WorldWideScience

Sample records for premature neonatal rats

  1. Hypoxia reoxygenation induces premature senescence in neonatal SD rat cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-xiang ZHANG; Ming-long CHEN; Qi-jun SHAN; Jian-gang ZOU; Chun CHEN; Bing YANG; Dong-jie XU; Yu JIN; Ke-jiang CAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether hypoxia reoxygenation induces premature senes-cence in neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Cardio-myocytes were isolated from neonatal SD rat heart and identified by immunohisto-chemistry. The control cultures were incubated at 37 ℃ in a humidified atmo-sphere of 5% CO and 95% air. The hypoxic cultures were incubated in a modular incubator chamber filled with 1% O2, 5% CO2, and balance N2 for 6 h. The reoxygen-ated cultures were subjected to 1% O2 and 5% CO2 for 6 h, then 21% oxygen for 4,8, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Cell proliferation was determined using bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. The ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes was observed by using an electron microscope. Β-Galactosidase activity was determined by using a senescence β-galactosidase Staining Kit. P16INK4a and telomerase reverse tran-scriptase (TERT) mRNA levels were measured by real time quantitative PCR. TERT protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Telomerase activi-ties were assayed by using the Telo TAGGG Telomerase PCR ELISApplus kit. Results:The initial cultures consisted of pure cardiomyocytes identified by immunohisto-chemistry. The proportion of BrdU positive cells was reduced significantly in the hypoxia reoxygenation-treated group (P<0.01). Under the condition of hypoxia reoxygenation, mitochondrial dehydration appeared; p16'INK4a and TERT mRNA levels, β-galactosidase activity, TERT protein expression and telomerase activi-ties were all significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: These data indicate that premature senescence could be induced in neonatal SD rat cardiomyo-cytes exposed to hypoxia reoxygenation. Although TERT significantly increased,it could not block senescence.

  2. [Effect of premature birth on retinal vascular development in the neonatal rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang-min; Li, Rong; Wang, Yu-sheng; Chu, Zhao-jie; Gao, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    To study the effects of premature birth on the development of rat retinal vasculature. Experimental study. Sixty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm group (LPS group), RU-486 induced preterm group (RP group), cesarean section induced preterm group (CP group), and the normal delivery rats as the control group. The weight of rats from each group was recorded until postnatal day 21. On postnatal day 4, 7, 10 and 14 (P4, P7, P10 and P14), the retina of right eye was dissected and whole-mounted. Each premature group was divided into two subgroups based on the number of rats in each litter, the small subgroup (6-8 rats per litter, group 1) and the large subgroup (14-18 rats per litter, group 2). The development of retinal vascularization process was observed on P4, P7 and P10 (n = 6).Independent t test, one-way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used to analyzed the results. The weight of premature rats in LPS, CP and RP groups was significantly lower than that in the normal group within postnatal 21 days (LSD-t test: all P premature rats have lower weight and much slower rate of early retinal vascularization, as compared with the normal rats. Furthermore, in the premature rats, the proportion of retinal vascularization in larger litters is less than that in smaller litters. These results indicate that premature birth and larger litter size have effects on the development of rat retinal vasculature.

  3. Identification of Retinopathy of Prematurity Related miRNAs in Hyperoxia-Induced Neonatal Rats by Deep Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibin Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains a major problem for many preterm infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and have been studied in many diseases. To understand the roles of miRNAs in ROP model rats, we constructed two small RNA libraries from the plasma of hyperoxia-induced rats and normal controls. Sequencing data revealed that 44 down-regulated microRNAs and 22 up-regulated microRNAs from the hyperoxia-induced rats were identified by deep sequencing technology. Some of the differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR. A total of 594 target genes of the differentially expressed microRNAs were identified using a bioinformatics approach. Functional annotation analysis indicated that a number of pathways might be involved in angiogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation, which might be involved in the genesis and development of ROP. The elevated expression level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF protein in the hyperoxia-induced neonatal rats was also confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. This study provides some insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie ROP development, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  4. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in a Premature Neonate Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of JMML that mimicked neonatal sepsis. Three weeks after birth, JMML was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of JMML presenting in a premature infant in Taiwan.

  5. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  6. Mechanical ventilation of the premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa K; DiBlasi, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Although the trend in the neonatal intensive care unit is to use noninvasive ventilation whenever possible, invasive ventilation is still often necessary for supporting pre-term neonates with lung disease. Many different ventilation modes and ventilation strategies are available to assist with the optimization of mechanical ventilation and prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury. Patient-triggered ventilation is favored over machine-triggered forms of invasive ventilation for improving gas exchange and patient-ventilator interaction. However, no studies have shown that patient-triggered ventilation improves mortality or morbidity in premature neonates. A promising new form of patient-triggered ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), was recently FDA approved for invasive and noninvasive ventilation. Clinical trials are underway to evaluate outcomes in neonates who receive NAVA. New evidence suggests that volume-targeted ventilation modes (ie, volume control or pressure control with adaptive targeting) may provide better lung protection than traditional pressure control modes. Several volume-targeted modes that provide accurate tidal volume delivery in the face of a large endotracheal tube leak were recently introduced to the clinical setting. There is ongoing debate about whether neonates should be managed invasively with high-frequency ventilation or conventional ventilation at birth. The majority of clinical trials performed to date have compared high-frequency ventilation to pressure control modes. Future trials with premature neonates should compare high-frequency ventilation to conventional ventilation with volume-targeted modes. Over the last decade many new promising approaches to lung-protective ventilation have evolved. The key to protecting the neonatal lung during mechanical ventilation is optimizing lung volume and limiting excessive lung expansion, by applying appropriate PEEP and using shorter inspiratory time, smaller tidal

  7. Delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempf, Joseph W; Tomlinson, Mark W; Kaempf, Andrew J; Wu, YingXing; Wang, Lian; Tipping, Nicole; Grunkemeier, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Delayed umbilical cord clamping is reported to increase neonatal blood volume. We estimated the clinical outcomes in premature neonates who had delayed umbilical cord clamping compared with a similar group who had early umbilical cord clamping. This was a before-after investigation comparing early umbilical cord clamping with delayed umbilical cord clamping (45 seconds) in two groups of singleton neonates, very low birth weight (VLBW) (401-1,500 g) and low birth weight (LBW) (greater than 1,500 g but less than 35 weeks gestation). Neonates were excluded from delayed umbilical cord clamping if they needed immediate major resuscitation. Primary outcomes were provision of delivery room resuscitation, hematocrit, red cell transfusions, and the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes. In VLBW neonates (77 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 1,099±266 g; 77 early umbilical cord clamping 1,058±289 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with less delivery room resuscitation, higher Apgar scores at 1 minute, and higher hematocrit. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was not associated with significant differences in the overall transfusion rate, peak bilirubin, any of the principle Vermont Oxford Network outcomes, or mortality. In LBW neonates (172 delayed umbilical cord clamping, birth weight [mean±standard deviation] 2,159±384 g; 172 early umbilical cord clamping 2,203±447 g), delayed umbilical cord clamping was associated with higher hematocrit and was not associated with a change in delivery room resuscitation or Apgar scores or with changes in the transfusion rate or peak bilirubin. Regression analysis showed increasing gestational age and birth weight and delayed umbilical cord clamping were the best predictors of higher hematocrit and less delivery room resuscitation. Delayed umbilical cord clamping can safely be performed in singleton premature neonates and is associated with a higher hematocrit, less delivery room

  8. NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  9. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  10. Gastric Pneumatosis in a Premature Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Joseph Ting

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric pneumatosis is extremely rare during infancy. It has been reported in association with necrotizing enterocolitis or congenital abnormalities such as pyloric stenosis. Here, we report a case of gastric pneumatosis in a premature neonate on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No pneumatosis was noted in the rest of the bowel or esophagus. There could have been mild damage in the gastric mucosa, either related to the placement of the feeding tube or secondary to the use of indomethacin or both. The condition was further aggravated by noninvasive ventilation. An increase in intragastric pressure resulted in the submucosal dissection of air followed by the development of gastric pneumatosis. Conservative management strategies, including the use of a nasogastric tube for decompression and the withholding of feeding, successfully managed the gastric pneumatosis in our patient. An uneventful recovery was made after conservative management. Prompt recognition and evaluation of this condition were essential for making the diagnosis.

  11. Mothers’ Experiences with Premature Neonates about Kangaroo Care: Qualitative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Salimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Premature neonates admitted in NICU besides being separated from their mothers are prone to inevitably painful and stressful situations. Kangaroo care is the most effective method to get rid of this separation and its negative consequences. This study was performed to determine the experiences of mothers having premature neonates concerning Kangaroo care.   Material and Methods: The present study is a qualitative research in which focus group discussion method is used for data collection. Research society consisted of mothers having premature neonates Research group reread and categorized the qualitative findings. Contents of interviews were analyzed using the conventional interpretation approach introduced by Dicklman Method.   Results: Through content analysis of information emerged two major categories including mothers’ experiences about advantages of kangaroo care in interaction with neonate, and, feeling of physical-mental healthiness of neonate. Executive obstacles of kangaroo care from mothers’ standpoint were also discussed, which will be subsequently presented.   Discussion: According to the obtained results, it seems vital to highlight kangaroo care as a safe and effective clinical care-taking treatment in nursery of premature neonates in all hospitals. Nurses shall provide all mothers with the needed instructions for holding the premature and lower-weight neonate properly on their chests and shall promote their knowledge level concerning positive effects of kangaroo care including induction of tranquil sleep, optimization of physiological conditions of neonate, and removal of suckling obstacles.

  12. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  13. Evaluation of Radiation Dose Received by Premature Neonates Admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Mohmmadreza; Zanganeh, Kobra Aria; Dehdashtian, Masoud; Malekian, Arash; Fatahiasl, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the radiation dose received by premature neonates using diagnostic radiographies. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 116 premature neonates with gestational age from 25 to 37 weeks; with the diagnosis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) and tachypnea, they were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2015. For assessing the dose received, the model GR-200 thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) was used. For each premature neonate under radiation, three TLDs separately (one for each) were placed on surfaces of Ch1, T1, and G1 (chest, thyroid, and gonad of first newborn, respectively). Moreover, for the adjacent neonate at a distance of 60 - 100 cm, two TLDs were laid in the surfaces of T2 and G2 (thyroid and gonad of second newborn, respectively). The dose received by TLDs for any baby and the adjacent neonate under the entrance surface dose (ESD) was estimated. Results The mean of neonates’ weight under study was 1,950.78 ± 484.9 g. During the hospitalization period, minimum one and maximum three radiographies were done for any premature neonate. The doses received in the premature neonates to Ch1, T1 and G1 were 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.01, and 0.05 ± 0.01 mSv, respectively and for adjacent infants for T2 and G2 were 0.003 ± 0.001 and 0.002 ± 0.0009 mSv, respectively. Conclusions In the study, radiation dose received by organs at risk of premature neonates was lower than the international criteria and standards, therefore, also due to the lack of radiation damage threshold, to limit collimator, and the use of the proper filtration, kilovoltage and time during radiography of premature neonates are recommended. PMID:28090228

  14. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  15. [Nontraumatic chylopericardium and chylothorax in premature neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrel'kina, E A; Ignat'eva, E N; Fediarova, M A; Pliukhin, S V

    2014-01-01

    Deaths of extremely premature babies undiagnosed as having spontaneous chylopericardium (CP) and chylothorax (CT) are analyzed. The specific features of these death cases are the polyetiology of CP/CT and the similarity of their pathogenesis in the absence of specific clinical symptomatology.

  16. Prematurity and Programming Contribution of neonatal (NICU) interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, Satish C; Wilson-Costello, Dee

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include (1) Intrauterine growth restriction (2) Interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species injury (3) Nutritional and pharmacological protocols for Clinical care (4) Nutritional care in the first two years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by effecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy. PMID:25054678

  17. Prematurity and programming: contribution of neonatal Intensive Care Unit interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhan, S C; Wilson-Costello, D

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow-up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include: (1) intrauterine growth restriction; (2) interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury; (3) nutritional and pharmacological protocols for clinical care; and (4) nutritional care in the first 2 years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by affecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy.

  18. The interplay between drugs and the kidney in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Bueters, Ruud R G; Allegaert, Karel

    2014-11-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the clearance of drugs. However, renal drug handling entails more than glomerular filtration and includes tubular excretion and reabsorption, and intracellular metabolization by cellular enzyme systems, such as the Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. All these processes show maturation from birth onwards, which is one of the reasons why drug dosing in children is not simply similar to dosing in small adults. As kidney development normally finishes around the 36th week of gestation, being born prematurely will result in even more immature renal drug handling. Environmental effects, such as extra-uterine growth restriction, sepsis, asphyxia, or drug treatments like caffeine, aminoglycosides, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may further hamper drug handling in the kidney. Dosing in preterm neonates is therefore dependent on many factors that need to be taken into account. Drug treatment may significantly hamper postnatal kidney development in preterm neonates, just like renal immaturity has an impact on drug handling. The restricted kidney development results in a lower number of nephrons that may have several long-term sequelae, such as hypertension, albuminuria, and renal failure. This review focuses on the interplay between drugs and the kidney in premature neonates.

  19. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation.

  20. MRI for premature neonatal brain injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    This case report aims to extend analytical thinking and clinical reasoning of clinicians and radiographers when presented with diagnosing premature neonatal brain injuries (PNBI). The report considers the uses and merit of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the primary assessment of PNBI. The traditional technique of cranial ultrasound as the first modality of choice can have several limitations, which includes a lower temporal resolution in its ability to differentiate grey-white matter distribution patterns, lower spatial resolution in its ability to accurately map white matter fibre tracts and distribution patterns which are critical in white matter injury pathological events. In this specific case report, MRI was useful for the assessment of haemorrhagic brain injury post partum.Therefore, should MRI be considered, the primary imaging modality in these cases when the concerns about PNBI is presented? This case study explores the current trends in MRI neonatal brain imaging and advancements being made in this field. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  1. "Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity among 150 premature neonates in Farabi eye hospital "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Riazi Esfahani M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of retinopathy of permaturity (ROP and to evaluate possible neonatal risk factors for ROP. The main study was a cross-sectional study including 150 high-risk neonates born at teaching hospitals of Tehran universities referring to to Farabi Eye Hospital. The chossing critertia were birth weight less than 2500 g or gestational age younger than 37 weeks. ROP was present in 9(6% newborns, all of whom aged less than 32 weeks a birth. There was also strong association between ROP and birth weight, oxygen administration, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. There also seems to be a higher risk for developing ROP in female neoates, those who were born by multiple gestaional pregnancies or were treated by phototherapy or transfusion and those who had suffered from bronchopulmonary dysplasia or seiss.Prematurity per se remains the strongest risk factof for ROP. Suitable criteria for screening of ROP seems to be gestational age younger than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g

  2. The perception of partnership between parents of premature infants and nurses in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Larsen, Palle; Weis, Janne

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify how parents of premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and nurses perceive their partnership.The review questions are: how do parents of premature infants and nurses perceive their partnership during hospita...

  3. PREMATURITY, NEONATAL HEALTH STATUS, AND LATER CHILD BEHAVIORAL/EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Neonatal nurses' response to a hypothetical premature birth situation: What if it was my baby?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Janet; Darbyshire, Philip; Adams, Anne; Jackson, Debra

    2016-12-09

    Evolving technology and scientific advancement have increased the chances of survival of the extremely premature baby; however, such survival can be associated with some severe long-term morbidities. The research investigates the caregiving and ethical dilemmas faced by neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies (defined as ≤24 weeks' gestation). This article explores the issues arising for neonatal nurses when they considered the philosophical question of 'what if it was me and my baby', or what they believed they would do in the hypothetical situation of going into premature labour and delivering an extremely premature baby. Data were collected via a questionnaire to Australian neonatal nurses and semi-structured interviews with 24 neonatal nurses in New South Wales, Australia. Relevant ethical approvals have been obtained by the researchers. A qualitative approach was used to analyse the data. The theme 'imagined futures' was generated which comprised three sub-themes: 'choice is important', 'not subjecting their own baby to treatment' and 'nurses and outcome predictions'. The results offer an important and unique understanding into the perceptions of nursing staff who care for extremely premature babies and their family, see them go home and witness their evolving outcomes. The results show that previous clinical and personal experiences led the nurses in the study to choose to have the belief that if in a similar situation, they would choose not to have their own baby resuscitated and subjected to the very treatment that they provide to other babies. The theme 'imagined futures' offers an overall understanding of how neonatal nurses imagine what the life of the extremely premature baby and his or her family will be like after discharge from neonatal intensive care. The nurses' past experience has led them to believe that they would not want this life for themselves and their baby, if they were to deliver at 24 weeks' gestation or less. © The

  5. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma in a premature neonate: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) although a rare tumor is the most common neonatal ... neonate with respiratory distress and multi‑cystic dysplastic kidneys was made. .... reported to share cytogenetic features with IFS. Both are ... of IFS, cellular CMN and mixed type had both abnormalities while in the case of ...

  6. Maternal psychological impact of medical information in the neonatal period after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophie, Denizot; Le Quen, Valérie; Bureau, Valérie; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Bréart, Gérard; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2009-12-01

    The mothers of premature infant born 7 years ago were interviewed regarding memory of neonatal hospitalization during a 40-minute phone interview using a questionnaire exploring emotional feeling and satisfaction. The memory of a high emotional feeling was significantly associated with cranial ultrasound abnormalities in neonatal period, but not outcome. Dissatisfaction was reduced by antenatal maternal hospitalization. We speculate that medical information gathered during perinatal hospitalization explains these relationships.

  7. Score for neonatal acute physiology-II and neonatal pain predict corticospinal tract development in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jill G; Grunau, Ruth E; Adams, Elysia; Chau, Vann; Brant, Rollin; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne; Miller, Steven P

    2013-02-01

    Premature infants are at risk for adverse motor outcomes, including cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for abnormal development of the corticospinal tract, the major voluntary motor pathway, during the neonatal period. In a prospective cohort study, 126 premature neonates (24-32 weeks' gestational age) underwent serial brain imaging near birth and at term-equivalent age. With diffusion tensor tractography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract were measured to reflect microstructural development. Generalized estimating equation models examined associations of risk factors on corticospinal tract development. The perinatal risk factor of greater early illness severity (as measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II [SNAP-II]) was associated with a slower rise in fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract (P = 0.02), even after correcting for gestational age at birth and postnatal risk factors (P = 0.009). Consistent with previous findings, neonatal pain adjusted for morphine and postnatal infection were also associated with a slower rise in fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Lessening illness severity in the first hours of life might offer potential to improve motor pathway development in premature newborns.

  8. The relationship between mental health and spiritual intelligence of parents of hospitalized premature neonates in the NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Naghmeh Razaghi; Akram Gazerani; Tahereh Sadeghi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between mental health and spiritual intelligence of parents of the premature neonates that are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Materials and methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study included 152 fathers and mothers of premature neonates. A questionnaire was delivered containing demographic data and Goldberg’s Assessment of Mental Health. A score of 23 or higher suggested the presence of mental disorders and scores lower than...

  9. Retrospective study shows that doxapram therapy avoided the need for endotracheal intubation in most premature neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flint, R.B.; Halbmeijer, N.; Meesters, N.; Rosmalen, J. van; Reiss, I.; Dijk, M.; Simons, S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Using doxapram to treat neonates with apnoea of prematurity might avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. We studied whether doxapram prevented the need for intubation and identified the predictors of the success. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of preterm

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoss, A.E.; Ponhold, W.; Pollak, A.; Schlemmer, M.; Weninger, M.

    1985-09-01

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries.

  11. The Effect of Mother Empowerment Program on Mothers’ Attachment to their Hospitalized Premature Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Karbandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth of a premature neonate is associated with hospital admission and separation from the family. Admission of the neonates intervenes on infant-mother attachment and so adversely affects on the quality of care given by the mother, and subsequently increases the risk of delayed behavioral problems in the children. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of mother empowerment program on the premature infant-mother attachment. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 70 mothers of premature infants, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Omolbanin hospital of Mashhad in 2014, were divided into of intervention and control groups. The Empowerment program was a multi-step treatment program, in which information about the premature infants was provided to mothers through an illustrated booklet with a workbook and audio file in each step. Mothers in the control group received information and routine care according to the hospital guideline. The mother-infant attachment was measured after the intervention using the maternal and neonatal behaviors Avant tool. Data analysis was performed using chi-square and t-student tests by SPSS software version 11.5. Results:The mean scores of maternal attachment behaviors after the intervention in the empowerment and control groups were (56.62±8.06 and (39.51±7.77, respectively; the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P

  12. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  13. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  14. Sociocultural dimension of parents of premature infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Vanessa Nazareth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing the social and cultural dimensions of parents of premature infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units. It is a qualitative and descriptive study, based on ethno-nursing and in the Theory of Diversity and Universality Cultural Care with 12 participants. The setting was a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Data collection occurred between November, 2012 and April, 2013, through a social economic and cultural questionnaire and from the observation, participation and reflection. The analysis based on ethno-nursing and on the use of Atlas-ti software allowed to find the analytical category: the sociocultural structure of parents of premature infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit. Results should be used to promote a culturally relevant care and respecting the popular knowledge of parents while taking care of the children discharged from neonatal intensive care units.

  15. PREVALENCE OF FACTORS INVOLVED IN INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE OF PREMATURE NEONATES LESS THAN 34 WEEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemorrhage is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is the most severe cranial problem in that period. Those who survive would be affected by hydrocephalus, encephalomalacia, and finally brain atrophy. With accurate knowledge of risk factors, hemorrhage may be diagnosed earlier and the complications managed earlier. This study was performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital. All the neonates less than 34 weeks of gestation were undergone intracranial sonography from Feb 2005 to Feb 2006. Sonography was performed via anterior fontanel with proper probe according to neonatal age. 113 neonates less than 34 weeks of gestation have been studied. Mean gestational age was 32 weeks. Mean neonatal weight were 1566 ± 734 grams. Intracranial hemorrhage was evident in 21% of them; 16.8% was grade 1, 0.9% grade 2, 2.7% grade 3, 0.9% grade 4. The mean weight of neonates with hemorrhage was 1504.11 grams. Intracranial hemorrhage had correlation with respiratory acidosis and pneumothorax. The latter was also correlated with hemorrhage grade. Supposing the safety and non-invasiveness of intacranial sonography, we suggest performing sonography in all premature neonates with low birth weight, and also in those neonates with pneumothorax and respiratory acidosis.

  16. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment...

  17. Functional ontogeny of the proglucagon-derived peptide axis in the premature human neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Harish; Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    assimilation, intestinal growth, and function. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the production of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 in premature human infants and examine the effects of prematurity and feeding on hormone release. PATIENTS AND METHODS: With informed consent, premature infants who were...... levels of both glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 were elevated. There was no correlation between gestational age and glucagon-like peptide 2 output. However, both glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 levels were correlated with the caloric value of feeds. CONCLUSIONS: The premature human neonate has significantly...... higher fasting levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 compared with adults; feeding increases these levels further. These findings suggest that the proglucagon-derived peptides may have a role in normal intestinal development and nutrient handling....

  18. Nurses' expectations of using music for premature infants in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne; Laukkala, Helena

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to describe nurses' expectations of using music for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to find out about the related background factors. The subjects consisted of 210 Finnish nurses who were recruited from the country's five university hospitals providing premature infant care in NICU. The data were collected by validated questionnaire, and the response rate was 82%. Most nurses preferred recorded music to live music in the NICU. They expected that music would have positive effects on premature infants, parents, and staff. Few demographic and many background factors of the respondents' music-related experiences correlated significantly with the expectations concerning their preference. In conclusion, the nurses' expectations were positive regarding the use of music in the NICU, which supports evidence regarding the efficacy of music therapy for premature infants.

  19. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  20. Prolonged latency of preterm premature rupture of membranes and risk of neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drassinower, Daphnie; Friedman, Alexander M; Običan, Sarah G; Levin, Heather; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is associated with inflammation and infection, and it may involve the loss of a barrier to ascending infection from the vagina, and it is possible that prolonged PPROM could be an independent risk factor for neonatal sepsis. The objective of the study was to determine whether prolonged latency after PPROM is associated with an increased risk of neonatal sepsis. This secondary analysis of the randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy evaluated whether the time interval between diagnosis of PPROM and delivery was associated with an increased risk of neonatal sepsis. Latency time was categorized by weeks of latency (0 weeks to ≥ 4 weeks). The primary outcome was confirmed neonatal sepsis. Logistic regression was used to control for confounders. A total of 1596 patients with PPROM were analyzed, of whom 1390 had a neonatal sepsis occurred in 15.5% of patients in the cohort. In the univariate analysis, patients in the prolonged PPROM group were less likely to have neonatal sepsis (6.8% vs 17.2%, relative risk, 0.40 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.66). This relationship was retained in the multivariable model; patients with prolonged PPROM ≥ 4 weeks had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.41) for neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis was also significantly associated with earlier gestational age at rupture of membranes. Prolonged exposure to an intrauterine environment of PPROM does not increase the risk of neonatal sepsis; prolonged PPROM ≥ 4 weeks was associated with decreased risk of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord.

  2. A Fatal Case of Congenital Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Disseminated Cutaneous Lesions in a Premature Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Inoue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The outcome of neonates with congenital cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is variable. Observations. We report a case of LCH in a female premature neonate born at 33-week gestation. She had disseminated cutaneous lesions, which consisted of hemorrhagic papules and vesicles, with sparse healthy skin areas, and the hands and feet were contracted with scarring and blackened. She was in respiratory failure although no apparent pulmonary or bone lesions on X-rays were noted. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH due to observation of CD1a+ Langerhans cells, which lacked expression of E-cadherin and CD56. The patient died 57 hours after birth. Conclusions. Based on this case and the literature survey, the outcome of premature babies with congenital cutaneous LCH lesions is noted to be unfavorable, with the majority of such cases suffering from multisystem disease.

  3. Brain injury in premature neonates: A primary cerebral dysmaturation disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Stephen A; Miller, Steven P

    2014-04-01

    With advances in neonatal care, preterm neonates are surviving with an evolving constellation of motor and cognitive disabilities that appear to be related to widespread cellular maturational disturbances that target cerebral gray and white matter. Whereas preterm infants were previously at high risk for destructive brain lesions that resulted in cystic white matter injury and secondary cortical and subcortical gray matter degeneration, contemporary cohorts of preterm survivors commonly display less severe injury that does not appear to involve pronounced glial or neuronal loss. Nevertheless, these milder forms of injury are also associated with reduced cerebral growth. Recent human and experimental studies support that impaired cerebral growth is related to disparate responses in gray and white matter. Myelination disturbances in cerebral white matter are related to aberrant regeneration and repair responses to acute death of premyelinating late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs). In response to preOL death, early oligodendrocyte progenitors rapidly proliferate and differentiate, but the regenerated preOLs fail to normally mature to myelinating cells required for white matter growth. Although immature neurons appear to be more resistant to cell death from hypoxia-ischemia than glia, they display widespread disturbances in maturation of their dendritic arbors, which further contribute to impaired cerebral growth. These complex and disparate responses of neurons and preOLs thus result in large numbers of cells that fail to fully mature during a critical window in development of neural circuitry. These recently recognized forms of cerebral gray and white matter dysmaturation raise new diagnostic challenges and suggest new therapeutic directions centered on reversal of the processes that promote dysmaturation.

  4. Placental Inflammatory Changes and Bacterial Infection in Premature Neonates with Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal a relationship of placental inflammatory changes to bacterial infection in premature neonates with respiratory failure. Material and methods. Bronchoalveolar aspirate was bacteriologically studied in 157 premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS; the total and differential leukocyte counts were measured in their peripheral blood. The levels of the cytokines IL-1^3, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were studied in different biological fluids of mothers and their babies; the placentas were also morphologically examined. Results. An analysis of bacterial cultures from the tracheobronchial tree revealed no growth of bacterial microflora in 61.8% of cases, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated in 6.4 and 8.3% of the infants, respectively; Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Enterobacter agglomerans, and hemolytic group A Streptococcus were seen in 1.9% each; moreover, 1.3% of the newborn infants were found to have Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. Other microorganisms and a microbial association were encountered in 8.9% of cases. Placental morphological examination revealed different inflammatory changes concurrent with chronic and acute placental insufficiency. The investigation demonstrated that the maternal peripheral plasma levels of IL-1^, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-a were within the physiological range at the end of the first period of delivery. The amniotic fluid displayed elevated IL-6 and TNF-a concentrations and normal IL-4 and IL-1e levels, suggesting that there was an intrauterine inflammatory process. Conclusion. Premature birth is associated with various placental inflammatory changes, which causes intrauterine stimulation of macrophages in the chorionic villi. Specific immune defense mechanisms that prevent the development of a fetal infectious process, i.e. the maternal infectious process, may induce

  5. Reduced Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Integrity Links Neonatal Complications and Adult Cognitive Deficits After Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Michel J; Scheef, Lukas; Bäuml, Josef; Meng, Chun; Daamen, Marcel; Baumann, Nicole; Zimmer, Claus; Teipel, Stefan; Bartmann, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Prematurely born individuals have an increased risk for long-term neurocognitive impairments. In animal models, development of the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) is selectively vulnerable to adverse effects of perinatal stressors, and impaired cBF integrity results in lasting cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that cBF integrity is impaired in prematurely born individuals and mediates adult cognitive impairments associated with prematurity. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric assessments of a cytoarchitectonically defined cBF region of interest to determine differences in cBF integrity between 99 adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight and 106 term-born control subjects from the same birth cohort. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived cBF volumes were studied in relation to neonatal clinical complications after delivery and intelligence measures (IQ) in adulthood. In adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight, cBF volumes were significantly reduced compared with term-born adults (-4.5% [F1,202 = 11.82, p = .001]). Lower cBF volume in adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight was specifically associated with both neonatal complications (rpart,92 = -.35, p premature birth and links neonatal complications with long-term cognitive outcome. Data suggest that cholinergic system abnormalities may play a relevant role for long-term neurocognitive impairments associated with premature delivery. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Glycerin Suppositories During Phototherapy in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-O'Hara, Meggan; Reininger, Ann; Wang, Hongyue; Amin, Sanjiv B; Rodgers, Nathan J; D'Angio, Carl T

    To determine if glycerin suppositories were effective in reducing total duration of phototherapy in premature neonates. We hypothesized that glycerin suppositories would have no effect on phototherapy duration or total serum bilirubin levels. Prospective randomized controlled double-blinded trial. Level IV NICU. Neonates born between 30 weeks, 0 days and 34 weeks, 6 days gestational age who developed physiologic hyperbilirubinemia needing phototherapy. Neonates were randomized to the no-suppository group or to the suppository group. Neonates were randomized to receive glycerin suppositories every 8 hours while under phototherapy or to a sham group. The primary outcome was total hours of phototherapy. Secondary outcomes included peak total serum bilirubin levels, time from start to discontinuation of phototherapy, rate of decline in bilirubin levels, repeat episodes of phototherapy, and number of stools while the neonates received phototherapy. A total of 39 neonates were assigned to the no-suppository group and 40 to the suppository group. Withholding suppositories was not inferior to providing suppositories. The total hours of phototherapy were not longer (i.e., noninferior) among neonates not provided suppositories (61 ± 53 hours) than among those given suppositories (72 ± 49 hours). There were no differences in peak bilirubin levels, rate of bilirubin decline, or repeat episodes of phototherapy. Routine use of glycerin suppositories among preterm neonates who receive phototherapy does not affect bilirubin levels or phototherapy duration. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pigtail Catheters Versus Traditional Chest Tubes for Pneumothoraces in Premature Infants Treated in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Wei

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Pigtail catheters are a safe and effective alternative to traditional chest tubes for premature infants receiving treatment for pneumothoraces in a neonatal intensive care unit. Placement of pigtail catheters is an easy and quick bedside procedure and is particularly useful for premature infants who require immediate air drainage.

  8. Early neonatal hyperkalaemia in the extremely premature newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, G I; Carman, G; Arnold, J D

    1990-02-01

    The incidence of hyperkalaemia in 43 consecutive infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation and cared for in our neonatal intensive care unit was documented. Plasma K levels were related to indices of renal function as well as to the degree of illness in the infants. The mean gestational age was 26.0 weeks (range 24-27 weeks) and the mean birthweight was 815 g (range 395-1170 g). Twenty-six of the infants (60%) had at least one plasma K greater than 5.5 mmol/L and 13 (30%) had a maximum plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L. The mean postnatal age at which the plasma K exceeded 7 mmol/L was 25 h (range 10-39 h). Five infants with plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L developed cardiac arrhythmias and four died of this complication. Only one infant had a large intraventricular haemorrhage. Only two of 16 infants with an initial plasma K less than 5 mmol/L had a maximum plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L, compared with eight of 10 with an initial plasma K greater than 6 mmol/L (P less than 0.005). Plasma K also correlated directly with plasma urea (P less than 0.001) and plasma creatinine (P less than 0.025), and inversely with urine volume (P less than 0.05). Plasma K did not correlate with K intake, arterial pH, presence of asphyxia, severity of respiratory illness, gestation or birthweight. The rapidity with which the plasma K concentration reached potentially hazardous levels in some infants makes it imperative to measure plasma K within 6 h of birth and to continue to monitor levels at least every 6 h for the first 48 h in all infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation.

  9. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies of latamoxef (moxalactam) in neonates and premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R; Hashira, S; Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Tsuchida, A; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S; Tojo, M; Sunakawa, K

    1984-06-01

    Studies were carried out on the in vivo kinetics and clinical efficacy of latamoxef (LMOX) in neonates and premature infants. The results are summarized below. Serum concentration and T1/2 following intravenous injection of LMOX to neonates LMOX was intravenously administered to neonates as one shot doses of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. The serum concentration of LMOX showed a dose-response to the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses in each of the 0--3 day-old group, 4--7 day-old group and 8--28 day-old group. The T 1/2 values were as follows; for the 10 mg/kg dose, 5.17 hours in the 0--3 day-old group, 3.28 hours in the 4--7 day-old group and 2.79 hours in the 8--28 day-old group; for the 20 mg/kg dose, 5.58 hours in the 0--3 day-old group, 3.46 hours in the 4--7 day-old group and 3.14 hours in the 8--28 day-old group. Thus, it is seen that the half-life of both dosages decreased as the infants became older. Serum concentration and T 1/2 following intravenous injection of LMOX to premature infants Similar to the case of neonates described above, the concentration of LMOX in the serum of the premature infants showed a dose-response to the 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg dosages. The T 1/2 values for the 0--3, 4--7 day-old and 8--28 day-old groups were 7.54, 3.93 hours and 6.25 hours, respectively, for the 10 mg/kg dose, and 10.8, 4.05 hours and 3.23 hours, respectively, for the 20 mg/kg dose. Again, it is seen that the half-life of both dosages decreased as the age of the prematurely-born infants increased. Serum concentration and T1/2 following 1-hour intravenous drip infusion of LMOX to neonates LMOX was administered to neonates in doses of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, by i.v. drip infusion over a 1-hour period. With both dosages, the peak serum concentration of LMOX occurred at the time of completion of the infusion. The T1/2 values for the 0--3, 4--7 day-old and 8--28 day-old groups were 5.41, 3.68 hours and 1.92 hours, respectively, for the 10 mg/kg dose, and 5.31, 2.67 hours and 4.86 hours

  10. Prognostic value of neonatal electroencephalography in premature newborns less than 33 weeks of gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, S; Parain, D; Ménard, J F; Blanc, T; Devaux, A M; Ensel, P; Fessard, C; Samson-Dollfus, D

    1997-03-01

    In a prospective study of 417 premature neonates born before 33 weeks' gestational age, neonatal tracings were reviewed to evaluate the use of EEG in prognosis of neurological injuries. The population was divided into two groups: Group 1, infants who died before the age of 1, and Group 2, survivors in which two categories of motor development were considered. Category A, were abnormal, and Category B, were always normal. Positive rolandic sharp waves (PRSW), which reflect white matter injury, occurred equally in both groups, indicating a similar incidence of white matter damage in Groups 1 and 2. In Group 2, there was a significant correlation of PRSW with developmental motor sequelae (Category A). A frequency of PRSW above 2/min (suggesting more severe periventricular white matter injury) and seizures were significantly more prevalent in Group 1 than in Group 2 and in Category A of Group 2 than in Category B. Background abnormalities occurred equally in both subgroups of extremely premature infants ( 28 weeks' gestation) and extremely (< or = 28 weeks' gestation) premature newborns.

  11. Analgesic Effect of Maternal Human Milk Odor on Premature Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudesson de Chanville, Audrey; Brevaut-Malaty, Véronique; Garbi, Aurélie; Tosello, Barthelemy; Baumstarck, Karine; Gire, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Two studies have demonstrated an analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates, without specifying the method of olfactory stimulation. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates by using a standardized method of olfactory stimulation. This trial was prospective, randomized, controlled, double blinded, and centrally administered. The inclusion criteria for breastfed infants included being born between 30 and 36 weeks + 6 days gestational age and being less than 10 days postnatal age. There were two groups: (a) A maternal milk odor group underwent a venipuncture with a diffuser emitting their own mother's milk odor and (2) a control group underwent a venipuncture with an odorless diffuser. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score, with secondary outcomes being the French scale of neonatal pain-Douleur Aiguë du Nouveau-né (DAN) scale-and crying duration. All neonates were given a dummy. Our study included 16 neonates in the maternal milk odor group and 17 in the control group. Neonates exposed to their own mother's milk odor had a significantly lower median PIPP score during venipuncture compared with the control group (6.3 [interquartile range (IQR) = 5-10] versus 12.0 [IQR = 7-13], p = .03). There was no significant difference between the DAN scores in the two groups ( p = .06). Maternal milk odor significantly reduced crying duration after venipuncture (0 [IQR = 0-0] versus 0 [IQR = 0-18], p = .04). Maternal milk odor has an analgesic effect on preterm neonates.

  12. Early oral-motor management on feeding performance in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Abnormal brain sonography [odds ratio (OR: 2.222, p = 0.047 and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC (OR: 2.857, p = 0.017 did affect the first trial in the study group. Early intervention of oral-motor management in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improved feeding performance and neonatal outcome in terms of shorter hospital days. Abnormal brain image and NEC could interfere with the success rate of initial challenge of transitioning from tube to oral feeding in the study group.

  13. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine infusion in premature neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine were studied in 12 newborn premature neonates (27 to 32 weeks gestational age) who were given a loading dose of 3.0 micrograms kg-1 of buprenorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 0.72 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of buprenorphine. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were measured during the infusion, at steady-state and for 24 h after the cessation of the buprenorphine infusion. 2. The mean steady-state plasma buprenorphine...

  14. Fathering premature infants and the technological imperative of the neonatal intensive care unit: an interpretive inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    The experiences of 9 fathers of premature infants in the technological environment of the neonatal intensive care unit were examined using interpretive methods. Fathers were interviewed 6 to 8 times each. Findings revealed emotional costs for fathers as technology often took precedence. Fathers' feelings of frustration, fear, and alienation were hidden from nurses, as fathers were silent and silenced. Fathers perceived a power dynamic between themselves and nurses, which may be due, in part, to a complex interplay between the technological imperative and gender dynamics. Two exemplars illustrated how fathers forged emotional connections with their babies despite the technological imperative.

  15. Ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations in a premature neonate with gestational alloimmune liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. McAdams, MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD, a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations who developed liver failure and was later determined to have GALD. Recognition of clinical and laboratory findings consistent with GALD is essential to promote early treatment, which can enhance neonatal outcomes and impact future pregnancies.

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity: results from 10 years in a single neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Coutinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina of preterm newborns and is an important and preventable cause of visual impairment in childhood. This study aimed to assess the incidence and main risk factors associated with the development of ROP in the last 10 years at Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca in Lisbon, Portugal.Methods: Observational and retrospective study conducted between 2005 and 2014 at Hospital Prof. Doctor Fernando Fonseca. The study included newborns of gestational age < 32 weeks. We analyzed maternal, prenatal and neonatal factors associated with the development of ROP. Statistical analysis were performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS® software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a multiple logistic regression model was carried out with a significance level α = 0.05.Results: 527 premature infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks were studied, of which 165 developed ROP. 60 of these patients needed treatment. In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for the development of ROP were maternal infection in pregnancy, low birth weight, low gestational age, low Apgar score at 5 minutes, need for oxygen therapy until the 28th day of life, a high score on the CRIB and SNAPPE2 scales, use of surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal sepsis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for ROP were the presence of neonatal sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus and a high score on the neonatal SNAPPE2 scale.Conclusions: We found a ROP incidence rate of 31.3%, with risk factors similar to those observed in other studies.

  17. Programs for Detecting and Treating Retinopathy of Prematurity: Role of the Neonatal Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Katoch, Deeksha; Dogra, Mangat R; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-11-07

    High quality perinatal-neonatal care can prevent severe Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in most cases. Preterm infants who do develop retinopathy can also have good visual outcomes if screening and treatment are done timely. National Neonatology Forum published clinical practice guidelines for timely screening and treatment of ROP in neonatal care units in the country in 2010. It is also listed as one of the condition under Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram for early identification and early intervention, and is currently a focus area under the National Program for Control of Blindness. Technical and operational guidelines for screening and treatment have been released. Programs like home-based neonatal care can be utilized for ensuring timely screening and follow-up of high-risk infants. Prevention, timely diagnosis and treatment requires well-coordinated teamwork between neonatologists, ophthalmologists, nurses and obstetricians. The neonatal care team should have an evidence-based screening policy, must coordinate and facilitate screening by ophthalmologist, and provide pre and post-operative support, if treatment is required. The neonatologist also has an important responsibility of educating the healthcare workers and the families. A team approach and inter-sectoral coordination are the keys to success of a national drive to decrease the burden of preventable blindness due to ROP.

  18. Establishment of the Relationship Between Fathers and Premature Infants in Neonatal Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Josée; Milette, Isabelle; Bell, Linda; Tribble, Denise St-Cyr; Payot, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    Parents and their preterm infants (born between 32-37 weeks of gestation) are often overlooked by the healthcare system. And very little attention is given to the relationship parents develop with their infants in the neonatal unit (NNU). Specifically, very few studies focused on fathers and how they establish a relationship with their infants. However, we know that the father-infant relationship is extremely important for their future social development and more. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of the establishment of the father-premature infant relationship in an NNU. The study's theoretical framework was Bell's model of the parent-infant relationship, which encompasses discovery, physical proximity, communication, involvement, and emotional attachment. Ten fathers of premature infants (gestational age: 32-37 weeks) participated in 2 semistructured interviews (1 individual and 1 "in situ," ie, at the infant's bedside) during the first week following the premature birth. The results confirm the emergence of different components of the relationship between fathers and their children from the first days of hospitalization in the NNU. The commitment component is the basis for the development of other components in the relationship with their children. Furthermore, involvement influences the deployment of emotional attachment, discovery, physical proximity, and communication toward premature infants. Similarly, the 5 themes of the model can be seen as forming a dynamic nexus in which each theme influences the others. For neonatal nurses, this model of the early father-child relationship helps the understanding of the deployment of that relationship according to 5 components. Similarly, it provides awareness of the experiences of fathers so that nurses can be better equipped to support and individualize interventions tailored to their specific needs, thus helping them develop and sustain the relationship with their children. This study allows

  19. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  20. [Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in premature neonates: Does the surgical technique affect the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Serantes Lourido, Marta; Barriga Bujan, Rebeca; Blanco Rodriguez, Carolina; Portela-Torron, Francisco; Bautista-Hernandez, Victor

    2017-05-01

    Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in premature neonates is an aggressive technique and is not free of complications. A study was designed with the aim of describing our experience with a less invasive technique, the extra-pleural approach via a posterior minithoracotomy, and to compare the results with the classic transpleural approach. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on premature neonates on whom surgical closure of the ductus was performed during a ten-year period (March 2005 to March 2015). A comparison was made of the acute complications, the outcomes on discharge, and follow-up, between the extra-pleural approach and the classic transpleural approach. The study included 48 patients, 30 in the classical approach and 18 in the extra-pleural group. The demographic and pre-operative characteristics were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the 2 groups in the incidence of acute post-operative complications (56.6 vs. 44.4%), on the dependence on oxygen at 36 weeks (33.3 vs. 55.5%), or in hospital mortality (10 vs. 16.6%). As regards the short-term progress, the extra-pleural group required fewer days until the withdrawal of supplementary oxygen (36.3 vs. 28.9) and until hospital discharge (67.5 vs. 53.2), although only the time until extubation achieved a statistically significant difference (11.5 vs. 2.7, P=.03). The extra-plural approach by posterior minithoracotomy for the surgical closure of ductus in the premature infant is viable and could bring some clinical benefits in the short-term. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Acute intussusception, a rare cause of small bowel obstruction in premature neonates: the advantages of early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubal, M; Jacquot, A; Baud, C; Allal, H; Cambonie, G; Picaud, J-C

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of intussusception in a premature neonate who presented with early signs of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Diagnosing acute intussusception in premature infants is difficult because of its infrequency relative to other neonatal abdominal problems and because the clinical symptomatology shows similarities with that of necrotizing enterocolitis. In the reported case, the diagnosis was made by sonography. Unlike full-term neonates, the presence of a pathological lead point is very infrequent. The intussusception is predominantly located in the small bowel and is most often associated with bowel compromise. This disease should be considered in all neonates with signs of intestinal obstruction to permit a better prognosis via prompt surgical intervention.

  2. Esophageal sensation in premature human neonates: temporal relationships and implications of aerodigestive reflexes and electrocortical arousals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Parks, Vanessa N; Peng, Juan; Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Fernandez, Soledad; Shaker, Reza; Splaingard, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Electrocortical arousal (ECA) as an effect of visceral provocation or of its temporal relationships with aerodigestive reflexes in premature neonates is not known. We tested the hypothesis that esophageal provocation results in both esophageal reflex responses and ECAs during sleep and that ECAs are dependent on the frequency characteristics of esophageal neuromotor responses. We defined the spatiotemporal relationship of ECAs in relation to 1) spontaneous pharyngoesophageal swallow sequences and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) events and 2) sensory-motor characteristics of esophageal reflexes. Sixteen healthy premature neonates born at 27.9 ± 3.4 wk were tested at 36.8 ± 1.9 wk postmenstrual age. Ninety-five midesophageal and 31 sham stimuli were given in sleep during concurrent manometry and videopolysomnography. With stimulus onset as reference point, we scored the response latency, frequency occurrence and duration of arousals, peristaltic reflex, and upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex (UESCR). Changes in polysomnography-respiratory patterns and esophageal sensory-motor parameters were scored by blinded observers. Significantly (for each characteristic listed, P reflexes or clearance, sleep state modification, and prolonged respiratory arousal. Midesophageal stimuli (54%) provoked arousals and were associated with increased frequency, prolonged latency, prolonged response duration of peristaltic reflexes and UESCR, and increased frequency of sleep state changes and respiratory arousals. In human neonates, ECAs are provoked upon esophageal stimulation; the sensory-motor characteristics of esophageal reflexes are distinct when accompanied by arousals. Aerodigestive homeostasis is defended by multiple tiers of aerodigestive safety mechanisms, and when esophageal reflexes are delayed, cortical hypervigilance (ECAs) occurs.

