in PBMCs were measured. Plasma ox-LDL was also measured. Postmenopausal women demonstrated higher circulating levels of ox-LDL and IL-6, as well as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in PBMCs, than premenopausal women. In both groups, plasma Lp-PLA(2 activity positively correlated with Lp-PLA(2 activity in PBMCs and plasma ox-LDL. In premenopausal women, Lp-PLA(2 activities in plasma and PBMCs positively correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in PBMCs. In postmenopausal women, plasma ox-LDL positively correlated with PBMC cytokine production. In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women according to plasma ox-LDL level (median level: 48.715 U/L, a significant increase in Lp-PLA(2 activity in the plasma but not the PBMCs was found in the high ox-LDL subgroup. Plasma Lp-PLA(2 activity positively correlated with unstimulated PBMC Lp-PLA(2 activity in the low ox-LDL subgroup (r = 0.627, P<0.001, whereas in the high ox-LDL circulating Lp-PLA(2 activity positively correlated with plasma ox-LDL (r = 0.390, P = 0.014 but not with Lp-PLA(2 activity in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of relation between circulating Lp-PLA(2 activity and Lp-PLA(2 activity in PBMCs was found in postmenopausal women with high ox-LDL. This may indicate other sources of circulating Lp-PLA(2 activity except PBMC in postmenopausal women

  1. Renal function during pregnancy may predict risk of future hospitalization due to atherosclerotic-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Talya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Sergienko, Ruslan; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to examine whether renal function during pregnancy can serve as a surrogate marker for the risk of developing atherosclerotic-related morbidity. A case-control study, including women who gave birth at a tertiary referral medical centre during 2000-2012. This population was divided into cases of women who were subsequently hospitalized for atherosclerotic morbidity during the study period and age-matched controls. From the study population, we retrieved two groups: the creatinine (Cr) group: women who had at least one Cr measurement (4945 women) and the urea group: women who had at least one urea measurement (4932 women) during their pregnancies. In the Cr and urea group, there were 572 and 571 cases and 4373 and 4361 controls, respectively. The mean follow-up period in the Cr and urea group was 61.7 ± 37.0 and 57.3 ± 36.0 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models (controlling for confounders: gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, obesity, maternal age, creatinine level (for urea), and gestational week) were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hospitalizations. A significant association was documented between renal function during pregnancy and long-term atherosclerotic morbidity. Multivariate analysis, showed that Cr at pregnancy index of ≥89 μmol/L was associated with a significant increased risk for hospitalization due to cardiovascular (CVS) events (adjusted HR = 2.91 CI 1.37-6.19 P = 0.005) and urea level ≤7 mmol/L was independently associated with reduced prevalence of CVS hospitalization (adjusted HR = 0.62 CI 0.57-0.86 P = 0.001). Renal function abnormality during pregnancy may reveal occult predisposition to atherosclerotic morbidity years after childbirth. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular morbidities in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko Ko; Nwe, Nwe; Hlaing, Su Su

    2017-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are now in a rising trend in South East Asia including Myanmar due to increase in major cardiovascular risk factors in both urban and rural areas, such as smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to determine CVD morbidities in Myanmar for planning of prevention and control activities for CVDs. The cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2012 with 600 people aged 40 years and above in four townships (Kyauk-Tan, Mawlamyaing, Pathein and Pyay) and used face-to-face interview with standard questionnaire [Rose Angina Questionnaire and Questionnaire by European Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set (EUROCISS) Research Group] to determine the level of reported CVD morbidities in adult population. Age of the study population ranged from 40 to 99 years with the mean age of 56 years. Seventy-one percent of the study population was women. Nine percent of the study population have suffered from angina according to Rose Angina Questionnaire. Prevalence of possible heart attack, stroke and heart failure was 7.5, 1.5 and 2.8%. Prevalence of hypertension was 51%. The CVD morbidities are high. There is a need for strengthening prevention and control activities of CVDs.