  3. Fungal endocarditis with right ventricular candidal mycetoma in a premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Purkayastha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal mycetoma or endocarditis is rare in premature neonates and it is often associated with high mortality. In the majority of the cases diagnosis is made postmortem. Here we report a 0-week-old preterm neonate who developed Candida albicans blood stream infection complicated by endocarditis and subsequent mycetoma. Initially, this neonate had Klebsiella sepsis requiring multiple antibiotic courses. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter was used to give total parenteral nutrition. On day 24 of life, he developed candidemia, treated with 14 day course of fluconazole and shown improvement. Further, on day 60 of life he developed cholestasis, deranged liver function tests and persistent thrombocytopenia along with apnea, bradycardia and desaturations. Blood culture again grew again C. albicansEchocardiography showed large fungal vegetation on tricuspid valve with a mycetoma filling the right ventricle. He was treated with intravenous amphotericin B, fluconazole and upportive measures, but he deteriorated and succumbed after two weeks. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(3: 142-145

  4. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  5. Determination the bacterial etiologies for sepsis in premature newborns admitted in neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Khosravi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial sepsis is a main cause of mortality and morbidity especially in preterm newborns. The aim of this study was to search the bacterial etiologies of neonatal sepsis in NICU admitted preterm neonates. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study had done in NICU of Ali Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March 2007 to March 2009. Seventy septicemic preterm newborns (<37 weeks were studied. At admission day, for blood culture, 1-2 ml of venous blood was drawn after swabbing the venipuncture site with alcohol. After centrifugation of blood samples, deposits were cultured on sheep blood agar and incubated in a candle jar at 37 °C for 48 h and followed by subcultured. Isolates were identified using standard techniques (Nima pouyesh, Iran. Type of isolated bacterial organisms determined. Its correlation with gestational age, birth weight, premature rupture of membranes (PROM and other variables determined we used the nonparametric two independent sample test, Mann-Whitney U test. Chi-square values (CI 95%, P< 0.05 were calculated for all categorical variables. P-value less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Of 70 studied septicemic preterm cases, 17 (10.6% cases had positive blood culture. Overall gram-negative organisms were more frequent than gram-positive organisms, Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae, Escherichia (E. coli and Staphylococcus (S. aureus organisms were the 3 common causes of bacterial sepsis in studied cases. Early onset sepsis produced by K. pneumonia (40%, E. coli (20% and S. aureus (20%. K. pneumonia, E. coli, S. aureus had equal incidence in late onset sepsis (26.8%. K. pneumonia was more frequent in early onset sepsis (P= 0.05, and in low birth weight (< 1500 g neonates (P= 0.005, and PROM (P= 0.05. Conclusion: Three causes for sepsis in premature newborns were determined: K. pneumonia, E. coli and S. aureus, it is so important for initial antibiotic treatment in admission day. Low birth weight

  6. Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the shoulder in premature neonates: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are pyogenic infections of bone and joint, respectively. At the youngest age, they usually occur at the same time - hence the common name ”osteoarthritis”. When it comes to neonates, osteoarthritis is an infrequent finding, but it can give a permanent disability and can be even fatal unless early recognized and adequately and promptly treated. An early diagnosis is rather challenging because the signs and symptoms of this disease are subtle and/or nonspecific. The therapy involves a combination of intravenous antimicrobial therapy in high doses and of sufficient duration, with a mandatory decompression of affected joint by needle aspiration or artrhrotomy. The aim of this paper is to present two premature newborns with rare localization of osteoarthritis - the humerus and shoulder joint, as well as to point to the modern diagnostic and therapeutic approach to this disease.

  7. The relationship between mental health and spiritual intelligence of parents of hospitalized premature neonates in the NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Razaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between mental health and spiritual intelligence of parents of the premature neonates that are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU.Materials and methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study included 152 fathers and mothers of premature neonates. A questionnaire was delivered containing demographic data and Goldberg’s Assessment of Mental Health. A score of 23 or higher suggested the presence of mental disorders and scores lower than 23 indicated mental health. Results: There was a significant direct relationship between mothers’ mental health and spiritual intelligence; that is, mothers with high spiritual intelligence had a higher level of mental health (p = 0.020, r = 0.225. The linear regression analysis of the mothers’ mental health and spiritual intelligence was significant. Conclusion: Mothers with higher spiritual intelligence had a higher level of mental health, while there was no significant direct correlation between spiritual intelligence and mental health of the fathers.

  8. Pain-associated stressor exposure and neuroendocrine values for premature infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Annie J

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent stress during neonatal intensive care taxes the adaptive capacity of the premature infant and may be a risk factor for suboptimal developmental outcomes. This research used a descriptive, cross-sectional design and a life course perspective to examine the relationship between resting adrenocorticoid values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age and cumulative pain-associated stressor exposure in prematurely born infants. Subjects were 59 infants born at under 35 completed weeks of gestation, who were at least 2 weeks of age, and who had been cared for in the NICU since birth. No significant relationships were identified between cortisol values and any of the study variables (number of skin breaking procedures, hours of assisted ventilation, gestational age at birth, exposure to antenatal steroids, history of severe academia, birthweight, days of age to attain birthweight, weight at testing, days of age at testing, recent pain-associated procedures, and 17-OHP value). A significant negative correlation (Spearman rank, one-tailed) between the number of skin-breaking procedures and 17-OHP values was identified (r = -.232, p = .039). Recurrent pain-associated stressor exposure may be a more important factor in explaining the variance of 17-OHP values at 37 postmenstrual weeks of age than birthweight, gestational age, or chronological age.

  9. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine infusion in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D A; Simpson, J; Rutter, N; Kurihara-Bergstrom, T; Shaw, P N; Davis, S S

    1993-09-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of buprenorphine were studied in 12 newborn premature neonates (27 to 32 weeks gestational age) who were given a loading dose of 3.0 micrograms kg-1 of buprenorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 0.72 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of buprenorphine. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were measured during the infusion, at steady-state and for 24 h after the cessation of the buprenorphine infusion. 2. The mean steady-state plasma buprenorphine concentration (+/- s.d.) for an infusion rate of 0.72 micrograms kg-1 h-1 was 4.3 +/- 2.6 ng ml-1. 3. Buprenorphine clearance was 0.23 +/- 0.07 l h-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 20 +/- 8 h and the volume of distribution was 6.2 +/- 2.11 l kg-1. 4. Small but significant falls were noted in systolic blood pressure at 6 h and heart rate at 1, 6 and 12 h after the administration of buprenorphine, but these did not appear to cause any clinical deterioration. 5. Four of the 12 subjects studied required an increase in the infusion rate of buprenorphine to achieve adequate sedation. 6. The results suggest that this dosing regimen of buprenorphine is safe but may not be as effective as other opioids in producing sedation and analgesia in premature newborns.

  10. Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation reflex kinetics: effects of peristaltic reflexes and maturation in human premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Eneysis M; Parks, Vanessa N; Peng, Juan; Fernandez, Soledad A; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Shaker, Reza; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2010-12-01

    We defined the sensory-motor characteristics of the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (LESR) (stimulus threshold volume, response onset, and relaxation period, relaxation magnitude, nadir) during maturation in human neonates. We hypothesized that LESR kinetics differs during maturation and with peristaltic reflex type. Basal and adaptive esophageal motility testing was performed (N = 20 premature neonates) at 34.7 and 39.1 wk (time 1 and time 2). Effects of midesophageal provocation with graded stimuli (N = 1,267 stimuli, air and liquids) on LESR kinetics during esophagodeglutition response (EDR) and secondary peristalsis (SP) were analyzed by mixed models. Frequency of LESR with basal primary peristalsis were different during maturation (P = 0.03). During adaptive responses with maturation, 1) the frequencies of peristaltic reflexes and LESR were similar; 2) liquid stimuli resulted in a shorter LESR response latency and LESR nadir and greater LESR magnitude (all P reflexes at both times (vs. none, P reflex, and postnatal maturation. Maturation modulates an increased recruitment of inhibitory pathways that favor LESR.

  11. A Change in Ocular Circulation after Photocoagulation for Retinopathy of Prematurity in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matsumoto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries that occur in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are improved by therapy, and thus posttherapy changes in ocular circulation are also conceivable. We report a case of ROP in which we were able to measure the ocular circulation before and after photocoagulation therapy, using a laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG system that is modified for neonates. Case Report: A female infant was born at 25 weeks’ gestation with a birth weight of 808 g. We performed photocoagulation in both eyes at age 15 weeks, and we measured the ocular circulation with the “LSFG-baby” system before and at 12 weeks after the photocoagulation treatment. We also measured the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH and the relative flow volume (RFV in the retinal vessels, and we examined the change rates from before to after treatment. The changing rate of the MBR-A (the mean of all values in the ONH in the right and left eyes was 76.5 and 98.5%, respectively. The vascular RFV in the severe dilation and tortuosity quadrant also tended to decrease. Conclusions: Photocoagulation improved the dilation of veins and tortuosity of arteries and reduced the ocular blood flow in this neonate with ROP. The LSFG-baby system effectively and directly revealed the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels.

  12. Parent' s experiences and perceives at premature newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Urbančič

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Text treats parent's experiences and perceives and the significant of their newborn premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit in the Ljubljana maternity hospital. Aim of health promotion, the significance of health education in health education counselling are presented. The purpose of this study was to introduction parent' s experiences and make an implementation in nursing practice. The advantage is represent by performing health education counselling for parents in intensive care unit permanently. Perceives of parents during living their newborn infant in neonatal intensive care unit are present on five concepts: perceive parents themselves, perceive their infant, perceive the staff and the intensive care setting and perceive their home setting. Results are showing statistic important differences between mothers and fathers at the time of deliver and at the time charging infant home. A questionare was used for collecting data. Process of development instrument is represent. Descriptive statistics and T-test was used for quantitative data analysed. Using method of internal consistent Chronbach alpha tested reliability of scales and mean differences in time are graf protrayed by 95% confident intervals. Results show statistical significant differences on all five concepts of parent's experiences. Methodological findings and reseaarch limitations are also present. Authoress positive evaluates the effect of health education counselling program and find out its positive effect on parent's critical thinking and contributes to quality assurance nursing.

  13. Clostridia in premature neonates' gut: incidence, antibiotic susceptibility, and perinatal determinants influencing colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Ferraris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although premature neonates (PN gut microbiota has been studied, data about gut clostridial colonization in PN are scarce. Few studies have reported clostridia colonization in PN whereas Bacteroides and bifidobacteria have been seldom isolated. Such aberrant gut microbiota has been suggested to be a risk factor for the development of intestinal infections. Besides, PN are often treated by broad spectrum antibiotics, but little is known about how antibiotics can influence clostridial colonization based on their susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was to report the distribution of Clostridium species isolated in feces from PN and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Additionally, clostridial colonization perinatal determinants were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 76 PN followed until hospital discharge in three French neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, 79% were colonized by clostridia. Clostridium sp. colonization, with a high diversity of species, increased throughout the hospitalization. Antibiotic courses had no effect on the clostridial colonization incidence although strains were found susceptible (except C. difficile to anti-anaerobe molecules tested. However, levels of colonization were decreased by either antenatal or neonatal (during more than 10 days antibiotic courses (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively. Besides, incidence of colonization was depending on the NICU (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: This study shows that clostridia are part of the PN gut microbiota. It provides for the first time information on the status of clostridia antimicrobial susceptibility in PN showing that strains were susceptible to most antibiotic molecules. Thus, the high prevalence of this genus is not linked to a high degree of resistance to antimicrobial agents or to the use of antibiotics in NICUs. The main perinatal determinant influencing PN clostridia colonization appears to be the NICU environment.

  14. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carusillo Theriault, Brianna; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Karimy, Jason K.; Keledjian, Kaspar; Stokum, Jesse A.; Sarkar, Amrita; Coksaygan, Turhan; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    Background In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes) dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI) and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS) at embryonic day (E) 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks. Results mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2) and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9) for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls. Conclusions In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development. PMID:28158198

  15. Neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R expression in saliva predicts feeding immaturity in the premature neonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L Maron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current practice in newborn medicine is to subjectively assess when a premature infant is ready to feed by mouth. When the assessment is inaccurate, the resulting feeding morbidities may be significant, resulting in long-term health consequences and millions of health care dollars annually. We hypothesized that the developmental maturation of hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior is a predictor of successful oral feeding in the premature infant. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the gene expression of neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R, a known hypothalamic regulator of feeding behavior, in neonatal saliva to determine its role as a biomarker in predicting oral feeding success in the neonate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salivary samples (n = 116, were prospectively collected from 63 preterm and 13 term neonates (post-conceptual age (PCA 26 4/7 to 41 4/7 weeks from five predefined feeding stages. Expression of NPY2R in neonatal saliva was determined by multiplex RT-qPCR amplification. Expression results were retrospectively correlated with feeding status at time of sample collection. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of NPY2R had a 95% positive predictive value for feeding immaturity. NPY2R expression statistically significantly decreased with advancing PCA (Wilcoxon test p value<0.01, and was associated with feeding status (chi square p value  =  0.013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Developmental maturation of hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior is an essential component of oral feeding success in the newborn. NPY2R expression in neonatal saliva is predictive of an immature feeding pattern. It is a clinically relevant biomarker that may be monitored in saliva to improve clinical care and reduce significant feeding-associated morbidities that affect the premature neonate.

  16. Creatine, Glutamine plus Glutamate, and Macromolecules Are Decreased in the Central White Matter of Premature Neonates around Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Ratiney, Hélène; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Girard, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates. Thirty-two infants, 16 term neonates (mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.8±1 weeks) and 16 premature neonates (mean gestational age at birth: 29.1±2 weeks, mean post-conceptional age at scan: 39.2±1 weeks) were investigated. The MRI/MRS protocol performed at 1.5T involved diffusion-weighted MRI and localized 1H-MRS with the Point RESolved Spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Preterm neonates showed significantly higher ADC values in the temporal white matter (Pmacromolecules/H2O ratios (Pmacromolecules in the centrum semiovale, a finding suggesting altered energy metabolism and protein synthesis. PMID:27547969

  17. Preterm premature rupture of membranes and the rate of neonatal sepsis after two courses of antenatal corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Son, Moeun

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate whether a second antenatal corticosteroid course is associated with an increased risk of neonatal sepsis after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM). This secondary analysis is a cohort study with data from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units study on magnesium for neuroprotection. Women with singleton gestations and preterm PROM were eligible. The primary exposure was one compared with two antenatal corticosteroid courses. The primary outcome, neonatal sepsis, was compared between exposed groups. Patient characteristics were analyzed by χ2 for categorical variables and Student t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables where appropriate. Predictors of neonatal sepsis were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. One thousand six hundred forty-one patients were eligible. Neonatal sepsis was similar among neonates born to mothers who received one or two antenatal corticosteroid courses (16.2% compared with 17.2%, P=.756, respectively). Adjusting for confounders, the factors associated with neonatal sepsis were length of time from membrane rupture to delivery (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.26), respiratory distress syndrome (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.45-3.07), gestational age at delivery in days (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-0.99) and birth weight per 100 g (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.94). A second maternal antenatal corticosteroid course was not associated with an increased rate neonatal sepsis.

  18. Retrospective study shows that doxapram therapy avoided the need for endotracheal intubation in most premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Robert; Halbmeijer, Nienke; Meesters, Naomi; van Rosmalen, Joost; Reiss, Irwin; van Dijk, Monique; Simons, Sinno

    2017-05-01

    Using doxapram to treat neonates with apnoea of prematurity might avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. We studied whether doxapram prevented the need for intubation and identified the predictors of the success. This was a retrospective study of preterm infants born from January 2006 to August 2014 who received oral or intravenous doxapram. Success was defined as no need for endotracheal intubation, due to apnoea, during doxapram therapy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses identified predictors of success during the first 48 hours of doxapram therapy. Data on 203 patients with a median gestational age of 26.1 (interquartile range 25.1-27.4) weeks were analysed. During the first 48 hours of doxapram therapy, 157 (77%) patients did not need endotracheal intubation and 127 (63%) patients were successfully treated over the entire treatment course. The median postnatal age at the start of doxapram therapy was 20 days (interquartile range 12-30). Postnatal age and a lower fraction of inspired oxygen at the start of doxapram therapy were significant predictors of success (odds ratio 0.964, 95% confidence interval 0.938-0.991, p = 0.001). Oral and intravenous doxapram effectively treated most cases of apnoea in preterm infants, avoiding the need for intubation. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Pataraia, Anna; Helmer, Hanns; Kasprian, Gregor; Sauer, Alexandra; Brugger, Peter C; Pollak, Arnold; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM.

  20. Effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping on peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Zeynel; Ozkiraz, Servet; Tarcan, Aylin; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Ozcimen, Emel Ebru; Ozbek, Namik

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) on peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematological parameters in premature infants (cord clamping (ICC) at 5-10 s and 21 infants to DCC at 30-45 s. One milliliter blood sample was taken in the first 30 min of life. HPCs were measured by three-color flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. There were no significant differences between groups in either maternal or neonatal demographics. All HPC counts were higher in the ICC group, but the difference was not significant. CD34+ cell counts were 45.3 ± 36.6/μL in the ICC and 33.2 ± 26.6/μL in the DCC group (P=0.33); multi-potent progenitor cell counts were 43.2 ± 35/μL in the ICC and 31.1 ± 26.6/μL in the DCC group (P=0.28); and hematopoietic stem cell counts were 2.1 ± 2.1/μL in the ICC and 2.1 ± 3.1/μL in the DCC group (P=0.66). Contrary to our expectation, all HPC counts were lower in the DCC group.

  1. Fetal MRI for prediction of neonatal mortality following preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerschmidt, Agnes; Sauer, Alexandra; Pollak, Arnold [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Pataraia, Anna; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-11-15

    Lung MRI volumetrics may be valuable for fetal assessment following early preterm premature rupture of the foetal membranes (pPROM). To evaluate the predictive value of MRI lung volumetrics after pPROM. Retrospective cohort study of 40 fetuses after pPROM in a large, tertiary, perinatal referral center. Fetuses underwent MRI lung volumetrics. Estimated lung volume was expressed as percentage of expected lung volume (our own normal references). Primary outcome was neonatal mortality due to respiratory distress before discharge from hospital. Gestational age range was 16-27 weeks. Estimated-to-expected lung volume was 73% in non-survivors and 102% in survivors (P < 0.05). There were no survivors with a lung volume less than 60% of expected. By logistic regression, mortality could be predicted with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 85%. Fetal MR lung volumetrics may be useful for predicting mortality due to respiratory distress in children with early gestational pPROM. (orig.)

  2. Caffeine in the neonatal period induces long-lasting changes in sleep and breathing in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, Gaspard; Horner, Richard L; Kinkead, Richard; Bairam, Aida

    2009-11-15

    Caffeine is commonly used clinically to treat apnoeas and unstable breathing associated with premature birth. Caffeine antagonizes adenosine receptors and acts as an efficient respiratory stimulant in neonates. Owing to its persistent effects on adenosine receptor expression in the brain, neonatal caffeine administration also has significant effects on maturation of the respiratory control system. However, since adenosine receptors are critically involved in sleep regulation, and sleep also modulates breathing, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal caffeine treatment disrupts regulation of sleep and breathing in the adult rat. Neonatal caffeine treatment (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was administered from postnatal days 3-12. At adulthood (8-10 weeks old), sleep and breathing were measured with a telemetry system and whole-body plethysmography respectively. In adult rats treated with caffeine during the neonatal period, sleep time was reduced, sleep onset latency was increased, and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep was fragmented compared to controls. Ventilation at rest was higher in caffeine-treated adult rats compared to controls across sleep/wake states. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were significantly reduced in caffeine-treated rats compared to control rats across sleep/wake states. Additional experiments in adult anaesthetized rats showed that at similar levels of arterial blood gases, phrenic nerve activity was enhanced in caffeine-treated rats. This study demonstrates that administration of caffeine in the neonatal period alters respiratory control system activity in awake and sleeping rats, as well as in the anaesthetized rats, and also has persistent disrupting effects on sleep that are apparent in adult rats.

  3. Radiation doses received by premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit; Doses d'irradiation recues par les prematures en service de reanimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry-Chef, I.; Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de Qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, 92 - Bourg la Reine (France); Thierry-Chef, I.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRPID), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Costil, J. [Hopital Armand Trousseau, Service de Reanimation Neonatale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-02-15

    Purpose. Because of frequent radiological investigations performed in 1 neonatal intensive care unit, a dosimetry study was carried out to assess the level of doses received by premature babies. Materials and methods. In vivo measurements were performed and effective doses were evaluated for single radiographs. Individual cumulative doses received over the period of stay were then estimated, for each premature baby entering the intensive care unit in 2002, taking into account the number of radiographs they underwent. Results. On average, babies stayed for a week and more than one radio-graph was taken per day. Results showed that, even if average doses per radiograph were relatively low (25{mu}Sv), cumulative doses strongly depended on the length of stay, and can reach a few mSv. Conclusion. Even if doses per radiograph are in agreement with European recommendations, optimisation of doses is particularly important because premature babies are more sensitive to radiation than adults and because they usually undergo further radiological examinations in other services. On the basis of the results of this dosimetry study, the implementation of a larger study is being discussed. (author)

  4. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  5. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  6. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  7. Can neonatal sepsis be predicted in late preterm premature rupture of membranes? Development of a prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, David P; van Kuijk, Sander; Opmeer, Brent C; Willekes, Christine; van Beek, Johannes J; Mulder, Antonius L M; van Loon, Aren J; Groenewout, Martiët; Mantel, Gerald D; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Porath, Martina; Kwee, Anneke; Akerboom, Bettina M C; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; Metz, Godfried C H; Nijhuis, Jan G; Mol, Ben W J

    2014-05-01

    Women with late preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) have an increased risk that their child will develop neonatal sepsis. We evaluated whether neonatal sepsis can be predicted from antepartum parameters in these women. We used multivariable logistic regression to develop a prediction model. Data were obtained from two recent randomized controlled trials on induction of labor versus expectant management in late preterm PROM (PPROMEXIL trials, (ISRCTN29313500 and ISRCTN05689407). Data from randomized as well as non-randomized women, who consented to the use of their medical data, were used. We evaluated 13 potential antepartum predictors for neonatal sepsis. Missing data were imputed. Discriminative ability of the model was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and a calibration with both a calibration plot and the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Overall performance of the prediction model was quantified as the scaled Brier score. We studied 970 women. Thirty-three (3.4%) neonates suffered neonatal sepsis. Maternal age (OR 1.09 per year), maternal CRP level (OR 1.01 per mmol/l), maternal temperature (OR 1.80 per °C) and positive GBS culture (OR 2.20) were associated with an increased risk of neonatal sepsis. The model had an area under the ROC-curve of 0.71. The model had both a good calibration and accuracy. Antepartum parameters aid in the more precise prediction of the risk of neonatal sepsis in women with late preterm PPROM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Breast Milk and Vanilla Odors on Premature Neonate's Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Saturation During and After Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshat, Hanieh; Jebreili, Mahnaz; Seyyedrasouli, Aleheh; Ghojazade, Morteza; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Different studies have shown that the use of olfactory stimuli during painful medical procedures reduces infants' response to pain. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of breast milk odor and vanilla odor on premature infants' vital signs including heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture. A total of 135 preterm infants were randomly selected and divided into three groups of control, vanilla odor, and breast milk odor. Infants in the breast milk group and the vanilla group were exposed to breast milk odor and vanilla odor from 5 minutes prior to sampling until 30 seconds after sampling. The results showed that breast milk odor has a significant effect on the changes of neonatal heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture and decreased the variability of premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. Vanilla odor has no significant effect on premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. Breast milk odor can decrease the variability of premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The neurological effects of brevetoxin on neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapley, S.R.; Ramsdell, J.S.; Xi, D. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    We have investigated the neuroexcitatory and neurodegenerative effects of brevetoxin on neonatal rats. Brevetoxin, a marine-biotoxin that has been implicated in several seafood poisoning incidents, is produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium brevis. Four studies were done: dose response, northern analysis, immunohistochemistry and neurodegeneration. We found that neonatal rats are much more sensitive to brevetoxin than adult rats. The effectiveness of c-fos as a biomarker is being investigated, because of the high basal expression in young animals. The neurodegeneration, although not available yet, should provide valuable information.

  10. [A neonate with anaemia of prematurity: zinc protoporphyrin identifies iron deficiency anaemia without iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feen, Diederik E; van Hillegersberg, Jacqueline L A M; Schippers, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common problem in premature infants and is generally easy to treat with iron supplementation. If the anaemia persists despite appropriate correction of deficiencies, more extensive evaluation is required. We describe a case of a premature male infant with a production-deficient anaemia without metabolic deficiencies, eventually identified as anaemia of prematurity. This type of anaemia is commonly diagnosed but its highly variable and complex aetiology and phenotype are often poorly understood. A probable explanation for the anaemia of prematurity in this case was a transient iron incorporation defect, identifiable by high levels of zinc protoporphyrin.

  11. A novel mutation leading to a premature stop codon in inlA of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from neonatal listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbíčová, Tereza; Koláčková, Ivana; Pantůček, Roman; Karpíšková, Renáta

    2015-04-01

    The study objective was to investigate whether the strain of L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2c isolated from neonatal listeriosis carries a premature stop codon (PMSC) mutation in the inlA gene. The strain was characterized by serotyping, macrorestriction analysis after digestion with the restriction enzyme AscI, and sequencing of the inlA gene. The tested strain of serotype 1/2c and pulsotype 1 possesses a new type of point mutation leading to a PMSC in the inlA gene and production of truncated internalin A. The case of early onset form of neonatal listeriosis caused by serotype 1/2c with a PMSC mutation in the inlA gene confirmed the transplacental transmission potential of this strain.

  12. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anand Vinekar,1 Chaitra Jayadev,1 Siddesh Kumar,2 Shwetha Mangalesh,1,3 Mangat Ram Dogra,4 Noel J Bauer,5 Bhujang Shetty6 1Department of Pediatric Retina, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Bangalore, 2Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Advanced Eye Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Maastricht University of Health Sciences, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Narayana Nethralaya Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Bangalore, India Purpose: To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods: The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP, is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012 and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015. Results: During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001. The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from

  13. Neonatal Magnesium Levels Correlate with Motor Outcomes in Premature Infants: a Long-Term Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eDoll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveChronic neurological deficits are a significant complication of preterm birth. Magnesium supplementation has been suggested to have neuroprotective function in the developing brain. Our objective was to determine whether higher neonatal serum magnesium levels were associated with better long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants.Study DesignA retrospective cohort of 75 preterm infants (<1500 g, gestational age <27 weeks had follow-up for the outcomes of abnormal motor exam and for epilepsy. Average total serum magnesium level in the neonate during the period of prematurity was the main independent variable assessed, tested using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. ResultsHigher average serum magnesium level was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk for abnormal motor exam (p 0.037. A lower risk for epilepsy in the group with higher magnesium level did not reach statistical significance (p 0.06. ConclusionThis study demonstrates a correlation between higher neonatal magnesium levels and decreased risk for long-term abnormal motor exam. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the hypothesis that higher neonatal magnesium levels can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  14. [Influence of neonatally administered gonadotropin on the sexual function of adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, F; Vedder, I; Dörner, G

    1975-02-01

    Male and female rats were daily injected with 10 IU HCG plus 10 IU FSH from the 1st to 14th day of life in order to investigate the influence of neonatal gonadotrophin administration on the sex-specific differentiation of the brain. When adult, the males showed hypogonadism associated with approximately normal sexual activity. In the females, precocious puberty, indicated by premature vaginal opening and spontaneous estrus, occurred. Furthermore, bisexuality with a tendency towards more male behavioural patterns was observed, but no impairment of ovarian cyclicity. Thus, hypergonadotrophic hypergonadism during the hypothalamic differentiation phase gave rise to bisexual behaviour in adult female rats associated with normal ovarian cycles. The question of a direct or indirect influence of gonadotrophins on the sex-specific brain differentiation is discussed.

  15. [Social representation of fathers regarding their premature child in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Jovanka Bittencourt Leite; Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Céu Clara; de Brito, Rosineide Santana; de Souza, Nilba Lima

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative study that aimed at understanding the social representation of a parent with a premature child. The data were collected between May and June 2008, in a semi-structured interview with 17 parents whose premature children were hospitalized in the NICU of two public institutions in Natal, Brazil. The reports were analyzed based on the Social Representations Theory (SRT). The results reveal that the hospitalization of their children causes parents to experience emotions of fear, anguish, anxiety, loneliness interspersed with those of faith, joy and hope. For a parent the NICU is a frightening environment, albeit necessary for the specialized care that the conditions of the premature newborn require.

  16. Isolation of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts from neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Honey B; Gollapudi, Deepika; Gerilechaogetu, Fnu; Li, Jieli; Cristales, Ricardo J; Peng, Xu; Dostal, David E

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and fibroblasts (FBs) serve as in vitro models for studying fundamental mechanisms underlying cardiac pathologies, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets. Both cell types are relatively easy to culture as monolayers and can be manipulated using molecular and pharmacological tools. Because NRVM cease to proliferate after birth, and FBs undergo phenotypic changes and senescence after a few passages in tissue culture, primary cultures of both cell types are required for experiments. Below we describe methods that provide good cell yield and viability of primary cultures of NRVM and FBs from 0 to 3-day-old neonatal rat pups.

  17. Ceftriaxone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of subsequent neurological disability in both term and preterm baby. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major factors involved in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Glutamate transporter GLT1, expressed mainly in mature astrocytes, is the major glutamate transporter in the brain. HIE induced excessive glutamate release which is not reuptaked by immature astrocytes may induce neuronal damage. Compounds, such as ceftriaxone, that enhance the expression of GLT1 may exert neuroprotective effect in HIE. Methods We used a neonatal rat model of HIE by unilateral ligation of carotid artery and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen for 2 hrs on postnatal day 7 (P7 rats. Neonatal rats were administered three dosages of an antibiotic, ceftriaxone, 48 hrs prior to experimental HIE. Neurobehavioral tests of treated rats were assessed. Brain sections from P14 rats were examined with Nissl and immunohistochemical stain, and TUNEL assay. GLT1 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone significantly reduced the brain injury scores and apoptotic cells in the hippocampus, restored myelination in the external capsule of P14 rats, and improved the hypoxia-ischemia induced learning and memory deficit of P23-24 rats. GLT1 expression was observed in the cortical neurons of ceftriaxone treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest that pre-treatment of infants at risk for HIE with ceftriaxone may reduce subsequent brain injury.

  18. Association of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neonatal Morbidities of Extremely Premature Infants With Differential Exposure to Antenatal Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sanjay; Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Pappas, Athina; Stoll, Barbara J.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Saha, Shampa; Das, Abhik; Laptook, Abbot R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many premature infants are born without exposure to antenatal steroids (ANS) or with incomplete courses. This study evaluates the dose-dependent effect of ANS on rates of neonatal morbidities and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants. OBJECTIVE To compare rates of neonatal morbidities and 18- to 22-month neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants exposed to no ANS or partial or complete courses of ANS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this observational cohort study, participants were extremely premature infants (birth weight range, 401–1000 g; gestational age, 22–27 weeks) who were born at participating centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 2006 and December 2011. Data were analyzed between October 2013 and May 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months’ corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as the presence of any of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy, a cognitive score less than 85 on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, blindness, or deafness. RESULTS There were 848 infants in the no ANS group, 1581 in the partial ANS group, and 3692 in the complete ANS group; the mean (SD) birth weights were 725 (169), 760 (173), and 753 (170) g, respectively, and the mean (SD) gestational ages were 24.5 (1.4), 24.9 (2), and 25.1 (1.1) weeks. Of 6121 eligible infants, 4284 (70.0%) survived to 18- to 22-month follow-up, and data were available for 3892 of 4284 infants (90.8%). Among the no, partial, and complete ANS groups, there were significant differences in the rates of mortality (43.1%, 29.6%, and 25.2%, respectively), severe intracranial hemorrhage among survivors (23.3%, 19.1%, and 11.7%), death or necrotizing enterocolitis (48.1%, 37.1%, and 32.5%), and death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (74.9%, 68.9%, and 65

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity: review of a seven-year period in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M; Peitersen, Birgit

    1994-01-01

    of the hospital. One hundred and eighty survived to at least 8 weeks of age and 170 had eye examinations. Forty-five of the 170 infants examined (26.5%) had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 18 (40%) of these developed blindness or severely impaired vision, a higher incidence than reported in other studies....... Significant differences were found between infants with and without ROP for: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score at 1 min, resuscitation, ventilator treatment, duration of supplementary oxygen, severe complications in the neonatal period and sequels from the central nervous system. Statistical analysis......, corrected for correlations, showed that the occurrence of ROP was related significantly to early intubation, hypotension, persistent ductus arteriosus and necrotizing enterocolitis....

  20. Altered state of primordial follicles in neonatal and early infantile rats due to maternal hypothyroidism: Light and electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilović Luković, Jelena; Korać, Aleksandra; Milošević, Ivan; Lužajić, Tijana; Puškaš, Nela; Kovačević Filipović, Milica; Radovanović, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are one of the key factors for normal prenatal development in mammals. Previously, we showed that subclinical maternal hypothyroidism leads to premature atresia of ovarian follicles in female rat offspring in the pre-pubertal and pubertal periods. The influence of decreased concentration of TH on primordial follicles pool formation during neonatal and early infantile period of rat pups was not investigated previously. Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has irreversible negative influence on primordial follicles pool formation and population of resting oocytes in female rat offspring. The study was done on neonatal and early infantile control (n-10) and hypothyroid (n-10) female rat pups derived from control (n-6) and propylthiouracil (PTU) treated pregnant dams (n-6), respectively. Ovaries of all pups were removed and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Number of nests, oogonia and oocytes per nest, primordial, primary, secondary and preantral follicles were determined. Screening for overall calcium presence in ovarian tissue was done using Alizarin red staining. Morphology and volume density of nucleus, mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) in the oocytes in primordial follicles was also assessed. Caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), both markers for apoptosis, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferation were determined in oocytes and granulosa cells in different type of follicles. In neonatal period, ovaries of hypothyroid pups had a decreased number of oogonia, oocytes and nests, an increased number of primordial follicles and a decreased number of primary and secondary follicles, while in early infantile period, increased number of primary, secondary and preantral follicles were found. Alizarin red staining was intense in hypothyroid neonatal rats that also had the highest content of dilated sER. Number of mitochondria with

  1. Repercussões da amniorrexe prematura no pré-termo sobre a morbimortalidade neonatal Repercussions of premature rupture of fetal membranes on neonatal morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio de Moraes Paula

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar os fatores associados ao óbito e sobrevida com seqüela em neonatos egressos de gestações que cursaram com amniorrexe prematura. Estudo observacional do tipo coorte histórica analisou prontuários de pacientes que evoluíram com quadro de amniorrexe prematura The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with death and survival with sequelae in neonates after premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM. An observational historical cohort study analyzed charts of patients with PROM at < 34 weeks gestation. The variables were compared with neonatal death and survival with sequelae as the outcomes. In both groups, the data were submitted to bivariate analysis, and the variables showing significance were submitted to logistic regression. The final multivariate model for fetal death showed statistical significance for the following: chorioamnionitis; 5-minute Apgar score < 5; birth weight < 1,000g; and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Survival with sequela was associated with: cervical colonization; patent ductus arteriosus; 5-minute Apgar score < 5; and birth weight < 1,000g. Infections, very low birth weight, and peripartum asphyxia were the principal variables associated with the target outcomes among newborns from gestations involving PROM.

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South of China, respectively. Methods: We studied data concerning 472 infants with gestational age (GA ≤34 weeks or birth weight (BW ≤2000 g who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University and the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. Clinical information about perinatal neonates was collected and was confirmed by reviewing medical charts. The incidence and severity of ROP were assessed in the screened population. Main outcome measures are the incidence and severity of ROP. The relationship of clinical risk factors and the development of ROP were analyzed. Results: The overall incidence of ROP was 12.7%, and the overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 2.3%; 9.4% of infants in Zhujiang Hospital had ROP compared to 15.0% infants in the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang developed ROP, and the difference is statistically significant. ROP was significantly associated with GA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77 [0.62-0.95], P = 0.015, BW (OR: 0.998 [0.996-0.999], P = 0.008, maternal supplemental oxygen administration before and during delivery (OR: 4.27 [1.21-15.10], P = 0.024 and preeclampsia (OR: 6.07 [1.73-21.36] P = 0.005. The risk factors for ROP are different in two hospitals. In Zhujiang Hospital, BW is the independent risk factors for ROP while GA, BW and preeclampsia in the Fourth Hospital in Shijiazhuang Conclusions: Retinopathy of prematurity incidence is different based on area. Incidence of ROP is still high in China. More efforts need to prevent ROP.

  3. Elevated platelet-derived growth factor-BB concentrations in premature neonates who develop chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Kim G

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung disease (CLD in the preterm newborn is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB, a potent chemotactic growth factor, may mediate the fibrotic component of CLD. The objectives of this study were to determine if tracheal aspirate (TA concentrations of PDGF-BB increase the first 2 weeks of life in premature neonates undergoing mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, its relationship to the development of CLD, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH and its relationship to airway colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu. Methods Infants with a birth weight less than 1500 grams who required mechanical ventilation for RDS were enrolled into this study with parental consent. Tracheal aspirates were collected daily during clinically indicated suctioning. Uu cultures were performed on TA collected in the first week of life. TA supernatants were assayed for PDGF-BB and secretory component of IgA concentrations using ELISA techniques. Results Fifty premature neonates were enrolled into the study. Twenty-eight infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days of life and 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks postconceptual age. PDGF-BB concentrations peaked between 4 and 6 days of life. Maximum PDGF-BB concentrations were significantly higher in infants who developed CLD or died from respiratory failure. PH was associated with increased risk of CLD and was associated with higher PDGF-BB concentrations. There was no correlation between maximum PDGF-BB concentrations and Uu isolation from the airway. Conclusions PDGF-BB concentrations increase in TAs of infants who undergo mechanical ventilation for RDS during the first 2 weeks of life and maximal concentrations are greater in those infants who subsequently develop CLD. Elevation in lung PDGF-BB may play a role in the development of CLD.

  4. Melatonin potentiates the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcelli, Patrick A; Soper, Colin; Duckles, Anne; Gale, Karen; Kondratyev, Alexei

    2013-12-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for neonatal seizures. However, questions regarding safety and efficacy of this drug make it particularly compelling to identify adjunct therapies that could boost therapeutic benefit. One potential adjunct therapy is melatonin. Melatonin is used clinically in neonatal and pediatric populations, and moreover, it exerts anticonvulsant actions in adult rats. However, it has not been previously evaluated for anticonvulsant effects in neonatal rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin would exert anticonvulsant effects, either alone, or in combination with phenobarbital. Postnatal day (P)7 rats were treated with phenobarbital (0-40mg/kg) and/or melatonin (0-80mg/kg) prior to chemoconvulsant challenge with pentylenetetrazole (100mg/kg). We found that melatonin significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of phenobarbital, but did not exert anticonvulsant effects on its own. These data provide additional evidence for the further examination of melatonin as an adjunct therapy in neonatal/pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE FEASIBILITY OF USING "PREMIESTART," A MOTHER-PREMATURE INFANT INTERACTION PROGRAM, ON A NEONATAL UNIT IN ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibley, Alexandra L; Rydin-Orwin, Tracy; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the feasibility of running "PremieStart," a nine-individual-session maternal-premature infant interaction program, within a neonatal unit (NNU) in England. Four mothers of premature infants completed seven sessions on the NNU and two at home. Mothers and NNU staff provided feedback on PremieStart. Measures of maternal-infant relationship, maternal well-being, and maternal reflective functioning were completed before and after intervention. Thematic analysis of mothers' feedback highlighted the emotional, but cathartic, experience of engaging with PremieStart. NNU staff feedback indicated the need to include them more in PremieStart. Both mothers and staff were supportive of future implementation of PremieStart and highlighted the ongoing need for psychological support on the NNU. PremieStart was implemented with positive feedback from mothers and staff, with support shown for the continued use of PremieStart in the NNU. However, for future implementation, the self-report outcome measures need reviewing, and more involvement of fathers and NNU staff is needed. In addition, a larger sample with a control group should be utilized. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. [Application of cognitive techniques in the nursing care of mothers of premature newborns in the neonatal ICU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serret Serret, María

    2012-09-01

    In neonatal units, situations that cause pain and suffering to parents are common. One such situation occurs when a parent develops negative thoughts about the child. These thoughts, in turn, negatively affect the parent-child relationship. Normally, the expert nurse cares for these parents intuitively, based on her professional experience, but without a theoretical foundation such as cognitive theory. Cognitive theory postulates that an individual's emotional response to an event is determined not by the event itself, but by the conscious meaning that the individual gives it. Motivational interviewing and cognitive restructuring are two psychological techniques that allow us to identify, analyse and modify the interpretations and erroneous thoughts that people experience in certain situations. To show how application of these techniques can be useful in caring for these parents and helping them to create a strong, safe bond to their children. We selected the mother of a premature newborn. The nurse had observed that this woman had many negative thoughts that interfered notably in the bonding process with her son. After establishing an empathic relationship with the mother, the nurse performed a motivational interview followed by a cognitive restructuring. Both cognitive techniques are very useful in helping mothers of premature babies to change their feelings and attitudes towards their newborns, thus promoting a strong and happy bond.

  7. Excision of an intrapericardial immature teratoma in a 26-week premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Hawkins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 26-week premature newborn with an immature intrapericardial teratoma. The patient was transferred from an outside hospital for management of a large mediastinal mass causing respiratory insufficiency. The newborn was supported with the help of a large interdisciplinary team until day of life 22 when he underwent surgical excision. On follow up the infant is doing very well and is one of the youngest survivors to date.

  8. Brief neonatal handling alters sexually dimorphic behaviors in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Kubo, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Yasuo; Aou, Shuji

    2014-03-01

    Several effects of neonatal handling on brain and behavior have been reported. We investigated the effects of neonatal handling on behaviors that have been shown to be sexually dimorphic in rats using an open-field test. "Gender differences" were observed in locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and grooming in the handled group. However, clear gender differences in these behaviors were not observed in the non-handled group. Our findings show that brief daily handling sessions (~ 1 min) in the first 2 weeks of postnatal life increased locomotor activity and exploratory behavior, and that these effects were more pronounced in females. Moreover, many rats in the non-handling group exhibited an increase in defecation relative to the handling group during the 10-min observation period. This suggests that the non-handling group experienced more stress in response to the novel open-field arena, and that this resulted in the absence of gender differences. Notably, this anxiety-related response was attenuated by neonatal handling. Our study underscores the impact of brief neonatal handling on sexually dimorphic behaviors, and indicates that caution should be exercised in controlling for the effects of handling between experimental groups, particularly in neurotoxicological studies that evaluate gender differences.

  9. Taking up the challenge of measuring prolonged pain in (premature) neonates: the COMFORTneo scale seems promising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Monique; Roofthooft, Daniella W E; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Guldemond, Fleur; de Graaf, Joke; Simons, Sinno; de Jager, Youette; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Tibboel, Dick

    2009-09-01

    Pain assessment is essential to tailor intensive care of neonates. The present focus is on acute procedural pain; assessment of pain of longer duration remains a challenge. We therefore tested a modified version of the COMFORT-behavior scale-named COMFORTneo-for its psychometric qualities in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit setting. In a clinical observational study, nurses assessed patients with COMFORTneo and Numeric Rating Scales (NRS) for pain and distress, respectively. Interrater reliability, concurrent validity, and sensitivity to change were calculated as well as sensitivity and specificity for different cut-off scores for subsets of patients. Interrater reliability was good: median linearly weighted Cohen kappa 0.79. Almost 3600 triple ratings were obtained for 286 neonates. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach alpha 0.84 and 0.88). Concurrent validity was demonstrated by adequate and good correlations, respectively, with NRS-pain and NRS-distress: r=0.52 (95% confidence interval 0.44-0.59) and r=0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.64-0.75). COMFORTneo cut-off scores of 14 or higher (score range is 6 to 30) had good sensitivity and specificity (0.81 and 0.90, respectively) using NRS-pain or NRS-distress scores of 4 or higher as criterion. The COMFORTneo showed preliminary reliability. No major differences were found in cut-off values for low birth weight, small for gestational age, neurologic impairment risk levels, or sex. Multicenter studies should focus on establishing concurrent validity with other instruments in a patient group with a high probability of ongoing pain.

  10. Intussusception in a Premature Neonate: A Rare Often Misdiagnosed Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Loukas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal obstruction in neonatal period is an emergency caused by many surgical causes. An extremely rare surgical cause in this group of age is intussusception which can be easily confused with other surgical entities. In several reports, a significant number of the infants who were included in the study population were believed to have necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. We present a rare cause of small intestine obstruction in a preterm female infant that can be easily misdiagnosed and confused preoperatively with other clinical entities particular for this period.

  11. Radiation Exposure to Premature Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgar, Turan; Bor, Dogan [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Onal, Esra; Okumus, Nurullah; Atalay, Yildiz; Turkyilmaz, Canan; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koc, Esin [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this work was to determine the radiation dose received by infants from radiographic exposure and the contribution from scatter radiation due to radiographic exposure of other infants in the same room. We retrospectively evaluated the entrance skin doses (ESDs) and effective doses of 23 infants with a gestational age as low as 28 weeks. ESDs were determined from tube output measurements (ESD{sub TO}) (n = 23) and from the use of thermoluminescent dosimetry (ESD{sub TLD}) (n = 16). Scattered radiation was evaluated using a 5 cm Perspex phantom. Effective doses were estimated from ESD{sub TO} by Monte Carlo computed software and radiation risks were estimated from the effective dose. ESD{sub TO} and ESD{sub TLD} were correlated using linear regression analysis. The mean ESD{sub TO} for the chest and abdomen were 67 muGy and 65 muGy per procedure, respectively. The mean ESD{sub TLD} per radiograph was 70 muGy. The measured scattered radiation range at a 2 m distance from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was (11-17 muGy) per radiograph. Mean effective doses were 16 and 27 muSv per procedure for the chest and abdomen, respectively. ESD{sub TLD} was well correlated with ESD{sub TO} obtained from the total chest and abdomen radiographs for each infant (R2 = 0.86). The radiation risks for childhood cancer estimated from the effective dose were 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 2 x 10{sup -6} and 0.6 x 10{sup -6} to 2.9 x 10{sup -6} for chest and abdomen radiographs, respectively. The results of our study show that neonates received acceptable doses from common radiological examinations. Although the contribution of scatter radiation to the neonatal dose is low, considering the sensitivity of the neonates to radiation, further protective action was performed by increasing the distance of the infants from each other

  12. Abdominal expiratory muscle activity in anesthetized vagotomized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Makito

    2009-05-01

    The pattern of respiratory activity in abdominal muscles was studied in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing, vagotomized neonatal rats at postnatal days 0-3. Anesthesia (2.0% isoflurane, 50% O(2)) depressed breathing and resulted in hypercapnia. Under this condition, abdominal muscles showed discharge late in the expiratory phase (E2 activity) in most rats. As the depth of anesthesia decreased, the amplitude of discharges in the diaphragm and abdominal muscles increased. A small additional burst frequently occurred in abdominal muscles just after the termination of diaphragmatic inspiratory activity (E1 or postinspiratory activity). Since this E1 activity is not often observed in adult rats, the abdominal respiratory pattern likely changes during postnatal development. Anoxia-induced gasping after periodic expiratory activity without inspiratory activity, and in most rats, abdominal expiratory activity disappeared before terminal apnea. These results suggest that a biphasic abdominal motor pattern (a combination of E2 and E1 activity) is a characteristic of vagotomized neonatal rats during normal respiration.

  13. Neonatally induced diabetes: liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Lovizutto Iessi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this sstudy was to evaluate the liver glycogen storage in pregnant rats presenting neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetes and to establish a relation with glycemia and insulin levels. Wistar rats were divided in to two groups: 1 Mild Diabetes (STZ - received streptozotocin (glycemia from 120 to 300 mg/dL, 2 Control - received vehicle (glycemia below 120 mg/dL. At days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy, body weight and glycemia were evaluated. At day 21 of the pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized for blood and liver collection so as to determine insulin and liver glycogen, which showed no changes in the STZ group as compared to the controls. In the STZ group, maternal weight gain were lower as compared to those in the control group. Significantly increased glycemia was observed at days 0 and 14 of the pregnancy in the STZ group. Therefore, neonatally induced diabetes in the rats did not cause metabolic changes that impaired insulin and liver glycogen relation in these rats.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffray, Marie; Semenic, Sonia; Osorio Galeano, Sandra; Ochoa Marín, Sandra Catalina

    2014-01-01

    To explore Colombian health care provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Using a qualitative descriptive design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen neonatal health care providers (HCPs) in Colombia. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participant responses centered on three main themes: 1) establishment of the parent-infant bond, 2) acquisition of parenting skills, and 3) getting ready for the transition from hospital to home. Barreirs to preparing parents for NICU discharge included obstacles to parental visiting in the NICU, communication barriers, difficulties related to the establishment of successful breastfeeding, insufficient human resources and poor links between hospital and community-based resources. Facilitators included the availability of social aids for vulnerable families, 24-hour telephone access to the neonatal units, tailored educational materials and group sessions, continuing education for staff and the community-based Kangaroo Program available to parents post-discharge. Adolescent mothers, indigenous parent and working fathers were identified as particularly challenging to reach and engage in discharge preparation. Neonatal HCPs identified numerous challenges as well as helpful strategies for preparing families for hospital discharge. Additional studies are needed on the experience of neonatal discharge from the perspective of parents of premature infants in Colombia, to help inform optimal interventions for supporting families during the transition from hospital to home.

  15. Barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal unit. Perceptions of health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Raffray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore Colombian health care provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators to preparing families with premature infants for discharge home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Methodology. Using a qualitative descriptive design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen neonatal health care providers (HCPs in Colombia. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Participant responses centered on three main themes: 1 establishment of the parent-infant bond, 2 acquisition of parenting skills, and 3 getting ready for the transition from hospital to home. Barreirs to preparing parents for NICU discharge included obstacles to parental visiting in the NICU, communication barriers, difficulties related to the establishment of successful breastfeeding, insufficient human resources and poor links between hospital and community-based resources. Facilitators included the availability of social aids for vulnerable families, 24-hour telephone access to the neonatal units, tailored educational materials and group sessions, continuing education for staff and the community-based Kangaroo Program available to parents post-discharge. Adolescent mothers, indigenous parent and working fathers were identified as particularly challenging to reach and engage in discharge preparation. Conclusion. Neonatal HCPs identified numerous challenges as well as helpful strategies for preparing families for hospital discharge. Additional studies are needed on the experience of neonatal discharge from the perspective of parents of premature infants in Colombia, to help inform optimal interventions for supporting families during the transition from hospital to home.

  16. Impact of prematurity and immigration on neonatal screening for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Pla, Carolina; Goicoechea, Mercedes; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Juste, Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Background Others have described a relationship between hemoglobin A levels and gestational age, gender and ethnicity. However, studies are needed to determine normal cut-off points considering these factors. To address this issue we designed a study to determine the percentiles of normality of neonatal hemoglobin A levels taking these factors into account. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 16,025 samples for sickle cell disease screening in the province of Alicante, Spain, which has a high immigration rate. The primary variable was hemoglobin A, and the secondary variables were gender, gestational age (preterm and full term) and maternal origin (Spain, the rest of Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Asia). Percentiles of normality (1 and 99) were obtained by origin, gender and gestational age using quantile regression models and bootstrap samples. The association between these percentiles of normality and altered levels (≥1%) of hemoglobin E was analyzed. We obtained the percentiles of normality (1 and 99) for each maternal origin, gender and gestational age. Results Of a total of 88 possible E carriers, 65 had above-normal hemoglobin A levels (74%). The levels of normality for hemoglobin A varied greatly according to the maternal origin and gestational age. Conclusion With the levels of normality that we established it is possible to discard samples with unrecorded blood transfusions. Our methodology could be applied to other diseases in the neonatal screening. PMID:28170418

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Chen; Deng Xun; Ya-Cong Wang; Bin Wang; Shao-Hui Geng; Hui Chen; Yan-Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South of China,respectively.Methods:We studied data concerning 472 infants with gestational age (GA) ≤34 weeks or birth weight (BW) ≤2000 g who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University and the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang between January 1,2011 and December 31,2011.Clinical information about perinatal neonates was collected and was confirmed by reviewing medical charts.The incidence and severity of ROP were assessed in the screened population.Main outcome measures are the incidence and severity of ROP.The relationship of clinical risk factors and the development of ROP were analyzed.Results:The overall incidence of ROP was 12.7%,and the overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 2.3%; 9.4% of infants in Zhujiang Hospital had ROP compared to 15.0% infants in the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang developed ROP,and the difference is statistically significant.ROP was significantly associated with GA (odds ratio [OR]:0.77 [0.62-0.95],P =0.015),BW (OR:0.998 [0.996-0.999],P =0.008),maternal supplemental oxygen administration before and during delivery (OR:4.27 [1.21-15.10],P =0.024) and preeclampsia (OR:6.07 [1.73-21.36] P =0.005).The risk factors for ROP are different in two hospitals.In Zhujiang Hospital,BW is the independent risk factors for ROP while GA,BW and preeclampsia in the Fourth Hospital in Shijiazhuang Conclusions:Retinopathy ofprematurity incidence is different based on area.Incidence of ROP is still high in China.More efforts need to prevent ROP.

  18. Effects of parenteral L-carnitine supplementation on fat metabolism and nutrition in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, C M; DeBrie, K L; Hug, G; Landrigan, E; Taylor, B J

    1995-02-01

    The effects of parenteral L-carnitine supplementation on fat metabolism, nutrient intake, and plasma and erythrocyte carnitine concentrations were studied in 43 very low birth weight infants. Infants were randomly assigned to control or carnitine-supplemented (50 mumol/kg per day) groups within two weight categories: group 1, 750 to 1000 gm, and group 2, 1001 to 1500 gm. Plasma total, free, and acyl carnitine levels, erythrocyte carnitine levels, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and triglyceride levels, and total fat intake were monitored weekly until 50% of total caloric intake was met enterally. Neonates receiving carnitine had higher plasma carnitine levels than control groups (total carnitine: group 1, 75.2 +/- 22.9 vs 9.6 +/- 2.7 mmol/ml; group 2, 61.6 +/- 31.2 vs 13.0 +/- 9.2 nmol/ml). Levels of beta-OH-butyrate decreased from baseline in control neonates (group 1, 0.12 +/- 0.06 to 0.03 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; group 2, 0.11 +/- 0.03 to 0.05 +/- 0.02 mmol/L); they remained unchanged in supplemented groups. Thus ketogenesis appeared less impaired in infants receiving supplements. Supplemented group 2 tolerated more fat than control group 2; triglyceride levels remained acceptable in all groups. Carnitine group 2 had greater weight gain than control group 2 during the first 2 weeks of life. We conclude that very low birth weight infants requiring prolonged parenteral nutrition have carnitine deficiency with impaired ketogenesis. Parenteral administration of carnitine appears to alleviate this metabolic disturbance.

  19. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  20. Perceptions And Actions Of Healthcare Professionals Regarding The Mother-child Relationship With Premature Babies In An Intermediate Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury C.; Parpinelli M.A.; Makuch M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mother-child interaction after delivery may be hampered when the newborn baby is hospitalized. The objective of the study was to understand perceptions and actions of healthcare professionals (HCPs), working in an intermediate neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), regarding mother-child relationship of hospitalized premature babies in the first weeks after delivery and the professionals' support for the development of this relationship within an NICU environment. The psychoanal...

  1. Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO(2), CBF index, and rCMRO(2) in human premature neonates' brains in the first six weeks of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Carp, Stefan A; Surova, Andrea; Patel, Megha; Boas, David A; Grant, P Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2010-03-01

    With the causes of perinatal brain injuries still unclear and the probable role of hemodynamic instability in their etiology, bedside monitoring of neonatal cerebral hemodynamics with standard values as a function of age are needed. In this study, we combined quantitative frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) measures of cerebral tissue oxygenation (StO(2)) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) with diffusion correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measures of a cerebral blood flow index (CBF(ix)) to test the validity of the CBV-CBF relationship in premature neonates and to estimate cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO(2)) with or without the CBF(ix) measurement. We measured 11 premature neonates (28-34 weeks gestational age) without known neurological issues, once a week from one to six weeks of age. In nine patients, cerebral blood velocities from the middle cerebral artery were collected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) and compared with DCS values. Results show a steady decrease in StO(2) during the first six weeks of life while CBV remains stable, and a steady increase in CBF(ix). rCMRO(2) estimated from FD-NIRS remains constant but shows wide interindividual variability. rCMRO(2) calculated from FD-NIRS and DCS combined increased by 40% during the first six weeks of life with reduced interindividual variability. TCD and DCS values are positively correlated. In conclusion, FD-NIRS combined with DCS offers a safe and quantitative bedside method to assess CBV, StO(2), CBF, and rCMRO(2) in the premature brain, facilitating individual follow-up and comparison among patients. A stable CBV-CBF relationship may not be valid for premature neonates. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10 and handled (N = 11. Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip, the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11 was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10. Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.

  3. Investigation of an Equivalence of Pain Assessment by a ]apanese Version of the Premature Infant Pain Profile among Neonatal Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    小澤, 未緒; 砂金, 直子; 菅田, 勝也; 平田, 倫生; 草川, 功; 鈴木, 智恵子

    2012-01-01

    日本語版 Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP)の臨床での活用可能性を検討することを目的として,異なる施設に所属する Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)看護師8名を対象とし,28の同一採血場面を日本語版PIPPで採点した場合の評価者間信頼性を検討した。また,NICU勤務経験5年以上の群と5年未満の群で疼痛評価に違いがあるのかも検討した。評価者間信頼性は先行研究よりも低かったが,NICU勤務経験5年以上の群と5年未満の群でPIPP総得点の有意な違いはなかった。これらのことから,日本語版PIPPは臨床における新生児の疼痛評価に有用であると考えられた。...

  4. Abnormal TREC-Based Newborn Screening Test in a Premature Neonate with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition of the Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kostadinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, a primary immunodeficiency arising from variable defects in lymphocyte development and survival, is characterized by significant deficiency of thymus derived (T- lymphocytes and variable defects in the B-lymphocyte population. Newborn screening for SCID is based on detection of low numbers of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs by real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. This screening allows for early identification of individuals with SCID and other disorders characterized by T-lymphopenia. Higher rates of abnormal screens are commonly seen in premature and critically ill neonates, often representing false positives. It is possible that many abnormal screens seen in these populations are result of conditions that are characterized by systemic inflammation or stress, possibly in the context of stress-induced thymic involution. We present a case of a male infant delivered at 27 weeks, 6 days of gestation, with severe intrauterine growth restriction who had an abnormal TREC screen and a massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD of the placenta. This association has not been reported previously. We are raising the awareness to the fact that conditions, such as MPFD, that can create adverse intrauterine environment are capable of causing severe stress-induced thymic involution of the fetus which can present with abnormal TREC results on newborn screening.

  5. Iatrogenic acute cardiac tamponade during percutaneous removal of a fractured peripherally inserted central catheter in a premature neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghui, Zou; Hujun, Cui; Li, Ma; Weidan, Chen; Yanqin, Cui; Xinxin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiac tamponade (ACT) is a life-threatening complication associated with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in premature neonates. We present a case of ACT in a 4-day-old male infant. On the second admission day, a PICC was inserted. After 2.5 months, chest radiography showed PICC fracture, and its distal portion had migrated into the right pulmonary artery. Percutaneous removal through cardiac catheterization was attempted. However, right ventriculography demonstrated intrapericardial spillage of contrast agents, and iatrogenic ACT was confirmed. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was immediately started with open-chest cardiac massage. Further surgical exploration revealed right atrial appendage perforation. After 25-min CPR, the patient restored spontaneous circulation, and removal of the foreign bodies was performed. The post-operative course was uneventful. PICC fracture is an uncommon complication, but may be life-threatening. Precaution should be taken to avoid ACT during removal of a broken PICC. Once the tamponade is diagnosed, immediate interventions are mandatory.

  6. Neonatal caffeine exposure and seizure susceptibility in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, R; Dunham, L

    1995-08-01

    Early developmental exposure to caffeine in rats results in changes in brain excitability that persist to adulthood. The mechanism of these alterations is unknown. To identify potential neurotransmitter systems involved, we exposed neonatal rats to caffeine and determined seizure thresholds for chemoconvulsants active at different CNS receptors in the adult animal. Rats were unhandled (NH) or received by gavage (0.05 ml/10 g) either vehicle (water) or caffeine (15-20 mg/kg/day) for postnatal days 2-6. At age 70-90 days, each rat was infused intravenously (i.v.) with picrotoxin (PIC), bicuculline (BIC) [convulsants acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine (GABA/BDZ) receptor], pentylenetetrazol [PTZ, possibly acting at both GABA/BDZ and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors], caffeine (acting at adenosine receptors), strychnine (STR, acting at glycine receptors), or kainic acid (KA, acting at the NMDA receptor). Seizure thresholds were analyzed as a function of neonatal treatment and sex. Thresholds for caffeine, PTZ, PIC, and KA were increased as a function of neonatal caffeine exposure (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.005, respectively). The thresholds for BIC and STR were not altered. There were also gender differences in seizure susceptibility. Thresholds for seizures produced by BIC, caffeine, PIC, and STR were higher in females (p = 0.005, 0.005, 0.001, and 0.0001, respectively), but were not different for seizures caused by PTZ. These results suggest that early developmental exposure to caffeine affects later seizure susceptibility. Moreover, some of these effects are gender specific.

  7. Differential expression of parvalbumin interneurons in neonatal phencyclidine treated rats and socially isolated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical...... cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following...

  8. Dual role of GABA in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilov, I; Dzhala, V; Ben-Ari, Y; Khazipov, R

    1999-11-01

    The effects of modulators of GABA-A receptors on neuronal network activity were studied in the neonatal (postnatal days 0-5) rat hippocampus in vitro. Under control conditions, the physiological pattern of activity of the neonatal hippocampal network was characterized by spontaneous network-driven giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). The GABA-A receptor agonist isoguvacine (1-2 microM) and the allosteric modulator diazepam (2 microM) induced biphasic responses: initially the frequency of GDPs increased 3 to 4 fold followed by blockade of GDPs and desynchronization of the network activity. The GABA-A receptor antagonists bicuculline (10 microM) and picrotoxin (100 microM) blocked GDPs and induced glutamate (AMPA and NMDA)-receptor-mediated interictal- and ictal-like activities in the hippocampal slices and the intact hippocampus. These data suggest that at early postnatal ages GABA can exert a dual - both excitatory and inhibitory - action on the network activity.

  9. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonatal Patients with Birth Weight Greater than 1500 g in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsing Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients with birth weight (BW greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined. Methods: The study included 104 eyes from 54 ROP patients who had BW greater than 1500 g from 1981 to 2008. Demographic information, disease courses, ophthalmic outcomes, and possible systemic risk factors were recorded. The infants were divided into groups of mild and severe ROP for a risk factor analysis. Results: The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31 ± 1.3 weeks, and the mean BW was 1675 ± 249 g. Mild ROP regressed in 94 eyes (90%, and 10 eyes (10% developed severe ROP. After various treatments, the regression rates for prethreshold or threshold ROP (n = 8 and stage 4 ROP (n = 2 were 100% and 50%, respectively. Forty-eight patients (85% had at least three associated systemic risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with an intraventricular hemorrhage were found to have an increased chance of developing severe ROP, especially those with BW greater than 1500 g (p = 0.015. There was also a significant association between patients who had severe ROP and an increased risk of having cerebral palsy (CP at 1.5 years of age (p = 0.013. Conclusion: The majority of patients with BW greater than 1500 g developed mild ROP. However, advanced ROP with poor visual outcome was also encountered in some patients.

  10. Neonatal inhalatory anesthetic exposure: reproductive changes in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, A C; Pereira, O C M

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the effects of an inhalatory anesthetic (ethyl ether) during the neonatal period of brain sexual differentiation on the later fertility and sexual behavior of male rats. Animals were exposed to ethyl ether immediately after birth. At adulthood, body weight, testes wet weight, and plasma testosterone levels were not affected; however, neonatal exposure to ether showed alterations on male fertility: a decrease in the number of spermatids and spermatozoa, an increase in the transit time of cauda epididymal spermatozoa and a decrease in daily sperm production. An alteration of sexual behavior was also observed: decreased male sexual behavior and appearance of homosexual behavior when the male rats were castrated and pretreated with exogenous estrogen. Probably, the ether delayed or reduced the testosterone peak of the sexual differentiation period, altering the processes of masculinization and defeminization of the hypothalamus. Our results indicate that perinatal exposure to ethyl ether during the critical period of male brain sexual differentiation, acting as endocrine disruptors, has a long-term effect on the fertility and sexual behavior of male rats, suggesting endocrine disruption through incomplete masculinization and defeminization of the central nervous system.

  11. Sex Differences in Behavioral Outcomes Following Temperature Modulation During Induced Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

  12. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  13. Expression and function of Delta-like ligand 4 in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyang Shi; Xun Li; You Li; Cunwen Pei; Hongwei Yang; Xiaolong Chen

    2013-01-01

    The Delta-like ligand 4/Notch signaling pathway was shown to participate in the process of retinal development and angiogenesis. However, the function of the Delta-like ligand 4/Notch signaling pathway in retinopathy of prematurity requires further study. Retinopathy of prematurity was induced in 5-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to hyperoxia for 7 days, and then returned to room air. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot revealed that Delta-like ligand 4 levels decreased at postnatal day 12 and increased at postnatal day 17 in retinopathy of prematurity rats. Flat-mounted adenosine diphosphatase stained retina and hematoxylin-eosin stained retinal tissue slices showed that the clock hour scores and the nuclei counts in retinopathy of prematurity rats were significantly different compared to normal control rats. After retinopathy of prematurity rats were intravitreally injected with Delta-like ligand 4 monoclonal antibody to inhibit the Delta-like ligand 4/Notch signaling pathway, there was a significant increase in the severity of retinal neovascularization (clock hours) in the intravitreally injected eyes. The nuclei count was highly correlated with the clock hour score. These results suggest that Delta-like ligand 4/Notch signaling plays an essential role in the process of physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the retina.

  14. ADHD-like hyperactivity, with no attention deficit, in adult rats after repeated hypoxia during the equivalent of extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oorschot, Dorothy E; Voss, Logan; Covey, Matthew V; Bilkey, David K; Saunders, Sarah E

    2007-11-30

    The most common behavioural disorder seen in children and adolescents born extremely prematurely is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The hyperactive/impulsive sub-type of ADHD or the inattentive sub-type or the hyperactive/impulsive/inattentive sub-type can be evident. These sub-types of ADHD can persist into adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of a new immature rat model of repeated hypoxic exposure to these behavioural characteristics of extreme prematurity. More specifically, this study aimed to measure ADHD-like hyperactivity in response to delayed reward, and inattention, in repeated hypoxic versus repeated normoxic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either repeated hypoxia or repeated normoxia during postnatal days (PN) 1-3. The rat brain during PN1-3 is generally considered to be developmentally equivalent to the human brain during extreme prematurity. The rats were then behaviourally tested at 16 months-of-age on a multiple component fixed interval-extinction test. This test detects ADHD-like hyperactivity in response to delayed reward, as well as inattention. It was found that the repeated hypoxic rats exhibited ADHD-like hyperactivity in response to delayed reward, but no attention deficit, when compared to repeated normoxic rats. These findings provide a new animal model to investigate the biological mechanisms and treatment of ADHD-like hyperactivity due to repeated hypoxia during the equivalent of extreme prematurity.

  15. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  16. Role of Nitric Oxide in Shiga Toxin-2-Induced Premature Delivery of Dead Fetuses in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections could be one of the causes of fetal morbimortality in pregnant women. The main virulence factors of STEC are Shiga toxin type 1 and/or 2 (Stx1, Stx2). We previously reported that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of rats in the late stage of pregnancy with culture supernatant from recombinant E. coli expressing Stx2 and containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces premature delivery of dead fetuses. It has been reported that LPS may combine with Stx2 to facilitate vascular injury, which may in turn lead to an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether NO is involved in the effects of Stx2 on pregnancy. Pregnant rats were i.p. injected with culture supernatant from recombinant E. coli containing Stx2 and LPS (sStx2) on day 15 of gestation. In addition, some rats were injected with aminoguanidine (AG), an inducible isoform inhibitor of NO synthase (iNOS), 24 h before and 4 h after sStx2 injection. NO production was measured by NOS activity and iNOS expression by Western blot analysis. A significant increase in NO production and a high iNOS expression was observed in placental tissues from rats injected with sStx2 containing 0.7 ng and 2 ng Stx2/g body weight and killed 12 h after injection. AG caused a significant reduction of sStx2 effects on the feto-maternal unit, but did not prevent premature delivery. Placental tissues from rats treated with AG and sStx2 presented normal histology that was indistinguishable from the controls. Our results reveal that Stx2-induced placental damage and fetus mortality is mediated by an increase in NO production and that AG is able to completely reverse the Stx2 damages in placental tissues, but not to prevent premature delivery, thus suggesting other mechanisms not yet determined could be involved. PMID:21206910

  17. Effects of hindlimb unloading on neuromuscular development of neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstorf, B. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L.; Reiser, P. M.; Sedlak, F. R.; Wong-Riley, M. T.; Riley, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that hindlimb suspension unloading of 8-day-old neonatal rats would disrupt the normal development of muscle fiber types and the motor innervation of the antigravity (weightbearing) soleus muscles but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Five rats were suspended 4.5 h and returned 1.5 h to the dam for nursing on a 24 h cycle for 9 days. To control for isolation from the dam, the remaining five littermates were removed on the same schedule but not suspended. Another litter of 10 rats housed in the same room provided a vivarium control. Fibers were typed by myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and immunostaining for embryonic, slow, fast IIA and fast IIB isomyosins. The percentage of multiple innervation and the complexity of singly-innervated motor terminal endings were assessed in silver/cholinesterase stained sections. Unique to the soleus, unloading accelerated production of fast IIA myosin, delayed expression of slow myosin and retarded increases in standardized muscle weight and fiber size. Loss of multiple innervation was not delayed. However, fewer than normal motor nerve endings achieved complexity. Suspended rats continued unloaded hindlimb movements. These findings suggest that motor neurons resolve multiple innervation through nerve impulse activity, whereas the postsynaptic element (muscle fiber) controls endplate size, which regulates motor terminal arborization. Unexpectedly, in the EDL of unloaded rats, transition from embryonic to fast myosin expression was retarded. Suspension-related foot drop, which stretches and chronically loads EDL, may have prevented fast fiber differentiation. These results demonstrate that neuromuscular development of both weightbearing and non-weightbearing muscles in rats is dependent upon and modulated by hindlimb loading.

  18. Neurobehavioral Deficits in Progressive Experimental Hydrocephalus in Neonatal Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, F E; Shokunbi, M T

    2017-03-06

    Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and severity of ventriculomegaly in an experimental neonatal hydrocephalic rat model. Hydrocephalus was induced in three weeks old albino rats by intracisternal injection of kaolin while controls received sterile water injection. They were sacrificed in batches at one, four and eight weeks post-injection after neurobehavioral tests (forelimb grip strength, open field and Morris water maze tests) were performed. The hydrocephalic rats were also categorized into mild, moderate and severe hydrocephalus based on ventricular size. The indices of muscular strength and vertical movements in severely hydrocephalic rats were 28.05 ± 5.19 seconds and 7.29 ± 2.71 rearings respectively, compared to controls (75.68 ± 8.58 seconds and 17.09 ± 1.25 rearings respectively). At eight weeks, vertical movements were significantly reduced in hydrocephalic rats compared to controls (3.14 ± 1.3 vs 13 ± 4.11 rearings). At one week, indices of learning and memory were significantly reduced in hydrocephalic rats, compared to controls (0.89±0.31 vs 3.88±1.01 crossings), but at 8 weeks, the indices were similar (2.56 ± 0.41 vs 3.33 ± 0.71 crossings). Untreated hydrocephalus is accompanied by decline in motor functions which increase with duration and severity of ventriculomegaly. However, cognitive deficits appear to partially recover.

  19. The Effect of the Educational Program on Iranian Premature Infants’ Parental Stress in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Beheshtipour, Noushin; Baharlu, Seyedeh Marzieh; Montaseri, Sedigheh; Razavinezhad Ardakani, Seyed Mostajab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) leads to a lot of stress and shock to the parents. Nurses, as the primary sources of information, could play an important role in reducing their stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational program on the premature infants’ parental stress in NICU. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial study with a pre-and post-test and follow up design was conducted from February 2013 to March 2014...

  20. Human milk oligosaccharides are differentially metabolised in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantscher-Krenn, Evelyn; Marx, Carolin; Bode, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are complex glycans that are highly abundant in human milk, but not in infant formula. Accumulating data, mostly from in vitro and animal studies, indicate that HMO benefit the breast-fed infant in multiple ways and in different target organs. In vitro incubation studies suggest that HMO can resist the low pH in the infant's stomach and enzymatic degradation in the small intestine and reach the colon in the same composition as in the mother's milk. The oligosaccharide composition in faeces of breast-fed infants is, however, very different from that in the mother's milk, raising questions on when, where and how HMO are metabolised between ingestion and excretion. To answer some of these questions, we established a pulse-chase model in neonatal rats and analysed HMO profiles to track their composition over time in five consecutive equal-length intestinal segments as well as in serum and urine. The relative abundance of individual HMO changed significantly within the first 2 h after feeding and already in the segments of the small intestine prior to reaching the colon. Only 3'-sialyllactose, the major oligosaccharide in rat milk, and hardly any other HMO appeared in the serum and the urine of HMO-fed rats, indicating a selective absorption of rat milk-specific oligosaccharides. The present results challenge the paradigm that HMO reach the colon and other target organs in the same composition as originally secreted with the mother's milk. The present results also raise questions on whether rats and other animals represent suitable models to study the effects of HMO.

  1. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. In our present study, we established cyclophosphamide- (CTX- induced POF rat model and elucidated its effect on ovarian function. We detected the serum estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone, and anti-Müllerian hormone of mice models by ELISA and evaluated their folliculogenesis by histopathology examination. Our study revealed that CTX administration could severely disturb hormone secretion and influence folliculogenesis in rat. This study also detected ovarian cells apoptosis by deoxy-UTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL and demonstrated marked ovarian cells apoptosis in rat models following CTX administration. In order to explore the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs in POF treatment, the above indexes were used to evaluate ovarian function. We found that human UCMSCs transplantation recovered disturbed hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in POF rat, in addition to reduced ovarian cell apoptosis. We also tracked transplanted UCMSCs in ovaries by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The results manifested that the transplanted human UCMSCs could reside in ovarian tissues and could survive for a comparatively long time without obvious proliferation. Our present study provides new insights into the great clinical potential of human UCMSCs in POF treatment.

  2. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus. PMID:27656611

  3. Effect of Amygdalin on the Proliferation of Hyperoxia-exposed Type Ⅱ Alveolar Epithelial Cells Isolated from Premature Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝华平; 常立文; 李文斌; 刘汉楚

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in AEC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 μmol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 μmol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 μmol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  4. Effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of hyperoxia-exposed type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaping; Chang, Liwen; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Hanchu

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in A-EC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 micromol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 micromol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 micromol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  5. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  6. Development of Chemosensitivity in Neurons from the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (NTS) of Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Susan C.; Nichols, Nicole L.; Ritucci, Nick A.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the development of chemosensitivity during the neonatal period in rat Nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurons. We determined the percentage of neurons activated by hypercapnia (15% CO2) and assessed the magnitude of the response by calculating the chemosensitivity index (CI). There were no differences in the percentage of neurons that were inhibited (9%) or activated (44.8%) by hypercapnia or in the magnitude of the activated response (CI 164±4.9%) in NTS neurons from neonatal rats of all ages. To assess the degree of intrinsic chemosensitivity in these neurons we used chemical synaptic block medium and the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. Chemical synaptic block medium slightly decreased basal firing rate but did not affect the percentage of NTS neurons that responded to hypercapnia at any neonatal age. However, in neonates aged neonates, chemical synaptic block medium increased CI. Carbenoxolone did not significantly alter the number of NTS neurons activated by hypercapnia in neonatal rats of any age. In summary, the response of NTS neurons from neonatal rats appears to be intrinsic and largely unchanged throughout early development. In young neonates (

  7. Differential expression of parvalbumin in neonatal phencyclidine-treated rats and socially isolated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaalund, Sanne S; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian V; Fabricius, Katrine; Karlsen, Anna S; Secher, Thomas; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2013-02-01

    Decreased parvalbumin expression is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has been associated with abnormal cognitive processing and decreased network specificity. It is not known whether this decrease is due to reduced expression of the parvalbumin protein or degeneration of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study, we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical fractionator, we counted neurons, PV(+) interneurons, and glial cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC). In addition, we quantified the mRNA level of parvalbumin in the mPFC. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of PV(+) interneurons (p = 0.021) and glial cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats, but not in SI rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following phencyclidine (PCP) treatment, we suggest that the decreased number of counted PV(+) interneurons represents a reduced parvalbumin protein expression below immunohistochemical detection limit rather than a true cell loss. Furthermore, these results indicate that the effect of neonatal PCP treatment is not limited to neuronal populations.

  8. Cardiac and plasma lipid profiles in response to acute hypoxia in neonatal and young adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raff Hershel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological and biochemical responses to acute hypoxia have not been fully characterized in neonates. Fatty acids and lipids play an important role in most aspects of cardiac function. Methods We performed comprehensive lipid profiling analysis to survey the changes that occur in heart tissue and plasma of neonatal and young adult rats exposed to hypoxia for 2 h, and following 2 h of recovery from hypoxia. Results Cardiac and plasma concentrations of short-chain acylcarnitines, and most plasma long-chain fatty acids, were decreased in hypoxic neonates. Following recovery from hypoxia, concentrations of propionylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine were increased in neonatal hearts, while oleylcarnitine and linoleylcarnitine concentrations were increased in neonatal plasma. The concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines were increased in the hearts and plasma of hypoxic young adult rats; these metabolites returned to baseline values following recovery from hypoxia. Conclusion There are differential effects of acute hypoxia on cardiac and plasma lipid profiles with maturation from the neonate to the young adult rat. Changes to neonatal cardiac and plasma lipid profiles during hypoxia likely allowed for greater metabolic and physiologic flexibility and increased chances for survival. Persistent alterations in the neonatal cardiac lipid profile following recovery from hypoxia may play a role in the development of rhythm disturbances.

  9. Development of chemosensitivity in neurons from the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Susan C; Nichols, Nicole L; Ritucci, Nick A; Dean, Jay B; Putnam, Robert W

    2009-03-31

    We studied the development of chemosensitivity during the neonatal period in rat nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurons. We determined the percentage of neurons activated by hypercapnia (15% CO(2)) and assessed the magnitude of the response by calculating the chemosensitivity index (CI). There were no differences in the percentage of neurons that were inhibited (9%) or activated (44.8%) by hypercapnia or in the magnitude of the activated response (CI 164+/-4.9%) in NTS neurons from neonatal rats of all ages. To assess the degree of intrinsic chemosensitivity in these neurons we used chemical synaptic block medium and the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. Chemical synaptic block medium slightly decreased basal firing rate but did not affect the percentage of NTS neurons that responded to hypercapnia at any neonatal age. However, in neonates aged NTS neurons activated by hypercapnia in neonatal rats of any age. In summary, the response of NTS neurons from neonatal rats appears to be intrinsic and largely unchanged throughout early development. In young neonates (NTS neurons that respond to hypercapnia or the magnitude of that response.

  10. Neonatal administration of citalopram delays somatic maturation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.B.J. Deiró

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the somatic maturation of neonate rats treated during the suckling period with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Groups with 6 male neonates were randomly assigned to different treatments 24 h after birth. Each litter was suckled by one of the dams until the 21st postnatal day. Body weight, head axis and tail length were measured daily from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day. Time of ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, incisor eruption, and eye opening was determined. Pups received 5 mg (Cit5, 10 mg (Cit10 or 20 mg/kg (Cit20 citalopram sc, or saline (0.9% NaCl, w/v, sc. Compared to saline, body weight was lower (24.04%, P < 0.01 for Cit10 from the 10th to the 21st day and for Cit20 from the 6th to the 21st day (38.19%, P < 0.01. Tail length was reduced in the Cit20 group (15.48%, P < 0.001 from the 8th to the 21st day. A reduction in mediolateral head axis (10.53%, P < 0.05 was observed from the 11th to the 21st day in Cit10 and from the 6th to the 21st day in Cit20 (13.16%, P < 0.001. A reduction in anteroposterior head axis was also observed in the Cit20 group (5.28%, P < 0.05 from the 13th to the 21stday. Conversely, this axis showed accelerated growth from the 12th to the 21stday in the Cit5 group (13.05%, P < 0.05. Auditory conduit opening was delayed in the Cit5 and Cit20 groups and incisor eruption was delayed in all citalopram groups. These findings show that citalopram injected during suckling to rats induces body alterations and suggest that the activity of the serotoninergic system participates in growth mechanisms.

  11. Dificuldades maternas no processo de aleitamento materno de prematuros em uma UTI neonatal Las dificultades maternas en el proceso de amamantamiento materno de prematuros en una UTI neonato Mother's difficulties in breastfeeding premature babies in the neonatal ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Olívia Andreo Serra

    2004-08-01

    necesario capacitar los profesionales hospitalarios y implantar protocolos de intervención, con vistas a las experiencias y necesidades maternas y la articulación entre las acciones intrahospitalarias y interinstitucionales.This study aimed to describe the care and difficulties mothers face when breastfeeding their premature babies at a neonatal intensive care unit (ICU. Therefore, a qualitative approach was adopted. Data were obtained through structured interviews, which were recorded with five mothers of premature babies under 2,000g who were assisted at the neonatal ICU in Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. The results revealed five subthemes: maintaining milk production by milking, facing discomfort during the stay at the neonatal ICU, living with medical food procedures for premature babies, facing the fragility of the premature baby and the neonatal ICU environment and needing logistic support for breastfeeding. A lack of systematic interventions was observed to stimulate breastfeeding while mothers and their premature babies are in hospital. Hospital professionals need to be trained and intervention protocols have to be implanted, in view of the maternal experiences and needs and the articulation between intrahospital and interinstitutional actions.

  12. Computational tool for morphological analysis of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Ruth C R; Cestari, Idágene A; Cestari, Ismar N

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a semiautomatic myocyte edge-detector using digital image processing. The algorithm was developed in Matlab 6.0 using the SDC Morphology Toolbox. Its conceptual basis is the mathematical morphology theory together with the watershed and Euclidean distance transformations. The algorithm enables the user to select cells within an image for automatic detection of their borders and calculation of their surface areas; these areas are determined by adding the pixels within each myocyte's boundaries. The algorithm was applied to images of cultured ventricular myocytes from neonatal rats. The edge-detector allowed the identification and quantification of morphometric alterations in cultured isolated myocytes induced by 72 hours of exposure to a hypertrophic agent (50 μM phenylephrine). There was a significant increase in the mean surface area of the phenylephrine-treated cells compared with the control cells (p<;0.05), corresponding to cellular hypertrophy of approximately 50%. In conclusion, this edge-detector provides a rapid, repeatable and accurate measurement of cell surface areas in a standardized manner. Other possible applications include morphologic measurement of other types of cultured cells and analysis of time-related morphometric changes in adult cardiac myocytes.

  13. Effect of Maternal Diabetes on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pregnant mothers, maternal diabetes occurs when pancreas can't produce enough insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels in the mother and subsequently in the fetus. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal diabetes on cerebellum of offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM, which was carried out at the veterinary faculty of Shiraz University in 2007-2008. Methods: This was an experimental study that included sixteen normal adult female rats divided in two groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by Alloxan agent. Both groups became pregnant by natural mating . At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth, the cerebellum of all offsprings were collected and the weight of neonates was also measured. After producing histological slides, Olympus BX51 microscope and ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ Olysia softwarwere used. Various histological parameters used included gray and white matters thicknesses (µ, the number of cells in gray and white matter separately per unit and the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Results: Cerebellar parameters decreased in ODM as compared to the control group. The body weight of ODM was significantly more than that of the control group (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Maternal hyperglycaemia exhibited deleterious effects on cerebellum during fetal life, which remained persistent during postneonatal period. Maternal diabetes also resulted in reduction of number of cells and thicknesses of both gray and white matter.

  14. Clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in foals with neonatal Equine herpesvirus-1 infection compared with septic and premature foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, G; Ainsworth, D M; Erb, H N; Del Piero, F; Miller, M; Wilkins, P A; Palmer, J; Frazer, M

    1999-09-01

    A retrospective multicentre study comparing historical, clinical, haematological, acid-base and biochemical findings of foals with Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, septicaemia or prematurity was performed to determine if early diagnosis of EHV-1 foals was possible. Fifty-three foals were studied and were assigned to one of 2 groups: herpes positive (n = 14) or herpes negative (n = 39). The latter group included 20 septic, 11 premature, and 8 premature and septic foals. The presence of herpes antigen was confirmed by immunoperoxidase histochemical staining of tissues from necropsied foals. A nonparametric statistical analysis followed by a backwards elimination logistic regression was performed to establish a model at a P value of herpes positive foals died, while 47% (9/19) of the septic foals survived. Based upon our analysis, herpes positive foals were more likely to have total white blood cell counts less than 3 x 10(9)/l and to be icteric as compared to the septic and premature foals. Despite profound hepatic necrosis in the herpes positive foals, liver enzymes were not elevated and were not significantly different from the controls.

  15. Persistence of clones of coagulase-negative staphylococci among premature neonates in neonatal intensive care units: two-center study of bacterial genotyping and patient risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Vermont (Clementien); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); A. Fleer; P. de Man (Peter); R. de Groot (Ronald); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1 January 1995 until 1 January 1996, we studied the molecular epidemiology of blood isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) of the Sophia Children's Hospital (SCH; Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and the Wilhelmi

  16. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY SCREENING OF 500 INFANTS IN A LEVEL II NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AT A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the leading cause of infant blindness and predominantly affects premature, low birth weight babies.1 India and other middle-income countries are said to be suffering from the ‘third epidemic’. ROP is multi-factorial and early detection and treatment of threshold ROP with timely laser treatment results in excellent outcome.3-8 OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the yield of ROP in a level II neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at a Government Medical College Hospital in Mandya district. 2. To determine disease characteristics and outcome of treatment. METHODOLOGY: The study is a prospective analysis of infants admitted during March 1st 2009 and November 30th, 2011(33 months at the NICU of Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS Hospital. All infants weighing neonatal care, a collaborative, timely and appropriate screening strategy is necessary in the community to prevent ROP blindness in rural infants.

  17. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a premature baby include pneumonia (a lung infection), sepsis (a blood infection) and meningitis (an infection in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord). What birth defects most often cause neonatal death? The most common birth defects that cause ...

  18. [Effects of acupuncture on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in rats with premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Yu, Bin; Chen, Jia; Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang Jiali; Huang, Fasen; Lin, Yuee; Wang, Mengwei; Zhang, Yupei; Wei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of acupuncture and medication on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in rats with premature ovarian failure. Ten of fifty SPF-grade female SD rats were randomly selected into a normal group, and the remaining 40 rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of cyclophospha mide (30 mg/kg) for consecutive 5 days to establish rat model of premature ovarian failure. Thirty five successful rat models were randomly divided into a model group (9 cases), a medication group (9 cases), an acupuncture group A (9 cases) and an acupuncture group B (8 cases). The rats in the model group and normal group did not receive any treatment. The rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of diethylstil bestrol, once a day. The rats in the acupuncture group A and acupuncture group B were respectively treated with acupuncture at different acupoints, twice a day. All the treatment was given for 4 weeks. After the treatment, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to test the levels of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteotropic hormone (LH). The ovarian tissue sample was processed with hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining as well as RNA and protein extraction to test the mRNA expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERP), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). High-dose short-term in- tervention of cyclophosphamide could establish rat model of premature ovarian failure with a successful rate of 87.5%. Compared with the normal group, the vaginal smear in the model group was featured with signs of estro gen deficiency, early-follicle reduction, structural damage to the follicle, and reducing number of mature follicles; the level of E2 was significantly reduced (Pacupuncture groups, the levels of E2 was obviously increased (all Pacupuncture groups and medication group

  19. Role of Late Maternal Thyroid Hormones in Cerebral Cortex Development: An Experimental Model for Human Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Berbel, P.; Navarro, D.; Ausó, E.; Varea, E; Rodríguez, A E; Ballesta, J. J.; Salinas, M; Flores, E; Faura, C. C.; Morreale de Escobar, G

    2009-01-01

    Hypothyroxinemia affects 35–50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats...

  20. Vasculitis as part of the fetal response to acute chorioamnionitis likely plays a role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis and spontaneous intestinal perforation in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Jonathan; Owen, Anthony; Coombs, Robert; Cohen, Marta

    2015-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) are causes of bowel perforation in premature neonates. Studies have demonstrated that both are associated with acute chorioamnionitis (ACA) of the placenta. The aim of our study was to identify any histopathological links between placental histopathological abnormalities and the later development of NEC and/or SIP in premature patients presenting at our institution. Cases with a diagnosis of NEC/SIP were identified. Entry criteria were the diagnosis of NEC/SIP was confirmed clinically and/or histologically, had been made within the first 7 days of life, neonates were premature, and the placenta had been submitted for histological examination. In those cases with ACA, CD34 immunohistochemistry and Martius scarlet blue staining was performed. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, clinical variables, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test. In total, 21 cases met defined inclusion criteria (12 NEC, 8 SIP, and 1 clinically indeterminate). Mean gestational age was 27 weeks. Median age of presentation was 5 days. Placental histology showed ACA in 16 of 21 cases (76.2%). Of those with ACA, 13 of 16 (81.3%) had umbilical phlebitis, 12 of 16 (75.0%) had umbilical arteritis, 6 of 16 (37.5%) funisitis, and 12 of 16 (75.0%) had chorionic vasculitis. No differences (p > 0.05) were seen between ACA and diagnosis or clinical outcome (Fisher exact test). Of the 16 cases, 14 with ACA that later developed either NEC or SIP showed vasculitis in the umbilical cord and/or chorionic plate and/or stem villi vasculature. The association between ACA and vasculitis was highly significant (p vasculitis. NEC or SIP shows a significant association with ACA with presence of vasculitis as part of the FIR (p < 0.01). In a proportion of cases, the development of fibrin deposition in response to vasculitic endothelial damage of the placental vasculature may form part of

  1. Neonatal caffeine exposure alters seizure susceptibility in rats in an age-related manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, R

    1995-10-27

    Early developmental exposure to caffeine in rats results in decreased susceptibility to certain chemically-induced seizures in the adult. To determine whether this effect first appears in adulthood or is present during preceding developmental stages, we exposed neonatal rats to caffeine and determined seizure thresholds in animals 28, 42 and 70-90 days of age. Rats were unhandled or received either vehicle (water) or caffeine (15-20 mg/kg/day) by gavage (0.05 ml/10 g) over postnatal days 2-6. At 28, 42, or 70-90 days of age, rats were infused intravenously with picrotoxin (PIC), bicuculline (BIC), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), caffeine (CAFF), strychnine (STR), or kainic acid (KA). Seizure thresholds for each compound were analyzed as a function of neonatal treatment, sex, and age. At 28 days, neonatally caffeine-exposed rats had a higher seizure threshold only for PTZ (P PIC (P < 0.0007) and PTZ (P < 0.0001) than did controls. These results at 28 and 42 days are compared with previously reported data that demonstrated that in adulthood, rats neonatally exposed to caffeine have higher thresholds for seizure induction with CAFF, PTZ, and KA. Thus, early developmental exposure to caffeine results in decreases in seizure susceptibility that are agent specific and may result in a delay in the decrease in seizure threshold that occurs for many agents between late juvenile ages and adulthood.

  2. The antiapoptotic effect of insulin against anoxia/reoxygenation injury in cultured cardiomyocyte of neonatal rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study protective effect of insulin against cardiomyocyte apoptosis in anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R)injury of neonatal rat. Methods: The model of A/R injury was finished through receiving anoxia for 2 h and reoxygenation for 4 h in cultured cardiomyocytes of neonatal rat. The cardiomyocytes were divided randomly into 3 groups: control group (CON), anoxia/reoxygenation group (A/R) and insulin-treated group (INS). At the end of reoxygenation of 4 hours, activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed through spectrophotometric procedures, myocyte apoptosis were detected through TUNEL and DNA Ladder. Results: MDA, LDH, and Apoptosis Index were significantly decreased in INS group compared with A/R group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Insulin has a protective effect against A/R injury in cultured cardiomyocyte of neonatal rat; the protective mechanism may contribute to antiapoptosis of insulin.