  3. Can weight gain be prevented in women receiving treatment for breast cancer? A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Z O; Reeves, M M

    2017-11-01

    Obesity and weight gain have been associated with poor disease-specific and health-related outcomes in women with breast cancer. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of weight gain prevention interventions among women with breast cancer. Completed and ongoing trials evaluating a behaviourally based dietary intervention with or without physical activity and with a focus on weight gain prevention during treatment for breast cancer were reviewed. Weight change and body composition data were extracted. Within-group weight change of ±1 kg and between-group (intervention versus control) weight difference of ≥2 kg were defined as successful weight gain prevention. Five completed trials (seven intervention arms) and five ongoing trials were identified. Completed trials exclusively recruited premenopausal or premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Within-group weight gain was prevented in two intervention arms, two arms achieved weight loss and three arms reported weight gain. Of the five comparisons with control groups, two reported significant differences in weight change between groups. Ongoing trials will provide further evidence on longer-term outcomes, cost-effectiveness and blood markers. This small but growing number of studies provides preliminary and promising evidence that weight gain can be prevented in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. The Deep Correlation between Energy Metabolism and Reproduction: A View on the Effects of Nutrition for Women Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Roberta; Della Torre, Sara

    2016-02-11

    In female mammals, mechanisms have been developed, throughout evolution, to integrate environmental, nutritional and hormonal cues in order to guarantee reproduction in favorable energetic conditions and to inhibit it in case of food scarcity. This metabolic strategy could be an advantage in nutritionally poor environments, but nowadays is affecting women's health. The unlimited availability of nutrients, in association with reduced energy expenditure, leads to alterations in many metabolic pathways and to impairments in the finely tuned inter-relation between energy metabolism and reproduction, thereby affecting female fertility. Many energetic states could influence female reproductive health being under- and over-weight, obesity and strenuous physical activity are all conditions that alter the profiles of specific hormones, such as insulin and adipokines, thus impairing women fertility. Furthermore, specific classes of nutrients might affect female fertility by acting on particular signaling pathways. Dietary fatty acids, carbohydrates, proteins and food-associated components (such as endocrine disruptors) have per se physiological activities and their unbalanced intake, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, might impair metabolic homeostasis and fertility in premenopausal women. Even though we are far from identifying a "fertility diet", lifestyle and dietary interventions might represent a promising and invaluable strategy to manage infertility in premenopausal women.

  5. Evaluation of the factors predicting the outcome of transsphenoidal microsurgery in patients with premenopausal microprolactinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugu, Hitoshi; Emoto, Makoto; Oshiro, Shinya; Komatsu, Fuminari; Sakamoto, Seisaburo; Ohta, Mika; Fukushima, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    Although cabergoline is an effective first-line treatment for prolactinoma, transsphenoidal microsurgery remains useful for the treatment of microprolactinoma. We investigated the factors that predict the outcome of transsphenoidal microsurgery and also evaluated indications for this method in patients with prolactinoma. We reviewed the cases of 21 premenopausal patients with prolactinoma, who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical characteristics, preoperative prolactin level, adenoma size, MIB-1 labeling index, and cavernous sinus invasion were evaluated. Cavernous sinus invasion was graded according to Knosp's MRI classification. The preoperative prolactin level (P=0.0268) and grade of cavernous sinus invasion (P=0.0284) were statistically significant predictors of a surgical cure for patients with prolactinoma. As a result, transsphenoidal microsurgery is considered to be an effective therapy for appropriately selected premenopausal patients with prolactinoma. We believe that patients with either low Knosp's grade (0 or 1) and/or a preoperative prolactin level of <100 ng/ml would benefit most from transsphenoidal microsurgery as a first-line treatment. (author)

  6. Improvement of systolic and diastolic heart function after physical training in sedentary women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Hansen, Peter Riis; Søgaard, P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the cardiac effects of football training and running for inactive pre-menopausal women by standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to two training groups (football: FG; n=19; running; RG; n=18) training 1 h with equal.......0+/-1.3 mm (PRight ventricle diameter increased by 12% in FG and 10% in RG (P

  7. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  8. What is the optimal minimally invasive surgical procedure for endometrial cancer staging in the obese and morbidly obese woman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Paola A; Cantrell, Leigh A; Shafer, Aaron; Abaid, Lisa N; Mendivil, Alberto; Boggess, John F

    2008-10-01

    Thirty-three percent of U.S. women are either obese or morbidly obese. This is associated with an increased risk of death from all causes and is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma. We sought to compare minimally invasive surgical techniques for staging the obese and morbidly obese woman with endometrial cancer. Consecutive robotic endometrial cancer staging procedures were collected from 2005-2007 and were compared to consecutive laparoscopic cases (2000-2004). Demographics including age, weight, body mass index (BMI), operative time, estimated blood loss, lymph node retrieval, hospital stay and complications were collected and compared. During the study period, there were 36 obese and 13 morbidly obese women who underwent surgery with the DaVinci robotic system and 25 obese and 7 morbidly obese women who underwent traditional laparoscopy. For both the obese and morbidly obese patient, robotic surgery was associated with shorter operative time (p=0.0004), less blood loss (ptool for the comprehensive surgical staging of the obese and morbidly obese woman with endometrial cancer. As this patient population is at increased risk of death from all causes, including post-operative complications, all efforts should be made to improve their outcomes and minimally invasive surgery provides a useful platform by which this can occur.