  3. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia attenuates traumatic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Espinera, Alyssa; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Wei, Ling; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan Ping

    2015-05-01

    Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling. Our recent investigations demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) using the neurotensin receptor (NTR) agonist HPI201 (formerly known as ABS201) in stroke and TBI models of adult rodents. The present investigation explored the brain protective effects of HPI201 in a P14 rat pediatric model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact. When administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, HPI201 induced dose-dependent reduction of body and brain temperature. A 6-h hypothermic treatment, providing an overall 2-3°C reduction of brain and body temperature, showed significant effect of attenuating the contusion volume versus TBI controls. Attenuation occurs whether hypothermia is initiated 15min or 2h after TBI. No shivering response was seen in HPI201-treated animals. HPI201 treatment also reduced TUNEL-positive and TUNEL/NeuN-colabeled cells in the contusion area and peri-injury regions. TBI-induced blood-brain barrier damage was attenuated by HPI201 treatment, evaluated using the Evans Blue assay. HPI201 significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and caspase-3 activation, both of which are pro-apototic, while it increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression in the peri-contusion region. In addition, HPI201 prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In sensorimotor activity assessments, rats in the HPI201

  4. Effects of neonatal treatment with the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, on adult rat brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Penny N; van den Buuse, Maarten; Martin, Sally; Lynch-Frame, Ann; Chahl, Loris A

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of neonatal rats with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonist, capsaicin, produces life-long loss of sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 channels. Previously it was shown that rats treated on day 2 of life with capsaicin had behavioural hyperactivity in a novel environment at 5-7 weeks of age and brain changes reminiscent of those found in subjects with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain and behavioural responses of adult rats treated as neonates with capsaicin. It was found that the brain changes found at 5-7 weeks in rats treated as neonates with capsaicin persisted into adulthood (12 weeks) but were less in older rats (16-18 weeks). Increased prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle was found in these rats at 8 and 12 weeks of age rather than the deficit commonly found in animal models of schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia also have reduced flare responses to niacin and methylnicotinate proposed to be mediated by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Flare responses are accompanied by cutaneous plasma extravasation. It was found that the cutaneous plasma extravasation responses to methylnicotinate and PGD2 were reduced in capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, several neuroanatomical changes observed in capsaicin-treated rats, as well as the reduced cutaneous plasma extravasation responses, indicate that the role of TRPV1 channels in schizophrenia is worthy of investigation.

  5. The role of n terminal - probrain natriuretic peptide in the diagnosis of hemodynamic persistent asrteriosus ductus in premature neonates patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasraf, D.; Djer, M. M.; Advani, N.

    2017-08-01

    Persistent ductus arteriosus is one of the most frequent congenital heart diseases found in infants, mainly in preterms. Echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hs-PDA) in preterm neonates. A few studies have suggested that the use of a simple blood assay to detect N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may be useful in determining the diagnosis and management of hs-PDA. No such studies have been conducted in Indonesia, although the assay kit and characteristics of the patient (gestational age and chronological age) influence the accuracy of NT-proBNP levels in determining hs-PDA. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the NT-proBNP level and the prevalence of hs-PDA in an Indonesian patient population. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. PDA was determined using echocardiography in 49 preterm neonates (gestational age <37 weeks and birthweight <2000 g). Subsequently, these patients were divided into three groups: non-PDA, non-hsPDA, and hs-PDA. The blood NT-proBNP level was then determined in the non-hsPDA and hs-PDA groups, and between-group differences were compared. Among the 49 neonates, 33 patients had PDA, and 16 of these had hs-PDA. The results revealed a significant association between the NT-proBNP level and hs-PDA (p < 0.001).

  6. Endothelin-1-Rho kinase interactions impair lung structure and cause pulmonary hypertension after bleomycin exposure in neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, Jason; Tseng, Nancy; Seedorf, Gregory; Kuhn, Katherine; Abman, Steven H

    2016-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through Rho kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function; however, whether ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal bleomycin with and without selective ETA (BQ123/BQ610) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers, nonselective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan), or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor). At day 14, lungs were harvested for morphometrics, and measurements of Fulton's index (RV/LV+S), medial wall thickness (MWT), and vessel density. Lung ET-1 protein and ROCK activity (phospho-MYPT-1:total MYPT-1 ratio) were also measured by Western blot analysis. Bleomycin increased lung ET-1 protein expression by 65%, RV/LV+S by 60%, mean linear intercept (MLI) by 212%, and MWT by 140% and decreased radial alveolar count (RAC) and vessel density by 40 and 44%, respectively (P < 0.01 for each comparison). After bleomycin treatment, fasudil and bosentan partially restored RAC and vessel density and decreased MLI, RV/LV+S, and MWT to normal values. Bleomycin increased ROCK activity by 120%, which was restored to normal values by bosentan but not selective ETRB. We conclude that ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to decreased alveolar and vascular growth and PH in experimental BPD. We speculate that nonselective ETRB and ROCK inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of infants with BPD and PH. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. [Protective effects of amygdalin on hyperoxia-exposed type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-wen; Zhu, Hua-ping; Li, Wen-bin; Liu, Han-chu; Zhang, Qian-shen; Chen, Hong-bing

    2005-02-01

    To analyze the effect of hyperoxia on the proliferation and surfactant associated protein messenger RNA levels of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs) of premature rat, and to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the change resulted from hyperoxia in AECIIs isolated from premature rat lung in vitro. The lung tissue of 20-day fetal rat was digested by trypsin and collagenase. AECIIs and lung fibroblasts (LFs) were isolated and purified at different centrifugal force and different adherence, then cultured. The nature of the cultures was identified by cytokeratin staining, vimentin staining and transmission electron micrography. For establishing hyperoxia-exposed cell model, purified AECIIs were cultured for 24 hours after culture flasks were filled with 95% oxygen-5% CO2 at 3 L/min for 10 min, and then sealed. Oxygen concentrations were tested in CYS-1 digital oxygen monitor after 24 hours of exposure. A sample was discarded if its oxygen concentration was amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content, protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and mRNA levels of SPs of AECIIs were analyzed with flow cytometric assay, Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively after 24 hours of air or hyperoxia exposure in the presence or absence of 200 micromol/L amygdalin. Excellent yields of highly purified, culturable AECIIs could be obtained from 20-day fetal lungs. The expression of cytokeratin in AECIIs was positive and that of vimentin negative by immunocytochemistry. Those, however, in LFs were just opposite. Lamellar bodies in purified AECIIs were revealed by transmission electron micrography. The established hyperoxia-exposed cell model assured the oxygen concentrations of culture flasks more than 90%. Amygdalin at the concentration range from 50 micromol/L to 200 micromol/L stimulated the proliferation of AECIIs in a dose-dependent manner; however, at the concentration of 400 micromol/L inhibited

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells from rats with chronic kidney disease exhibit premature senescence and loss of regenerative potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mara Klinkhammer

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation has the potential for organ repair. Nevertheless, some factors might lessen the regenerative potential of MSCs, e.g. donor age or systemic disease. It is thus important to carefully assess the patient's suitability for autologous MSC transplantation. Here we investigated the effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD on MSC function. We isolated bone marrow MSCs from remnant kidney rats (RK with CKD (CKD-RK-MSC and found signs of premature senescence: spontaneous adipogenesis, reduced proliferation capacity, active senescence-associated-β-galactosidase, accumulation of actin and a modulated secretion profile. The functionality of CKD-RK-MSCs in vivo was tested in rats with acute anti-Thy1.1-nephritis, where healthy MSCs have been shown to be beneficial. Rats received healthy MSCs, CKD-RK-MSC or medium by injection into the left renal artery. Kidneys receiving healthy MSCs exhibited accelerated healing of glomerular lesions, whereas CKD-RK-MSC or medium exerted no benefit. The negative influence of advanced CKD/uremia on MSCs was confirmed in a second model of CKD, adenine nephropathy (AD. MSCs from rats with adenine nephropathy (CKD-AD-MSC also exhibited cellular modifications and functional deficits in vivo. We conclude that CKD leads to a sustained loss of in vitro and in vivo functionality in MSCs, possibly due to premature cellular senescence. Considering autologous MSC therapy in human renal disease, studies identifying uremia-associated mechanisms that account for altered MSC function are urgently needed.

  9. Neonatal capsaicin causes compensatory adjustments to energy homeostasis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, E. H. E. M.; Wielinga, P. Y.; Strubbe, J. H.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    Several mechanisms involved in ingestive behavior and neuroendocrine activity rely on vagal afferent neuronal signaling. Seemingly contradictory to this idea are observations that vagal afferent neuronal ablation by neonatal capsaicin (CAP) treatment has relatively small effects on glucose homeostas

  10. Neonatal capsaicin causes compensatory adjustments to energy homeostasis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, E. H. E. M.; Wielinga, P. Y.; Strubbe, J. H.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    Several mechanisms involved in ingestive behavior and neuroendocrine activity rely on vagal afferent neuronal signaling. Seemingly contradictory to this idea are observations that vagal afferent neuronal ablation by neonatal capsaicin (CAP) treatment has relatively small effects on glucose homeostas

  11. PACAP Is Protective in a Rat Model of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarik, Timea; Mammel, Barbara; Reglodi, Dora; Kovacs, Krisztina; Werling, Dora; Bede, Brigitta; Vaczy, Alexandra; Fabian, Eszter; Toth, Gabor; Kiss, Peter; Tamas, Andrea; Ertl, Tibor; Gyarmati, Judit; Atlasz, Tamas

    2016-10-01

    The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is a well-established rodent model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is one of the most common causes of childhood visual impairment affecting preterm babies. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is known to have neuroprotective effects. Several studies have revealed the presence of PACAP and its receptors in the retina and reported its protective effects in ischemic and diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated whether PACAP administration can influence the vascular changes in the rat OIR model. OIR was generated by placing the animals in daily alternating 10/50 oxygen concentrations from postnatal day (PD) 0 to PD14 then returned them to room air. Meanwhile, animals received PACAP or saline intraperitoneally or intravitreally from PD1 to PD8 or on PD11, PD14, and PD17, respectively. On PD19 ± 1, the retinas were isolated and the vessels were visualized by isolectin staining. The percentage of avascular to whole retinal areas and the number of branching points were measured. Change in cytokine expression was also determined. Intravitreal treatment with PACAP remarkably reduced the extent of avascular area compared to the non- and saline-treated OIR groups. Intraperitoneal PACAP injection did not influence the vascular extent. Retinal images of room-air controls did not show vascular alterations. No changes in the number of vessel branching were observed after treatments. Alterations in cytokine profile after local PACAP injection further supported the protective role of the peptide. This is the first study to examine the effects of PACAP in ROP. Although the exact mechanism is still not revealed, the present results show that PACAP treatment can ameliorate the vascular changes in the animal model of ROP.

  12. Peripheral effect of NMDA receptor antagonists on adult rats exposed to neonatal colon pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunLin; ElieD.Al-Chaer

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Previous work done by Al-Chaer' s lab has shown that colon irritation (CI) in neonates can lead to chronic visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats, with characteristics of visceral allodynia and hyperalgesia, associated with central neuronal sensitization in the absence of identifiable peripheral pathology (Al-Chaer et al. 2000) . The pathogenesis of

  13. Effect of diazepam on sociability of rats submitted to neonatal seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Stanize Leite

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE, an acute condition characterized by repetitive or ongoing seizures activity, may produce long-term deleterious consequences. Previous data demonstrated that Wistar rats subjected to neonatal SE displayed autistic behavior, characterized by social play impairment, low preference by novelty, deficit in social discrimination; anxiety related behavior and stereotyped behavior with no changes in locomotor activity (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-010-0460-1, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00036, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-014-1291-2 [1–3]. Taking into account the bi-directional relationship between the state of anxiety and social interaction (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-009-0062-3 [4], we evaluated the impact of the state of anxiety on social interaction. Male Wistar rats at postnatal day 9 were subjected to pilocarpine-induced neonatal SE (380 mg/kg, ip and the controls received 0.9% saline (0.1 ml/10 g. The groups received saline or diazepam (1.0 mg/kg 45 min prior each behavioral testing that started from 60 days of postnatal life. In the open field, rats subjected to neonatal seizure exhibited less central zone activity as compared to animals treated with diazepam, with no changes in the total locomotor activity. In elevated plus maze, rats subjected to neonatal seizure and treated with diazepam exhibited higher locomotor activity and spent more time on the open arms as compared to untreated animals. In approach phase of sociability paradigm, animals subjected to neonatal seizures similarly to controls, regardless the treatment, spent more time with social stimulus as compared to non social stimulus. In social novelty phase of sociability paradigm, animals subjected to neonatal seizures differently of controls, regardless the treatment, spent similar time with familiar and novel stimulus.

  14. Maturation of upstream and downstream esophageal reflexes in human premature neonates: the role of sleep and awake states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Chan, Chin Yee; Fernandez, Soledad; Splaingard, Mark

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the sensory-motor characteristics of aerodigestive reflexes are dependent on stimulus type and volumes, sleep or awake states, and maturation. Thirteen neonates were studied at 33.6 ± 0.5 wk (time 1) and 37.3 ± 0.5 wk (time 2) postmenstrual age using multimodal provocative esophageal manometry concurrent with video polysomnography. Effects of graded volumes (399 infusions at time 1, 430 infusions at time 2) of midesophageal stimulation with air, water, and apple juice on the sensory thresholds and recruitment frequency of upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes were investigated during sleep and awake states. Sensory thresholds for aerodigestive reflexes between maturational stages were similar. Increased frequency recruitment of UES contractile reflex, LES relaxation reflex, and peristaltic reflexes were noted at time 2 (all, P reflexes.

  15. MODEST HYPOTHERMIA PROVENTS APOPTOSIS IN A NEONATAL RAT MODEL OF HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC BRAINDAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Recent studies in neonatal animals have shown that even slightly decreasing in brain or core temperature could ameliorate the damage resulting from hypoxic-ischemia insults. But the influence of hypothermia which had been used after the end of hypoxia-ischemia of the model hypoxia-ischemia brain damage(HIBD)was unknown. This research wanted to investigate whether hypothermia of defferent begin time after HIBD still could protect the brain in neonatal rats. Methods Pericranial temperatures were adjusted to 31 C in neonatal rats immediately or 2h after the end of hypoxia-ischemia(HI),the number of apoptosis cells in HIBD rats' brain had been counted,rat pups' storing food ability had been observed. Results Apoptosis increased obviously when rat pups were 8 days old, while hypothermia reduced apoptosis ,and postponed apoptosis expression in group that 31 C hypothermia was used immediately or 1h after the end of HI,and hypothermia improved the rat pups' storing food ability. This effect was more obviously in the group that hypothermia was used immediately after the HI than in the group that hypothermia was used 1h after the HI. But the protective effect was not clear in the group that hypothermia was used 2 h after the HI. Conclusion Hypothermia which was used within 1h after the end of HI could protect the HIBD neonatal rat pups brain, this effect was more obviously in the hypothermia be used early after the end of HI group than in the hypothermia be used late after the end of HI group.

  16. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants premature [birth weight (BW) premature, received ≥1 dose of micafungin. Among premature patients, 14.5% were low BW (1500–2499 g), 36.4% very low BW (1000–1499 g) and 49.1% extremely low BW (premature)] died. Significantly more non-premature than premature patients discontinued treatment (P = 0.003). Treatment-related adverse events were recorded in 23% of patients with no difference between groups. More extremely low BW (n = 4, 15%) and very low BW (n = 8, 40%) infants experienced treatment-related adverse events than low BW (n = 0) and there was no relation to micafungin dose or duration. For a subgroup of 30 patients with invasive candidiasis, treatment success was achieved in 73% in both premature and non-premature groups. Prophylaxis was successful in 4/5 non-premature hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Conclusion: Micafungin has a safe profile in premature and non-premature infants with substantial efficacy. PMID:24892849

  17. Zinc influences on brain development, pituitary an thyroidfunction iniodine-deficient pregnant and neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Yang; Jianchao Bian; Xin Wang; Haiming Wang; Yongping Liu; Shuzhen Wang; Zhichun Mu; Xinluan Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) has been shown to greatly influence brain development. Zn supplements may reduce injury to cell membranes of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency. OBJECTIVE: To establish an iodine deficiency rat model using low-iodine food, which was supplemented with compound Zn and Zn gluconate, to observe the effects of Zn on brain development, as well as pituitary gland and thyroid gland function in iodine-deficient rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping study of neural development was performed in the central laboratory of Shandong Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease from 1998 to 1999. MATERIALS: A total of 270 Wistar, female rats, one month after weaning, were used in this study, including 150 pregnant and 120 neonatal rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model, iodine, compound Zn, iodine and compound Zn, and zinc gluconate. Each group contained 25 pregnant rats and 20 nenoatal rats. METHODS: The pregnant rats and 20 neonatal rats, and well as the normal group, were fed standard chow and allowed free access to tap water (containing 5 μ g/L iodine and 1 mg/L Zn). The remaining five groups were fed low-iodine chow. However, the model group received distilled water, the iodine group received potassium-iodide distilled water (containing 300 μ g/L iodine), the compound Zn group received distilled water and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day, the iodine and compound Zn group received distilled water with 300 p g/L iodine and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day. All treatments lasted 90 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All pregnant rats were sacrificed on the day 21 of pregnancy. Body mass, number and rate of fetal absorption, as well as fetal death and malformation, were determined. Thyroid and pituitary gland weights were measured, as well as serum levels of thyroid hormone, gonadotropin, and sex hormones. In the

  18. Comparison of changes in etiologic microorganisms causing early-onset neonatal sepsis between preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heejeong; Han, Su-jin; Yoo, Ha-Na; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Yae-Jean; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-11-01

    To investigate changes in the etiologic microorganisms causing early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in preterm labor (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) cases over the past 16 years and to analyze the associated factors. We included consecutive singleton pregnancies delivered before 34 weeks due to PTL or pPROM. The etiologic microorganisms causing EONS in PTL and pPROM cases were compared between period 1 (1996-2004) and period 2 (2005-2012). There was no difference in the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria causing EONS between period 1 and 2, either in PTL (2.0% versus 2.1%, p = 1.0) or in pPROM (1.5% versus 1.6%, p = 1.0). However, the incidence of EONS caused by Gram-negative bacteria was significantly increased in pPROM (0.6% versus 2.7%, p = 0.040) during period 2, compared to period 1; but not in PTL (0.3% versus 1.2%, p = 0.211). Multivariable analysis revealed that a prolonged ROM-to-delivery interval (>7 d) was significantly associated with EONS caused by Gram-negative bacteria in pPROM (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-31.8, p = 0.018). The etiologic microorganisms causing EONS have changed over the past 16 years in pPROM cases but not in PTL cases.

  19. Clinician perspectives on barriers to and opportunities for skin-to-skin contact for premature infants in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry Chong; Martin-Anderson, Sarah; Dudley, R Adams

    2012-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate key factors in promoting skin-to-skin contact (STSC) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). As part of a California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative on improving nutrition and promoting breastmilk feeding of premature infants, a multidisciplinary group of representatives from 11 hospitals discussed the progress and barriers in pursuing the project. A key component of the collaborative project was promotion of STSC. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and assessed using qualitative research methods with the aid of Atlas Ti software (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany). Two primary investigators studied the transcripts for themes related to STSC. Using an iterative approach, selected themes were explored, and representative quotes were selected. Barriers to promoting STSC fell into broad themes of implementation, institutional, and familial factors. The main challenge identified in implementation was defining a clinically stable eligible population of patients. Key institutional factors were education and motivation of staff. Familial factors involved facilitation and sustained motivation of mothers. In response to these barriers, opportunities for promoting STSC were enacted or suggested by the group, including defining clinical stability for eligibility, facilitating documentation, strategies to increase parent and staff education and motivation, and encouraging maternal visitation and comfort. Our findings may be useful for institutions seeking to develop policies and strategies to increase STSC and breastmilk feeding in their NICUs.

  20. Inhibition of Sirtuin 2 exerts neuroprotection in aging rats with increased neonatal iron intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijin Wang; Meihua Wang; Liu Yang; Jie Bai; Zhiqiang Yan; Yuhong Zhang; Zhenguo Liu

    2014-01-01

    Impaired iron homeostasis may cause damage to dopaminergic neurons and is critically involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. At present, very little is understood about the effect of neonatal iron intake on behavior in aging animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased neonatal iron intake would result in signiifcant behavior abnormalities and striatal dopamine depletion during aging, and Sirtuin 2 contributes to the age-related neurotoxicity. In the present study, we observed that neonatal iron intake (120 μg/g per day) during postnatal days 10–17 resulted in significant behavior abnormalities and striatal dopamine depletion in aging rats. Furthermore, after AK-7 (a selective Sirtuin 2 inhibitor) was injected into the substantia nigra at postnatal 540 days and 570 days (5 μg/side per day), striatal dopamine depletion was signiifcant-ly diminished and behavior abnormality was improved in aging rats with neonatal iron intake. Experimental ifndings suggest that increased neonatal iron intake may result in Parkinson’s dis-ease-like neurochemical and behavioral deifcits with aging, and inhibition of Sirtuin 2 expression may be a neuroprotective measure in Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Influence of Premature Rupture of Membranes on Neonatal and Maternal Outcomes%胎膜早破对母婴结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦群; 王志华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on neonatal and maternal outcomes. Methods From January 2003 to December 2010, the clinica! data of 2405 cases of singleton pregnancy with PROM were recorded, and the incidence rate of neonatal and maternal infection were analyzed. All cases were stratified according to the duration of PROM into two groups; 0. 05 ). Conclusion PROM is harmful to the health of neonatal and maternal. Maternal infection highly suggests the possibility of neonatal infection. The patients of PROM with different gestation weeks and time from membrane rupture to delivery should be treated with different methods to reduce the incidence of neonatal and maternal infection.%目的 探讨胎膜早破对母婴结局的影响.方法 详细记录笔者医院2003年1月~2010年12月收治的2405例单胎胎膜早破孕妇的临床资料,观察母婴感染率.按破膜距分娩时间长短将胎膜早破孕妇分为< 12h组和≥12h组,观察破膜距分娩时间与绒毛膜羊膜炎发生率、母婴感染率的关系.比较83例感染孕妇和2322例未感染孕妇的新生儿感染发生率.将83例伴有新生儿感染的胎膜早破孕妇分成未足月胎膜早破组和足月胎膜早破组,观察两组新生儿的临床结局.结果 2405例胎膜早破患者中,孕妇感染83例,占3.45%,新生儿感染72例,占2.99%.与破膜距分娩时间<12h组相比,≥12h组绒毛膜羊膜炎发生率显著增加(P<0.01),母婴感染率明显增高(P<0.01).感染孕妇组的新生儿感染率高于未感染孕妇组.与足月组相比,未足月胎膜早破组胎儿宫内窘迫率及新生儿感染率明显升高(P<0.05),但两组分娩方式无显著差异(P>0.05).结论 胎膜早破严重影响母婴健康,发生感染的孕妇更易发生新生儿感染.对于不同孕周、破膜时间长短不同的胎膜早破孕妇应采取相对应的治疗措施以降低母婴感染并发症.

  2. Neonatal hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in the rat brain: the role of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Dias; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Bitencourt, Fernanda; Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Coelho, Juliana Gonzales; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the consequences of diabetes on the central nervous system (CNS) have received great attention. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In addition, recent studies have shown that hyperglycemia induces oxidative damage in the adult rat brain. In this regard, no study has assessed oxidative stress as a possible mechanism that affects the brain normal function in neonatal hyperglycemic rats. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether neonatal hyperglycemia elicits oxidative stress in the brain of neonate rats subjected to a streptozotocin-induced neonatal hyperglycemia model (5-day-old rats). The activities of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6-PGD), NADPH oxidase (Nox), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), the production of superoxide anion, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), and the protein carbonyl content were measured. Neonatal hyperglycemic rats presented increased activities of G6PD, 6PGD, and Nox, which altogether may be responsible for the enhanced production of superoxide radical anion that was observed. The enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GSHPx) that were observed in neonatal hyperglycemic rats, which may be caused by a rebound effect of oxidative stress, were not able to hinder the observed lipid peroxidation (TBA-RS) and protein damage in the brain. Consequently, these results suggest that oxidative stress could represent a mechanism that explains the harmful effects of neonatal hyperglycemia on the CNS.

  3. Effects of sciatic-conditioned medium on neonatal rat retinal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres P.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells produce and release trophic factors that induce the regeneration and survival of neurons following lesions in the peripheral nerves. In the present study we examined the in vitro ability of developing rat retinal cells to respond to factors released from fragments of sciatic nerve. Treatment of neonatal rat retinal cells with sciatic-conditioned medium (SCM for 48 h induced an increase of 92.5 ± 8.8% (N = 7 for each group in the amount of total protein. SCM increased cell adhesion, neuronal survival and glial cell proliferation as evaluated by morphological criteria. This effect was completely blocked by 2.5 µM chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC. These data indicate that PKC activation is involved in the effect of SCM on retinal cells and demonstrate that fragments of sciatic nerve release trophic factors having a remarkable effect on neonatal rat retinal cells in culture.

  4. Neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernández Sierra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Materials and methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study in a population of 190 premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight born from January 2009 to June 2014 who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and took part in the follow-up program. The psychomotor development, sensorineural hearing loss, retinopathy of prematurity, presence of cerebral palsy and convulsive syndrome were assessed. Results: The average weight at birth was 1,180.53 ± 212.40 grams with a gestational age of 29.86 ± 2.33 weeks, and 51.58% of the newborns were male. Forty-two point six three percent (42.63% of the premature newborns with very low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 25.26%, retinopathy; 13.68%, sensorineural hearing loss; 3.68%, cerebral palsy; and 3.68%, convulsive syndrome. Fifty-two point two seven percent (52.27% of the premature newborns with extremely low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 50%, retinopathy; 15.91%, sensorineural hearing loss; and 2.27%, convulsive syndrome. Conclusions: Retardation of psychomotor development and retinopathy were the most important complications shown by premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age.

  5. Neonatal exposure to phenobarbital potentiates schizophrenia-like behavioral outcomes in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, S K; Forcelli, P A; Palchik, G; Gale, K; Srivastava, L K; Kondratyev, A

    2012-06-01

    Previous work has indicated an association between seizures early in life and increased risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, because early-life seizures are commonly treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as phenobarbital, the possibility that drug treatment may affect later-life psychiatric outcomes needs to be evaluated. We therefore tested the hypothesis that phenobarbital exposure in the neonatal rat increases the risk of schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of a single acute neonatal exposure to phenobarbital on adult behavioral outcomes in the rat neonatal ventral hippocampal (nVH) lesion model of schizophrenia. We compared these outcomes to those in rats a) without nVH lesions and b) with nVH lesions, without phenobarbital. The tasks used for behavioral evaluation were: amphetamine-induced locomotion, prepulse inhibition, elevated plus-maze, and novel object recognition task. We found that neonatal phenobarbital treatment (in the absence of nVH lesions) was sufficient to disrupt sensorimotor gating (as tested by prepulse inhibition) in adulthood to an extent equivalent to nVH lesions. Additionally, neonatal phenobarbital exposure enhanced the locomotor response to amphetamine in adult animals with and without nVH lesions. Our findings suggest that neonatal exposure to phenobarbital can predispose to schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities. Our findings underscore the importance of examining AED exposure early in life as a potential risk factor for later-life neuropsychiatric abnormalities in clinical populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal tactile stimulation changes anxiety-like behavior and improves responsiveness of rats to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufleur, Nardeli; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Pase, Camila S; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Dolci, Geisa S; Dias, Verônica T; Roversi, Katiane; Roversi, Karine; Koakoskia, Gessi; Rosa, João G; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Bürger, Marilise E

    2012-09-20

    In this study we evaluated the influence of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on behavioral and biochemical effects related to a low dose of diazepam (DZP) in adult rats. Male pups of Wistar rats were handled (TS) daily from PND1 to PND21 for 10 min, while unhandled (UH) rats were not touched. In adulthood, half the animals of each group received a single administration of diazepam (0.25mg/kg body weight i.p.) or vehicle and then were submitted to behavioral and biochemical evaluations. In the TS group, DZP administration reduced anxiety-like symptoms in different behavioral paradigms (elevated plus maze, EPM; staircase and open-field and defensive burying) and increased exploratory behavior. These findings show that neonatal TS increased DZP pharmacological responses in adulthood compared to neonatally UH animals, as observed by reduced anxiety-like symptoms and lower levels of plasma cortisol. TS also changed plasma levels of antioxidant defenses such as vitamin C and glutathione peroxidase, whose increase may be involved in lower oxidative damages to proteins in cortex, subthalamic region and hippocampus of these animals. Here we are showing for the first time that neonatal TS is able to change responsiveness to benzodiazepine drugs in adulthood and provides better pharmacological responses in novel situations of stress.

  7. Neuron-astrocyte interactions, pyruvate carboxylation and the pentose phosphate pathway in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Tora Sund; Brekke, Eva; Håberg, Asta; Widerøe, Marius; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Glucose and acetate metabolism and the synthesis of amino acid neurotransmitters, anaplerosis, glutamate-glutamine cycling and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) have been extensively investigated in the adult, but not the neonatal rat brain. To do this, 7 day postnatal (P7) rats were injected with [1-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]acetate and sacrificed 5, 10, 15, 30 and 45 min later. Adult rats were injected and sacrificed after 15 min. To analyse pyruvate carboxylation and PPP activity during development, P7 rats received [1,2-(13)C]glucose and were sacrificed 30 min later. Brain extracts were analysed using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Numerous differences in metabolism were found between the neonatal and adult brain. The neonatal brain contained lower levels of glutamate, aspartate and N-acetylaspartate but similar levels of GABA and glutamine per mg tissue. Metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose at the acetyl CoA stage was reduced much more than that of [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The transfer of glutamate from neurons to astrocytes was much lower while transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to glutamatergic neurons was relatively higher. However, transport of glutamine from astrocytes to GABAergic neurons was lower. Using [1,2-(13)C]glucose it could be shown that despite much lower pyruvate carboxylation, relatively more pyruvate from glycolysis was directed towards anaplerosis than pyruvate dehydrogenation in astrocytes. Moreover, the ratio of PPP/glucose-metabolism was higher. These findings indicate that only the part of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that transfers glutamine from astrocytes to neurons is operating in the neonatal brain and that compared to adults, relatively more glucose is prioritised to PPP and pyruvate carboxylation. Our results may have implications for the capacity to protect the neonatal brain against excitotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  8. Neonatal anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Sanjay; Malwatkar, Kedar; Kadam, Sandeep

    2008-08-01

    Neonatal anemia and the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are very common in neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal anemia can be due to blood loss, decreased RBC production, or increased destruction of erythrocytes. Physiologic anemia of the newborn and anemia of prematurity are the two most common causes of anemia in neonates. Phlebotomy losses result in much of the anemia seen in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW). Accepting a lower threshold level for transfusion in ELBW infants can prevent these infants being exposed to multiple donors.

  9. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Dec 15,2016 ... You felt this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the ...

  10. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects against excitotoxicity and chemical hypoxia in both neonatal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P B; Henshaw, R; Weise, J; Trubetskoy, V; Finklestein, S; Schulz, J B; Beal, M F

    1995-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a polypeptide growth factor that promotes neuronal survival. We recently found that systemic administration of bFGF protects against both excitotoxicity and hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal animals. In the present study, we examined whether systemically administered bFGF could prevent neuronal death induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or chemical hypoxia induced by intrastriatal injection of malonate in adult rats and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in neonatal rats. Systemic administration of bFGF (100 micrograms/kg) for three doses both before and after intrastriatal injection of either NMDA or malonate in adult rats produced a significant neuroprotective effect. In neonatal rats, bFGF produced dose-dependent significant neuroprotective effects against MPP+ neurotoxicity, with a maximal protection of approximately 50% seen with either a single dose of bFGF of 300 micrograms/kg or three doses of 100 micrograms/kg. These results show that systemic administration of bFGF is effective in preventing neuronal injury under circumstances in which the blood-brain barrier may be compromised, raising the possibility that this strategy could be effective in stroke.

  11. 早产儿晚期"屏气发作"相关危险因素分析%Study on Risk Factors of Breath Holding Spell in Later Period of Premature Neonatals with Hypocaicemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丹; 彭巧英; 管婉华; 胡洪波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早产儿晚期"屏气发作"的原因及干预措施.方法 按照对本院新生儿科2006年6月-2009年6月出院后2~4周的早产儿进行了随访,并记录出生时一般情况、随访时日龄、日期(季节)、喂养方式和出院后的疾病征象等;采用雷度ABL800血气分析仪测定微量血Ca2+、K+、Na+.结果 早产儿晚期"屏气发作"的原因与"低离子钙血症"相关,补充钙剂和维生素AD可缓解症状.结论 "屏气发作"有可能是"低钙惊厥"的特殊表现形式,是早产儿晚期常见的疾病征象;目睹其发作过程,可能存有"低氧血症"而加重已有脑损伤的早产儿病情;屏气发作导致睡眠障碍不仅继续影响、干扰其生长发育,且引起儿童时期各系统疾病,导致早产儿不良结局.%Objective To study the undesirable consequences and intervention measures of breath holding spell in later period of the premature neonatals. Methods All the premature neonatals hospitalized in Hubei Maternal and Child Health Hospital from June, 2006 to June, 2009 were followed up 2~4 weeks after hospital discharge. The general state of health, age, date (season), feeding- pattems and clinical symptoms of the premature neonatals were recorded. Clinical analysis of electrolytes change of breath holding spell was also performed. Results The causation of breathholding spell in later period of the premature neonatals was interrelated with hypocalcemia. It was effective to supplement calcium and vitamin AD to relief the symptoms. Conclusions As a particular manifestation of hypocalcemia, breath holding spell is a common symptom in later period of the premature neonatals. So far as what we witness, it is likely that hypoxemia aggravates the illness of the premature neonatal that has a brain injury. As a result of breath holding spell, sleeping disturbance not only affects and interferes with the growth and development of the patients, but also leads to the systematic diseases during

  12. Neonatal exposure to LPS leads to heightened exploratory activity in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Javier Leonardo Rodríguez; Ferraz, Denise Brufato; Ramalho-Pinto, Francisco Juarez; Morato, Silvio

    2010-12-20

    Although several reports have demonstrated physiological and behavioral changes in adult rats due to neonatal immune challenges, little is known about their effects in adolescence. Since neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the neural substrates involved in cognitive disorders, we tested the hypothesis that it may also alter the response to novel environments in adolescent rats. At 3 and 5 days of age, male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle solution or E. coli LPS (0.05mg/kg) or were left undisturbed. In the mid-adolescent period, between 40 and 46 days of age, the rats were exposed to the following behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze, open-field, novel-object exploration task, hole-board and the modified Porsolt forced swim test. The results showed that, in comparison with control animals, LPS-treated rats exhibited (1) less anxiety-related behaviors and enhanced patterns of locomotion and rearing in the plus-maze and the open-field tests, (2) high levels of exploration of both objects in the novel-object task and of corner and central holes in hole-board test, and (3) more time spent diving, an active behavior in the forced swim test. The present findings suggest that neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects on the behavior profile adolescent rats exhibit in response to novelty. This behavioral pattern, characterized by heightened exploratory activity in novel environments, also suggests that early immune stimulation may contribute to the development of impulsive behavior in adolescent rats.

  13. Congenital viral infections of the brain: lessons learned from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the neonatal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Bonthius

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fetal brain is highly vulnerable to teratogens, including many infectious agents. As a consequence of prenatal infection, many children suffer severe and permanent brain injury and dysfunction. Because most animal models of congenital brain infection do not strongly mirror human disease, the models are highly limited in their abilities to shed light on the pathogenesis of these diseases. The animal model for congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV infection, however, does not suffer from this limitation. LCMV is a well-known human pathogen. When the infection occurs during pregnancy, the virus can infect the fetus, and the developing brain is particularly vulnerable. Children with congenital LCMV infection often have substantial neurological deficits. The neonatal rat inoculated with LCMV is a superb model system of human congenital LCMV infection. Virtually all of the neuropathologic changes observed in humans congenitally infected with LCMV, including microencephaly, encephalomalacia, chorioretinitis, porencephalic cysts, neuronal migration disturbances, periventricular infection, and cerebellar hypoplasia, are reproduced in the rat model. Within the developing rat brain, LCMV selectively targets mitotically active neuronal precursors. Thus, the targets of infection and sites of pathology depend on host age at the time of infection. The rat model has further shown that the pathogenic changes induced by LCMV infection are both virus-mediated and immune-mediated. Furthermore, different brain regions simultaneously infected with LCMV can undergo widely different pathologic changes, reflecting different brain region-virus-immune system interactions. Because the neonatal rat inoculated with LCMV so faithfully reproduces the diverse neuropathology observed in the human counterpart, the rat model system is a highly valuable tool for the study of congenital LCMV infection and of all prenatal brain infections In addition, because LCMV

  14. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubner Ronald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH of adult (P60 male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3 and outside (at postnatal 12; P12 of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems in the LDH ipsilateral to the

  15. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Novikova, Svetlana I; He, Fang; Dubner, Ronald; Lidow, Michael S

    2005-09-22

    Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR) injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors) to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH) of adult (P60) male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3) and outside (at postnatal 12; P12) of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline) and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems) were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems) in the LDH ipsilateral to the neonatally-injured paw. The

  16. [Long-term changes in adaptive behavior of rats after neonatal inflammatory pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, V A; Butkevich, I P; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In this study we addressed the tonic nociceptive system functional activity in the formalin test, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and spatial learning in adolescent male rats exposed in the neonatal development to repeated inflammatory pain peripheral stimulation. The following groups of 25-day-old rats were used after being exposed on days 7 and 8 to: 1) formalin-induced inflammatory pain with maternal separation for 60 min (FS), 2) the same inflammatory pain stimulation without maternal separation (FWS), 3) physiological saline injection with maternal separation for 1 h (SS), 4) physiological saline injection without maternal separation (SWS) and 5) no stimulation (intact rats). The data obtained indicate that pain caused in 7-8-day-old rat pups by formalin injection into the plantar pad of the hind paw manifests by adolescence (day 25 as a strengthened inflammatory response under the analogous painful stimulation in the formalin test, adaptive behavior disorder in the forced swimming test and spatial learning disability. Our findings that a short-term repeated maternal deprivation of the 7-8-day-old rat pups without inflammatory pain increases the depression-like behavior are also of particular interest. Thus, a repeated inflammatory pain during the neonatal development brings about significant changes in the adaptive behaviors studied as well as in spatial learning in adolescent rats.

  17. Maternal hypoxia alters matrix metalloproteinase expression patterns and causes cardiac remodeling in fetal and neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Xue, Qin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2011-11-01

    Fetal hypoxia leads to progressive cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoxia results in reprogramming of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns and fibrillar collagen matrix in the developing heart. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from 21-day fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal hypoxia caused a decrease in the body weight of both E21 and PD7. The heart-to-body weight ratio was increased in E21 but not in PD7. Left ventricular myocardium wall thickness and cardiomyocyte proliferation were significantly decreased in both fetal and neonatal hearts. Hypoxia had no effect on fibrillar collagen content in the fetal heart, but significantly increased the collagen content in the neonatal heart. Western blotting revealed that maternal hypoxia significantly increased collagen I, but not collagen III, levels in the neonatal heart. Maternal hypoxia decreased MMP-1 but increased MMP-13 and membrane type (MT)1-MMP in the fetal heart. In the neonatal heart, MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly increased. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities were not altered in either fetal or neonatal hearts. Hypoxia significantly increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4 in both fetal and neonatal hearts. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected. The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia reprograms the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs and causes cardiac tissue remodeling with the increased collagen deposition in the developing heart.

  18. Alterations in cytochrome P-450 levels in adult rats following neonatal exposure to xenobiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, R.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States) Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)); Springer, D.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)); Buhler, D.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism in adult rats in a manner that indicates long-term changes in enzyme regulation. Previously, the authors have observed changes in adult testosterone metabolism and in cytochrome P-450 (P-450) mRNA levels in animals neonatally exposed to phenobarbital (PB) or diethylstilbestrol (DES). In order to test for other enzyme alterations, they used Western blot procedures for specific P-450s to analyze hepatic microsomes from adult rats (24 wk old) that had been exposed neonatally to DES, PB, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), or pregnenolone 16[alpha]-carbonitrile (PCN). The most striking effects were observed in the DES-treated males: P-4502C6 and an immunologically similar protein were increased 60 and 90%, respectively, relative to control values, but P-4503A2 was decreased by 44%. No changes were observed in the DES-treated males in levels of P-4502E1, P-4502B, or the male-specific P-4502C13. Adult males neonatally treated with PB had 150% increase in levels of anti-P4502B-reactive protein without significant changes in the other enzymes. The DES- and DMBA-treated females had increased levels of the female-specific P-4502C12 of 38 and 48%, respectively, but no other observed alterations. The results confirm that neonatal exposure to DES or PB can cause alterations in adult hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels but show that these chemicals act on different enzymes. Neonatal DMBA resulted in changes in adult females similar to those produced by the synthetic estrogen DES, but did so at about two-thirds lower dose. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Neonatal nociception elevated baseline blood pressure and attenuated cardiovascular responsiveness to noxious stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ya-Chun; Yang, Cheryl C H; Lin, Ho-Tien; Chen, Pin-Tarng; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Yang, Shun-Chin; Kuo, Terry B J

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal nociception has significant long-term effects on sensory perception in adult animals. Although neonatal adverse experience affect future responsiveness to stressors is documented, little is known about the involvement of early nociceptive experiences in the susceptibility to subsequent nociceptive stress exposure during adulthood. The aim of this study is to explore the developmental change in cardiovascular regulating activity in adult rats that had been subjected to neonatal nociceptive insults. To address this question, we treated neonatal rats with an intraplantar injection of saline (control) or carrageenan at postnatal day 1. The carrageenan-treated rats exhibited generalized hypoalgesia at basal state, and localized hyperalgesia after re-nociceptive challenge induced by intraplantar injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) as adults. Then we recorded baseline cardiovascular variables and 24-h responsiveness to an injection of CFA in the free-moving adult rats with telemetric technique. The carrageenan-treated rats showed significantly higher basal blood pressures (110.3±3.16 vs. control 97.0±4.28 mmHg). In control animals, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased, sympathetic vasomotor activity increased, and parasympathetic activity was inhibited after CFA injection. Blood pressure elevation was evident (107.0±2.75 vs. pre-injection 97.0±4.28 mmHg). Comparatively, the carrageenan-treated rats showed a higher BRS (BrrLF 1.03±0.09 vs. control 0.70±0.06 ms/mmHg) and higher parasympathetic activity [0.93±0.17 vs. control 0.32±0.02 ln(ms²)] after CFA injection. The change in blood pressure is negligible (111.9±4.05 vs. pre-injection 110.3±3.16 mmHg). Our research has shown that neonatal nociception alters future pain sensation, raises basal blood pressure level, and attenuates cardiovascular responsiveness to nociceptive stress in adult rats.

  20. Tratamento do canal arterial persistente em neonatos prematuros: análise de 18 casos Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in neonate premature: analysis of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ciongoli

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação tem o propósito de analisar, retrospectivamente, os resultados obtidos em 18 pacientes neonatos prematuros, submetidos a operação para oclusão da PCA, no período entre julho de 1990 e dezembro de 1993 (42 meses, sendo 12 (66,6% pacientes do sexo feminino, com idade que variou entre 10 e 44 (20,8±8,3 dias, idade gestacional entre 26 e 28 (27,2±0,9 semanas. No dia da operação o peso dos pacientes esteve compreendido entre 700 e 1380 (985,8±181,6 gramas. A insuficiência respiratória aguda ocorreu em todos os pacientes sendo a principal indicação cirúrgica, estando em 6 (33,3% pacientes associada à insuficiência cardíaca congestiva. A indometacina endovenosa foi utilizada no período pré-operatório em 9 (50% pacientes na tentativa de se obter o fechamento farmacológico, sem sucesso, do canal arterial e apesar de não influenciar nos resultados pós-operatórios, apresentou como principal efeito secundário a redução significativa da diurese (p 40% 60% (p=0,033. O período de internação hospitalar variou de 43 a 157 (96,0±24,8 dias. Não houve mortalidade operatória, observando-se ainda baixa morbidade com este método. As causas de óbito, no período pós-operatório, não estiveram relacionadas com o tratamento cirúrgico. Pode-se concluir que a ligadura cirúrgica da PCA, nos pacientes neonatos e prematuros, é método eficaz e seguro podendo ser praticado com baixa morbidade e mortalidade.The purpose of our study was to analyse the results obtained in 18 neonate premature patients who underwent surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus, between July 1990 and December 1993 (42 months. Twelve (66.6% patients were female, with age between 10 and 44 (20.8±8.3 days, gestacional age ranged from 26 to 28 (27.2±0.9 weeks. In the surgery day the birth weight was between 700 and 1380 (985.8 ±181.6 grams. Acute respiratory insufficiency was present in all patients, as the principal surgical

  1. Impact of neonatal anoxia on adult rat hippocampal volume, neurogenesis and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Motta-Teixeira, Lívia Clemente; Machado-Nils, Aline Vilar; Lee, Vitor Yonamine; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Polli, Roberson Saraiva; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Takase, Luiz Fernando; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Covolan, Luciene; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Neonates that suffer oxygen deprivation during birth can have long lasting cognitive deficits, such as memory and learning impairments. Hippocampus, one of the main structures that participate in memory and learning processes, is a plastic and dynamic structure that conserves during life span the property of generating new cells which can become neurons, the so-called neurogenesis. The present study investigated whether a model of rat neonatal anoxia, that causes only respiratory distress, is able to alter the hippocampal volume, the neurogenesis rate and has functional implications in adult life. MRI analysis revealed significant hippocampal volume decrease in adult rats who had experienced neonatal anoxia compared to control animals for rostral, caudal and total hippocampus. In addition, these animals also had 55.7% decrease of double-labelled cells to BrdU and NeuN, reflecting a decrease in neurogenesis rate. Finally, behavioral analysis indicated that neonatal anoxia resulted in disruption of spatial working memory, similar to human condition, accompanied by an anxiogenic effect. The observed behavioral alterations caused by oxygen deprivation at birth might represent an outcome of the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and volume, evidenced by immunohistochemistry and MRI analysis. Therefore, based on current findings we propose this model as suitable to explore new therapeutic approaches.