  9. Psychological morbidity and stress but not social factors influence level of fear of cancer recurrence in young women with early breast cancer: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewes, B; Bell, M L; Butow, P; Beith, J; Boyle, F; Friedlander, M; McLachlan, S A

    2013-12-01

    Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common problem amongst survivors. Past research has shown that young women with breast cancer are particularly vulnerable to FCR, yet few previous studies have specifically examined FCR in this subgroup. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between FCR, psychological morbidity and social factors. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between clinical levels of FCR and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and hypochondriasis. Two hundred eighteen breast cancer survivors (aged 18-45 years at diagnosis) diagnosed at least 1 year prior were recruited through seven metropolitan oncology clinics and two breast cancer consumer groups. Participants completed a web-based questionnaire, which assessed FCR, psychological functioning, generalised anxiety, hypochondriasis and items exploring past cancer-related experiences, attitudes to future childbearing, social support and correlates were identified using linear regression. Psychological morbidity scales measuring anxiety and psychological functioning and stressful life events were significantly associated with FCR in adjusted and unadjusted models (p cancer experiences, children, social support and attitudes to childrearing were not associated with FCR. Among those with clinical levels of FCR (n = 152), 43% met screening criteria for hypochondriasis, and 36% met screening criteria for GAD. This study shows psychological morbidity is associated with FCR, but the majority of women with high levels of FCR do not also meet the criteria for a clinical level of GAD or hypochondriasis. Understanding the factors that make young women vulnerable to FCR is important to help guide the development of FCR-specific interventions for this subgroup. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  11. Increased neonatal morbidity despite pulmonary maturity for deliveries occurring before 39 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu Ming Victor; Guirguis, Peter; Borgida, Adam; Feldman, Deborah; Ingardia, Charles; Herson, Victor

    2013-01-01

    To compare neonatal outcomes following deliveries 39 weeks after confirmation of fetal lung maturity with scheduled deliveries ≥39 weeks. A retrospective cohort study examining neonatal outcomes of women who were delivered following documented fetal pulmonary maturity at 36, 37, and 38 weeks compared to women undergoing a scheduled delivery at 39, 40, and 41 weeks. The χ(2)-test and Student's t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous data, respectively. Delivery prior to 39 weeks following fetal pulmonary maturity was associated with a 8.4% composite neonatal morbidity rate as compared to 3.3% for deliveries at 39 weeks or greater (relative risk [RR] 2.9; confidence interval [CI] 2.4-3.6). Neonatal respiratory morbidity was significantly higher (5.4%) for those delivering at less than 39 weeks with documented fetal pulmonary maturity as compared to 2.1% for those delivering at 39 weeks or greater (RR 3.0; CI 2.3-3.9). Increased neonatal morbidity persisted for those delivered prior to 39 weeks even after excluding all diabetics (p 39 weeks regardless of the mode of delivery. Despite fetal pulmonary maturity, delivery before 39 weeks is associated with significantly increased neonatal morbidity when compared to scheduled deliveries at 39 weeks or greater.

  12. Serum osteoprotegerin levels and mammographic density among high-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Olivia; Zaman, Tasnim; Eisen, Andrea; Demsky, Rochelle; Blackmore, Kristina; Knight, Julia A; Elser, Christine; Ginsburg, Ophira; Zbuk, Kevin; Yaffe, Martin; Narod, Steven A; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a risk factor for breast cancer but the mechanism behind this association is unclear. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. Given the role of RANK signaling in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we hypothesized this pathway may also be associated with mammographic density. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, is known to inhibit RANK signaling. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate whether OPG levels modify breast cancer risk through mammographic density. We quantified serum OPG levels in 57 premenopausal and 43 postmenopausal women using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cumulus was used to measure percent density, dense area, and non-dense area for each mammographic image. Subjects were classified into high versus low OPG levels based on the median serum OPG level in the entire cohort (115.1 pg/mL). Multivariate models were used to assess the relationship between serum OPG levels and the measures of mammographic density. Serum OPG levels were not associated with mammographic density among premenopausal women (P ≥ 0.42). Among postmenopausal women, those with low serum OPG levels had higher mean percent mammographic density (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P = 0.04) and mean dense area (23.4 cm 2 vs. 15.2 cm 2 ; P = 0.02) compared to those with high serum OPG levels after covariate adjustment. These findings suggest that low OPG levels may be associated with high mammographic density, particularly in postmenopausal women. Targeting RANK signaling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for high-risk women with high mammographic density, especially those with low circulating OPG levels.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  14. Overweight as a Prognostic Factor for Triple-Negative Breast Cancers in Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Hao