  2. Effect of Angelica sinensis on neural stem cell proliferation in neonatal rats following intrauterine hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesheng Yue; Xudong Chen; Xiaoming Zhong; Hong Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Angelica sinensis is a widely used herb in Chinese traditional medicine.It has been shown to improve hypoxia in embryonic rats and reduce nestin expression in neural stem cells,resulting in proliferation of neural stem cells.OBJECTIVE:To study the protective effect of Angelica on neural stem cell proliferation in neonatal rats after intrauterine hypoxia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The randomized,controlled,experiment was performed at the Department of Histology and Embryology,Luzhou Medical College,China from July 2007 to January 2008.MATERIALS:Because gestational days 14-15 are a key stage in rat nervous system development,21 healthy,pregnant Sprague Dawley rats(14 days after conception)were used for this study.Nestin monoclonal primary antibody was obtained from Chemicon,USA.Angelica parenteral solution(250 g/L)was obtained from Pharmaceutical Preparation Section,Second Affiliated Hospital of Wuhan University,China.METHODS:Rats were randomly divided into a control group(n=5),a hypoxia group(n=8),and an Angelica group(n=8).Saline(8 mL/kg)was injected into the caudal vein of rats in the hypoxia group once a day for seven consecutive days.Intrauterine hypotonic hypoxia was induced using 13% O2 for two hours per day on three consecutive days.Rats in the Angelica group received injections of Angelica parenteral solution(250 g/L);all other protocols were the same as the hypoxia group.The control group procedures were identical to the hypoxia group,but under normal,non-hypoxic conditions.After birth,brain tissues were immediately obtained from neonatal rats and prepared for nestin immunohistochemistry.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nestin-positive cells in hippocampal CA3 area of neonatal rats in each group were quantified using image analysis to detect signal absorbance.RESULTS:The number of nestin-positive cells increased in the hippocampal CA3 area of neonatal rats in the hypoxia group.The number of nestin-positive cells was less in the Angelica group than in the

  3. Effects of neonatal. gamma. -ray irradiation on rat hippocampus: Pt. 1; Postnatal maturation of hippocampal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Represa, A.; Dessi, F.; Beaudoin, M.; Ben-Ari, Y. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 75 - Paris (France))

    1991-01-01

    The axons of dentate granule cells, the mossy fibres, establish synaptic contacts with the thorny excrescences of the apical dendrite of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Dentate granule cells develop postnatally in rats, whereas the CA3 pyramidal cells are generated before birth. In the present studies, using unilateral neonatal {gamma}-ray irradiation to destroy the granule cells in one hemisphere, we have studied the effect of mossy fibre deprivation on the development of their targets. We show that such ''degranulation'' prevents the normal development of giant thorny excrescences, suggesting that the development of thorny excrescences in CA3 pyramidal neurons is under the control of mossy fibres. In contrast, irradiation of the hippocampus of the neonatal rat does not affect the development of the dendritic arborization of CA3 pyramidal cells and their non-mossy dendritic spines. (author).

  4. Neonatal sciatic nerve transection induces TUNEL labeling of neurons in the rat spinal cord and DRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A L; Risling, M; Deckner, M; Lindholm, T; Langone, F; Cullheim, S

    1997-09-08

    Transection of a peripheral nerve in neonatal rats induces an extensive death of axotomized neurons. We demonstrate here that spinal motoneurons and sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons become TUNEL-labeled after sciatic nerve transection in neonatal rats, thus indicating that apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the death process. Interestingly, there is also a profound increase of TUNEL-labeled interneurons in the deep dorsal horn. This location suggests that an intact afferent input and/or contact with target cells is essential for interneuronal survival. Death of motoneurons and sensory neurons could be a result of the injury per se and/or the deprivation of neurotrophic substances, secondary to the loss of contact with target cells.

  5. Long-lasting neonatal inflammation enhances pain responses to subsequent inflammation, but not peripheral nerve injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Jeong; Back, Seung Keun; Kim, Myung Ah; Li, Chengjin; Lee, Jaehee; Jeong, Keun Yeong; Na, Heung Sik

    2009-05-01

    The early postnatal period has been suggested to be the vulnerable time for structural and functional reorganization of sensory systems, and painful stimuli at this time may alter neuronal circuits, thereby leading to changes in an individual's response to pain later in life. In the present study, we examined whether inflammatory experience in the early life can affect pain responses to subsequent noxious insults later in life. The two groups of neonatal rats, treated with an inflammatory irritant and untreated, were subjected to inflammation and peripheral nerve injury in adulthood. Neonatal inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 25 microl) into the hindpaw or tail of newborn rat pups. Adult rats which had suffered from neonatal paw inflammation at P0 were subjected to re-injection of CFA into the paw neonatally exposed to CFA or L5 spinal nerve ligation. Paw thickness and histology of inflamed paw were examined to assess the neonatal inflammation. Adult animals whose tail had been subjected to CFA injection on P3 received tail-innervating nerve injury. The results showed that the neonatal CFA-treated rats suffered from chronic inflammation, confirmed by persistent increase of paw thickness and histological result of inflamed paw. These animals showed enhanced pain responses to re-inflammatory challenge by injection of CFA (200 microl) into the neonatally inflamed paw 8 weeks after birth compared with the neonatally untreated animals. However, neuropathic pain on the hindpaw and the tail which had been induced by peripheral nerve injury in the neonatal CFA-treated group were not different from those of the untreated group. The present data suggest that early neonatal long-lasting inflammation differentially affects pain responses later in life, depending on the types of subsequent noxious insults.

  6. Immunomagnetic Indirect Positive Sorting of Precartilaginous Stem Cells from Neonatal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the technique of sorting high-purity precartilaginous stem cells from rat's perichondrium, neonatal rat's perichondrium cells suspensions were incubated with monoclone antibody of anti-fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (anti-FGFR-3), and the labeled cells were separated from the suspension in the magnetic field by immuno-beads coated with the second antibody. Purityof the sorted neural stem cells was found to be 93.0 %-99.0 %, with living cells amounting to 80 %-85 %. The magnetic cell sorting system could effectively separate precartilaginous stem cells fromperichondrium cell suspensions.

  7. Analgesic effects of JCM-16021 on neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; JY; Sung

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the pharmacological effect of JCM-16021,a Chinese herbal formula,and its underlying mechanisms.METHODS:JCM-16021 is composed of seven herbal plant materials.All raw materials of the formula were examined according to the quality control criteria listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia(2005).In a neonatal maternal separation(NMS)model,male SpragueDawley rats were submitted to daily maternal separation from postnatal day 2 to day 14,or no specific handling(NH).Starting from postnatal day 60,rats...

  8. Environmentally persistent free radicals induce airway hyperresponsiveness in neonatal rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lominiki Slawo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased asthma risk/exacerbation in children and infants is associated with exposure to elevated levels of ultrafine particulate matter (PM. The presence of a newly realized class of pollutants, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs, in PM from combustion sources suggests a potentially unrecognized risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma. Methods Neonatal rats (7-days of age were exposed to EPFR-containing combustion generated ultrafine particles (CGUFP, non-EPFR containing CGUFP, or air for 20 minutes per day for one week. Pulmonary function was assessed in exposed rats and age matched controls. Lavage fluid was isolated and assayed for cellularity and cytokines and in vivo indicators of oxidative stress. Pulmonary histopathology and characterization of differential protein expression in lung homogenates was also performed. Results Neonates exposed to EPFR-containing CGUFP developed significant pulmonary inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. This correlated with increased levels of oxidative stress in the lungs. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis, we identified 16 differentially expressed proteins between control and CGUFP exposed groups. In the rats exposed to EPFR-containing CGUFP; peroxiredoxin-6, cofilin1, and annexin A8 were upregulated. Conclusions Exposure of neonates to EPFR-containing CGUFP induced pulmonary oxidative stress and lung dysfunction. This correlated with alterations in the expression of various proteins associated with the response to oxidative stress and the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor translocation in T lymphocytes.

  9. PROPERTIES OF PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEONATAL RAT RETINAL PROGENITOR CELLS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Qianyan; Liu Yong; Zhao Jianjun; Qiu Fen; Chen Xinlin; Tian Yumei; Hu Ming

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the properties of proliferation and differentiation of neonatal rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro. Methods RPCs were isolated from neonatal SD rats neural retina and cultured in DMEM/F12+N2 with EGF and bFGF (suspension medium )or 10%FBS without EGF and bFGF (differentiation medium). The cells grew as suspended spheres or adherent monolayers, depending on different culture conditions. The neural stem cells or retinal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, retinal ganglion cells, rod photoreceptors and the proliferating cells were evaluated with immunofluorescence analysis by Nestin or Pax6, Map2, GFAP, Thy-1, Rhodopsin and BrdU antibodies respectively. Results RPCs could propagate and differentiate in suspension or differentiation medium and express the markers of Nestin (92.86%) or Pax6 (86.75%), Map2 (38.54%), GFAP (20.93%), Thy-1 (27.66%) and Rhodopsin(13.33%)in suspension medium; however, Nestin (60.27%), Pax6 (52%), Map2 (34.94%), GFAP (38.17%), Thy-1(30.84%) and Rhodopsin (34.67%) in differentiation medium. 96.4% of the population in the neurospheres was BrdU-positive cells. The cells could spontaneously adherent forming some subspheres and retinal specific cell types. Conclusion Neonatal rat RPCs possess the high degree of proliferation and can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, retinal ganglion cells and rod photoreceptors in vitro. There are different proportions for RPCs to differentiate into specific cell types.

  10. Metformin attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats by reducing the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyu; Walther, Frans J; Sengers, Rozemarijn M A; Laghmani, El Houari; Salam, Asma; Folkerts, Gert; Pera, Tonio; Wagenaar, Gerry T M

    2015-08-01

    Because therapeutic options are lacking for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), there is an urgent medical need to discover novel targets/drugs to treat this neonatal chronic lung disease. Metformin, a drug commonly used to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, may be a novel therapeutic option for BPD by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and improving vascularization. We investigated the therapeutic potential of daily treatment with 25 and 100 mg/kg metformin, injected subcutaneously in neonatal Wistar rats with severe experimental BPD, induced by continuous exposure to 100% oxygen for 10 days. Parameters investigated included survival, lung and heart histopathology, pulmonary fibrin and collagen deposition, vascular leakage, right ventricular hypertrophy, and differential mRNA expression in the lungs of key genes involved in BPD pathogenesis, including inflammation, coagulation, and alveolar development. After daily metformin treatment rat pups with experimental BPD had reduced mortality, alveolar septum thickness, lung inflammation, and fibrosis, demonstrated by a reduced influx of macrophages and neutrophils and hyperoxia-induced collagen III and fibrin deposition (25 mg/kg), as well as improved vascularization (100 mg/kg) compared with control treatment. However, metformin did not ameliorate alveolar enlargement, small arteriole wall thickening, vascular alveolar leakage, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In conclusion metformin prolongs survival and attenuates pulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation, coagulation, and fibrosis but does not affect alveolar development or prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal rats with severe hyperoxia-induced experimental BPD.

  11. Simvastatin inhibits leptin-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-ping HU; Fang-ping XU; Yuan-jian LI; Jian-dong LUO

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To test the hypothesis that statins inhibit leptin-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.Methods:Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on leptininduced hypertrophy.Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined by using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) fluorescence.Total intracellular RNA and cell protein content,which serve as cell proliferative markers,were assayed by using propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence and the Bio-Rad DC protein assay.respectively.The cell surface area,an indicator of cell hypertrophy,was quantified by using Leica image analysis software.Results:After 72 h treatment,1eptin markedly increased RNA 1evels,cell surface area,and total cell protein levels in cardiomyocytes,which were significantly inhibited by simvastatin or catalase treatment.ROS levels were significantly elevated in cardiomyocytes treated with leptin for 4 h compared with those cells without leptin treatment.The increase in ROS levels in cardiomyocytes induced by leptin was reversed by treatment with simvastatin and catalase.Conclusion:Simvastatin inhibits leptin-induced ROS-mediated hyperophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes.Statin therapy may provide an effective means of improving cardiac dysfunction in obese humans.

  12. Sildenafil Improves Brain Injury Recovery following Term Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Male Rat Pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Armin; Khoja, Zehra; Johnstone, Aaron; Dale, Laura; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Wintermark, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control. Both groups were randomized to oral sildenafil or vehicle twice daily for 7 consecutive days. Gait analysis was performed on P27. At P30, the rats were sacrificed, and their brains were extracted. The surfaces of both hemispheres were measured on hematoxylin and eosin-stained brain sections. Mature neurons and endothelial cells were quantified near the infarct boundary zone using immunohistochemistry. HI caused significant gait impairment and a reduction in the size of the left hemisphere. Treatment with sildenafil led to an improvement in the neurological deficits as measured by gait analysis, as well as an improvement in the size of the left hemisphere. Sildenafil, especially at higher doses, also caused a significant increase in the number of neurons near the infarct boundary zone. In conclusion, sildenafil administered after neonatal HI may improve brain injury recovery by promoting neuronal populations.

  13. RAGE/NF-κB signaling mediates lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury in neonate rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; Wu, Rong; Tian, Yian; Yu, Min; Tang, Yun; Cheng, Huaipin; Tian, Zhaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to induce acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Accumulating data suggest the crucial role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. However, the mechanism by which RAGE mediates inflammatory lung injury in the neonates remains elusive. In this study we established LPS-induced ALI model in neonate rats, and investigated the role of RAGE/NF-κB signaling in mediating ALI. We found that RAGE antibody or bortezomib reduced LPS-induced histopathological abnormalities in the lung and lung damage score. RAGE antibody or bortezomib also reduced TNF-α level in both serum and BALF of the rats. Furthermore, RAGE antibody or bortezomib significantly reduced LPS-induced upregulation of RAGE and NF-κB expression in the lung. In conclusion, we established ALI model in neonate rats to demonstrate that LPS induced inflammatory lung injury via RAGE/NF-κB signaling. Interference with RAGE/NF-κB signaling is a potential approach to prevent and treat sepsis-related ALI/ARDS.

  14. Lithium Treatment Prevents Apoptosis in Neonatal Rat Hippocampus Resulting from Sevoflurane Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; da Li, Wen-; Yuan, Bao-Long; Niu, Li-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Feng, Xia

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to observe the therapeutic effects of lithium on inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane-induced apoptosis in immature brain hippocampus. From postnatal day 5 (P5) to P28, male Sprague-Dawley pups were intraperitoneally injected with lithium chloride or 0.9 % sodium chloride. On P7 after the injection, pups were exposed to 2.3 % sevoflurane or air for 6 h. Brain tissues were harvested 12 h and 3 weeks after exposure. Cleaved caspase-3, nNOS protein, GSK-3β,p-GSK-3β were assessed by Western blot, and histopathological changes were assessed using Nissl stain and TUNEL stain. From P28, we used the eight-arm radial maze test and step-through test to evaluate the influence of sevoflurane exposure on the learning and memory of juvenile rats. The results showed that neonatal sevoflurane exposure induced caspase-3 activation and histopathological changes in hippocampus can be attenuated by lithium chloride. Sevoflurane increased GSK-3β activity while pretreatment of lithium decreased GSK-3β activity. Moreover, sevoflurane showed possibly slight but temporal influence on the spatial learning and the memory of juvenile rats, and chronic use of lithium chloride might have the therapeutic effect. Our current study suggests that lithium attenuates sevoflurane induced neonatal hippocampual damage by GSK-3β pathway and might improve learning and memory deficits in rats after neonatal exposure.

  15. Estrogen inhibits lipid peroxidation after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhu; Xiao Han; Dafeng Ji; Guangming Lv; Meiyu Xu

    2012-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats within 7 days after birth were used in this study. The left common carotid artery was occluded and rats were housed in an 8% O2 environment for 2 hours to establish a hypoxic-ischemic brain damage model. 17β-estradiol (1 × 10-5 M) was injected into the rat abdominal cavity after the model was successfully established. The left hemisphere was obtained at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after operation. Results showed that malondialdehyde content in the left brain of neonatal rats gradually increased as modeling time prolonged, while malondialdehyde content of 17β-estrodial-treated rats significantly declined by 24 hours, reached lowest levels at 48 hours, and then peaked at 72 hours after injury. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate histochemical staining showed the nitric oxide synthase-positive cells and fibers dyed blue/violet and were mainly distributed in the cortex, hippocampus and medial septal nuclei. The number of nitric oxide synthase-positive cells peaked at 48 hours and significantly decreased after 17β-estrodial treatment. Our experimental findings indicate that estrogen plays a protective role following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage by alleviating lipid peroxidation through reducing the expression of nitric oxide synthase and the content of malondialdehyde.

  16. Neonatal handling affects learning, reversal learning and antioxidant enzymes activities in a sex-specific manner in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noschang, Cristie; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Huffell, Ana Paula; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-06-01

    Early life experiences have profound influences on behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult life. The aim of this study is to verify neonatal handling-induced sex specific differences on learning and reversal learning as well as oxidative stress parameters in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of adult rats. Litters of rats were non-handled or handled (10 min/day, days 1-10 after birth). In adulthood, learning and reversal learning were evaluated using a Y maze associated with palatable food in male and female rats. Morris water maze reversal learning was verified in males. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in both genders. Male neonatal handled animals had a worse performance in the Y maze reversal learning compared to non-handled ones and no difference was observed in the water maze reversal learning task. Regarding females, neonatal handled rats had a better performance during the Y maze learning phase compared to non-handled ones. In addition, neonatal handled female animals showed a decreased SOD/CAT ratio in the PFC compared to non-handled females. We conclude that neonatal handling effects on learning and memory in adult rats are sex and task specific. The sex specific differences are also observed in the evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities with neonatal handling affecting only females. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deferoxamine prevents cerebral glutathione and vitamin E depletions in asphyxiated neonatal rats: role of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and DF on the antioxidant status of the brain in rats exposed neonatally to critical anoxia. Two-day-old newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere for 10 min. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 °C (physiological to rat neonates), or elevated to the level typical of healthy adult rats (37 °C), or of febrile adult rats (39 °C). Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under extremely hyperthermic conditions (39 °C) were injected with DF. Cerebral concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation marker) and the levels of GSH and vitamin E were determined post-mortem, (1) immediately after anoxia, (2) 3 days, (3) 7 days, and (4) 2 weeks after anoxia. There were no post-anoxic changes in MDA, GSH and vitamin E concentrations in newborn rats kept at body temperature of 33 °C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at elevated body temperatures intensified oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool in a temperature-dependent manner. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The data support the idea that hyperthermia may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions.

  18. Gastrodin protects neonatal rat brain against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy Acute therapeutic drug effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Niu; Zhengyong Jin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that gastrodin has a protective effect on neonatal rat brain subjected to hypoxia-ischemia; however,the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the acute therapeutic effects of gastrodin by observing prostaglandin B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1 a in brain issue of neonatal rats that received gastrodin injections immediately after hypoxia-ischemia.DESIGN:Single-factor design.SETTING:Department of Pediatrics,Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University. MATERIALS:This study was performed in the Laboratory of the Department of Pediatrics,Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University(key laboratory of provincial Health Department)from April to December 2003.Fifty-five Wistar rats of either gender,aged 7 days,were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University.The rats were randomly divided into normal control(n=10), model(n=15),gastrodin-treated(n=15),and Danshen-treated(n=15)groups.The protocol was performed in accordance with guidelines from the Institute of Health Sciences for the use and care of animals.The following reagents were.used:Gastrodin(Sancai Medicine Group Co.,Ltd.,Zhongshan,Guangdong Province,China;component:gastrodin),Danshen(Conba Stock Company,Jinhua,Zhengjiang Province,China; component:salvia miltiorrhiza),and reagent kits for 125I-prostaglandin B2 and 125I-6-prostaglandin F 1 a (Research and Development Center for Science and Technology,General Hospital of Chinese PLA). METHODS:Rats in the normal control group received no treatment.Rats in the remaining 3 groups were anesthetized,followed by ligation of the left common carotid artery.One hour later,the rats were placed in a closed hypoxic box and allowed to inhale 8% oxygen-air(2.0-3.0 L/min)for 2 hours to develop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.Immediately after lesion,rats in the gastrodin and Danshen-treated groups were intraperitoneally

  19. Latent inhibition in rats neonatally treated chronically with MK-801: differential effects on conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Ryo; Nozawa, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuo; Kato, Katsunori; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-04-15

    Chronic neonatal blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors produces various abnormal behaviors in adulthood animals. This study investigated the effects of neonatal treatment chronically with MK-801 in rats on the preexposure-induced retardation of CS-US association, i.e. latent inhibition (LI), of two aversive classical conditioning tasks in adulthood. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using sucrose taste and LiCl, neonatal chronic MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg twice/day) treatment attenuated the inhibitory effect of sucrose preexposure on the aversive conditioning, although the treatment did not affect CTA conditioning itself. On the other hand, in conditioned emotional response (CER) using tone and electrical foot shock, rats neonatally treated with MK-801 showed the same degree of inhibitory effect of tone preexposure on the aversive conditioning compared with neonatally vehicle-treated rats, and also showed the same level of CER conditioning itself. Thus, the effect of chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors on the LI of classical conditioning in adulthood was differentiated by the task employed. Results suggest that LI of CTA paradigm compared with that of CER is more sensitive to abnormal development after chronic neonatal blockade of NMDA receptors as an index of cognitive/attentional deficits caused by the treatment.

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging correlates with cytopathology in a rat model of neonatal hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzler Dean A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a non-invasive MRI technique that has been used to quantify CNS abnormalities in various pathologic conditions. This study was designed to quantify the anisotropic diffusion properties in the brain of neonatal rats with hydrocephalus (HCP and to investigate association between DTI measurements and cytopathology. Methods DTI data were acquired between postnatal day 7 (P7 and P12 in 12 rats with HCP induced at P2 and in 15 age-matched controls. Animals were euthanized at P11 or P22/P23 and brains were processed with immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1, and luxol fast blue (LFB to assess astrocytosis, microglial reactivity and degree of myelination, respectively. Results Hydrocephalic rats were consistently found to have an abnormally low (at corrected p-level of Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of employing DTI on the brain in experimental hydrocephalus in neonatal rats and reveals impairments in multiple regions of interest in both grey and white matter. A strong correlation was found between the immunohistochemical results and the changes in anisotropic diffusion properties.

  1. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:24232451

  2. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  3. Effects of neonatal overfeeding on juvenile and adult feeding and energy expenditure in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Stefanidis

    Full Text Available Overfeeding during perinatal life leads to an overweight phenotype that persists throughout the juvenile stage and into adulthood, however, the mechanism(s underlying this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that obesity due to neonatal overfeeding is maintained by changes in energy expenditure and that these changes differ between males and females. We investigated feeding, physical activity, hormonal and metabolic alterations that occur in adult rats made obese by having been nursed in small litters (SL compared with those from control litters (CL. There were no differences in absolute food intake between the groups, and juvenile and adult SL rats ate less chow per gram body weight than the CL did in the dark (active phase. Juvenile, but not adult SL rats did have reduced whole body energy expenditure, but there were no differences between the groups by the time they reached adulthood. Adult SL females (but not males had reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT temperatures compared with CL in the first half of the dark phase. Our results indicate a persistent overweight phenotype in rats overfed as neonates is not associated with hyperphagia at any stage, but is reflected in reduced energy expenditure into the juvenile phase. The reduced dark phase BAT activity in adult SL females is not sufficient to reduce total energy expenditure at this stage of life and there is an apparently compensatory effect that prevents SL and CL from continuing to diverge in weight that appears between the juvenile and adult stages.

  4. Vivências paternas durante a hospitalização do recém-nascido prematuro na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Experiencias paternas durante la hospitalización del recién nacido prematuro en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal Fathers' experiences during the hospitalization of the premature newborn in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marques dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou compreender as vivências paternas durante a hospitalização do recém-nascido prematuro na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital público de Feira de Santana, Bahia. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório e qualitativo, aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e realizado com nove pais, na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital público. Os dados foram analisados através da Análise de Conteúdo, os quais apontaram que os partos prematuros causam sentimentos de surpresa, angústia e medo nos pais. É preciso repensar como ocorre a inserção dos pais do prematuro no processo de hospitalização, bem como mudanças nas rotinas estabelecidas para a visita e participação paterna no contexto do cuidado ao prematuro.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la experiencia de los padres durante la hospitalización de los bebés prematuros en la Unidad Neonatal de Cuidados Intensivos de un hospital público en Feira de Santana, Bahia. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y cuantitativo, aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación y actuó en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales de un hospital público de Bahia, con nueve padres. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el análisis de contenido que muestran que los nacimientos prematuros causan sentimientos de sorpresa en los padres, de dolor y de miedo. Tenemos que repensar cómo se está insertando a los padres de bebés prematuros en las cuestiones de la hospitalización y los cambios en las rutinas establecidas para la visita y la participación del padre en el contexto de la atención precoz.This study aimed to understand the fathers' experiences during the hospitalization of premature newborn in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at a public hospital in Feira de Santana, Bahia. This is a qualitative descriptive exploratory study that was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Technology and Sciences, and

  5. Low levels of amyloid-beta and its transporters in neonatal rats with and without hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverberg Gerald D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in aging animals have shown that amyloid-beta protein (Aβ accumulates and its transporters, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE are impaired during hydrocephalus. Furthermore, correlations between astrocytes and Aβ have been found in human cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Because hydrocephalus occurs frequently in children, we evaluated the expression of Aβ and its transporters and reactive astrocytosis in animals with neonatal hydrocephalus. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal rats by intracisternal kaolin injections on post-natal day one, and severe ventriculomegaly developed over a three week period. MRI was performed on post-kaolin days 10 and 21 to document ventriculomegaly. Animals were sacrificed on post-kaolin day 21. For an age-related comparison, tissue was used from previous studies when hydrocephalus was induced in a group of adult animals at either 6 months or 12 months of age. Tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry to visualize LRP-1, RAGE, Aβ, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and with quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to quantify expression of LRP-1, RAGE, and GFAP. Results When 21-day post-kaolin neonatal hydrocephalic animals were compared to adult (6–12 month old hydrocephalic animals, immunohistochemistry demonstrated levels of Aβ, RAGE, and LRP-1 that were substantially lower in the younger animals; in contrast, GFAP levels were elevated in both young and old hydrocephalic animals. When the neonatal hydrocephalic animals were compared to age-matched controls, qRT-PCR demonstrated no significant changes in Aβ, LRP-1 and RAGE. However, immunohistochemistry showed very small increases or decreases in individual proteins. Furthermore, qRT-PCR indicated statistically significant increases in GFAP

  6. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  7. Lithium ameliorates autistic-like behaviors induced by neonatal isolation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan eWu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal isolation is a widely accepted model to study the long-term behavioral changes produced by the early life events. However, it remains unknown whether neonatal isolation can induce autistic-like behaviors, and if so, whether pharmacological treatment can overcome it. Here, we reported that newborn rats subjected to individual isolations from their mother and nest for 1 hr per day from postnatal days 1 to 9 displayed apparent autistic-like symptoms including social deficits, excessive repetitive self-grooming behavior, and increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors tested in young adult (postnatal days 42-56 compared to normal reared controls. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reduced the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmissions, as reflected by an increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC and normal spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron. More importantly, chronic administration of lithium, a clinically used mood stabilizer, completely overcame neonatal isolation-induced autistic-like behaviors, and restored adult hippocampal neurogenesis as well as the balance between excitatory and inhibitory activities to physiological levels. These findings indicate that neonatal isolation may produce autistic-like behaviors, and lithium may be a potential therapeutic agent against autism spectrum disorders during development.

  8. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  9. Neonatal sensory deprivation promotes development of absence seizures in adult rats with genetic predisposition to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Evgenia

    2011-03-04

    Absence epilepsy has age-related onset. In a WAG/Rij rat genetic model, absence seizures appear after puberty and they are increased with age. It is known that (1) epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats is initiated at the perioral area in the somatosensory cortex; (2) sensory deprivation, i.e., whisker trimming during the critical period of development, could enhance excitatory activity in the somatosensory cortex. It is hypothesized that the cortex may become more excitable after neonatal vibrissae removal, and this may precipitate absence seizures in adult rats. We found that whisker trimming during the first postnatal weeks caused more rapid development of EEG seizure activity in adult WAG/Rij rats. Epileptic discharges in the trimmed rats were more numerous (vs control), showed longer duration and often appeared in desynchronized and drowsy EEG. The number of absence-like spindle-shaped EEG events (spike-wave spindles) in the whisker-trimmed rats was higher than in control, especially during the intermediate sleep state. An age-dependent increase of intermediate sleep state was found in the trimmed rats, but not in the intact animals. We discuss epigenetic factors that can modulate absence epilepsy in genetically prone subjects.

  10. Neonatal exposure to novelty enhances long-term potentiation in CA1 of the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Akaysha C; Zou, Bende

    2002-01-01

    Exposing rats to an enriched environment over an extended period of time has been shown to enhance hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Whether such prolonged exposure to environmental manipulation is necessary for LTP enhancement and whether the environmentally induced enhancement can persist long after the cessation of the environmental manipulation remain unknown. Using a novelty exposure procedure modified from the method of neonatal handling, we exposed neonatal rats to a non-home environment for 3 min/day during the first 3 weeks of life. We examined the LTP of both population spikes and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), in vitro, in the CA1 of the hippocampus during adulthood (7-8 and 13-14 months of age). We found that both the LTP of population spikes and the LTP of EPSPs were enhanced among animals who experienced neonatal novelty exposure. These results demonstrate that effective environmental enhancement of LTP can be achieved by as brief and as transient a manipulation as a 3-min/day exposure over the first 3 weeks of life. The resulting enhancement can outlast the environmental manipulation by at least 1 year.

  11. Time course of myosin heavy chain transitions in neonatal rats: importance of innervation and thyroid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    During the postnatal period, rat limb muscles adapt to weight bearing via the replacement of embryonic (Emb) and neonatal (Neo) myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by the adult isoforms. Our aim was to characterize this transition in terms of the six MHC isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle and to determine the importance of innervation and thyroid hormone status on the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype. Neonatal rats were made hypothyroid via propylthiouracil (PTU) injection. In normal and PTU subgroups, leg muscles were unilaterally denervated at 15 days of age. The MHC profiles of plantaris (PLN) and soleus (Sol) muscles were determined at 7, 14, 23, and 30 days postpartum. At day 7, the Sol MHC profile was 55% type I, 30% Emb, and 10% Neo; in the PLN, the pattern was 60% Neo and 25% Emb. By day 30 the Sol and PLN had essentially attained an adult MHC profile in the controls. PTU augmented slow MHC expression in the Sol, whereas in the PLN it markedly repressed IIb MHC by retaining neonatal MHC expression. Denervation blunted the upregulation of IIb in the PLN and of Type I in the Sol and shifted the pattern to greater expression of IIa and IIx MHCs in both muscles. In contrast to previous observations, these findings collectively suggest that both an intact thyroid and innervation state are obligatory for the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype, particularly in fast-twitch muscles.

  12. Stem cell factor improves lung recovery in rats following neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Luis F.; Rodrigues, Claudia O.; Ramachandran, Shalini; Torres, Eneida; Huang, Jian; Klim, Jammie; Hehre, Dorothy; McNiece, Ian; Hare, Joshua M.; Suguihara, Cleide Y.; Young, Karen C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-kit, are modulators of angiogenesis. Neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury (HILI) is characterized by disordered angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous SCF improves recovery from neonatal HILI by improving angiogenesis. METHODS Newborn rats assigned to normoxia (RA: 20.9% O2) or hyperoxia (90% O2) from postnatal day (P) 2 to 15, received daily injections of SCF 100 µg/kg or placebo (PL) from P15 to P21. Lung morphometry was performed at P28. Capillary tube formation in SCF-treated hyperoxia-exposed pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) was determined by Matrigel assay. RESULTS As compared with RA, hyperoxic-PL pups had decrease in alveolarization and in lung vascular density, and this was associated with increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. In contrast, SCF-treated hyperoxic pups had increased angiogenesis, improved alveolarization, and attenuation of pulmonary hypertension as evidenced by decreased RVSP, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular remodeling. Moreover, in an in vitro model, SCF increased capillary tube formation in hyperoxia-exposed HPMECs. CONCLUSION Exogenous SCF restores alveolar and vascular structure in neonatal rats with HILI by promoting neoangiogenesis. These findings suggest a new strategy to treat lung diseases characterized by dysangiogenesis. PMID:24153399

  13. Lower trunk of brachial plexus injury in the neonate rat: effects of timing repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretti, Liverana; Pallini, Roberto; Romani, Rossana; Di Rocco, Federico; Ciampini, Alessandro; Gangitano, Carlo; Del Fa, Aurora; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    After lesion of a peripheral nerve in neonatal mammals, motoneurons undergo a cell death. We wanted to ascertain if early surgery could influence such post-axotomy motoneuronal death and improve the functional outcome. In this study, we investigated the functional and anatomical results after immediate and delayed repair of the lower trunk of brachial plexus (BP) sectioned at birth in rats. In neonate rats, the lower trunk of the left BP was cut. This nerve trunk was repaired either immediately [immediately-reconstructed group of rats (IR), or 30 days after, tardy reconstructed group of rats (TR)]; in the third group of animals, the nerve was not repaired (noreconstructed group of rats, NoR). In each group of animals, functional studies were performed at 90 days of age using the grooming test and the walking tracks analysis. Histologic studies of the C7-T1 spinal cord and lower trunk of BP were performed at 30 and 90 days of age; the numbers of motoneuron and axon were counted. Functional recovery was related to the difference in motoneuron number between the injured and the uninjured sides of the spinal cord of the operated animals. On the one side, only in the rats in which the inferior trunk was immediately repaired, the difference in motoneuron number between the two sides of the spinal cord was not statistically significant; these animals showed a good axonal regeneration and function recovery. On the other side, in the rats in which the inferior trunk was left unrepaired or tardy repaired, the decrease in motoneuron number in the injured side compared with the uninjured side of the spinal cord was statistically significant; these animals showed no axonal regeneration and no function recovery. The results cited above suggest that an important role in restoration of good neurological function after section of the lower trunk of BP in neonate rats is played by early nerve repair. Good neurological function was related more to a quite numerical balance of

  14. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyuti Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3 during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14 were fed a control diet (n = 2, a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6, or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6, starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female were exposed to hyperoxia (O2, n = 70 or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70. Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30, control/O2 (n = 10, and control/air (n = 10. After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20 and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60. Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30 compared to PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30 or to the control/O2 (n = 10, but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth.

  15. Neonatal handling (resilience) attenuates water-avoidance stress induced enhancement of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2015-03-30

    Chronic stress is well known to exacerbate pain. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal handling, which induces resilience to the negative impact of stress by increasing the quality and quantity of maternal care, attenuates the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by water-avoidance stress in the adult rat. Neonatal male rats underwent the handling protocol on postnatal days 2-9, weaned at 21 days and tested for muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold at postnatal days 50-75. Decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold in skeletal muscle in adult rats, produced by exposure to water-avoidance stress, was significantly attenuated by neonatal handling. Neonatal handling also attenuated the mechanical hyperalgesia produced by intramuscular administration of the pronociceptive inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2 in rats exposed as adults to water-avoidance stress. Neonatal handling, which induces a smaller corticosterone response in adult rats exposed to a stressor as well as changes in central nervous system neurotransmitter systems, attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia produced by water-avoidance stress and enhanced prostaglandin hyperalgesia in adult animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans.

  17. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm ...

  18. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  19. Modification of motoneuron size after partial denervation in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, F; Vrbová, G

    2007-11-01

    Our previous studies have shown that partial denervation of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) in the rat at 3 days of age causes an increase in the activity of the intact motoneurons. The originally phasic pattern of activity of EDL became tonic after partial denervation. These modifications of motoneuron activity were associated with the change in the phenotype of the muscle from fast to slow contracting and with a conversion of the muscle fibres from a fast to a slow type. The present study investigates whether the size of the cell body of the active EDL motoneurons change in parallel with the altered muscular activity. The study involved partial denervation of rat EDL muscle by section of the L4 spinal nerve at 3 days of age. Then the remaining motoneurons from L5 spinal nerve supplying the EDL muscle were retrogradly labelled with horseradish peroxidase two months later. The results show a reduction in motoneuron size in parallel with an increase in activity of the motoneurons after partial denervation of EDL muscle.

  20. Neonatal handling reduces the number of cells in the medial preoptic area of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzato, Tatiane S C; Winkelmann-Duarte, Elisa C; Padilha, Camila B; Miguel, Sandro P R; Bonzanini, Laisa; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Fernandes, Marilda C; Lucion, Aldo B

    2009-01-09

    Early-life events may induce alterations in neuronal function in adulthood. A crucial aspect in studying long-lasting effects induced by environmental interventions imposed to the animal several weeks before is finding a stable change that could be causally related to the phenotype observed in adulthood. In order to explain an adult trait, it seems necessary to look back to early life and establish a temporal line between events. The neonatal handling procedure is an experimental tool to analyze the long-lasting impact of early-life events. Aside from the neuroendocrine response to stress, neonatal handling also alters the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis. Reductions in ovulation and surge of the luteinizing hormone (LH) on the proestrous day were shown in female rats. Considering the importance of the medial preoptic area (MPA) for the control of ovulation, the present study aimed to verify the effects of neonatal handling on the numerical density and cell size in the MPA in 11-day-old and 90-day-old female rats. Cellular proliferation was also assessed using BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in 11-day-old pups. Results showed that neonatal handling induces a stable reduction in the number of cells and in the size of the cell soma, which were lower in handled females than in nonhandled ones at both ages. Cellular proliferation in the MPA was also reduced 24 h after the last manipulation. The repeated mother-infant disruption imposed by the handling procedure "lesioned" the MPA. The dysfunction in the ovulation mechanisms induced by the handling procedure could be related to that neuronal loss. The study also illustrates the impact of an environmental intervention on the development of the brain.

  1. Neonatal handling causes impulsive behavior and decreased pharmacological response to methylphenidate in male adult wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Camilla; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Pandolfo, Pablo; Krolow, Rachel; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Couto-Pereira, Natividade de Sá; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Galvalisi, Martin; Costa, Gustavo; Scorza, Cecilia; Souza, Tadeu Mello E; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal handling has an impact on adult behavior of experimental animals and is associated with rapid and increased palatable food ingestion, impaired behavioral flexibility, and fearless behavior to novel environments. These symptoms are characteristic features of impulsive trait, being controlled by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Impulsive behavior is a key component of many psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), manic behavior, and schizophrenia. Others have reported a methylphenidate (MPH)-induced enhancement of mPFC functioning and improvements in behavioral core symptoms of ADHD patients. The aims of the present study were: (i) to find in vivo evidence for an association between neonatal handling and the development of impulsive behavior in adult Wistar rats and (ii) to test whether neonatal handling could have an impact on monoamine levels in the mPFC and the pharmacological response to MPH in vivo. Therefore, experimental animals (litters) were classified as: "non-handled" and "handled" (10[Formula: see text]min/day, postnatal days 1-10). After puberty, they were exposed to either a larger and delayed or smaller and immediate reward (tolerance to delay of reward task). Acute MPH (3[Formula: see text]mg/Kg. i.p.) was used to suppress and/or regulate impulsive behavior. Our results show that only neonatally handled male adult Wistar rats exhibit impulsive behavior with no significant differences in monoamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, together with a decreased response to MPH. On this basis, we postulate that early life interventions may have long-term effects on inhibitory control mechanisms and affect the later response to pharmacological agents during adulthood.

  2. Airborne fine particulate matter induced pulmonary inflammation as well as oxidative stress in neonate rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Li-ren; WANG Kai; Baher Fahmy; SHEN Hua-hao; Cormier Stephania

    2010-01-01

    Background Airborne fine particulate matter (PM) can induce pulmonary inflammation which may adversely affect human health, but very few reports about its effect on the neonate rats are available. This study aimed to observe the potential impact and toxicity of fine PMs on the airway in neonate rats.Methods Pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity, histopathology, and antioxidants as well as oxidant products were assessed 24 hours after intratracheal instillation of fine PM consecutively for 3 days. Cytotoxicity of fine PM was measured in Hep-2 cells.Results Rats treated with high dose fine PM developed significant pulmonary inflammation characterized by neutrophiland macrophage infiltration. The inflammatory process was related to elevated level of TNF-α and prooxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the lung. Cytotoxicity studies performed in human epithelial cells indicated that high dose fine PM significantly reduced cell viability.Conclusion The study demonstrated acute exposure to fine PM induced airway inflammation as well as increased oxidative stress in addition to its direct toxic effect on airway epithelium cells.

  3. Neurotoxicity of prenatal alcohol exposure on medullary pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-li Ji; Yun-hong Wu; Zhi-bin Qian

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts the development of normal fetal respiratory function, but whether it perturbs respiratory rhythmical discharge activity is unclear. Furthermore, it is un-known whether the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is involved in the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In the present study, pregnant female rats received drinking water containing alcohol at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% or 10% (v/v) throughout the gestation period. Slices of the medulla from 2-day-old neonatal rats were obtained to record respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels in the pre-Bötzing-er complex of the respiratory center were measured by western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Compared with the 0% alcohol group, respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in medullary slices in the 4%, 8% and 10% alcohol groups was decreased, and the reduc-tion was greatest in the 8% alcohol group. Respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the 10%alcohol group was irregular. Thus, 8% was the most effective alcohol concentration at attenuating respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. These ifndings suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure attenuates respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in neonatal rats by downregulating 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels.

  4. Ketamine induces tau hyperphosphorylation at serine 404 in the hippocampus of neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Jin; Zhiyong Hu; Mengjie Dong; Yidong Wu; Zhirui Zhu; Lili Xu

    2013-01-01

    Male Wistar 7-day-old rats were injected with 40 mg/kg ketamine intraperitoneally, followed by three additional injections of 20 mg/kg ketamine each upon restoration of the righting reflex. Neonatal rats injected with equivalent volumes of saline served as controls. Hippocampal samples were collected at 1, 7 or 14 days following administration. Electron microscopy showed that neuronal structure changed noticeably following ketamine treatment. Specifically, microtubular structure became irregular and disorganized. Quantitative real time-PCR revealed that phosphorylated tau mRNA was upregulated after ketamine. Western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylated tau levels at serine 396 initially decreased at 1 day after ketamine injection, and then gradually returned to control values. At 14 days after injection, levels of phosphorylated tau were higher in the ketamine group than in the control group. Tau protein phosphorylated at serine 404 significantly increased after ketamine injection, and then gradually decreased with time. However, the levels of tau protein at serine 404 were significantly greater in the ketamine group than in the control group until 14 days. The present results indicate that ketamine induces an increase of phosphorylated tau mRNA and excessive phosphorylation of tau protein at serine 404, causing disruption of microtubules in the neonatal rat hippocampus and potentially resulting in damage to hippocampal neurons.

  5. Long-term potentiation in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuming; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Sun, Haiyan; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2012-07-11

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is important for the activity-dependent formation of early cortical circuits. In the neonatal rodent barrel cortex, LTP has been studied only in vitro. We combined voltage-sensitive dye imaging with extracellular multielectrode recordings to study whisker stimulation-induced LTP in the whisker-to-barrel cortex pathway of the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo. Single whisker stimulation at 2 Hz for 10 min induced an age-dependent expression of LTP in postnatal day (P) 0 to P14 rats, with the strongest expression of LTP at P3-P5. The magnitude of LTP was largest in the activated barrel-related column, smaller in the surrounding septal region, and no LTP could be observed in the neighboring barrel. Current source density analyses revealed an LTP-associated increase of synaptic current sinks in layer IV/lower layer II/III at P3-P5 and in the cortical plate/upper layer V at P0-P1. Our study demonstrates for the first time an age-dependent and spatially confined LTP in the barrel cortex of the newborn rat in vivo.

  6. Effects of neonatal handling on central noradrenergic and nitric oxidergic systems and reproductive parameters in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Szawka, Raphael Escorsim; Gomes, Cármen Marilei; Lucion, Marta Knijnik; Barp, Jaqueline; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz; Lucion, Aldo Bolten

    2008-01-01

    Early-life environmental events that disrupt the mother-pup relationship may induce profound long-lasting changes on several behavioral and neuroendocrine systems. The neonatal handling procedure, which involves repeated brief maternal separations followed by experimental manipulations, reduces sexual behavior and induces anovulatory estrous cycles in female rats. On the afternoon of proestrus, neonatally handled females show a reduced surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) and an increased content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the medial preoptic area (MPOA). In order to detect the possible causes for the reduced ovulation and sexual behavior, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of neonatal handling on noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the MPOA on the afternoon of proestrus. Neonatal handling reduced MHPG (NA metabolite) levels and MHPG/NA ratio in the MPOA, indicating decreased NAergic activity. Additionally, neonatal handling decreased NO levels, as measured by the metabolites (NO(x)), nitrite and nitrate in the same period. We may conclude that the neonatal handling procedure decreased activity of the NAergic and NOergic systems in the MPOA during proestrus, which is involved in the control of LH and FSH secretion, and this may possibly explain the anovulatory estrous cycles and reduced sexual behavior of the neonatally handled female rats. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Long Term Hippocampal and Cortical Changes Induced by Maternal Deprivation and Neonatal Leptin Treatment in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Borcel, Erika; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2015-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term behavioral effects and alters the development of the hippocampus and frontal cortex, with several of these effects being sexually dimorphic. MD animals show a marked reduction in their circulating leptin levels, not only during the MD period, but also several days later (PND 13). A neonatal leptin surge occurs in rodents (beginning around PND 5 and peaking between PND 9 and 10) that has an important neurotrophic role. We hypothesized that the deficient neonatal leptin signaling of MD rats could be involved in the altered development of their hippocampus and frontal cortex. Accordingly, a neonatal leptin treatment in MD rats would at least in part counteract their neurobehavioural alterations. MD was carried out in Wistar rats for 24 h on PND 9. Male and female MD and control rats were treated from PND 9 to 13 with rat leptin (3 mg/kg/day sc) or vehicle. In adulthood, the animals were submitted to the open field, novel object memory test and the elevated plus maze test of anxiety. Neuronal and glial population markers, components of the glutamatergic and cannabinoid systems and diverse synaptic plasticity markers were evaluated by PCR and/or western blotting. Main results include: 1) In some of the parameters analyzed, neonatal leptin treatment reversed the effects of MD (eg., mRNA expression of hippocampal IGF1 and protein expression of GFAP and vimentin) partially confirming our hypothesis; 2) The neonatal leptin treatment, per se, exerted a number of behavioral (increased anxiety) and neural effects (eg., expression of the following proteins: NG2, NeuN, PSD95, NCAM, synaptophysin). Most of these effects were sex dependent. An adequate neonatal leptin level (avoiding excess and deficiency) appears to be necessary for its correct neuro-programing effect.

  8. Pattern of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expression after ablation of the sensorimotor cortex of the neonatal and adult rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacić Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system has a limited capacity for self-repair after damage. However, the neonatal brain has agreater capacity for recovery than the adult brain. These differences in the regenerative capability depend on local environmental factors and the maturational stage of growing axons. Among molecules which have both growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting activities is the heterogeneous class of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs. In this paper, we investigated the chondroitin-4 and chondroitin-6 sulfate proteoglycan expression profile after left sensorimotor cortex ablation of the neonatal and adult rat brain. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that compared to the normal uninjured cortex, lesion provoked up regulation of CSPGs showing a different pattern of expression in the neonatal vs. the adult brain. Punctuate and membrane-bound labeling was predominate after neonatal lesion, where as heavy deposition of staining in the extracellular matrix was observed after adult lesion. Heavy deposition of CSPG immunoreactivity around the lesionsite in adult rats, in contrast to a less CSPG-rich environment in neonatal rats, indicated that enhancement of the recovery process after neonatal injury is due to amore permissive environment.