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, but this association is not well established for women with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC. Here, we investigated the prognostic effects of body mass index (BMI on clinical outcomes in patients with TNBC.We identified 1106 patients with TNBC who met the inclusion criteria and were treated between January 2002 and June 2012. Clinical and biological features were collected to evaluate the relation between BMI and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS and overall survival (OS after controlling for other clinically significant variables.Of 1106 patients, 656 (59.3% were normal weight (BMI ≤24 and 450 patients (40.7% were overweight(BMI>24. Median follow-up time was 44.8 months. Breast cancer specific death was observed in 140 patients. After adjusting for clinicopathologic risk factors, overweight was associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.06, P =0.028 but not BCSS (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.90-2.01, P =0.15in all the patients with TNBC. When stratified with menopausal status, overweight was associated with BCSS and OS (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.11-4.63, P = 0.024 and HR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.21-3.87, P = 0.010, respectively in premenopausal women. BMI was not associated with BCSS or OS in postmenopausal women.Overweight is an independent prognostic factor of OS in all women with TNBC, and menopause status may be a mitigating factor. Among premenopausal women, overweight women are at a greater risk of poor prognosis than normal weight women. If validated, these findings should be considered in developing preventive programs.

  15. Minor ailments in pregnancy are not a minor concern for pregnant women: a morbidity assessment survey in rural Sri Lanka.

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    Suneth Buddhika Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although maternal mortality has become a major focus on global public health agenda, maternal morbidity is a neglected area of research. The purpose of this paper is to present the burden of acute maternal illness during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Pregnant women residing in the Anuradhapura district with a gestational age more than 24 weeks through 36 weeks were recruited to the study using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. All pregnant women who consented participated in a detailed interview using a structured questionnaire. Self reported episodes of acute illness during pregnancy were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were utilization of medical services and frequency of hospitalizations. RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP was experienced by 325 (69.7% of the 466 pregnant women studied. Other common symptoms were backache (152, 32.6%, dizziness (112, 24.0% and heartburn/regurgitation (107, 23.0%. Of the 421 pregnant women who reported ill health conditions 260 (61.8% women sought medical treatment for these illnesses. Total number of episodes that needed treatment seeking were 373. Hospitalizations were reported by 83 (17.8% pregnant women and the total number of hospitalizations was 109. The leading cause of hospitalization was NVP which accounted for 43.1% of total admissions and 49.1% of total days spent in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Minor maternal ill health conditions affecting day-to-day life have a major burden on pregnancy period. Evidence based management guidelines and health promotion strategies are needed to control and prevent these conditions, in order to provide comprehensive, good quality maternal health care.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Flibanserin for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Loes; Feys, Frederik; Bramer, Wichor M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leusink, Peter; Laan, Ellen T. M.

    2016-01-01

    In August 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved flibanserin as a treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women, despite concern about suboptimal risk-benefit trade-offs. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

  17. Association between allergies, asthma, and breast cancer risk among women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowcock, Elizabeth C; Cotterchio, Michelle; Ahmad, Noor

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the association between allergies, asthma, and breast cancer risk in a large, population-based case-control study. Breast cancer cases (n = 3,101) were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and population controls (n = 3,471) through random digit dialing. Self-reported histories of allergies, hay fever, and asthma were collected by questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between breast cancer risk and history of allergy/hay fever and asthma, with 16 possible confounders examined. Analyses were stratified by menopausal status. A history of allergies or hay fever was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer risk [age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.86, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.96] and did not differ by menopausal status. Asthma was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; however, among premenopausal women, asthma was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (AOR = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.54-0.97). A history of allergies may be associated with a modest reduction in breast cancer risk. Asthma does not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk overall; however, asthma may be associated with reduced breast cancer risk among premenopausal women.

  18. Analysis of ante-partum maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nitai; Islam, M Ataharul; Chowdhury, Rafiqul Islam; Bari, Wasimul

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a prospective study of maternal morbidity during the ante-partum period in rural areas of Bangladesh. The data came from a survey of Maternal Morbidity in Bangladesh, conducted by the Bangladesh Institute of Research for Promotion of Essential and Reproductive Health and Technologies (BIRPERHT) during the period from November 1992 to December 1993. Since then no such national level survey has been conducted in Bangladesh. This paper employs multiple-decrement life table technique, a convenient way of analysing the risks of different types of disease conditions that women experience during the antenatal period for different age categories. The high-risk complications such as ante-partum haemorrhage, excessive vomiting, fits/convulsion and oedema were considered in this study. In this study a cause specific model was applied to explore the differences in the risks exerted at different ages of reproductive life attributable to some selected complications of pregnancy. The results of this study indicate that women of age 25-29 years are less susceptible to most of the selected life-threatening and high-risk complications during pregnancy such as haemorrhage, fits/convulsion and oedema. However, younger women (age or = 30 years) are at greater risk of haemorrhage, fits/convulsion and oedema.

  19. Latent class joint model of ovarian function suppression and DFS for premenopausal breast cancer patients.

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    Zhang, Jenny J; Wang, Molin

    2010-09-30

    Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women of reproductive age; more than a quarter of women diagnosed with breast cancer in the US are premenopausal. A common adjuvant treatment for this patient population is chemotherapy, which has been shown to cause premature menopause and infertility with serious consequences to quality of life. Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists, which induce temporary ovarian function suppression (OFS), has been shown to be a useful alternative to chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer patients. LHRH agonists have the potential to preserve fertility after treatment, thus, reducing the negative effects on a patient's reproductive health. However, little is known about the association between a patient's underlying degree of OFS and disease-free survival (DFS) after receiving LHRH agonists. Specifically, we are interested in whether patients with lower underlying degrees of OFS (i.e. higher estrogen production) after taking LHRH agonists are at a higher risk for late breast cancer events. In this paper, we propose a latent class joint model (LCJM) to analyze a data set from International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trial VIII to investigate the association between OFS and DFS. Analysis of this data set is challenging due to the fact that the main outcome of interest, OFS, is unobservable and the available surrogates for this latent variable involve masked event and cured proportions. We employ a likelihood approach and the EM algorithm to obtain parameter estimates and present results from the IBCSG data analysis.

  20. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Interprofessional Management Strategies for the Intrapartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Troiano, Nan H; Kennedy, Margaret Betsy Babb

    "Morbidly adherent placenta" is a term that describes the continuum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. The incidence of this type of abnormal placentation has increased significantly over recent decades. The reason is probably multifactorial but, partly, because of factors such as the increasing number of cesarean births. Women at greatest risk are those who have myometrial damage caused by a previous cesarean birth, with either anterior or posterior placenta previa overlying the uterine scar. This condition poses significant risks of morbidity and/or mortality to the pregnant woman and her fetus. A multidisciplinary approach to care throughout pregnancy is essential. This article describes the classification of morbidly adherent placenta, risk factors, methods of diagnosis, potential maternal and fetal complications, and intrapartum clinical management strategies to optimize outcomes.

  1. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Gemma Aragonès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3 in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18, simple steatosis (SS, n = 20, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17. Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  2. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  3. Association between bone turnover, micronutrient intake, and blood lead levels in pre- and postmenopausal women, NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leila W; Cromer, Barbara A; Panneerselvamm, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Blood lead levels (BLLs) have been shown to increase during periods of high bone turnover such as pregnancy and menopause. We examined the associations between bone turnover and micronutrient intake with BLLs in women 20-85 years of age (n = 2,671) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively. Lead was quantified in whole blood. The association between tertiles of BAP and NTx, and BLLs was examined using linear regression with natural log transformed BLLs as the dependent variable and interpreted as the percent difference in geometric mean BLLs. In adjusted analyses, mean BLLs among postmenopausal women in the upper tertiles of NTx and BAP were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 23%-45%] and 30% (95% CI, 17%-43%) higher than BLLs among women in the lowest tertiles of NTx and BAP, respectively. These associations were weaker, but remained statistically significant, among premenopausal women (NTx: 10%; 95% CI, 0.60%-19%; BAP: 14%; 95% CI, 6%-22%). Within tertiles of NTx and BAP, calcium intake above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), compared with below the DRI, was associated with lower mean BLLs among postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women, although most of the associations were not statistically significant. We observed similar associations for vitamin D supplement use. Bone resorption and bone formation were associated with a significant increase in BLLs among pre- and postmenopausal women.

  4. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de Los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo Y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35-55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  5. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in