  9. Erythropoietin reduces neuronal cell death and hyperalgesia induced by peripheral inflammatory pain in neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Cane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Painful stimuli during neonatal stage may affect brain development and contribute to abnormal behaviors in adulthood. Very few specific therapies are available for this developmental disorder. A better understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of painful stimuli during the neonatal period is essential for the development of effective therapies. In this study, we examined brain reactions in a neonatal rat model of peripheral inflammatory pain. We focused on the inflammatory insult-induced brain responses and delayed changes in behavior and pain sensation. Postnatal day 3 pups received formalin injections into the paws once a day for 3 days. The insult induced dysregulation of several inflammatory factors in the brain and caused selective neuronal cell death in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. On postnatal day 21, rats that received the inflammatory nociceptive insult exhibited increased local cerebral blood flow in the somatosensory cortex, hyperalgesia, and decreased exploratory behaviors. Based on these observations, we tested recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO as a potential treatment to prevent the inflammatory pain-induced changes. rhEPO treatment (5,000 U/kg/day, i.p., coupled to formalin injections, ameliorated neuronal cell death and normalized the inflammatory response. Rats that received formalin plus rhEPO exhibited normal levels of cerebral blood flow, pain sensitivity and exploratory behavior. Treatment with rhEPO also restored normal brain and body weights that were reduced in the formalin group. These data suggest that severe inflammatory pain has adverse effects on brain development and rhEPO may be a possible therapy for the prevention and treatment of this developmental disorder.

  10. Therapeutic benefits of delayed lithium administration in the neonatal rat after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Xie

    Full Text Available AIM: We have previously shown that lithium treatment immediately after hypoxia-ischemia (HI in neonatal rats affords both short- and long-term neuroprotection. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible therapeutic benefits when lithium treatment was delayed 5 days, a time point when most cell death is over. METHODS: Eight-day-old male rats were subjected to unilateral HI and 2 mmol/kg lithium chloride was injected intraperitoneally 5 days after the insult. Additional lithium injections of 1 mmol/kg were administered at 24 h intervals for the next 14 days. Brain injury was evaluated 12 weeks after HI. Serum cytokine measurements and behavioral analysis were performed before sacrificing the animals. RESULTS: Brain injury, as indicated by tissue loss, was reduced by 38.7%, from 276.5±27.4 mm3 in the vehicle-treated group to 169.3±25.9 mm3 in the lithium-treated group 12 weeks after HI (p<0.01. Motor hyperactivity and anxiety-like behavior after HI were normalized by lithium treatment. Lithium treatment increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus as indicated by doublecortin labeling. Serum cytokine levels, including IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were still elevated as late as 5 weeks after HI, but lithium treatment normalized these cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed lithium treatment conferred long-term neuroprotection in neonatal rats after HI, and this opens a new avenue for future development of treatment strategies for neonatal brain injury that can be administered after the acute injury phase.

  11. Glucocorticoids Protect Neonatal Rat Brain in Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Benjamin; Conception, Katherine; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from asphyxia in the peripartum period is the most common cause of neonatal brain damage and can result in significant neurologic sequelae, including cerebral palsy. Currently therapeutic hypothermia is the only accepted treatment in addition to supportive care for infants with HIE, however, many additional neuroprotective therapies have been investigated. Of these, glucocorticoids have previously been shown to have neuroprotective effects. HIE is also frequently compounded by infectious inflammatory processes (sepsis) and as such, the infants may be more amenable to treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, the present study investigated dexamethasone and hydrocortisone treatment given after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in neonatal rats via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection and intranasal administration. In addition, we examined the effects of hydrocortisone treatment in HIE after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitization in a model of HIE and sepsis. We found that dexamethasone significantly reduced rat brain infarction size when given after HI treatment via ICV injection; however it did not demonstrate any neuroprotective effects when given intranasally. Hydrocortisone after HI insult also significantly reduced brain infarction size when given via ICV injection; and the intranasal administration showed to be protective of brain injury in male rats at a dose of 300 µg. LPS sensitization did significantly increase the brain infarction size compared to controls, and hydrocortisone treatment after LPS sensitization showed a significant decrease in brain infarction size when given via ICV injection, as well as intranasal administration in both genders at a dose of 300 µg. To conclude, these results show that glucocorticoids have significant neuroprotective effects when given after HI injury and that these effects may be even more pronounced when given in circumstances of additional inflammatory injury, such

  12. Effect of Costus igneus: The insulin plant, on prediabetes and diabetes in neonatal streptozotocin rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy EGK Talasila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-diabetes is a condition that persists for a considerable duration before progressing into type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Development of resistance to insulin is the underlying cause of pre-diabetes, preventive measures such as diagnosis, treatment and exercise will preclude its development into T2DM. The present study aims at studying the effect of pre-treatment and post-treatment with isolated fraction of Costus igneus on pre-diabetes and diabetes in neonatal streptozotocin (STZ induced T2DM.Methods: Neonatal rats were treated with STZ and differentiated for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Rats of pre-treated group were treated with isolated fraction of Costus igneus (CIF from 4th week after STZ administration and after 12th week in non-treated rats of post-treatment group. The antihyperglycemic was studied on 7th and 12th week after STZ treatment using oral glucose tolerance test and the hypoglycemic effect was studied on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 of treatment after 12th week of STZ treatment in both pre and post treated groups.Results: Oral glucose tolerance test on 7th and 12th week had shown a protective effect against increase in blood glucose levels in pre-treated groups whereas, no such significant decrease was observed in non-treated groups. In the effect on hypoglycemia, a reduction in blood glucose levels was observed on treatment with CIF in both pre and post treated rats on 14th and 21st day.Conclusions: Treatment with CIF in pre-diabetic stage could reduce the chances of progression into T2DM and is also beneficial in diabetic rats, which could be due to increase in the peripheral utilization of glucose and the insulin mimetic effect of Costus igneus.

  13. Importance of neural mechanisms in colonic mucosal and muscular dysfunction in adult rats following neonatal colonic irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, A; Rao, A; Al-Chaer, E D; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life trauma induced by maternal separation or colonic irritation leads to hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive colorectal distension in neonates leads to abnormalities in colonic permeability and smooth muscle function in the adult rat. In neonatal rats, repetitive colorectal distension was performed on days 8, 10, and 12. As adults, stool consistency was graded from 0 (formed stool) to 3 (liquid stool). Colonic tissue was isolated for histology and myeloperoxidase levels. The colonic mucosa was placed in modified Ussing chambers for measurements of permeability and short-circuit current responses to forskolin, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol. Segments of colonic musculature were placed in organ baths and contractile response to potassium chloride, electrical field stimulation, and carbachol were determined. In adult rats that experienced neonatal colonic irritation, no significant changes in colonic histology or myeloperoxidase activity were observed; however, stool consistency scores were increased. Mucosal permeability, measured as an increase in basal conductance, was significantly increased but no changes in short-circuit current responses were observed. In adulthood, rats that underwent colorectal distension as neonates exhibited an elevated smooth muscle contractile response to potassium chloride, but no changes in response to electrical field stimulation or carbachol. In summary, neonatal colonic irritation, shown previously to produce colonic hypersensitivity, leads to significant alterations in colonic mucosal and smooth muscle function characterized by loose stools, increased mucosal permeability, and increased smooth muscle contractility in the absence of colon inflammation in adulthood.

  14. Organ explant culture of neonatal rat ventricles: a new model to study gene and cell therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dénise den Haan

    Full Text Available Testing cardiac gene and cell therapies in vitro requires a tissue substrate that survives for several days in culture while maintaining its physiological properties. The purpose of this study was to test whether culture of intact cardiac tissue of neonatal rat ventricles (organ explant culture may be used as a model to study gene and cell therapy. We compared (immuno histology and electrophysiology of organ explant cultures to both freshly isolated neonatal rat ventricular tissue and monolayers. (Immuno histologic studies showed that organ explant cultures retained their fiber orientation, and that expression patterns of α-actinin, connexin-43, and α-smooth muscle actin did not change during culture. Intracellular voltage recordings showed that spontaneous beating was rare in organ explant cultures (20% and freshly isolated tissue (17%, but common (82% in monolayers. Accordingly, resting membrane potential was -83.9±4.4 mV in organ explant cultures, -80.5±3.5 mV in freshly isolated tissue, and -60.9±4.3 mV in monolayers. Conduction velocity, measured by optical mapping, was 18.2±1.0 cm/s in organ explant cultures, 18.0±1.2 cm/s in freshly isolated tissue, and 24.3±0.7 cm/s in monolayers. We found no differences in action potential duration (APD between organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue, while APD of monolayers was prolonged (APD at 70% repolarization 88.8±7.8, 79.1±2.9, and 134.0±4.5 ms, respectively. Organ explant cultures and freshly isolated tissue could be paced up to frequencies within the normal range for neonatal rat (CL 150 ms, while monolayers could not. Successful lentiviral (LV transduction was shown via Egfp gene transfer. Co-culture of organ explant cultures with spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes increased the occurrence of spontaneous beating activity of organ explant cultures to 86%. We conclude that organ explant cultures of neonatal rat ventricle are structurally and electrophysiologically similar

  15. Choline Acetyltransferase Activity in Striatum of Neonatal Rats Increased by Nerve Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, William C.; Rutkowski, J. Lynn; Tennekoon, Gihan I.; Buchanan, Karen; Johnston, Michael V.

    1985-07-01

    Some neurodegenerative disorders may be caused by abnormal synthesis or utilization of trophic molecules required to support neuronal survival. A test of this hypothesis requires that trophic agents specific for the affected neurons be identified. Cholinergic neurons in the corpus striatum of neonatal rats were found to respond to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor with prominent, dose-dependent, selective increases in choline acetyltransferase activity. Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain also respond to nerve growth factor in this way. These actions of nerve growth factor may indicate its involvement in the normal function of forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as in neurodegenerative disorders involving such cells.

  16. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  17. Comparative behavioral changes in postpubertal rats after neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Ibáñez, Osvaldo; Quirion, Remi; Srivastava, Lalit K

    2005-06-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal (nVH) and the neonatal prefrontal cortex (nPFC) lesions in rats have been used as models to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. We investigated the role of the nVH and the nPFC lesions on behavioral characteristics related to locomotor behaviors, social interaction, and grooming. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the VH, the PFC, or both were made in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 7, P7) and their behaviors studied at P35 and P60. No significant differences in any of the behaviors were observed between sham animals and rats with ibotenic acid lesions at P35. Postpubertally (at P60), the spontaneous locomotor activity of nVH-lesioned rats was significantly enhanced compared to the sham controls; however, this hyperactivity was reversed by nVH and nPFC double lesions. Neonatal PFC lesion alone did not alter spontaneous activity, although a trend of increased activity was observed. The duration of grooming was significantly decreased in rats with neonatal lesions of the VH. Similar to the data on locomotion, nVH plus nPFC lesion normalized the grooming behavior. Lesion of the PFC alone was without any significant effect on grooming behavior. Neonatal VH-lesioned animals spent less time in active social interaction, and this effect persisted even in nVH plus nPFC-lesioned animals. By itself, nPFC lesion did not alter social behavior. These data suggest that subtle developmental aberrations within PFC caused by nVH lesions, rather than the lesion of PFC itself, may contribute to some of the behavioral changes seen in the nVH-lesioned rats.

  18. Imprecise Whisker Map in the Neonatal Rat Barrel Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrukhina, Olga; Suchkov, Dmitry; Khazipov, Roustem; Minlebaev, Marat

    2015-10-01

    The somatosensory barrel cortex in rodents contains a topographic map of the facial whiskers where each cortical barrel is tuned to a corresponding whisker. However, exactly when this correspondence is established during development and how precise the functional topography of the whisker protomap is at birth, before the anatomical formation of barrels, are questions that remain unresolved. Here, using extracellular and whole-cell recordings from the barrel cortex of 0- to 7-day-old (P0-7; P0 = day of birth) rat pups in vivo, we report a low level of tuning to the principal whisker at P0-1, with multiple adjacent whiskers evoking large multi- and single-unit responses and excitatory postsynaptic currents in cortical neurons. Additionally, we found broad and largely overlapping projection fields (PFs) for neighboring whiskers in the barrel cortex at P0-1. Starting from P2-3, a segregated whisker map emerged, characterized by preferential single whisker tuning and segregated whisker PFs. These results indicate that the functional whisker protomap in the somatosensory cortex is imprecise at birth, that for 2-3 days after birth, whiskers compete for the cortical target territories, and that formation of a segregated functional whisker map coincides with emergence of the anatomical barrel map. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 高死亡率地区早产儿死亡的路径分析%Pathway analysis of premature death in areas with high neonatal mortality rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艺; 李丽娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解高死亡率地区早产儿死亡的死亡路径及就医情况。方法采用典型抽样的方法在新生儿高死亡率地区的4个县开展调查,对死亡早产儿的看护人进行一对一的问卷调查。结果266例新生儿死亡中有110例(41.4%)为早产儿,这些早产儿平均死亡年龄为2.5天。89.1%的早产儿出生在医疗机构,但是大部分死于家中(45.4%),其次是县级医疗机构(27.3%)。结论加强孕期保健工作,预防早产发生,提高县级医疗机构对早产儿的护理和抢救水平是降低早产儿死亡率的主要措施。%Objective To investigate the pathway of premature death and medical care seeking behavior in areas with high mortality rate . Methods Typical sampling was used in this survey .Four counties with high neonatal mortality rate were sampled out .Caregivers of the premature death were interviewed face-to-face.Results There were 110 preterm births among 266 (41.4%) neonatal deaths .The median death age was 2.5 days.Totally 89.1% preterm infants were born in health facilities, but most of them died at home (45.4%) and secondly at the county-leveled hospitals (27.3%).Conclusion Strengthening pregnancy health care, preventing premature birth, and improving premature infant care and rescue level of county medical institutions are the main measures to reduce the mortality of premature infants.

  20. Prenatal nicotine alters vigilance states and AchR gene expression in the neonatal rat: implications for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M G; Srere, H; Ledezma, C; O'Hara, B; Heller, H C

    2001-04-01

    Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke predisposes infants to SIDS are not known. We examined the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on sleep/wake ontogenesis and central cholinergic receptor gene expression in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine exposure transiently increased sleep continuity and accelerated sleep/wake ontogeny in the neonatal rat. Prenatal nicotine also upregulated nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor mRNAs in brain regions involved in regulating vigilance states. These findings suggest that the nicotine contained in cigarette smoke may predispose human infants to SIDS by interfering with the normal maturation of sleep and wake.

  1. Effect of G-CSF and TPO on HIBD in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Liu; Yi Feng; Ai-Min Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor(G-CSF) and restructure human thrombopoietin on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage(HIBD) in new born rats.Methods:A total of60 neonatalSD rats were selected and divided into4 groups, with15 in each group.Group A served as control group.Rats ofGroupsB-D were prepared forHIBD model by ligation of left common carotid artery combined with hypoxia method.Rats ofGroupA were only completed with free left common carotid artery without ligation and hypoxia operation.AfterHIBD model preparation,GroupB was administrated with subcutaneous injection of normal saline for placebo treatment;GroupC was administrated with cervical subcutaneous injection of0.5 μg/10 g granulocyte colony stimulating factor(G-CSF) for5 d(Once a day);GroupD was administrated with intraperitoneal injection of15U/10 g recombinant human thromobopoietin(rhTPO) for treatment.After modeling for7,14 and21 d,5 rats were sacrificed in each group, respectively. Brain quality damage(%) conditions of experimental animals in each group were compared in different time points, and cerebral histopathological changes of each group were observed. Expression of nestin in rats of each group was detected by immunohistochemical method. Results:After modeling for7,14 and21 d, brain quality damages(%) ofGroupsB,C andD were significant higher than that of inGroupA(P0.05). Conclusions:BothG-CSF andTPO can protect the nervous system ofHIBD neonatal rats. G-CSF can promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells to decrease the degeneration and necrosis of nerve cell.TPO can obviously ameliorate morphology index ofHIBD rats.Through regulating ratio ofTIMP-1 andMMP-9,TPO can maintain the integrity of blood brain barrier to relieve the occurrence of brain damage.

  2. Effect of erythropoietin on intestinal injury and bacterial translocation in neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing CHEN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the influence of erythropoietin (EPO on intestinal histopathological changes and bacterial translocation (BT in neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, and explore the protective effect of EPO against NEC. Methods  Seventy-five three-day-old SD rat pups were randomly divided into three groups (25 in each group: normal control group, NEC model group and EPO intervention group. The rat pups in normal control group were placed together with their mothers and breast fed, receiving no other intervention. NEC model group rats were separated from their mothers, housed in an incubator, and gavaged with rat-milk substitute, then experienced hypoxia (breathing 100% nitrogen gas for 90s and cold stress (4℃ for 10min three times daily for 3 days. EPO intervention group rats were fed with the substitute of rat-milk supplemented with 0.1U/ml of EPO, and they were also given hypoxia and cold stress similar to that of the NEC model group. Blood samples were obtained via cardiac puncture, and 2-cm-length of terminal ileum proximal to the ileocecal valve were obtained from the animals on the 4th day. The histopathological changes in terminal ileum were scored after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, and the scores ≥2 were defined as NEC. To determine the incidence of bacterial translocation, 16S rRNA real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the bacterial DNA in blood samples. Results  Compared with the NEC model group, the mean rank-sum rate of the intestinal histopathological score (39.4583 vs 53.8696, NEC incidence [25%(6/24 vs 57%(13/23] and bacterial translocation rate [17% (4/24 vs 65%(15/23] in EPO intervention group were significantly lowered (P < 0.05, P < 0.01. Conclusion  Enteral EPO administration is not only effective for reduction of the severity and incidence of NEC, but also for decrease of the bacterial translocation rate in neonatal rat models.

  3. Expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, NOD2 and pNF-kappaB in a neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Le Mandat Schultz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC results from a combination of several risk factors that act synergistically and occurs in the same circumstances as those which lead to innate immunity activation. Pattern recognition molecules could be an important player in the initiation of an exaggerated inflammatory response leading to intestinal injury in NEC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We specifically evaluated intestinal epithelial cell (IEC expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2, TLR-4, NOD2 and phosphorylated NF-kappaB (pNF-kappaB after mucosal injury in a rat model of NEC induced by prematurity, systemic hypoxia, and a rich protein formula. In the control group (group 1, neonatal rats were full-term and breast-fed; in the experimental groups, rat pups were preterm at day 21 of gestation and rat-milk fed (group 2 or hand-gavaged with a protein rich formula after a hypoxia-reoxygenation procedure (group 3. Morphological mucosal changes in the small bowel were scored on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections. Immunohistochemistry was performed on frozen tissue sections using anti TLR-2 and active pNF-kappaB p65 antibodies. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to assess mRNA expression of NOD2, TLR-2 and TLR-4. Proliferation and apoptosis were studied in paraffin sections using anti Ki-67 and caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. The combination of immaturity, protein rich formula and a hypoxia-reoxygenation procedure induces pathological mucosal damage consistent with NEC. There was an overexpression of TLR-2, and pNF-kappaB in IECs that was correlated with the severity of mucosal damage, together with an increase of apoptotic IECs and markedly impaired proliferation. In addition, these immunological alterations appeared before severe mucosal damage. TLR-2 mRNA were also increased in NEC together with TLR-4 mRNA using real-time RT-PCR whereas NOD2 expression was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that this

  4. A participação da família no cuidado ao prematuro em UTI Neonatal La participación de la familia en la asistencia al prematuro en UTI Neonatal Family participation in premature care in Neonatal ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Munhoz Gaíva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo tem como objetivo analisar a participação da família na assistência ao prematuro em uma UTI neonatal de um hospital universitário. Os dados foram coletados utilizando-se a observação participante. Os resultados mostraram que apesar da presença materna no cotidiano da internação do filho prematuro, a família não está inserida no processo de trabalho, sendo que somente a mãe participa dos cuidados. Esta participação se dá basicamente na execução dos cuidados de maternagem, principalmente na unidade de médio risco, a mãe e a família do prematuro são pouco acolhidas e não existe relação de parceria entre equipe e família, não há intervenções ampliadas da equipe em torná-la sujeito autônomo para promover a saúde e qualidade de vida do bebê.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la participación de la familia en la asistencia al prematuro en una UTI neonatal de un hospital universitario. La colecta de datos fue hecha a través de observación participante. Los resultados muestran que a pesar de la presencia materna en el cotidiano de internación del hijo prematuro, la familia no está inserida en el proceso de trabajo, siendo que solamente la madre participa de los cuidados. Esta participación ocurre básicamente en la ejecución de cuidados de maternidad, especialmente en la unidad de medio riesgo, la madre y familia del prematuro son poco acogidas y no existe parcería entre el equipo de salud y la familia, no hay intervenciones ampliadas del equipo con vistas a tornar la familia sujeto autónomo para promover la salud y cualidad de vida del bebe.This study aimed at analyzing the family participation in the premature assistance in a university hospital neonatal ICU. Data were collected from the participant observation. Results showed that despite of the mother's presence in the daily life of their premature children placed in a hospital, family isn't inserted in the work process and mothers are the

  5. Spatial Working Memory Deficits in Male Rats Following Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury Can Be Attenuated by Task Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI; reduction in blood/oxygen supply is common in infants with serious birth complications, such as prolonged labor and cord prolapse, as well as in infants born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age; GA. Most often, HI can lead to brain injury in the form of cortical and subcortical damage, as well as later cognitive/behavioral deficits. A common domain of impairment is working memory, which can be associated with heightened incidence of developmental disorders. To further characterize these clinical issues, the current investigation describes data from a rodent model of HI induced on postnatal (P7, an age comparable to a term (GA 36–38 human. Specifically, we sought to assess working memory using an eight-arm radial water maze paradigm. Study 1 used a modified version of the paradigm, which requires a step-wise change in spatial memory via progressively more difficult tasks, as well as multiple daily trials for extra learning opportunity. Results were surprising and revealed a small HI deficit only for the final and most difficult condition, when a delay before test trial was introduced. Study 2 again used the modified radial arm maze, but presented the most difficult condition from the start, and only one daily test trial. Here, results were expected and revealed a robust and consistent HI deficit across all weeks. Combined results indicate that male HI rats can learn a difficult spatial working memory task if it is presented in a graded multi-trial format, but performance is poor and does not appear to remediate if the task is presented with high initial memory demand. Male HI rats in both studies displayed impulsive characteristics throughout testing evidenced as reduced choice latencies despite more errors. This aspect of behavioral results is consistent with impulsiveness as a core symptom of ADHD—a diagnosis common in children with HI insult. Overall findings suggest that task specific behavioral modifications are

  6. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  7. Pancreatic and pancreatic-like microbial proteases accelerate gut maturation in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Prykhodko

    Full Text Available Postnatal gut maturation in neonatal mammals, either at natural weaning or after precocious inducement, is coinciding with enhanced enzymes production by exocrine pancreas. Since the involvement of enzymes in gut functional maturation was overlooked, the present study aimed to investigate the role of enzymes in gut functional maturation using neonatal rats.Suckling rats (Rattus norvegicus were instagastrically gavaged with porcine pancreatic enzymes (Creon, microbial-derived amylase, protease, lipase and mixture thereof, while controls received α-lactalbumin or water once per day during 14-16 d of age. At 17 d of age the animals were euthanized and visceral organs were dissected, weighed and analyzed for structural and functional properties. For some of the rats, gavage with the macromolecular markers such as bovine serum albumin and bovine IgG was performed 3 hours prior to blood collection to assess the intestinal permeability.Gavage with the pancreatic or pancreatic-like enzymes resulted in stimulated gut growth, increased gastric acid secretion and switched intestinal disaccharidases, with decreased lactase and increased maltase and sucrase activities. The fetal-type vacuolated enterocytes were replaced by the adult-type in the distal intestine, and macromolecular transfer to the blood was declined. Enzyme exposure also promoted pancreas growth with increased amylase and trypsin production. These effects were confined to the proteases in a dose-dependent manner.Feeding exogenous enzymes, containing proteases, induced precocious gut maturation in suckling rats. This suggests that luminal exposure to proteases by oral loading or, possibly, via enhanced pancreatic secretion involves in the gut maturation of young mammals.

  8. Distinct Testicular Steroidogenic Response Mechanisms Between Neonatal and Adult Heat-Acclimated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kurowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In comparison to short-term gonad heat exposure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate testicular steroidogenesis during long-term whole body heat acclimation. Material and Methods: Testicular slices from neonatal (NHA and adult (AHA heat-acclimated Wistar rats were analysed in vitro to assess the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of steroidogenic enzymes under basal and luteinising hormone (LH or prolactin (PRL stimulated conditions compared with control rats (CR. Furthermore, a de-acclimated group (DA was created by transferring adult NHA rats to control conditions. Results: Heat acclimation significantly increased plasma LH levels in the AHA group and LH and PRL in the NHA group compared with the CR group; however, after heat acclimation, the T and E2 levels did not differ from the control levels. All heat-acclimated groups showed high basal intra-testicular steroid production in vitro. Moreover, basal Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 levels were upregulated in vitro in the NHA and DA groups versus the CR group. LH in vitro stimulation upregulated Cyp11a1 expression in the NHA and AHA groups and PRL stimulation upregulated Cyp17a1 levels in the NHA and DA groups compared with the basal expression levels. In the AHA group, decreased basal Star and CYP11A activities but increased HSD3B1 and CYP17A1 activities were found. Conclusion: Our data revealed that despite the similar steroid levels in plasma and secreted in vitro by neonatal and adult heat-acclimated rat testicular slices, the molecular mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic response to heat acclimation during these different developmental stages were distinct.

  9. Neonatal stress affects the aging trajectory of female rats on the endocrine, temperature, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Baldy, Cécile; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Human and animal studies on sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory regulation show that the effects of sex hormones are heterogeneous. Because neonatal stress results in sex-specific disruption of the respiratory control in adult rats, we postulate that it might affect respiratory control modulation induced by ovarian steroids in female rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of adult female rats exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is ∼30% smaller than controls (24), but consequences of NMS on respiratory control in aging female rats are unknown. To address this issue, whole body plethysmography was used to evaluate the impact of NMS on the HVR (12% O2, 20 min) of middle-aged (MA; ∼57 wk old) female rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator 3 h/day for 10 consecutive days (P3 to P12). Controls were undisturbed. To determine whether the effects were related to sexual hormone decline or aging per se, experiments were repeated on bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) young (∼12 wk old) adult female rats. OVX and MA both reduced the HVR significantly in control rats but had little effect on the HVR of NMS females. OVX (but not aging) reduced the anapyrexic response in both control and NMS animals. These results show that hormonal decline decreases the HVR of control animals, while leaving that of NMS female animals unaffected. This suggests that neonatal stress alters the interaction between sex hormone regulation and the development of body temperature, hormonal, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

  10. Susceptibility to Inhaled Flame-Generated Ultrafine Soot in Neonatal and Adult Rat Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Anderson, Donald S.; Abid, Aamir D.; Wallis, Christopher D.; Dickinson, Dale A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Over a quarter of the U.S. population is exposed to harmful levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution, which has been linked to development and exacerbation of respiratory diseases leading to morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Young children are especially susceptible to PM and can experience altered anatomic, physiologic, and biological responses. Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the complex mixture of soot, metals, allergens, and organics present in the complex mixture as well as seasonal and temporal variance. We have developed a laboratory-based PM devoid of metals and allergens that can be replicated to study health effects of specific PM components in animal models. We exposed 7-day-old postnatal and adult rats to a single 6-h exposure of fuel-rich ultrafine premixed flame particles (PFPs) or filtered air. These particles are high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content. Pulmonary cytotoxicity, gene, and protein expression were evaluated at 2 and 24 h postexposure. Neonates were more susceptible to PFP, exhibiting increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and ethidium homodimer-1 cellular staining in the lung in situ as an index of cytotoxicity. Basal gene expression between neonates and adults differed for a significant number of antioxidant, oxidative stress, and proliferation genes and was further altered by PFP exposure. PFP diminishes proliferation marker PCNA gene and protein expression in neonates but not adults. We conclude that neonates have an impaired ability to respond to environmental exposures that increases lung cytotoxicity and results in enhanced susceptibility to PFP, which may lead to abnormal airway growth. PMID:21914721

  11. Effects of Graded Hypothermia on Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Damage in the Neonatal Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan Xia; Yi-xin Xia

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of graded hypothermia on neuropathologic alteratiors of neonatal rat brain after exposed to hypoxic-ischemic insult at 37℃, 33℃, 31℃, and 28℃, respectively, and to observe the effect of hypothermia on 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) expression after hypoxic-ischemic insult. Methods Seven days old Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia in 8% oxygen for 2 hours at 37℃, 33℃, 31℃, and 28℃, respectively. The brain temperature was monitored indirectly by inserting a mini-thermocouple probe into the temporal muscle during hypoxia. After hypoxia-ischemia their mortality was assessed. Neuronal damage was assessed with HE staining 72 hours after hypoxia. HSP72 expression at 0.5, 24, and 72 hours of recovery was immunohistochemically assessed using a monoclonal antibody to HSP72. Results Hypoxia-ischemia caused 10.5% (2/19) of mortality in rat of 37℃ group, but no death occurred in 33℃, 31℃ or 28℃ groups. HE staining showed neuropathologic damage was extensive in rats exposed to hypoxia-ischemia at 37℃ (more than 80.0%). The incidence of severe brain damage was significantly decreased in 33℃ (53.3%) and 31℃ groups (44.4%), and no histologic injury was seen in the 28℃ group of rats. Expression of HSP72 was manifest and persistent in the rat brain of 37℃ group, but minimum in the rat brain of 28℃ group. Conclusion Mild and moderate hypothermia might prevent cerebral visible neuropathologic damage associated with hypoxic-ischemic injury by decreasing stress response.

  12. Effects of caffeine or RX821002 in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eSandner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL are used to model schizophrenia. They show enhanced locomotion and difficulties in learning after puberty. Such behavioural modifications are strengthened by dopaminergic psychostimulant drugs, which is also relevant for schizophrenia because illustrating its dopaminergic facet. But it remains questionable that only dopaminergic drugs elicit such effects. The behavioural effects could simply represent a non specific arousal, in which case NVHL rats should also be hyper-responsive to other vigilance enhancing drugs. We administered an adenosine (caffeine or an adrenaline receptor antagonist, (RX821002 at doses documented to modify alertness of rats, respectively 5 mg/Kg and 1 mg/Kg. Rats were selected prior to the experiments using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging. Each group contained typical and similar NVHL lesions. They were compared to sham lesioned rats. We evaluated locomotion in a new environment and the capacity to remember a visual or acoustic cue that announced the occurrence of food. Both Caffeine and RX82100 enhanced locomotion in the novel environment, particularly in NVHL rats. But, RX82100 had a biphasic effect on locomotion, consisting of an initial reduction preceding the enhancement. It was independent of the lesion. Caffeine did not modify the learning performance of NVHL rats. But, RX821002 was found to facilitate learning.Patients tend to intake much more caffeine than healthy people, which has been interpreted as a means to counter some cognitive deficits. This idea was not validated with the present results. But adrenergic drugs could be helpful for attenuating some of their cognitive deficits.

  13. Prostanoid receptors involved in regulation of the beating rate of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Mechiche

    Full Text Available Although prostanoids are known to be involved in regulation of the spontaneous beating rate of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the various subtypes of prostanoid receptors have not been investigated in detail. In our experiments, prostaglandin (PGF(2α and prostanoid FP receptor agonists (fluprostenol, latanoprost and cloprostenol produced a decrease in the beating rate. Two prostanoid IP receptor agonists (iloprost and beraprost induced first a marked drop in the beating rate and then definitive abrogation of beating. In contrast, the prostanoid DP receptor agonists (PGD(2 and BW245C and TP receptor agonists (U-46619 produced increases in the beating rate. Sulprostone (a prostanoid EP(1 and EP(3 receptor agonist induced marked increases in the beating rate, which were suppressed by SC-19220 (a selective prostanoid EP(1 antagonist. Butaprost (a selective prostanoid EP(2 receptor agonist, misoprostol (a prostanoid EP(2 and EP(3 receptor agonist, 11-deoxy-PGE(1 (a prostanoid EP(2, EP(3 and EP(4 receptor agonist did not alter the beating rate. Our results strongly suggest that prostanoid EP(1 receptors are involved in positive regulation of the beating rate. Prostanoid EP(1 receptor expression was confirmed by western blotting with a selective antibody. Hence, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express both prostanoid IP and FP receptors (which negatively regulate the spontaneous beating rate and prostanoid TP, DP(1 and EP(1 receptors (which positively regulate the spontaneous beating rate.

  14. Effect of maternal exercise on biochemical parameters in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Thiago Beltram; de Lemos Rodrigues, Patrícia Idalina; Miguel, Patrícia Maidana; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Silva, Lenir Orlandi; Matté, Cristiane

    2015-10-05

    Pregnancy is a critical period for brain metabolic programming, being affected by individual environment, such as nutrition, stress, and physical exercise. In this context, we previously reported a cerebral antioxidant upregulation and mitochondrial biogenesis in the offspring delivered from exercised mothers, which could provide neuroprotection against neonatal insults. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) encephalopathy is one of the most studied models of neonatal brain injury; disrupting motor, cognitive, and learning abilities. Physiopathology includes oxidative stress, allied to mitochondria energy production failure, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In this study we evaluated the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on offspring׳s brain oxidative status evaluated fourteen days after HI stablishment. Swimming exercise was performed by female adult rats one week before and during pregnancy, in controlled environment. Their offspring was submitted to HI on postnatal day 7, and the brain samples for biochemical assays were obtained in the weaning. Contrary to our expectations, maternal exercise did not prevent the oxidative alterations observed in brain from HI-rats. In a general way, we found a positive modulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, measured two weeks after HI, in hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of pups delivered from exercised mothers. Reactive species levels were modulated differently in each structure evaluated. Considering the scenery presented, we concluded that HI elicited a neurometabolic adaptation in both brain hemispheres, particularly in hippocampus, parietal cortex, and cerebellum; while striatum appears to be most damaged. The protocol of aerobic maternal exercise was not enough to fully prevent HI-induced brain damages.

  15. Long-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaiarsa, J L

    1999-07-01

    1. The plasticity of GABAergic synapses was investigated in neonatal rat hippocampal slices obtained between postnatal days 3 and 6 using intracellular recording techniques. Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists were present throughout the experiments to isolate GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic potentials (GABAA PSPs) or currents (GABAA PSCs). 2. Repetitive depolarizing pulses (20 pulses, 0.5 s duration, at 0.1 Hz, each pulse generating 4-6 action potentials) induced a long-term potentiation in the slope and amplitude of the evoked GABAA PSPs and GABAA PSCs. 3. Long-term potentiation was prevented by intracellular injection of the calcium chelator BAPTA (50 mM), or when the voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers Ni2+ (50 microM) and nimodipine (10 microM) were bath applied. 4. Repetitive depolarizing pulses induced a persistent (over 1 h) increase in the frequency of spontaneous GABAA PSCs. 5. Repetitive depolarizing pulses induced a long-lasting increase in the frequency of miniature GABAA PSCs, without altering their amplitude or decay-time constant. 6. It is concluded that the postsynaptic activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels leads to a long-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus. This form of plasticity is expressed as an increase in the probability of GABA release or in the number of functional synapses, rather than as an upregulation of postsynaptic GABAA receptor numbers or conductance at functional synapses.

  16. A Mathematical Model of Neonatal Rat Atrial Monolayers with Constitutively Active Acetylcholine-Mediated K+ Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Rupamanjari; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Feola, Iolanda; Ypey, Dirk L; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent form of arrhythmia occurring in the industrialized world. Because of its complex nature, each identified form of AF requires specialized treatment. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the bases of these arrhythmias is essential for therapeutic development. A variety of experimental studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms of AF are performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat atrial cardiomyocytes (NRAMs). Previously, we have shown that the distinct advantage of NRAM cultures is that they allow standardized, systematic, robust re-entry induction in the presence of a constitutively-active acetylcholine-mediated K+ current (IKACh-c). Experimental studies dedicated to mechanistic explorations of AF, using these cultures, often use computer models for detailed electrophysiological investigations. However, currently, no mathematical model for NRAMs is available. Therefore, in the present study we propose the first model for the action potential (AP) of a NRAM with constitutively-active acetylcholine-mediated K+ current (IKACh-c). The descriptions of the ionic currents were based on patch-clamp data obtained from neonatal rats. Our monolayer model closely mimics the action potential duration (APD) restitution and conduction velocity (CV) restitution curves presented in our previous in vitro studies. In addition, the model reproduces the experimentally observed dynamics of spiral wave rotation, in the absence and in the presence of drug interventions, and in the presence of localized myofibroblast heterogeneities.

  17. CXCR4 Blockade Attenuates Hyperoxia Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Shelley; Ramachandran, Shalini; Torres, Eneida; Huang, Jian; Hehre, Dorothy; Suguihara, Cleide; Young, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) modulate the inflammatory response. Whether antagonism of CXCR4 will alleviate lung inflammation in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury is unknown. Objective To determine whether CXCR4 antagonism would attenuate lung injury in rodents with experimental BPD by decreasing pulmonary inflammation. Methods Newborn rats exposed to normoxia (RA) or hyperoxia (FiO2=0.9) from postnatal day 2 (P2)-P16 were randomized to receive the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 or placebo (PL) from P5 to P15. Lung alveolarization, angiogenesis, and inflammation were evaluated at P16. Results As compared to RA, hyperoxic-PL pups had a decrease in alveolarization, reduced lung vascular density and increased lung inflammation. In contrast, AMD3100-treated hyperoxic pups had improved alveolarization and increased angiogenesis. This improvement in lung structure was accompanied by a decrease in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophage and neutrophil count and reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion CXCR4 antagonism decreases lung inflammation and improves alveolar as well as vascular structure in neonatal rats with experimental BPD. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung injury in preterm infants with BPD. PMID:25825119

  18. Prenatal iodine deficiency results in structurally and functionally immature lungs in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Madan M; Rao, Geeta; Paul, B N; Mohan, Vishwa; Singh, Preeti; Khare, Drirh; Babu, Satish; Nath, Alok; Singh, P K; Tiwari, Swasti

    2012-05-15

    Maternal hypothyroidism affects postnatal lung structure. High prevalence of hypothyroxinemia (low T4, normal T3) in iodine-deficient pregnant women and associated risk for neuropsychological development along with high infant/neonatal mortality ascribed to respiratory distress prompted us to study the effects of maternal hypothyroxinemia on postnatal lung development. Female Sprague Dawley rats were given a low-iodine diet (LID) with 1% KClO(4) in drinking water for 10 days, to minimize thyroid hormone differences. Half of these rats were continued on iodine-deficient diet; ID (LID with 0.005% KClO(4)) for 3 mo, whereas the rest were switched to an iodine-sufficient diet; IS [LID + potassium iodide (10 μg iodine/20 g of diet + normal drinking water)]. Pups born to ID mothers were compared with age-matched pups from IS mothers at postnatal days 8 (P8) and 16 (P16) (n = 6-8/group). ID pups had normal circulating T3 but significantly low T4 levels (P factor-1 and SP-D were significantly higher (3-fold) compared with IS pups. At P16, significantly lower levels of SP-B and SP-C found in ID pups may be responsible for immature lung development and reduced lung compliance. Our data suggest that maternal hypothyroxinemia may result in the development of immature lungs that, through respiratory distress, could contribute to the observed high infant mortality in ID neonates.

  19. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Hyperoxic Lung Injury in Premature Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常立文; 马丽亚; 张晓慧; 陈晔

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hyperoxic lung injury, the 3-day-old preterm rats were randomly assigned to four groups: group I (hyperoxia group), group Ⅱ (hyperoxia+Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) group), group Ⅲ (air group), and group Ⅳ (air+L-NAME) group. Group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were exposed to ≥90 % O2 for 3 or 7 days. Group Ⅱ and Ⅳ received subcutaneous L-NAMEy on daily basis (20 mg/kg). After 3 day or 7 day exposure, the lung wet weight/dry weight ratio (W/D), total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung pathology were examined in all groups. NO content, expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) in lungs were measured in group Ⅰ and Ⅲ. Our results showed that after 3 day exposure, group Ⅰ appeared acute lung injury characterized by the increase of MDA content (P<0.01) and the presence of hyperaemia, red cell extravasation and inflammatory infiltration; after 7 day exposure, except MDA, total protein and W/D were also increased in comparison with group Ⅲ (P<0.01, 0.05), pathological changes were more severe than those after 3 day exposure. After 3 and 7 day exposure, total protein in group Ⅱ was significantly increased as compared with group Ⅰ (P<0.01 for both). The pulmonary acute inflammatory changes were more obvious in group Ⅱ than in group Ⅰ. Occasionally, mild hemorrhage was detected in the lungs of group Ⅳ. BALF protein content in group IV was higher than that in group Ⅲ after 7 day exposure (P<0.01). After 3 and 7 day exposure, NO content in BALF were all significantly elevated in group Ⅰ as compared with group Ⅲ (P<0.01 for all). In the lungs of group Ⅰ, strong immunostaining for iNOS was observed in airway and alveolar epithelia, inflammatory cells, which were stronger than those in group Ⅲ. Expression of iNOS in rats after 7 day hyperoxic exposure was stronger than that after 3 day exposure. Shortly after 7 day exposure

  20. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  1. Doxycycline inhibits proinflammatory cytokines but not acute cerebral cytogenesis after hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Todd, Kathryn G

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of perinatal brain injury and is associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although very few treatment options are currently available, doxycycline (DOXY) has been reported to be neuroprotective in neontatal HI. Our objective was to investigate the effects of DOXY on neonatal brain development in normal and HI rat pups. We hypothesized that DOXY would inhibit microglial activation but that developmentally important processes, including cytogenesis and trophic responses, would not be impaired. To investigate the putative neurodevelopmental consequences of DOXY administration in a clinically relevant animal model of HI, we performed a time-course analysis such that postnatal rat pups received DOXY (10mg/kg) or vehicle immediately before HI (n >or= 6). We then assessed cytogenesis, proinflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and matrix metalloproteinases regionally and longitudinally. We found that DOXY significantly inhibits neuroinflammation in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus; decreases interleukin-1Beta (IL-1Beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha); and augments BDNF following HI. In addition, DOXY-treated pups have significantly fewer 2-bromo-5-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the subventricular zone 6 hours post-HI. However, DOXY does not persistently affect cytogenesis in the subventricular zone or dentate gyrus up to 7 days post-HI. The BrdU-positive cells not expressing markers for mature neurons colabel with nestin, an intermediate filament protein typical of neuronal precursors. Our study investigates "acute" neurodevelopment over the first 7 days of life after HI injury. Further long-term investigations into adulthood are underway. Taken together, our results suggest the putative clinical potential of DOXY in the management of neonatal cerebral HI injury.

  2. Doxycycline inhibits proinflammatory cytokines but not acute cerebral cytogenesis after hypoxia–ischemia in neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzie, Lauren L.; Todd, Kathryn G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoxia–ischemia (HI) is a major cause of perinatal brain injury and is associated with a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although very few treatment options are currently available, doxycycline (DOXY) has been reported to be neuroprotective in neontatal HI. Our objective was to investigate the effects of DOXY on neonatal brain development in normal and HI rat pups. We hypothesized that DOXY would inhibit microglial activation but that developmentally important processes, including cytogenesis and trophic responses, would not be impaired. Methods To investigate the putative neurodevelopmental consequences of DOXY administration in a clinically relevant animal model of HI, we performed a time-course analysis such that postnatal rat pups received DOXY (10 mg/kg) or vehicle immediately before HI (n ≥ 6). We then assessed cytogenesis, proinflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and matrix metalloproteinases regionally and longitudinally. Results We found that DOXY significantly inhibits neuroinflammation in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus; decreases interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and augments BDNF following HI. In addition, DOXY-treated pups have significantly fewer 2-bromo-5-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the subventricular zone 6 hours post-HI. However, DOXY does not persistently affect cytogenesis in the subventricular zone or dentate gyrus up to 7 days post-HI. The BrdU-positive cells not expressing markers for mature neurons colabel with nestin, an intermediate filament protein typical of neuronal precursors. Limitations Our study investigates “acute” neurodevelopment over the first 7 days of life after HI injury. Further long-term investigations into adulthood are underway. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest the putative clinical potential of DOXY in the management of neonatal cerebral HI injury. PMID:20040243

  3. Non-injurious neonatal hypoxia confers resistance to brain senescence in aged male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Martin

    Full Text Available Whereas brief acute or intermittent episodes of hypoxia have been shown to exert a protective role in the central nervous system and to stimulate neurogenesis, other studies suggest that early hypoxia may constitute a risk factor that influences the future development of mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effects of a neonatal "conditioning-like" hypoxia (100% N₂, 5 min on the brain and the cognitive outcomes of rats until 720 days of age (physiologic senescence. We confirmed that such a short hypoxia led to brain neurogenesis within the ensuing weeks, along with reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus involving activation of Erk1/2 and repression of p38 and death-associated protein (DAP kinase. At 21 days of age, increased thicknesses and cell densities were recorded in various subregions, with strong synapsin activation. During aging, previous exposure to neonatal hypoxia was associated with enhanced memory retrieval scores specifically in males, better preservation of their brain integrity than controls, reduced age-related apoptosis, larger hippocampal cell layers, and higher expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic markers. These changes were accompanied with a marked expression of synapsin proteins, mainly of their phosphorylated active forms which constitute major players of synapse function and plasticity, and with increases of their key regulators, i.e. Erk1/2, the transcription factor EGR-1/Zif-268 and Src kinase. Moreover, the significantly higher interactions between PSD-95 scaffolding protein and NMDA receptors measured in the hippocampus of 720-day-old male animals strengthen the conclusion of increased synaptic functional activity and plasticity associated with neonatal hypoxia. Thus, early non-injurious hypoxia may trigger beneficial long term effects conferring higher resistance to senescence in aged male rats, with a better preservation of cognitive functions.

  4. Effect of an NCAM mimetic peptide FGL on impairment in spatial learning and memory after neonatal phencyclidine treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The FGL peptide is a neural cell adhesion molecule-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor agonist. FGL has both neurotrophic and memory enhancing properties. Neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 has been shown to result in long-lasting behavioral abnormalities......, including cognitive impairment relevant to schizophrenia. The present study investigated the effect of FGL on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by neonatal PCP treatment. Rat pups were treated with 30mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11. Additionally, the rats were subjected to a chronic FGL...... treatment regimen where FGL was administered throughout development. Rats were tested as adults for spatial reference memory, reversal learning, and working memory in the Morris water maze. The PCP-treated rats demonstrated a robust impairment in working memory and reversal learning. However, the long...

  5. A comparative study on pathogenic characteristics of premature infants and full term neonates with infection in NICU%NICU早产儿与足月新生儿感染病原菌特性对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂芳; 李金华

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较NICU早产儿与足月儿感染病原菌分布及耐药情况,指导临床合理用药.方法:选取因感染在NICU住院的患儿100例,按照孕龄分为两组:足月组与早产组,每组均为50例.每个患儿应用常规方法分离培养及鉴定病原菌,并予以K-B法药敏试验.比较组间的病原微生物及药敏试验资料.结果:足月组共检出病原菌213株,其中革兰阴性菌(G-)129株,占60.56%,革兰阳性菌(G+)64株,占30.05%,真菌20株,占9.39%;而早产组共检出病原菌297株,其中G-菌94株,占31.65%,G+菌157株,占52.86%,真菌46株,占15.45%(P值均<0.05).足月组检出前5位病原菌为克雷伯菌属、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌和大肠埃希菌;而早产组为铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、肠球菌属、真菌和克雷伯菌属.足月组病原菌对抗菌药物的耐药率明显较早产组低(P值均<0.05).结论:NICU早产儿与足月儿导致感染的病原菌分布特点及耐药性均有差异.%Objective: To compare the pathogenic distribution and drug resistance between premature infants and full term neonates with infection in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) , direct rational drug use in clinic. Methods: A total of 100 hospitalized infants because of infection were selected from NICU in the hospital, then they were divided into full term group and premature labor group according to gestational age. Routine separation, culture, and identification of pathogens were conducted in each infants, and drug sensitive test was performed by K-B method. The data of pathogenic microorganisms and drug sensitive test were compared between the two groups. Results; A total of 213 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected in full term group, including 129 strains of Gram negative bacteria (60.56%) , 64 strains of Gram positive bacteria (30.05 %) , and 20 strains of fungus (9. 39%) . A total of 297 strains of pathogenic bacteria were

  6. Neonatal Maternal Separation Augments Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Adult Males but Not Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Jorge; Tam, Rose; Kinkead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to adverse experiences disrupts brain development, including the brainstem network that regulates breathing. At adulthood, rats previously subjected to stress (in the form of neonatal maternal separation; NMS) display features reported in patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing, including an increased hypoxic ventilatory response and hypertension. This effect is also sex-specific (males only). Based on these observations, we hypothesized that NMS augments the carotid body's O2-chemosensitivity. Using an isolated and perfused ex vivo carotid body preparation from adult rats we compared carotid sinus nerve (CSN) responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in carotid bodies harvested from adult rats that either experienced control conditions (no experimental manipulation) or were subjected to NMS (3 h/day from postnatal days 3 to 12). In males, the CSN response to hypoxia measured in preparations from NMS males was 1.5 fold higher than controls. In control rats, the female's response was similar to that of males; however, the increase in CSN activity measured in NMS females was 3.0 times lower than controls. The CSN response to hypercapnia was not influenced by stress or sex. We conclude that NMS is sufficient to have persistent and sex-specific effects on the carotid body's response to hypoxia. Because NMS also has sex-specific effects on the neuroendocrine response to stress, we propose that carotid body function is influenced by stress hormones. This, in turn, leads to a predisposition toward cardio-respiratory disorders. PMID:27729873

  7. Alteration of conditioned emotional response and conditioned taste aversion after neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Marie-Josée; Macedo, Carlos Eduardo; Guiberteau, Thierry; Sandner, Guy

    2007-04-27

    Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampus lesions 7 days after birth according to the Lipska and Weinberger's procedure for modeling schizophrenia. The aim of the present work was to better characterize their learning capacity. A double latent inhibition study was conducted using respectively conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response. In the background of this evaluation, locomotion under apomorphine and startle reactions, inhibited or not by prepulses, was also evaluated. Our experimental methods were the same as those used in previous studies from the laboratory which were found to be sensitive to pharmacological manipulations and shown by others to be unaffected by lesions of the ventral hippocampus carried out in adult rats. In contrast, neonatally lesioned rats, once adults (over 60 days old), were hyper-responsive to noise--i.e., the startle response to a 105 db(A) noise pulse was enhanced--and hyperactive under apomorphine (0.7 mg/kg). The prepulse inhibition properties of the startle remained unchanged. Lesioned rats showed a deficit but not a suppression of conditioning, similar in both tests, but latent inhibition was preserved. Such observations complement the already known memory deficit produced in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

  8. Neonatal DSP-4 treatment modifies GABAergic neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortel, Aleksandra; Nowak, Przemyslaw; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) is a noradrenergic neurotoxin which selectively damages noradrenergic projections originating from the locus coeruleus (LC). DSP-4 treatment of rats on the first and third days after birth produces a long-lasting lesion of noradrenergic neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In DSP-4-lesioned rats, studied as adults, we observed a decrease in norepinephrine content, with no significant change in the levels of dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). There is now a well established interaction between noradrenergic and GABAergic systems, whereby the noradrenergic system is involved in the regulation of basal GABA release, while GABAergic neurons simultaneously exert tonic inhibitory regulation of LC norepinephrine neurons. We examined GABAergic neurotransmission in the norepinephrine-denervated PFC for a better appreciation of the interaction between these two systems. Treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitor vigabatrine (VGB) increased the GABA level of PFC (tissue content) in both intact and lesioned groups. Additionally, VGB increased extracellular GABA concentration in the PFC in both control and DSP-4-lesioned animals, but the elevation of GABA was 2-fold higher in DSP-4 lesioned rats. These findings indicate that neonatal DSP-4 treatment increases GABAergic neurotransmission in the PFC of rats in adulthood, perhaps by decreasing reactivity of central GABA(A) receptors.

  9. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Karen Sinzato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously. At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

  10. Streptozotocin-induced expression of Ngn3 and Pax4 in neonatal rat pancreatic α-cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Di Liang; Yuan-Yuan Guo; Ming Sun; Ying Ding; Ning Wang; Li Yuan; Wei De

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism behind β-cell regeneration in neonatal rat pancreas treated with streptozotocin (STZ).METHODS: Neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 70 mg/kg STZ. Body weight,pancreas weight and blood glucose were recorded every two days after the treatment. To identify the expression and location of transcription factors in the rat pancreas,double immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific cell markers and transcription factors.RESULTS: Expression of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), a marker for endocrine precursor cells, was observed by immunofluorescence in a few β-cells and many α-cells. The expression reached a peak 12 d after treatment. Pax4,a transcription factor that lies downstream of Ngn3 and plays an important role in β-cell differentiation, was also expressed in the α-cells of STZ-treated rats. We did not observe significant changes in Nkx6.1, which is essential for β-cell maturation in the treated rats.CONCLUSION: α-cells dedifferentiated into endocrine precursor cells and acquired the ability to dedifferentiate in the neonatal rat pancreas after STZ treatment.

  11. Acute desensitization of presynaptic GABA(B)-mediated inhibition and induction of epileptiform discharges in the neonatal rat hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tosetti, P; Bakels, R; Colin-Le Brun, [No Value; Ferrand, N; Gaiarsa, JL; Caillard, O

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of sustained activation of GABA(B) receptors on GABA(B)-mediated inhibition and network activity were investigated in the neonatal rat hippocampus using whole-cell and extracellular field recordings. GABA(B)-mediated presynaptic control of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release prog

  12. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  13. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  14. Vivências e perspectivas maternas na internação do filho prematuro em Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal Experiencias y perspectivas maternas en la internación del niño prematuro en unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal Mothers' experiences and perspectives regarding their premature infant's stay at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bertolossi Marta de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    espacio de convivencias, intercambio de experiencias y apoyo mutuo en la larga y difícil permanencia hospitalaria.The purpose of this study was to learn the reason why mothers remain at the hospital throughout the stay of their premature infant at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The study was performed with twelve mothers to premature newborns at a municipal maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, in 2007. The methodological support used in the study was the Sociological Phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. The phenomenological interview was used to capture the mothers' discourse, whose intentional action was unveiled through the following categories: Taking care of the child - dealing with the challenge of having a small baby; Staying near the premature child - the mother's presence helps the child's recovery to be faster; Reciprocal help among mothers - reinforcing hope every day. Rooming-in care stands out as an innovative and relevant initiative during the hospital stay of preterm infants, and it is considered an environment for living together, sharing experiences, and giving mutual support throughout the long and difficult stay at the hospital.

  15. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all Pneonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  16. Effects of the viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on rotavirus infection in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanna Ventola; Liisa Lehtoranta; Mari Madetoja; Marja-Leena Simonen-Tikka; Leena Maunula; Merja Roivainen; Riitta Korpela; Reetta Holma

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study the effects of live and dead Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) on rotavirus infection in a neonatal rat model.METHODS:At the age of 2 d,suckling Lewis rat pups were supplemented with either live or dead GG and the treatment was continued daily throughout the experiment.At the age of 5 and 6 d the pups received oral rotavirus (RV) SA-11 strain.The pups were sacrificed at the age of 7 or 8 d by decapitation.The gastrointestinal tract was removed and macroscopic observations were done.The consistency of feces in the colon was classified using a four-tier system.RV was detected from the plasma,small intestine,colon and feces by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).RESULTS:In this neonatal rat model,RV induced a mild-to-moderate diarrhea in all except one pup of the RV-inoculated rats.RV moderately reduced body weight development from day 6 onwards.On day 7,after 2 d of RV infection,live and dead GG groups gained significantly more weight than the RV group without probiotics [36% (P =0.001) and 28% (P =0.031),respectively].In addition,when compared with the RV control group,both live and dead GG reduced the weight ratio of colon/animal body weight to the same level as in the healthy control group,with reductions of 22% (P=0.002) and 28% (P < 0.001),respectively.Diarrhea increased moderately in both GG groups.However,the diarrhea incidence and severity in the GG groups were not statistically significantly different as compared with the RV control group.Moreover,observed diarrhea did not provoke weight loss or death.The RV control group had the largest amount of RV PCR-positive samples among the RV-infected groups,and the live GG group had the smallest amount.Rats receiving live GG had significantly less RV in the colon (P =0.027) when compared with the RV control group.Live GG was also more effective over dead GG in reducing the quantity of RV from plasma (P =0.047).CONCLUSION:Both live and dead GG have beneficial effects in RV

  17. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKTAV BOSNALI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  18. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  19. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktav Bosnalı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  20. Development of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward digitoxigenin-monodigitoxoside in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1985-01-01

    Glucuronidation is low or undetectable in embryonic and early fetal tissues and changes to adult levels at rates depending on the acceptor, tissue, and species. Because other data indicate there may be a specific UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (GT) in the liver of adult rats that glucuronidates digitoxigenin-monodigitoxoside (DIG), the development of GT activity in neonatal rats toward DIG was compared with that of other acceptors. Conjugation of p-nitrophenol and 1-naphthol was higher at birth and decreased to adult levels by 20 days of age. Glucuronidation of chloramphenicol, morphine, valproic acid, and bilirubin increased from birth to adult activity by 20 days of age. Conjugation of phenolphthalein, estrone, and diethylstilbestrol was low in 1-day-old rats and higher than adult in 20-day-old animals. In contrast, glucuronidation of DIG was barely detectable (9% of adult) in 20-day-old rats. The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was 50% of adult levels at birth and increased to adult values by 10 days of age. Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene on days 6 to 9 after birth significantly stimulated GT activity toward 1-naphthol, p-nitrophenol, and morphine, whereas phenobarbital precociously increased conjugation of chloramphenicol, valproic acid, morphine, and diethylstilbestrol. Pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile enhanced the development of GT activity toward morphine, chloramphenicol, valproic acid, bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, and estrone. Glucuronidation of DIG was not increased after 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital, but could be induced after pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile to 7% of adult values in 10-day-old rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The effect of non-infectious diseases on serum procalcitonin concentrations in premature neonates%非感染因素对早产新生儿血清降钙素原浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志新; 郭婕; 许靖; 武荣; 花少栋; 封志纯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of non-infectious factors on serum procalcitonin(PCT) in preterm neonates.MethodThe premature infants of neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) in our hospital were chosen from gestational age ranged from 33 to 36 weeks, birth time less than 12 hours without premature rupture and hospitalization period from January 2012 to December 2012. All of the premature infants were drawn blood immediately admitted to hospital and C-reactive protein (CRP), blood cultures and procalcitonin were tested. The types of premature infants non-infectious diseases included intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), neonatal asphyxia and the control group (preterm infants) without disease. The blood routine , C-reactive protein, blood culture, procalcitonin and other infections indicators in each group were monitored dynamicly in order to study the impact of these non-infectious diseases on serum procalcitonin concentrations by statistical analysis.Results ① Compared with the current literature recommended serum procalcitonin concentrations (<0.5ng / ml), procalcitonin concentrations in preterm neonates singniifcantly increase (1.07± 0.76) ng / ml.②Compared with control group (1.07±0.76) ng/ml,the procalcitonin levels in intracranial hemorrhage group (2.12± 0.99) ng/ml, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome group (2.28±1.09) ng/ml and asphyxia group (3.64± 3.17) ng / ml signiifcantly increased (F= 10.462,P <0.05).There were no signiifcant differences (F= 0.173,P= 0.950) among the different levels of intracranial hemorrhage group; Compared with the ifrst grade NRDS , the procalcitonin leves in second grade and third grade NRDS groups were significantly increased (F=5.475,P= 0.010); The procalciton level in severe asphyxia group was signiifcantly higher than in mild asphyxia group (t= 5.245,P= 0.003). Conclusions The procalcitonin concentration physiologically increased after preterm neonates were born. Many factors

  2. 胎膜早破对新生儿健康危害的研究%Influence of premature rupture of membranes on neonatal health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 刘敬; 封志纯; 黄俊锦; 吴刚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on neonatal health. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 3320 in-patient newborns of Bayi Children's Hospital from October 2006 to March 2008. One hundred term newborns and one hundred preterm newborns with PROM were chosen to be compared with fifty normal term newborns and preterm newborns respectively. The data were analyzed with Minitab 12.0 software. Result Of the 3320 newborns, 711(21.4%) were complicated with PROM. The morbidity of PROM was 21.4% (711/3320), among whom 9.69%(196/2022) were term newborns, 39.68%(515/1298) were preterm newborns, the differences between the term and the preterm newborns were statistically significant (P0.05). Total serum bilirubin level of 37.1% of total preterm newborns with PROM exceeded 220 μmol/L, while it was 29.1% in term newborns with PROM (P<0.05). There was a significant decrease of blood platelet count(P<0.01) between the PROM group and the normal group. The myocardial enzymes including lactate dchydrogenisos, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, MB isoenzyme of creatinc kinase of PROM group were significantly higher than those of the normal group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the average hospital stay of term newborns with PROM and preterm newborns with PROM were prolonged by 20.0% and 25.1% respectively, the average cost of hospitalization of them were increased 30.5% and 60.0% respectively. Conclusion PROM is harmful to newborns health in many ways. Studies on PROM should be enhanced.%目的 探讨胎膜早破(PROM)对新生儿健康的影响.方法 对我院3320例住院新生儿资料进行回顾性分析,其中PROM患儿711例.用系统抽样法随机选取各100例足月PROM及未足月PROM患儿,与正常新生儿进行对照分析.结果 25%(178/711)PROM患儿发生各种感染性疾病,其中肺炎与败血症占87.1%(155/178),主要为感染性肺炎(92/711,12.9%)和败血症(63/711,8.9%).

  3. Neuroprotective potential of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside A against dopamine receptor dysfunction in the cerebral cortex of neonatal hypoglycaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roshni Baby; Joy, Shilpa; Ajayan, M S; Paulose, C S

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal hypoglycaemia initiates a series of events leading to neuronal death, even if glucose and glycogen stores return to normal. Disturbances in the cortical dopaminergic function affect memory and cognition. We recommend Bacopa monnieri extract or Bacoside A to treat neonatal hypoglycaemia. We investigated the alterations in dopaminergic functions by studying the Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. Receptor-binding studies revealed a significant decrease (p Bacoside A ameliorated the dopaminergic and cAMP imbalance as effectively as the glucose therapy. The upregulated Bax expression in the present study indicates the high cell death in hypoglycaemic neonatal rats. Enzyme assay of SOD confirmed cortical cell death due to free radical accumulation. The gene expression of SOD in the cortex was significantly downregulated (p < 0.001). Bacopa treatment showed a significant reversal in the altered gene expression parameters (p < 0.001) of Bax and SOD. Our results suggest that in the rat experimental model of neonatal hypoglycaemia, Bacopa extract improved alterations in D1, D2 receptor expression, cAMP signalling and cell death resulting from oxidative stress. This is an important area of study given the significant motor and cognitive impairment that may arise from neonatal hypoglycaemia if proper treatment is not implemented.

  4. Effects of neonatal fluoxetine exposure on behavior across development in rats selectively bred for an infantile affective trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Germeyan, Sierra C

    2015-03-01

    Infants born to women with depressive symptoms are at higher risk for insecure attachment and behavioral problems. Thus current medical practice is to continue psychotropic medication of pregnant women with depression despite concerns about its behavioral teratology. There are few animal studies focused on long-term behavioral effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure; in addition, studies have not looked at individual differences in baseline affective state as a source of response variability. In this study, fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), was administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days 2-7 to model exposure to antidepressants in the human third trimester. Four behavioral measures were conducted from the neonatal to adult age periods in Low and High lines selectively bred for their rate of ultrasonic vocalizations after brief maternal separation. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased distress calls in both lines, but to a greater extent in High line rats than Low line. Neonatal fluoxetine also impaired motor coordination in neonates. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased social behavior in both juvenile and adult subjects. Fluoxetine-related reductions in anxiety behavior were not observed at the two older ages. As expected, High line subjects displayed more anxiety behavior than Low line subjects at all three test ages. These results suggest that there are may be significant behavioral consequences of antidepressant use during late pregnancy on offspring maternal attachment and social behavior, with implications for increased risk of autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Noradrenergic Modulation of Intrinsic and Synaptic Properties of Lumbar Motoneurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartas, Maylis; Morin, France; Barrière, Grégory; Goillandeau, Michel; Lacaille, Jean-Claude; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is known that noradrenaline (NA) powerfully controls spinal motor networks, few data are available regarding the noradrenergic (NAergic) modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons in motor networks. Our work explores the cellular basis of NAergic modulation in the rat motor spinal cord. We first show that lumbar motoneurons express the three classes of adrenergic receptors at birth. Using patch-clamp recordings in the newborn rat spinal cord preparation, we characterized the effects of NA and of specific agonists of the three classes of adrenoreceptors on motoneuron membrane properties. NA increases the motoneuron excitability partly via the inhibition of a KIR like current. Methoxamine (α1), clonidine (α2) and isoproterenol (β) differentially modulate the motoneuron membrane potential but also increase motoneuron excitability, these effects being respectively inhibited by the antagonists prazosin (α1), yohimbine (α2) and propranolol (β). We show that the glutamatergic synaptic drive arising from the T13-L2 network is enhanced in motoneurons by NA, methoxamine and isoproterenol. On the other hand, NA, isoproterenol and clonidine inhibit both the frequency and amplitude of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs while methoxamine increases their frequency. The T13-L2 synaptic drive is thereby differentially modulated from the other glutamatergic synapses converging onto motoneurons and enhanced by presynaptic α1 and β receptor activation. Our data thus show that the NAergic system exerts a powerful and complex neuromodulation of lumbar motor networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord. PMID:20300468

  6. Noradrenergic modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of lumbar motoneurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylis Tartas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that noradrenaline powerfully controls spinal motor networks, few data are available regarding the noradrenergic modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons in motor networks. Our work explores the cellular basis of noradrenergic modulation in the rat motor spinal cord. We first show that lumbar motoneurons express the three classes of adrenergic receptors at birth. Using patch-clamp recordings in the newborn rat spinal cord preparation, we characterized the effects of noradrenaline and of specific agonists of the three classes of adrenoreceptors on motoneuron membrane properties. Noradrenaline increases the motoneuron excitability partly via the inhibition of a KIR like current. Methoxamine (α1, clonidine (α2 and isoproterenol (β differentially modulate the motoneuron membrane potential but also increase motoneuron excitability, these effects being respectively inhibited by the antagonists prazosin (α1, yohimbine (α2 and propranolol (β. We show that the glutamatergic synaptic drive arising from the T13-L2 network is enhanced in motoneurons by noradrenaline, methoxamine and isoproterenol. On the other hand, noradrenaline, isoproterenol and clonidine inhibit both the frequency and amplitude of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs while methoxamine increases their frequency. The T13-L2 synaptic drive is thereby differentially modulated from the other glutamatergic synapses converging onto motoneurons and enhanced by presynaptic α1 and β receptor activation. Our data thus show that the noradrenergic system exerts a powerful and complex neuromodulation of lumbar motor networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

  7. Intracerebroventricular kainic acid administration to neonatal rats alters interneuron development in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongxin; Csernansky, Cynthia A; Chu, Yunxiang; Csernansky, John G

    2003-10-10

    The effects of neonatal exposure to excitotoxins on the development of interneurons have not been well characterized, but may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, the excitotoxin, kainic acid (KA) was administered to rats at postnatal day 7 (P7) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion. At P14, P25, P40 and P60, Nissl staining and immunohistochemical studies with the interneuron markers, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), calbindin-D28k (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) were performed in the hippocampus. In control animals, the total number of interneurons, as well as the number of interneurons stained with GAD-67, CB and PV, was nearly constant from P14 through P60. In KA-treated rats, Nissl staining, GAD-67 staining, and CB staining revealed a progressive decline in the overall number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields from P14 to P60. In contrast, PV staining in KA-treated rats showed initial decreases in the number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields at P14 followed by increases that approached control levels by P60. These results suggest that, in general, early exposure to the excitotoxin KA decreases the number of hippocampal interneurons, but has a more variable effect on the specific population of interneurons labeled by PV. The functional impact of these changes may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.

  8. The Investigation of Garlic (Allium Sativum Extract on Lead Detoxification of Neonatal Rats Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Johari

    2014-06-01

    in kidney poisoning treatment induced by lead in neonatal rat.Materials & Methods: Rats were divided into 7 groups of 8. The First group was the control group, which had received no materials. The second group had received 0/1 ml distilled water, the third group had received the lead with a dose of 0/6 gram per liter. The forth group had just received 0/4 g/kg garlic alcoholic – water extract. The fifth, sixth, and seventh group had first received 0/6 g lead perliter and then received doses of 0/1, 0/2, 0/4 g/kg garlic. Then, injections was performed orally in 10 consecutive days. The data were analysed then using T. Results: Based on the obtained results, there is a significant increase in the body weight and the kidney of the third, fifth, sixth and seventh groups compared with the control group. However, the body weight and kidney of rats in the fourth group showed a meaningful decrease comparing with the lead group. Regarding the third group, there was a meaningful increase in Urea, uric acid, creatinine and potassium compared with the control group but a significant decrease in the sodium. Conclusion: Protective effects of garlic on kidney are related to antioxidant properties, since different types of oxidation reactions have negative effects on glomerular filtration rate. Garlic is eliminating the poisoning effect of lead on the kidney because of having properties such as antioxidant and protective effect.

  9. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.

  10. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen W; Coon, Steven L; Savastano, Luis E; Mullikin, James C; Fu, Cong; Klein, David C

    2015-01-01

    The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age) surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction). Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX) or decentralization (DCN) of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35%) following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell biology.

  11. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  12. Connectivity of Pacemaker Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Superficial Dorsal Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Neil C.; Arbabi, Shahriar; Baccei, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons with an intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic burst-firing have been characterized in lamina I of the neonatal spinal cord, where they are innervated by high-threshold sensory afferents. However, little is known about the output of these pacemakers, as the neuronal populations which are targeted by pacemaker axons have yet to be identified. The present study combines patch clamp recordings in the intact neonatal rat spinal cord with tract-tracing to demonstrate that lamina I pacemaker neurons contact multiple spinal motor pathways during early life. Retrograde labeling of premotor interneurons with the trans-synaptic virus PRV-152 revealed the presence of burst-firing in PRV-infected lamina I neurons, thereby confirming that pacemakers are synaptically coupled to motor networks in the spinal ventral horn. Notably, two classes of pacemakers could be distinguished in lamina I based on cell size and the pattern of their axonal projections. While small pacemaker neurons possessed ramified axons which contacted ipsilateral motor circuits, large pacemaker neurons had unbranched axons which crossed the midline and ascended rostrally in the contralateral white matter. Recordings from identified spino-parabrachial and spino-PAG neurons indicated the presence of pacemaker activity within neonatal lamina I projection neurons. Overall, these results show that lamina I pacemakers are positioned to regulate both the level of activity in developing motor circuits as well as the ascending flow of nociceptive information to the brain, thus highlighting a potential role for pacemaker activity in the maturation of pain and sensorimotor networks in the CNS. PMID:25380417

  13. 晚期早产儿及足月儿与胎龄 <35周早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征临床分析%Comparison of clinical characteristics of respiratory distress syndrome between gestational age <35w premature neonates and term and late-preterm neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美卿; 宋旸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics of respiratory distress syndrome ( RDS ) between gestational age <35w premature neonates and term and late-preterm neonates and the differences among them.Methods Eighty-nine cases of RDS admitted in People's Hospital of Lanxi City during the period of December 2011 to December 2013 were divided into two groups:term and late-preterm neonate group (gestational age≥35w, n=32) and gestational age<35w premature neonate group (gestational age<35w, n=57).The risk factors, onset time, treatment and complications of them were analyzed.Results Premature was the main etiology of RDS in gestational age<35w premature neonates, while cesarean section was the major high risk factor in term and late-preterm neonates (59.4%), followed by asphyxia, meconium aspiration and gestational diabetes mellitus (χ2 value was 6.52, 6.47, 9.24 and 4.15, respectively, all P<0.05).The occurrence of RDS was later (t=3.92,P<0.01) and the start time to use CPAP or ventilator was also later (t=4.20, P<0.01) in term and late-preterm neonate group than in gestational age<35w premature neonate group.But the continuous application of ventilator was longer (t=2.27,P<0.05) in term and late-preterm neonates, and they were more likely to suffer pneumothorax (χ2 =5.82,P<0.05) and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) (χ2 =9.49,P <0.01).Conclusion Cesarean section, meconium aspiration, asphyxia and gestational diabetes mellitus are the risk factors of term and late-preterm neonates with RDS.The onset time for RDS is late and mechanical ventilation is long in term and late-preterm neonates, who are likely to suffer pneumothorax and PPHN. Therefore, active preventing neonates asphyxia and meconium aspiration, and reducing cesarean section rate can significantly reduce the occurrence of RDS among term and late-preterm neonates.Meanwhile, it is important to improve clinician' s awareness on RDS to achieve early diagnosis and early treatment as well as

  14. Neonatal RU-486 (mifepristone) exposure increases androgen receptor immunoreactivity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Lorman, Robin; Auger, Anthony P; Auger, Catherine J

    2014-01-16

    Progesterone and progestin receptors (PRs) are known to play a role in the development of brain physiology and behavior in many different species. The distribution and regulation of PRs within the developing brain suggest that they likely contribute to the organization of the brain and behavior in a sex-specific manner. We examined the role of PR signaling during development on the organization of adult sexual behavior and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the brain. We administered the PR antagonist, RU-486, subcutaneously to male and female rats on postnatal days 1-7 (0=day of birth) and examined adult sexual behavior and AR-immunoreactivity (AR-ir) in the adult brain. A typical sex difference in lordosis quotient (LQ) was observed and neonatal RU-486 treatment did not alter this behavior. In contrast, neonatal RU-486 treatment increased adult male sexual behavior and AR-ir in several brain areas in males. These data indicate that a transient disruption in PR signaling during development can have lasting consequences on the male brain and may increase male sexual behavior in part by increasing AR expression, and therefore androgen sensitivity, in adulthood.

  15. Sensory feedback synchronizes motor and sensory neuronal networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Ana R; Nasretdinov, Azat; Lebedeva, Julia; Khazipov, Roustem

    2016-10-07

    Early stages of sensorimotor system development in mammals are characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous movements. Whether and how these movements support correlated activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits remains unknown. Here we show highly correlated activity in sensory and motor zones in the spinal cord of neonatal rats in vivo. Both during twitches and complex movements, movement-generating bursts in motor zones are followed by bursts in sensory zones. Deafferentation does not affect activity in motor zones and movements, but profoundly suppresses activity bursts in sensory laminae and results in sensorimotor uncoupling, implying a primary role of sensory feedback in sensorimotor synchronization. This is further supported by largely dissociated activity in sensory and motor zones observed in the isolated spinal cord in vitro. Thus, sensory feedback resulting from spontaneous movements is instrumental for coordination of activity in developing sensorimotor spinal cord circuits.

  16. The Specific Protein Kinase R (PKR) Inhibitor C16 Protects Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Brain Damages by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in a Neonatal Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinglei; Tan, Yongchang; Li, Yinjiao; Luo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brain injuries induced by hypoxia-ischemia in neonates contribute to increased mortality and lifelong neurological dysfunction. The specific PKR inhibitor C16 has been previously demonstrated to exert a neuroprotective role in adult brain injuries. However, there is no recent study available concerning its protective role in hypoxia-ischemia-induced immature brain damage. Therefore, we investigated whether C16 protects against neonatal hypoxia-ischemia injuries in a neonatal rat model. Material/Methods Postnatal day 7 (P7) rats were used to establish classical hypoxia-ischemia animal models, and C16 postconditioning with 100 ug/kg was performed immediately after hypoxia. Western blot analysis was performed to quantify the phosphorylation of the PKR at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and phosphorylation of NF-κB 24h after hypoxia exposure. The TTC stain for infarction area and TUNEL stain for apoptotic cells were assayed 24 h after the brain hypoxia. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α was performed at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. Results The level of PKR autophosphorylation was increased dramatically, especially at 3 h (C16 group vs. HI group, P<0.01). Intraperitoneal C16 administration reduced the infarct volume and apoptosis ratio after this insult (C16 group vs. HI group<0.01), and C16 reduced proinflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, partly through inhibiting NF-κB activation (C16 group vs. HI group<0.05). Conclusions C16 can protect immature rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by modulating neuroinflammation. PMID:28008894

  17. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm birth after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005) than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM.

  18. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm birth after preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005 than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM.

  19. Acute Histologic Chorioamnionitis Is a Risk Factor for Adverse Neonatal Outcome in Late Preterm Birth after Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in late preterm infants who were born after preterm PROM. Methodology/Principal Findings The relationship between the presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis and adverse neonatal outcome was examined in patients with preterm PROM who delivered singleton preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Nonparametric statistics were used for data analysis. The frequency of acute histologic chorioamnionitis was 24% in patients with preterm PROM who delivered preterm newborns between 34 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation. Newborns born to mothers with histologic chorioamnionitis had significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal outcome (74% vs 51%; p<0.005) than those without histologic chorioamnionitis. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for gestational age at preterm PROM, gestational age at delivery, and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids. Conclusions/Significance The presence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in late preterm infants born to mothers with preterm PROM. PMID:24324586

  20. New released DR detector (Canon CXDI 70C wireless) tested at premature neonates chest examination focusing on dose and image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle

    2011-01-01

    maintaining image quality at a diagnostic level. Methods and Materials A quantitative experimental study based on experiments with technical and human phantoms. A technical CDRad phantom was used and the images were analyzed using CDRad software, giving results as objective IQF values. A human neonates chest...

  1. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  2. SOMATIC VERSUS DENDRITIC RESPONSES TO HYPERCAPNIA IN CHEMOSENSITIVE LOCUS COERULEUS NEURONS FROM NEONATAL RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritucci, Nick A.; Dean, Jay B.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory control is mediated in part by central chemosensitive neurons that respond to increased CO2 (hypercapnia). Activation of these neurons is believed to involve hypercapnia-induced decreases in intracellular pH (pHi). All previous measurements of hypercapnia-induced pHi changes in chemosensitive neurons have been made from the soma, but chemosensitive signaling could be initiated in the dendrites of these neurons. In this study, membrane potential (Vm) and pHi were measured simultaneously in chemosensitive locus coeruleus (LC) neurons from neonatal rat brainstem slices using whole-cell pipettes and the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye pyranine. We measured pHi from the soma as well as from primary dendrites to a distance of 160 μm from the edge of the soma. Hypercapnia (15% CO2, pHo 7.00; control: 5% CO2, pHo 7.45) resulted in an acidification of similar magnitude in dendrites and soma (about 0.26 pH unit), but that was faster in the more distal regions of the dendrites. Neither the dendrites nor the soma exhibited pHi recovery during hypercapnia-induced acidification, but both regions contain pH-regulating transporters since they exhibit pHi recovery from an NH4Cl prepulse-induced acidification (at constant pHo 7.45). Exposing a portion of the dendrites to hypercapnic solution did not increase firing rate, but exposing the soma to hypercapnic solution resulted in a near maximal increase in firing rate. These data show that while the pHi response to hypercapnia is similar in the dendrites and soma, somatic exposure to hypercapnia plays a major role in the activation of chemosensitive LC neurons from neonatal rats. PMID:16014703

  3. Effect of Spike Lavender Lakhlakhe on Pain Intensity Due to Phlebotomy Procedure in Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Beheshtipoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Premature infants undergo multiple painful procedures during treatment; thus, it must be tried to limit complications caused by diagnostic and treatment procedures using simple and practical methods. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of spike lavender lakhlakhe on pain intensity due to phlebotomy in hospitalized premature infants.Methods: This single-arm, randomized clinical trial was performed on 30 infants chosen through convenience sampling method. Each newborn was considered as its own control. For the test group, one drop of pure (100% spike lavender lakhlakhe was taken by a standard dropper and diluted with 4 ml of warm distilled water by the research assistant. This mixture was stirred at 2-3 cm distance of the newborns’ nose from 60 minutes before until 2 minutes after phlebotomy, such that it could be smelled by the newborns. In both groups, heart rate and blood oxygen saturation were measured by a standard portable device, and the corresponding data was recorded in data collection sheets. Moreover, the infants’ facial expression changes were recorded by a camera and the intensity of pain was measured by Premature Infant Pain Profile before and after the procedure. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired comparison analysis test in SPSS, version 17.Results: Comparison of mean pain intensity caused by phlebotomy in the control and test groups showed a significant difference (7.667±0.311 vs. 4.882±0.311; P

  4. Protective effect of polydatin on learning and memory impairments in neonatal rats with hypoxic‑ischemic brain injury by up‑regulating brain‑derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Qu, Yunxia; He, Huiming; Fan, Xiaolei; Qin, Yuanhua; Mao, Weifeng; Xu, Lixin

    2014-12-01

    Polydatin is a key component of Polygonum cuspidatum, a herb with medical and nutritional value. The present study investigated the protective effect of polydatin against learning and memory impairment in neonatal rats with hypoxic‑ischemic brain injury (HIBI). The unilateral common carotid artery ligation method was used to generate neonatal HIBI rats. Y‑maze testing revealed that rats with HIBI exhibited memory impairment, while rats with HIBI treated with polydatin displayed enhanced long‑term learning and memory. Of note, polydatin was found to upregulate the expression of hippocampal brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rats with HIBI. BDNF has a role in protecting HIBI‑induced brain tissue injury and alleviating memory impairment. These findings showed that polydatin had a protective effect against learning and memory impairment in neonatal rats with HIBI and that the protective effect may be mediated through the upregulation of BDNF.

  5. Upregulation of Shh and Ptc1 in hyperoxia‑induced acute lung injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongxing; Wang, Shaohua; Yang, Lin; Fang, Fang; Xu, Feng

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Ptc signaling molecules in the lungs of newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia, and to explore the role of the SHH signaling pathway in hyperoxia‑induced lung injury. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were placed in chambers containing room air or oxygen above 95% for 14 days following birth. The rats were sacrificed after 3, 7 or 14 days and their lungs were removed. Sections were fixed and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Shh and Ptc1 were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. The total RNA and protein were also extracted from lung tissue; real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis were utilized to assess the mRNA and protein expression of Shh and Ptc1. H&E staining demonstrated significant histomorphological changes in the hyperoxia‑exposed lungs at 3, 7 and 14 days of age. The results of the immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of Shh was significantly higher in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3, 7 and 14 days, while Ptc1 was significantly elevated at 7 and 14 days. Exposure of the neonatal rat lung to prolonged hyperoxia resulted in acute lung injury and histomorphological changes. Shh and Ptc1 were upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the course of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. The SHH signal pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. This is the first evidence that in vivo hyperoxia induces activation of the SHH signal transduction pathway in newborn lung.

  6. Ketamine analgesia for inflammatory pain in neonatal rats: a factorial randomized trial examining long-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Adnan T

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal rats exposed to repetitive inflammatory pain have altered behaviors in young adulthood, partly ameliorated by Ketamine analgesia. We examined the relationships between protein expression, neuronal survival and plasticity in the neonatal rat brain, and correlated these changes with adult cognitive behavior. Methods Using Western immunoblot techniques, homogenates of cortical tissue were analyzed from neonatal rats 18–20 hours following repeated exposure to 4% formalin injections (F, N = 9, Ketamine (K, 2.5 mg/kg × 2, N = 9, Ketamine prior to formalin (KF, N = 9, or undisturbed controls (C, N = 9. Brain tissues from another cohort of rat pups (F = 11, K = 12, KF = 10, C = 15 were used for cellular staining with Fos immunohistochemistry or FluoroJade-B (FJB, followed by cell counting in eleven cortical and three hippocampal areas. Long-term cognitive testing using a delayed non-match to sample (DNMS paradigm in the 8-arm radial maze was performed in adult rats receiving the same treatments (F = 20, K = 24, KF = 21, C = 27 in the neonatal period. Results Greater cell death occurred in F vs. C, K, KF in parietal and retrosplenial areas, vs. K, KF in piriform, temporal, and occipital areas, vs. C, K in frontal and hindlimb areas. In retrosplenial cortex, less Fos expression occurred in F vs. C, KF. Cell death correlated inversely with Fos expression in piriform, retrosplenial, and occipital areas, but only in F. Cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was elevated in F, K and KF vs. C. No significant differences occurred in Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression between groups, but cellular changes in cortical areas were significantly correlated with protein expression patterns. Cluster analysis of the frequencies and durations of behaviors grouped them as exploratory, learning, preparatory, consumptive, and foraging behaviors. Neonatal inflammatory pain exposure reduced exploratory behaviors in adult

  7. Your Premature Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since ... Complications & Loss > Preterm labor & premature birth > Premature babies Premature babies E-mail to a friend Please fill ...

  8. Effects of Angiotensin Ⅱ on Expression of the Gap Junction Channel Protein Connexin 43 in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yang; Wei Wu

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of angiotensin Ⅱ,as a mediator of cardiac hypertrophy,on expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlation of expression of Cx43 and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.Methods Cardiomyocytes were isolated from newborn SD rats.Angiotensin Ⅱ was added into the media to induce myocyte hypertrophy.Cultures were exposed to 10 ~6 mol/L angiotensin Ⅱ for 72 h,Cx43 expression was characterized by RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence methods.Results Immunofluorescence analysis revealed decreased Cx43 immunoreactivity in cells treated for 72 h with angiotensin Ⅱ.RT-PCR analysis demonstrated there was an obvious decrease of Cx43 mRNA level in cells exposed to angiotensin Ⅱ for 72 h.The changes of expression of connexin 43 were related to its entrance into S phase of the cell cycle.Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed for 72 h to increase concentrations of angiotensin Ⅱ ( 1.0 × 10-9 ~ 1.0 × 10-6mol/L),resulting in significantly decreased Cx43 expression.Conclusions Angiotensin Ⅱ leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in Cx43 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by decreasing Cx43 mRNA synthesis.Signal transduction pathways activated by angiotensin Ⅱ under pathophysiologic conditions of cardiac hypertrophy could initiate remodeling of gap junctions.

  9. Low-dose sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and facilitates the development of dentate gyrus-dependent learning in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Xuan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Dao-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Huge body of evidences demonstrated that volatile anesthetics affect the hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions, and most of them showed impairment at anesthetic dose. Here, we investigated the effect of low dose (1.8%) sevoflurane on hippocampal neurogenesis and dentate gyrus-dependent learning. Neonatal rats at postnatal day 4 to 6 (P4-6) were treated with 1.8% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Neurogenesis was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine labeling and electrophysiology recording. Four and seven weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and contextual-fear discrimination learning tests were performed to determine the influence on spatial learning and pattern separation. A 6-hour treatment with 1.8% sevoflurane promoted hippocampal neurogenesis and increased the survival of newborn cells and the proportion of immature granular cells in the dentate gyrus of neonatal rats. Sevoflurane-treated rats performed better during the training days of the Morris water maze test and in contextual-fear discrimination learning test. These results suggest that a subanesthetic dose of sevoflurane promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in neonatal rats and facilitates their performance in dentate gyrus-dependent learning tasks.

  10. [Expression of HoxB5, SPC and AQP5 in neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced chronic lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fu, Jian-Hua; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Alveolar epithelium impairment is one of pathological changes associated with chronic lung disease (CLD). Hoxb5 is one of the few homeobox genes strongly expressed in the developing lung. This study investigated the expression of HoxB5, SPC and AQP5 in rats with CLD in order to explore the role of Hoxb-5 in impairment and reparation of alveolar epithelium. Eighty neonatal rats were randomly exposed to hyperoxia (model group) or to room air (control group) (n=40 each). The CLD model was induced by hyperoxia exposure. The expression of HoxB5, SPC and AQP5 protein and mRNA in the lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after exposure. In the model group HoxB5 expression significantly decreased 7, 14 and 21 days after hyperoxia exposure. SPC expression decreased 3 days after hyperoxia exposure but increased significantly 7, 14 and 21 days after hyperoxia exposure as compared to the control group. AQP5 expression was progressively reduced with prolonged hyperoxia exposure. Hyperoxia exposure may lead to alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) damage in neonatal rats. The increased SPC expression and decreased AQP5 expression suggested that the ability of differentiation and transformation of AECII into AECI decreased in neonatal rats with CLD. The decreased HoxB5 expression following hyperoxia exposure might contribute to a decreased ability of differentiation of AECII.

  11. Resveratrol ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia-induced brain injury in the neonatal rat via the miR-96/Bax axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Hongen; Shan, Haijun; Chen, Tuanying

    2017-07-18

    This study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of resveratrol on amelioration of hypoxia/ischemia (H/I)-induced brain injury. The RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions, respectively. The PC12 cell induced by OGD/R was as in vitro H/I brain injury model. The luciferase reporter assay was used to prove the relationship between Bax and miR-96, and the cell apoptosis was detected by MTT assay. The loss of MBP+ area in neonatal rats analyzed by immunohistochemistry was to evaluate the extent of brain injury. The miR-96 expression was decreased in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of neonatal rats with H/I brain injury and the oxygenglucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced PC12 cell, while Bax expression was opposite. And then the H/I rats and OGD/R-induced PC12 cell were treated with resveratrol (RSV); the results showed that the RSV could reverse the miR-96 and Bax expressions. Next, the luciferase reporter assay proved that Bax was a target of miR-96. We used the miR-96 inhibitor to suppress miR-96 expression in OGD/R-induced PC12 cell, and found that RSV regulated Bax expression and prevented OGD/R-induced PC12 cell apoptosis via miR-96. In addition, the immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the loss of MBP+ area in neonatal rats, and the result showed that the RSV significantly reduced the brain damage, increased miR-96 expression, and decreased Bax expression, while inhibition of miR-96 aggravated the brain damage and reversed the effect of RSV. Resveratrol ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia-induced brain injury in neonatal rat via the miR-96/ Bax axis.

  12. Vasoactive intestinal peptide can promote the development of neonatal rat primordial follicles during in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Niannian; Li, Yu; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Yun; Yang, Dongzi; Zhang, Qingxue

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility. Some of the intraovarian growth factors involved in the initiation of primordial follicle growth have been identified, but the exact mechanisms regulating follicle activation are poorly understood. Strong evidence indicates that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide found in ovarian nerves, plays a role in the physiology of follicle development and function. The aim of the present study was to determine whether VIP might regulate the activation and growth of neonatal rat primordial follicles in an in vitro culture system. Ovaries from 4-day-old rats were cultured for 14 days in medium containing 10(-7) M VIP. At the end of the culture, the developmental stages and viability of the follicles were evaluated using histological sections. Immunohistochemistry studies for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed to assess the mitotic activity of granulosa cells. In addition, the expression level of kit ligand (KL) mRNA was examined after culture. Histology showed that primordial follicles could survive and start to grow in vitro. The proportion of primordial follicles was decreased and the proportion of early primary follicles increased after in vitro culture with VIP. Immunolocalization of PCNA showed that follicle growth was initiated after VIP treatment. The expression level of KL mRNA was increased in the VIP treatment group. Thus, VIP can promote primordial follicle development, possibly mediated in part through upregulating the expression of KL.

  13. Autoantibody against Cardiac β1-Adrenoceptor Induces Apoptosis in Cultured Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan GAO; Hui-Rong LIU; Rong-Rui ZHAO; Jian-Ming ZHI

    2006-01-01

    To clarify whether apoptosis is involved in the injury processes induced by autoantibody against cardiac β1-adrenoceptor, we investigated the biological and apoptotic effects of antibodies on cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Wistar rats were immunized with peptides corresponding to the second extracellular loop of the β1-adrenoceptor to induce the production of anti-β1-adrenoceptor antibodies in the sera.Immunoglobulin (Ig) G in the sera was detected using synthetic antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purified using the diethylaminoethyl cellulose ion exchange technique. Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was evaluated using agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Our results showed that the positive serum IgG greatly increased the beating rates of cardiomyocytes and showed an "agonist-like" activity. Furthermore, positive serum IgG induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis after treatment with β1adrenoceptor overstimulation for 48 h. The effects of monoclonal antibody against β1-adrenoceptor were also found to be similar to those of positive serum IgG. It was suggested that the autoantibody could induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis by excessive stimulation of β1-adrenoceptor.

  14. Melatonin promotes oligodendroglial maturation of injured white matter in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Olivier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of melatonin treatment in a rat model of white matter damage (WMD in the developing brain. Additionally, we aim to delineate the cellular mechanisms of melatonin effect on the oligodendroglial cell lineage. METHODS: A unilateral ligation of the uterine artery in pregnant rat at the embryonic day 17 induces fetal hypoxia and subsequent growth restriction (GR in neonatal pups. GR and control pups received a daily intra-peritoneal injection of melatonin from birth to post-natal day (P 3. RESULTS: Melatonin administration was associated with a dramatic decrease in microglial activation and astroglial reaction compared to untreated GR pups. At P14, melatonin prevented white matter myelination defects with an increased number of mature oligodendrocytes (APC-immunoreactive in treated GR pups. Conversely, melatonin was not found to be associated with an increased density of total oligodendrocytes (Olig2-immunoreactive, suggesting that melatonin is able to promote oligodendrocyte maturation but not proliferation. These effects appear to be melatonin-receptor dependent and were reproduced in vitro. INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that melatonin has a strong protective effect on developing damaged white matter through decreased microglial activation and oligodendroglial maturation leading to a normalization of the myelination process. Consequently, melatonin should be a considered as an effective neuroprotective candidate not only in perinatal brain damage but also in inflammatory and demyelinating diseases observed in adults.

  15. Inhibition of miRNA-210 reverses nicotine-induced brain hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ke, Jun; Li, Yong; Ma, Qinyi; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Lubo; Xiao, DaLiao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal tobacco use in pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and neurobehavioral deficits in postnatal life. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine exposure exacerbated brain vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in neonatal rats through up-regulation of miR-210 expression in the developing brain. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps. Experiments of HI brain injury were performed in 10-day-old pups. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly decreased neonatal body and brain weights, but increased the brain to body weight ratio. Perinatal nicotine exposure caused a significant increase in HI brain infarct size in the neonates. In addition, nicotine enhanced miR-210 expression and significantly attenuated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase isoform B (TrkB) protein abundance in the brain. Of importance, intracerebroventricular administration of a miR-210 inhibitor (miR-210-LNA) significantly decreased HI-induced brain infarct size and reversed the nicotine-increased vulnerability to brain HI injury in the neonate. Furthermore, miR-210-LNA treatment also reversed nicotine-mediated down-regulation of BDNF and TrkB protein expression in the neonatal brains. These findings provide novel evidence that the increased miR-210 plays a causal role in perinatal nicotine-induced developmental programming of ischemic sensitive phenotype in the brain. It represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of brain hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the neonate-induced by fetal stress. PMID:28123348

  16. Temporal changes of oxidative stress markers in Escherichia coli K1-induced experimental meningitis in a neonatal rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Simões, Lutiana R; Dagostin, Valdemira S; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Rezin, Gislaine T; Florentino, Drielly; Muniz, Jhonata P; Collodel, Allan; Petronilho, Fabricia; Quevedo, Joao; Barichello, Tatiana

    2017-07-13

    Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and advanced critical care neonatal bacterial meningitis has a mortality rate of over 10% and induces neurological sequelae in 20-50% of cases. Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1) is the most common gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis and is the second most common cause behind group B streptococcus. We previously reported that an E. coli K1 experimental meningitis infection in neonatal rats resulted in habituation and aversive memory impairment and a significant increase in cytokine levels in adulthood. In this present study, we investigated the oxidative stress profile including malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, carbonyl protein formation, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catalase (CAT) activity 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h after E. coli K1 experimental meningitis infection. In addition, sulfhydryl groups, nitrite and nitrate levels and activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes were also measured in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of neonatal rats. The results from this study demonstrated a significant increase in MDA, protein carbonyls and MPO activity and a simultaneous decrease in SOD activity in the hippocampus of the neonatal meningitis survivors but the same was not observed in frontal cortex. In addition, we also observed a significant increase in complex IV activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of meningitis survivor rats. Thus, the results from this study reaffirmed the possible role of oxidative stress, nitric oxide and its related compounds in the complex pathophysiology of E. coli K1-induced bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aplicação clínica da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lúcia Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o valor do diagnóstico precoce de alterações hemodinâmicas em hemorragias e eventos hipóxico-isquêmicos pela avaliação de imagens e mensuração do índice de resistência por meio da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cinquenta neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso foram submetidos a ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler com a técnica transfontanela anterior e transtemporal sequenciais. RESULTADOS: Foram detectadas alterações cerebrais em 32% dos prematuros, sendo 22% com hemorragia intracraniana, 8% com leucomalácia periventricular e 2% com toxoplasmose. Dentre os 34 casos (68%, do total de neonatos, nos quais não foram detectadas lesões cerebrais pela ultrassonografia craniana, 18 (53% apresentaram alterações no índice de resistência. O índice de resistência variou conforme a época do exame. CONCLUSÃO: Existe correlação entre a presença de alterações na hemodinâmica cerebral e subsequente desenvolvimento de hemorragias e lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas, pela mensuração do índice de resistência. Alterações do índice de resistência, embora não preditoras de morte, estão relacionadas com a gravidade do quadro clínico em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. RESULTS: Cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis

  18. Rodent neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage mimics the human brain injury, neurological consequences, and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns. GMH causes neurological sequelae such as cerebral palsy, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Despite this, there is no standardized animal model of spontaneous GMH using newborn rats to depict the condition. We asked whether stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.3 U) into the ganglionic eminence of neonatal rats would reproduce the acute brain injury, gliosis, hydroc...

  19. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  20. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  1. Safflor yellow A protects neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against anoxia/reoxygenation injury in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-lin DUAN; Jing-wen WANG; Yue GUAN; Ying YIN; Guo WEI; Jia CUI; Dan ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of safflor yellow A (SYA),a flavonoid extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L,on cultured rat cardiomyocytes exposed to anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R).Methods:Primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to anoxia for 3 h followed by reoxygenation for 6 h.The cell viability was measured using MTT assay.The releases of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK),level of malondialdehyde (MDA),and activities of glutathione (GSH),superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were analyzed.Hoechst 33258 staining and changes in Bcl-2/Bax ratio and caspase 3 activity were used to examine A/R-induced apoptosis.Results:The A/R exposure markedly decreased the viability of cardiomyocytes,suppressed the activities of SOD,GSH,CAT and GSH-Px,and Bcl-2 protein expression.Meanwhile,the A/R exposure markedly increased the release of LDH and CK,and MDA production in the cardiomyocytes,and increased the rate of apoptosis,caspase 3 activity,Bax protein expression.Pretreatment with SYA (40,60 and 80 nmol/L) concentration-dependently blocked the A/R-induced changes in the cardiomyocytes.Pretreatment of the cardiomyocytes with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC,200 μmol/L) produced protective effects that were comparable to those caused by SYA (80nmol/L).Conclusion:SYA protects cultured rat cardiomyocytes against A/R injury,maybe via inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  2. Effect of neonatal or adult heat acclimation on testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicka, B; Dietrich, G J; Kotwica, G

    2015-03-01

    The accessory gland weight, testicular and epididymal morphometry and sperm production were analyzed in four groups of rats housed at 20 or 34°C: (1) control rats (CR) kept at 20°C from birth to day 90; (2) adult heat-acclimated rats (AHA) kept at 20°C from birth to day 45 followed by 34°C to day 90; (3) neonatal heat-acclimated rats (NHA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 90 and (4) de-acclimated rats (DA) kept at 34°C from birth to day 45 followed by 20°C to day 90. In NHA and DA rats, accessory gland weight was higher than in controls. Despite the lack of differences in testicular and epididymal morphometry, curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was lower in the NHA group compared to controls. Areas of seminiferous tubules were lower in the DA than in CR and NHA groups, however, sperm concentration and motility were not affected by the treatment in this group. In AHA rats, epithelium of approximately 20% of seminiferous tubules was degenerated and Sertoli cell number was lower in the remaining tubules. In contrast to sperm motility, epididymal duct area, area of the duct occupied by spermatozoa and cauda epididymis sperm concentration were lower in AHA rats than in the other groups. In conclusion, neonatal heat acclimation did not affect the testicular morphometry and epididymal sperm concentration, suggesting adjustment to high ambient temperature. On the contrary, adult heat acclimation of rats affected the examined parameters, leading to decreased sperm concentration.

  3. Neonatal oxytocin alters subsequent estrogen receptor alpha protein expression and estrogen sensitivity in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N; Paramadilok, Auratip; Cushing, Bruce S

    2009-12-14

    In most species, the effects of oxytocin (OT) on female reproductive behavior are dependent upon estrogen, which increases both OT and OT receptor expression. It is also becoming apparent that OT neurotransmission can influence estrogen signaling, especially during development, as neonatal OT manipulations in prairie voles alter ERalpha expression and estrogen-dependent behaviors. We tested the hypothesis that OT developmentally programs ERalpha expression and estrogen sensitivity in female Sprague-Dawley rats, a species previously used to establish the estrogen-dependence of OT signaling in adulthood. OT treatment for the first postnatal week significantly increased ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), but not in the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Conversely, neonatal OT antagonist (OTA) treatment significantly reduced ERalpha-immunoreactivity in the MPOA, but not in the VMH. Both treatments increased OT-immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and reduced estrogen sensitivity, indicated by reduced sexual receptivity following chronic estradiol benzoate (EB) administration. Behavioral deficits in OTA-treated females were apparent during both paced and non-paced tests with 0.5 microg EB (but not 5.0 or 10.0 microg EB), whereas deficits in OT-treated females were only observed during the initial paced test with 0.5 and 5.0 microg EB (but not 10.0 microg EB). The current results demonstrate that OT can positively regulate ERalpha expression within the MPOA and VMH during development; however, endogenous OT selectively programs ERalpha expression within the MPOA. Thus, exogenous OT or OTA exposure during development may have long-term consequences on behavior through stable changes in ERalpha and OT expression.

  4. Parabens inhibit the early phase of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Jin; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Eui-Man; Yang, Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-09-01

    Parabens are widely used as anti-microbial agents in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, parabens have been shown to act as xenoestrogens, a class of endocrine disruptors. In the present study, 55 female pups were given daily subcutaneous injections of methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben or 17beta-estradiol (E2) during neonatal Day 1-7. The ovaries were excised on postnatal Day 8, then fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The follicles were counted and classified as being in the primordial, early primary, or primary stages. The number of primordial follicles increased while early primary follicles decreased at the high doses of propyl- and butyl-paraben. The levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and Foxl2 mRNA increased by propyl- and butyl-parabens whereas kit ligand/stem cell factor (KITL) expression was up regulated only by butyl-paraben. The mRNA levels of StAR and Cyp11a1 were significantly decreased after treatment with methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-parabens. Consistent with its use as a positive control, E2 regulated the expression of KITL, StAR, and Cyp11a1 genes, but surprisingly did not affect AMH and Foxl2 levels. Thus, E2 and parabens had different effects on the regulation of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, demonstrating the estrogenic and nonestrogenic properties of parabens in the ovary. Taken together, our data show that parabens stimulated AMH mRNA expression and consequently inhibited the early phase of folliculogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal female rat. The levels of steroidogenic enzymes, indicators of follicle differentiation, appeared to be regulated by parabens through inhibition of their transcriptional repressor, Foxl2. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of human milk on DNA synthesis of neonatal rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Y; Shiraki, K; Mura, T

    1991-03-01

    We studied the effect of human milk on DNA synthesis of neonatal hepatocytes to elucidate the physiologic role of human milk in growth of the liver. Neonatal hepatocytes were isolated from 5-d-old rats and cultured in serum-free medium. Human milk stimulated DNA synthesis of these hepatocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory activity of 7.5% (vol/vol) human milk plus 0.1 mumol/L insulin was five times that of control and was almost the same as that of 20 micrograms/L human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) plus insulin. The effect of human milk was additive with treatment with hEGF and insulin. The milk associated with prolonged jaundice of infants was significantly more active than the milk that was not associated with jaundice, although the concentration of hEGF was not different between the two types of milk. The mitogenic activity of milk was heat-labile, inactivated by DTT and stable after treatment with trypsin. Three peaks of the activity were detected in milk by gel filtration and the fraction containing proteins of molecular weight between 36,000 and 76,000 showed the highest activity. Anti-hEGF antibody did not inhibit this activity completely. These results suggested the presence of mitogens other than hEGF or a more active form of hEGF in human milk. The milk associated with breast-milk jaundice exerts a different influence on cell growth and may affect maturation of the liver function related to bilirubin metabolism. The mitogenic activity of milk might be important for growth and development of the liver in infants.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhichun; Liu, Jing; Ju, Rong

    2013-05-05

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhichun Feng; Jing Liu; Rong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2′- deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  8. Effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 on premature responding in the five-choice serial reaction time test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Hołuj, Małgorzata; Potasiewicz, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2015-08-01

    The antagonists of serotonin 5-HT7 receptors have been demonstrated to ameliorate cognitive impairments in pharmacological animal models of schizophrenia that involve blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The administration of NMDAR antagonists evokes a broad range of cognitive deficits, including a loss of impulse control. The involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in the modulation of impulsivity has been recently suggested but has not been studied in great detail. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 on a measure of impulsive action, i.e., premature responding on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats. The antagonist of 5-HT2A receptor M100,907 was used as a positive control. The efficacies of both compounds were assessed in conditions of increased impulsivity that were produced by the administration of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 or/and non-drug stimuli, i.e., using variable inter-trial intervals (vITIs). To examine the general ability of SB-269970 to counteract the MK-801-induced impairments, a discrete paired-trial delayed alternation task in a T-maze was employed. MK-801 significantly increased the number of premature responses in 5-CSRTT, and this effect was abolished by the administration of M100,907 (0.5 mg/kg) and SB-269970 (1 mg/kg). In addition, M100,907, but not SB-269970, reduced premature responding in the prolonged ITI trials. Both M100,907 and SB-269970 attenuated MK-801-induced working memory impairment in a T-maze. The present study demonstrated the efficacy of SB-269970 against MK-801-induced premature responding in the 5-CSRTT. This anti-impulsive action may offer additional benefits to the cognitive-enhancing effects of pharmacological blockade of 5-HT7 receptors.

  9. Effects of neonatal androgenization on the chromatofocusing pattern of anterior pituitary FSH in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Aguirre, A; Damián-Matsumura, P; Espinoza, R; Dominguez, R; Morales, L; Flores, A

    1990-08-01

    Anterior pituitary glands were removed from neonatally androgenized (100 micrograms testosterone propionate) female rats and normal controls at 5, 10, 18, 21, 30, 60 and 90 days of age, and the multiple forms of FSH present within them were separated by chromatofocusing (pH range 7.5-4.0). Additional pituitary glands from intact adult males (90 days old) were also studied for comparative purposes. All animal groups exhibited multiple forms of immunoactive FSH within a pH range of 7.5-4.0, as well as an additional FSH form obtained after the addition of 1.0 mol NaCl/l to the chromatofocusing column (salt peak). In animals 5-30 days old (controls and androgenized) the majority of FSH applied to the chromatofocusing columns was recovered within the salt peak (45-85% of total FSH immunoactivity recovered). However, as the animals aged, more FSH immunoactivity focused within less acidic regions (isoelectric point (pI) 5.9-5.0); pituitaries from animals 60 days old contained the greatest proportion of FSH focused within this pH range (controls, 39.2 +/- 0.6%; androgenized, 23.1 +/- 0.9% of total immunoactivity recovered; P less than 0.03 vs animals 30 days old for both experimental groups). This shift towards less acidic FSH was attenuated in androgenized animals compared with the controls (P less than 0.01). In control adult rats, the chromatofocusing distribution pattern of pituitary FSH varied according to the day of the oestrous cycle. Pituitary extracts from control rats decapitated during the morning of pro-oestrus, oestrus and day 1 of dioestrus exhibited the highest proportion of immunoactive FSH (23.2-28.8% of total) focused within a pH range of 5.9-5.0, whilst only 10.4-11.6% of FSH from androgenized rats and those on day 1 of dioestrus was recovered within this pH range (P less than 0.05). In control animals decapitated during the morning of pro-oestrus and oestrus, 10-26% of FSH focused within the most alkaline region (pI 7.5-6.0); the chromatofocusing

  10. Chronic administration of U50,488H fails to produce hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis tolerance in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignar, D M; Windh, R T; Kuhn, C M

    1992-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of chronic administration of a kappa opioid receptor agonist on the function of kappa and mu opioid, serotonergic and cholinergic regulation of secretion from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in neonatal rats. After chronic treatment with saline or U50,488H (trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]- benzeneacetamide methane sulfonate), a kappa opioid receptor agonist and subsequent pharmacological challenge, corticosterone (CS) in serum was determined. Kappa tolerance did not develop in pups treated on postnatal days 5-9 with increasing doses of U50,488H (0.5-2.5 mg/kg). When the rats were treated with the same chronic regimen of U50,488H at different stages of development from birth through weaning, only weanling rats became tolerant to U50,488H. In the absence of measurable kappa tolerance, the responses of corticosterone in serum to morphine, quipazine, a serotonin receptor agonist and physostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, were attenuated in neonatal rats, treated with U50,488H. These studies suggest that kappa tolerance is more difficult to induce in developing rats than in adults and that regulation of the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis by other neurotransmitter systems is altered by treatment with kappa opioid receptor agonists, even in the apparent absence of tolerance.

  11. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1.

  12. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year Follow-up of the CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Anderson, Peter J; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Doyle, Lex W; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. A follow-up study was conducted at 14 academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom from May 7, 2011, to May 27, 2016, of English- or French-speaking children who had been enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial between October 11, 1999, and October 22, 2004. A total of 1202 children with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g were eligible for this study; 920 (76.5%) had adequate data for the main outcome. Caffeine citrate or placebo until drug therapy for apnea of prematurity was no longer needed. Functional impairment was a composite of poor academic performance (defined as at least 1 standard score greater than 2 SD below the mean on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4), motor impairment (defined as a percentile rank of ≤5 on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition), and behavior problems (defined as a Total Problem T score ≥2 SD above the mean on the Child Behavior Checklist). Among the 920 children (444 females and 476 males; median age, 11.4 years [interquartile range, 11.1-11.8 years]), the combined rates of functional impairment were not significantly different between the 457 children assigned to receive caffeine compared with the 463 children assigned to receive placebo (145 [31.7%] vs 174 [37.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.02; P = .07). With all available data, including those from up to 24 Swedish trial participants, the rates of poor academic performance on 1 or more of 4 subtests (66 of 458 [14.4%] vs 61 of 462 [13.2%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77-1.61; P = .58) and behavior problems (52 of 476 [10.9%] vs 40 of 481 [8

  13. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  14. Thymosin β4 inhibits microglia activation through microRNA 146a in neonatal rats following hypoxia injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Huang, Yan-xia; Song, Jian-wen; Ma, Qiao-mei

    2015-12-01

    Neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, including hypoxic injury of the developing brain. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the major G-actin-sequestering molecule, has an anti-inflammatory effect and has been used to treat various neurological diseases. However, the effect of Tβ4 on hypoxia-induced microglia activation in the developing brain remains unclear. We investigate here the effect of Tβ4 on microglia activation of neonatal rats after hypoxia exposure. Tβ4 treatment was carried out on 1-day-old rats and BV-2 cells. Tβ4 expression in microglia was determined by quantitative real time-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β, and microRNA 146a expression was determined by quantitative real time-PCR. We showed that Tβ4 treatment significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory mediators in the cerebellum of neonatal rats following hypoxia injury. Increased expression of endogenous Tβ4 in microglia was observed both in hypoxic rats and in BV-2 cells. Tβ4 treatment significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of hypoxia-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and NO. Remarkably, microRNA 146a expression was found to have increased in Tβ4-treated BV-2 cells. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Tβ4 in neonatal rats following hypoxic brain injury. More importantly, our data reveal, for the first time, that Tβ4 inhibits microglia activation in vitro. Therefore, this study contributes to understanding the role and mechanism of Tβ4 function in central nervous system diseases.

  15. A comparison of the apoptotic effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Eric J; Gowran, Aoife; Campbell, Veronica A

    2007-10-17

    The maternal use of cannabis during pregnancy results in a number of cognitive deficits in the offspring that persist into adulthood. The endocannabinoid system has a role to play in neurodevelopmental processes such as neurogenesis, migration and synaptogenesis. However, exposure to phytocannabinoids, such as Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, during gestation may interfere with these events to cause abnormal patterns of neuronal wiring and subsequent cognitive impairments. Aberrant cell death evoked by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol may also contribute to cognitive deficits and in cultured neurones Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis via the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor. In this study we report that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (5-50 microM) activates the stress-activated protein kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, and the pro-apoptotic protease, caspase-3, in in vitro cerebral cortical slices obtained from the neonatal rat brain. The proclivity of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol to impact on these pro-apoptotic signalling molecules was not observed in in vitro cortical slices obtained from the adult rat brain. In vivo, subcutaneous administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (1-30 mg/kg) activated c-jun N-terminal kinase, caspase-3 and cathepsin-D, and induced DNA fragmentation in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats. In contrast, in vivo administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol to adult rats was not associated with the apoptotic pathway in the cerebral cortex. The data provide evidence which supports the hypothesis that the neonatal rat brain is more vulnerable to the neurotoxic influence of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, suggesting that the cognitive deficits that are observed in humans exposed to marijuana during gestation may be due, in part, to abnormal engagement of the apoptotic cascade during brain development.

  16. Association of Insulin-like Growth Factors with Lung Development in Neonatal Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉楚; 常立文; 容志惠; 祝华平; 张谦慎; 陈红兵; 李文斌

    2004-01-01

    To explore the relationship between Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)- Ⅰ , -Ⅱ and lung development in neonatal rats. 80 timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 20): group A (Control group), group B (Dexamethasone (DEX) 1 group),group C (DEX 2 group), group D (retinoic acid (RA) group). 20 pregnant rats in group A, B and D were injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with vehicle (NS), DEX, or RA respectively during gestational day 16 to 18. All newborn rats in group C were subcutaneously injected with DEX at day 1 to 3 after birth. The lung tissue was obtained at the following times: fetuses at gestational ages of 18, 20 and 21 days, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after birth. Lung tissues were used for histopathological study, the polypeptides analysis of IGF- Ⅰ , -Ⅱ (immunohistochemistry and Western blot) and mRNA analysis ( RT- PCR). The results showed that the strongest expression of IGF- Ⅰ in group A and D occurred at ages of 5-7 days (alveolar stage). The stronger their expressions, the better the alveolar develop. The peak stage of expression in group B occurred earlier, on the day 3 after birth. Compared with group A, the expression of IGF- Ⅰ during gestation age of 18 days to age of 3 days in group B were significantly higher (P<0.01), but significantly lower at other time points (P<0.01). The expression of IGF- Ⅰ was lower in group C all the time and always higher in group D than those in group A (P<0.01). The peak expression of IGFⅡ took place at the gestation age of 18 days, then gradually dropped to trace. During 18 days of gestation to age of 3 days, the expression of IGF-Ⅱ in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P<0.01). No difference was found among all other groups. The change in the expression of IGF- Ⅰ , - Ⅱ mRNA in all 4 groups was similar to that of their polypeptides. The results suggested that there is a close linking between IGF- Ⅰ , - Ⅱ and

  17. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) -α and -β transcripts in the neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the present study expression of estrogen receptor subtype -α (ERα) and -β (ERβ) in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb was investigated and compared between neonatal (1~ 3-days-old) and adult (250~350g) rats, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). No ERα transcripts were detectable in the adult cerebellum and olfactory bulb, whereas very weak expression of ERα was present in the adult cerebral cortex. No significant difference in ERβ transcripts was detectable between the neonatal and adult rats. While transcripts for both ER subtypes were co-expressed in these brain areas of neonatal rats, although ERα expression was significantly weaker than ERβ. Even in the cerebral cortex known to contain both ER subtypes in adult rats, ERα transcripts in neonatal rats were much higher than in adult. These observations provide evidence for the existence of different expression patterns of ERα/ERβ transcripts in these three brain areas between the neonatal and adult rats, suggesting that each ER subtype may play a distinct role in the regulation of differentiation, development, and functions of the brain by estrogen.

  18. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  19. Intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells improved neurovascular regeneration and rescued neuropsychiatric deficits after neonatal stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Ferdinand, Anwar; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Ji, Xun Ming; Yu, Shan Ping; Wei, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in infants and children. Currently, very limited therapeutic strategies are available to protect the developing brain against ischemic damage and promote brain repairs for pediatric patients. Moreover, children who experienced neonatal stroke often have developmental social behavior problems. Cellular therapy using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has emerged as a regenerative therapy after stroke. In the present investigation, neonatal stroke of postnatal day 7 (P7) rat pups was treated with noninvasive and brain-specific intranasal delivery of BMSCs at 6 h and 3 days after stroke (1 × 10(6)cells/animal). Prior to transplantation, BMSCs were subjected to hypoxic preconditioning to enhance their tolerance and regenerative properties. The effects on regenerative activities and stroke-induced sensorimotor and social behavioral deficits were specifically examined at P24 of juvenile age. The BMSC treatment significantly reduced infarct size and blood-brain barrier disruption, promoted angiogenesis, neurogenesis, neurovascular repair, and improved local cerebral blood flow in the ischemic cortex. BMSC-treated rats showed better sensorimotor and olfactory functional recovery than saline-treated animals, measured by the adhesive removal test and buried food finding test. In social behavioral tests, we observed functional and social behavioral deficits in P24 rats subjected to stroke at P7, while the BMSC treatment significantly improved the performance of stroke animals. Overall, intranasal BMSC transplantation after neonatal stroke shows neuroprotection and great potential as a regenerative therapy to enhance neurovascular regeneration and improve functional recovery observed at the juvenile stage of development.

  20. Neonatal Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western developed countries, Listeria monocytogenes is not an uncommon pathogen in neonates. However, neonatal listeriosis has rarely been reported in Taiwan. We describe two cases collected from a single medical institute between 1990 and 2005. Case 1 was a male premature baby weighing 1558 g with a gestational age of 31 weeks whose mother had fever with chills 3 days prior to delivery. Generalized maculopapular rash was found after delivery and subtle seizure developed. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture collected on the 1st day yielded L. monocytogenes. In addition, he had ventriculitis complicated with hydrocephalus. Neurologic development was normal over 1 year of follow-up after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Case 2 was a 28-weeks' gestation male premature baby weighing 1180 g. Endotracheal intubation and ventilator support were provided after delivery due to respiratory distress. Blood culture yielded L. monocyto-genes. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis but the culture was negative. Brain ultrasonography showed ventriculitis. Sudden deterioration with cyanosis and bradycardia developed on the 8th day and he died on the same day. Neonatal listeriosis is uncommon in Taiwan, but has significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of perinatal infection relies on high index of suspicion in perinatal health care professionals. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:161-164

  1. Developmental nicotine exposure adversely effects respiratory patterning in the barbiturate anesthetized neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Santiago; Kidder, Ian J; Mudery, Jordan A; Bailey, E Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Neonates at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are hospitalized for cardiorespiratory monitoring however, monitoring is costly and generates large quantities of averaged data that serve as poor predictors of infant risk. In this study we used a traditional autocorrelation function (ACF) testing its suitability as a tool to detect subtle alterations in respiratory patterning in vivo. We applied the ACF to chest wall motion tracings obtained from rat pups in the period corresponding to the mid-to-end of the third trimester of human pregnancy. Pups were drawn from two groups: nicotine-exposed and saline-exposed at each age (i.e., P7, P8, P9, and P10). Respiratory-related motions of the chest wall were recorded in room air and in response to an arousal stimulus (FIO2 14%). The autocorrelation function was used to determine measures of breathing rate and respiratory patterning. Unlike alternative tools such as Poincare plots that depict an averaged difference in a measure breath to breath, the ACF when applied to a digitized chest wall trace yields an instantaneous sample of data points that can be used to compare (data) points at the same time in the next breath or in any subsequent number of breaths. The moment-to-moment evaluation of chest wall motion detected subtle differences in respiratory pattern in rat pups exposed to nicotine in utero and aged matched saline-exposed peers. The ACF can be applied online as well as to existing data sets and requires comparatively short sampling windows (∼2 min). As shown here, the ACF could be used to identify factors that precipitate or minimize instability and thus, offers a quantitative measure of risk in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Foxg1 mRNA overexpression in neonatal rats following hypoxic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luquan Li; Yi Zheng; Guoliang Mo; Fang Li; Jialin Yu

    2011-01-01

    Forkhead box G1 (Foxg1) is expressed during the embryonic stage and in postnatal brain regions sensitive to hypoxia/ischemia injury,such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.To date,very little is known about Foxg 1 expression changes in the brain following hypoxia injury (HI).The present study measured Foxg 1 mRNA expression using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction on days 3,7,14,28,and 56 following HI to determine self-restorative features in the injured brain.In addition,mRNA expression of other related layer markers,such as Reelin,RORB,Foxp1,Foxp2,ER81,and Otx-1,was detected following HI.Results revealed significantly decreased Foxg1 mRNA expression at 3 days after HI,which significantly increased by 56 days.Reelin and Foxp2 mRNA expression were upregulated until 56 days after HI,but Foxp1 and ER81 mRNA expression decreased from day 14 to 56 following HI.In addition,Otx-1 and RORB mRNA expression decreased from day 3 to 28 after HI.These findings revealed Fxog1 mRNA overexpression and varying degrees of restoration in the neonatal rat brain following HI.

  3. Electrophysiological properties of lumbosacral preganglionic neurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, A; Kawatani, M; Araki, I; de Groat, W C

    2000-07-28

    The electrophysiological properties of parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PGN) in L6 and S1 spinal cord slices from neonatal rats were studied using the patch clamp techniques. PGN were identified by retrograde axonal transport of a fluorescent dye (Fast Blue) injected intraperitoneally before the experiment. PGN in the intermediolateral region of the spinal cord were divided into two classes (tonic PGN and phasic PGN) on the basis of firing properties during prolonged (300 ms) depolarizing current pulses. Tonic neurons exhibited a prolonged discharge (average maximum: 5.6); whereas phasic PGN fired on average only 1.4 spikes during depolarizing pulses. PGN were usually oval in shape. The mean long axis of tonic PGN (20.7+/-0.5 microm) was significantly (PAHP) in tonic PGN (200.5+/-11.9 ms) was longer than in phasic PGN (137.6+/-9.8 ms). 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 0. 5 mM) reduced the threshold for spike activation in tonic and phasic PGN. 4-AP also unmasked tonic firing in phasic PGN (average maximum: 5.5 spikes during 300 ms depolarizing current pulses) and increased firing frequency by 19% in tonic PGN. These data indicate that the different discharge patterns of parasympathetic PGN are dependent in part on differences in the expression of 4-AP-sensitive K(+) channels. The two types of PGN may provide an innervation to different targets in the pelvic viscera.

  4. Early expression of GABA(A) receptor delta subunit in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelon, F; Mladinic', M; Cherubini, E; Bradbury, A

    2000-12-01

    The cDNA library screening strategy was used to identify the genes encoding for GABA(A) receptor subunits in the rat hippocampus during development. With this technique, genes encoding eleven GABA(A) receptor subunits were identified. The alpha5 subunit was by far the most highly expressed, followed by the gamma2, alpha2 and alpha4 subunits respectively. The expression of the beta2, alpha1, gamma1, beta1 and beta3 subunits was moderate, although that of the alpha3 and delta subunits was weak. In situ hybridization experiments, using digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes, confirmed that the delta subunit was expressed in the neonatal as well as in the adult hippocampus, and is likely to form functional receptors in association with other subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. When the more sensitive RT-PCR approach was used, the gamma3 subunit was also detected, suggesting that this subunit is present in the hippocampus during development but at low levels of expression. The insertion of the delta subunit into functional GABA(A) receptors may enhance the efficacy of GABA in the immediate postnatal period when this amino acid is still exerting a depolarizing and excitatory action.

  5. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  6. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter the Gene Expression Profile of Neuron-Enriched Cultures from Neonatal Rat Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kimura-Kuroda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids are considered safe because of their low affinities to mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs relative to insect nAChRs. However, because of importance of nAChRs in mammalian brain development, there remains a need to establish the safety of chronic neonicotinoid exposures with regards to children’s health. Here we examined the effects of longterm (14 days and low dose (1 μM exposure of neuron-enriched cultures from neonatal rat cerebellum to nicotine and two neonicotinoids: acetamiprid and imidacloprid. Immunocytochemistry revealed no differences in the number or morphology of immature neurons or glial cells in any group versus untreated control cultures. However, a slight disturbance in Purkinje cell dendritic arborization was observed in the exposed cultures. Next we performed transcriptome analysis on total RNAs using microarrays, and identified significant differential expression (p < 0.05, q < 0.05, ≥1.5 fold between control cultures versus nicotine-, acetamiprid-, or imidacloprid-exposed cultures in 34, 48, and 67 genes, respectively. Common to all exposed groups were nine genes essential for neurodevelopment, suggesting that chronic neonicotinoid exposure alters the transcriptome of the developing mammalian brain in a similar way to nicotine exposure. Our results highlight the need for further careful investigations into the effects of neonicotinoids in the developing mammalian brain.

  7. Neonatal Androgen Exposure Causes Persistent Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Related to Metabolic Disease in Adult Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Martín-Núñez, Gracia María; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Alterations of gut microbiome have been proposed to play a role in metabolic disease, but the major determinants of microbiota composition remain ill defined. Nutritional and sex hormone challenges, especially during early development, have been shown to permanently alter adult female phenotype and contribute to metabolic disturbances. In this study, we implemented large-scale microbiome analyses to fecal samples from groups of female rats sequentially subjected to various obesogenic manipulations, including sex hormone perturbations by means of neonatal androgenization or adult ovariectomy (OVX), as a model of menopause, to establish whether these phenomena are related to changes in gut microbiota. Basic metabolic profiles concerning glucose/insulin homeostasis were also explored. The effects of the sex hormonal perturbations, either developmentally (androgenization) or in adulthood (OVX), clearly outshone the impact of nutritional interventions, especially concerning the gut microbiota profile. Notably, we observed a lower diversity in the androgenized group, with the highest Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, supporting the occurrence of durable alterations in gut microbiota composition, even in adulthood. Moreover, the elimination of adult ovarian secretions by OVX affected the richness of gut microbiota. Our data are the first to document the durable impact of sex steroid manipulations, and particularly early androgenization, on gut microbiota composition. Such dysbiosis is likely to contribute to the metabolic perturbations of conditions of obesity linked to gonadal dysfunction in the female.

  8. Hyperprolactinemia after neonatal prolactin (PRL) deficiency in rats: evidence for altered anterior pituitary regulation of PRL secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, G V; Shyr, S W; Grosvenor, C E; Crowley, W R

    1988-05-01

    Previous findings from this laboratory suggest a role for milk-borne PRL in the development of the inhibitory neuroendocrine controls over PRL secretion. Thus, rats that consumed milk deficient in PRL on days 2-5 postpartum show reduced concentrations and turnover of DA in the median eminence and elevated serum levels of PRL at 30-35 days of age. The present experiments were undertaken to investigate whether these consequences of neonatal PRL deficiency persist beyond puberty, and whether alterations in pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic hormones may be involved. Lactating rats received sc injections of either saline or the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine (125 micrograms/rat.day) on each of days 2-5 postpartum, a treatment that reduces the amount of PRL in milk without abolishing lactation. Blood samples were obtained from male and female offspring at various postnatal ages, and PRL concentrations were determined by RIA. Serum PRL concentrations in offspring from both groups were low until after weaning, but the female offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers showed significantly elevated serum PRL between days 30 and 90 postpartum. Male offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers also had transiently increased serum PRL levels, which returned to control levels by day 40. The turnover rate of DA in the median eminence, calculated from the rate of decline after synthesis inhibition, was reduced on day 35 in neonatally PRL-deficient offspring, as shown previously. However, no differences in DA turnover between the two groups were apparent on day 60, indicating a recovery of normal dopaminergic activity. Anterior pituitary cells of 100-day-old control and neonatally PRL-deficient animals were dispersed, cultured for 3 days, and then exposed to either TRH, to stimulate PRL release, or to the DA agonist bromocriptine, which inhibits PRL release. Pituitary cells of neonatally PRL-deficient offspring were almost completely unresponsive to bromocriptine with

  9. Maternal assessment of pain in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Correia dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify mothers' perceptions about the pain in their premature babies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: evaluative, quantitative study with investigative nature conducted with 19 mothers of hospitalized premature newborns. Data were obtained from closed questions, answered by mothers. Results: from the participants, two (10.5% reported that newborns are unable to feel pain. From the 17 mothers who said that premature babies can feel pain, the majority (94.1% identified crying as a characteristic of pain sensation. Eleven (64.7% stated that uneasiness is a sign of pain in newborns. Conclusion: for the proper management of neonatal pain it is essential that mothers know the signs of pain in premature newborns, and that health professionals instruct this recognition, through the enhancement of the maternal presence and practice of effective communication between professionals and newborns’ families.

  10. The Effect of Iron Deficiency on Osmotic Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells from Neonatal Rats and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashimi, L Mossa; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, H J

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency during pregnancy has many effects on both the mother and her developing foetus. These can be both short and long term. One effect is an alteration in fatty acid metabolism and we hypothesised that these changes may result in alterations in membrane function and structure. In order to test this hypothesis, we measured osmotic sensitivity in red blood cells isolated from neonates and their mothers at different times following birth. We fed female rats control or iron-deficient diets for 4 weeks prior to mating and kept them on the same diet until term. At that time, we returned one group of deficient dams to the control diet. The others were kept on the same diet. We showed that iron deficiency results in a decrease in osmotic sensitivity in the mothers but not in their neonates. Returning the dams to the control diet resulted in a return of their red cell osmotic sensitivity to control levels. In the neonates, there was no recovery in haematocrit or in any other parameter, though they did not get any worse, in contrast to the pups being suckled by deficient mothers. The data show two things. The first is that following birth, the mother restores her own iron stores at the expense of the pups, and secondly, there are differences in properties and sensitivities between red cells from mothers and their neonates. This latter observation cannot be explained by differences in the membrane fatty acid profiles, which were not significantly different.

  11. Hyperactivity in the Gunn rat model of neonatal jaundice: age-related attenuation and emergence of gait deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, John A; Shuler, Jeffrey M; Fowler, Stephen C; Stanford, Kimberly G; Ma, Delin; Bittel, Douglas C; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Shapiro, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal jaundice resulting from elevated unconjugated bilirubin occurs in 60-80% of newborn infants. Although mild jaundice is generally considered harmless, little is known about its long-term consequences. Recent studies have linked mild bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) with a range of neurological syndromes, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The goal of this study was to measure BIND across the lifespan in the Gunn rat model of BIND. Using a sensitive force plate actometer, we measured locomotor activity and gait in jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats versus their nonjaundiced (Nj) littermates. Data were analyzed for young adult (3-4 mo), early middle-aged (9-10 mo), and late middle-aged (17-20 mo) male rats. jj rats exhibited lower body weights at all ages and a hyperactivity that resolved at 17-20 mo of age. Increased propulsive force and gait velocity accompanied hyperactivity during locomotor bouts at 9-10 mo in jj rats. Stride length did not differ between the two groups at this age. Hyperactivity normalized, and gait deficits, including decreased stride length, propulsive force, and gait velocity, emerged in the 17-20-mo-old jj rats. These results demonstrate that, in aging, hyperactivity decreases with the onset of gait deficits in the Gunn rat model of BIND.

  12. The cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine perturbs the intermediary metabolism in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engskog, Mikael K R; Karlsson, Oskar; Haglöf, Jakob; Elmsjö, Albert; Brittebo, Eva; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is produced by most cyanobacteria. BMAA is considered as a potential health threat because of its putative role in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously observed cognitive disturbances and morphological brain changes in adult rodents exposed to BMAA during the development. The aim of this study was to characterize changes of major intermediary metabolites in serum following neonatal exposure to BMAA using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. NMR spectroscopy was used to obtain serum metabolic profiles from neonatal rats exposed to BMAA (40, 150, 460mg/kg) or vehicle on postnatal days 9-10. Multivariate data analysis of binned NMR data indicated metabolic pattern differences between the different treatment groups. In particular five metabolites, d-glucose, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatine and acetate, were changed in serum of BMAA-treated neonatal rats. These metabolites are associated with changes in energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Further statistical analysis disclosed that all the identified serum metabolites in the lowest dose group were significantly (pmodel used in this study is so far the only animal model that displays significant biochemical and behavioral effects after a low short-term dose of BMAA. The demonstrated perturbation of intermediary metabolism may contribute to BMAA-induced developmental changes that result in long-term effects on adult brain function.

  13. Hypermethylation of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity-Related genes is Involved in Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ling-sha; Jia, Min; Sun, Jie; Sun, Xiao-ru; Zhang, Hui; Ji, Mu-huo; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhong-yun

    2016-02-01

    General anesthetics given to immature rodents cause delayed neurobehavioral abnormalities via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation, one of the epigenetic modifications, is essential for the modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity through regulating the related genes. Therefore, we investigated whether abnormalities in the hippocampal DNA methylation of synaptic plasticity-related genes are involved in neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairments in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 % sevoflurane or 30 % oxygen/air for 2 h daily from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P9 and were treated with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) or vehicle 1 h before the first sevoflurane exposure on P7. The rats were euthanized 1, 6, 24 h, and 30 days after the last sevoflurane exposure, and the brain tissues were harvested for biochemical analysis. Cognitive functions were evaluated by the open field, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze (MWM) tests on P39, P41-43, and P50-57, respectively. In the present study, repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure resulted in hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments as assessed by fear conditioning and MWM tests. The cognitive impairments were associated with the increased DNMTs and hypermethylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Reelin genes, and subsequent down-regulation of BDNF and Reelin genes, which finally led to the decrease of dendritic spines in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons in adolescent rats. Notably, pretreatment with 5-AZA reversed these sevoflurane-induced abnormalities. In conclusion, our results suggest that hypermethylation of hippocampal BDNF and Reelin is involved in neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairments.

  14. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  15. Acompanhamento da icterícia neonatal em recém-nascidos de termo e prematuros tardios Follow-up of neonatal jaundice in term and late premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perazzini Facchini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os resultados de um projeto de acompanhamento de recém-nascidos de termo e próximos ao termo ictéricos no período neonatal. MÉTODOS: Foram encaminhados a ambulatório especializado neonatos com peso > 2.000 g e/ou idade gestacional > 35 semanas, cuja icterícia na alta foi avaliada inicialmente com o icterômetro de Ingram, Bilicheck® e, se indicado, com bilirrubinômetro Unistat (Leica. A bilirrubinemia destes recém-nascidos situava-se no ou acima do percentil 40 do nomograma elaborado por Bhutani. Todos recém-nascidos tratados com fototerapia durante internação foram reavaliados laboratorialmente 24 horas após suspensão do tratamento. A indicação de reinternação para tratamento fototerápico intensivo foi para paciente com nível > 20 mg/dL. RESULTADOS: De um total de 11.259 neonatos, 2.452 (21,8% foram encaminhados para acompanhamento, dos quais 87,2% (2.140 retornaram. Oitenta neonatos retornados foram reinternados. Dos 2.452 encaminhados para retorno, 180 (7,3% tinham bilirrubinemia > 15 mg/dL na alta. Destes, 151 retornaram para acompanhamento. Vinte (13,2% foram reinternados para tratamento. Do total de reinternados, dois recém-nascidos apresentaram nível > 25 mg/dL e nenhum > 30 mg/dL. Todos responderam rapidamente à fototerapia intensiva, e não houve necessidade de utilizar exsangüinotransfusões. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados sugerem que o esquema adotado é eficiente na detecção e prevenção de hiperbilirrubinemias de risco para produzir encefalopatia bilirrubínica em recém-nascidos de termo e próximos ao termo.OBJECTIVE: To report on the results of a project following term and near term newborn infants who were jaundiced during the neonatal period. METHODS: Neonates were referred to the follow-up clinic with weight > 2,000 g and/or gestational age > 35 weeks, and jaundice at discharge was initially assessed with an Ingram icterometer or Bilicheck and, if indicated, with a Unistat

  16. Maturational changes in sympathetic and sensory innervation of the rat uterus: effects of neonatal capsaicin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M M; Lincoln, J; Sarner, S; Blundell, D; Milner, P; Passaro, M; Burnstock, G

    1994-04-01

    The plasticity of the sympathetic and sensory innervation of the rat uterus was examined, before and after puberty, in controls and in animals where primary sensory nerves had been destroyed by neonatal capsaicin treatment. Immunohistochemical and histochemical methods were used in association with nerve density measurements and biochemical assays. The main findings were as follows: (1) Puberty was associated with a marked increase in the weight of the uterine horn, uterine cervix and parametrial tissue. This was unaffected by capsaicin treatment. (2) The sympathetic innervation of the uterine horn and parametrial tissue was reduced following puberty as revealed by a decrease in the density of noradrenaline-containing nerves and a marked decrease in the tissue concentration of noradrenaline. Sympathetic nerves supplying the uterine cervix and the blood vessels of the uterus appeared to be unaffected by puberty. (3) In contrast, the sensory supply of the uterus by substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves increased in parallel with uterine growth during puberty resulting in no change in nerve density and only a slight reduction in peptide concentration. (4) Neonatal capsaicin treatment caused a long-lasting depletion of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves. In the uterine horn and parametrial tissue, capsaicin-resistant calcitonin gene-related peptide, but not substance P, still increased with tissue weight during puberty, indeed, in the uterine horn, the relative increase was greater than in controls. (5) Sensory denervation resulted in an increase in the non-vascular sympathetic supply of the uterus, although there was a regional variation in the time course of the response. Perivascular sympathetic nerves were unaffected by capsaicin treatment. The pattern of change in non-vascular noradrenaline-containing nerves associated with puberty was similar in nature to controls. Thus, there is considerable plasticity

  17. Angiotensin Ⅱ type Ⅰ receptor agonistic autoantibody-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is dependent on the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiran Chai; Wenhui Zhang; Zhu Jin; Yiping Feng; Yanping Kuang; Jianming Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin Ⅱ type Ⅰ receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA) are related to pre-eclampsia and hypertension and have a direct effect of stimulating the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the placenta.TNF-α is a known mediator of apoptosis.However,few studies have reported the role of TNF-α and its relationship within AT1-AA-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.In this study,neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with various concentrations of AT1-AA.The apoptosis of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was determined using TUNEL assay and flow cytometry.The level of secreted TNF-α was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,and caspase-3 activity was measured by a fluorogenic protease assay kit.AT1 receptor blockade and TNF inhibitor were added to determine whether they could inhibit the apoptotic effect of AT1-AA.Results showed that AT1-AA induced the apoptosis of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner.AT1-AA increased TNF secretion and caspase-3activities.AT1 receptor blockade completely abrogated AT1-AA-induced TNF-α secretion,caspase-3 activation,and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.TNF-α receptor inhibitor significantly attenuated AT1-AA-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte apoptosis.AT1-AA in the plasma of preeclamptic patients promoted neonatal rat cardiomyocyte apoptosis through a TNF-caspase signaling pathway.

  18. Glucose and Intermediary Metabolism and Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Eva; Berger, Hester Rijkje; Widerøe, Marius; Sonnewald, Ursula; Morken, Tora Sund

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the delayed injury cascade that follows involve excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. The susceptibility to excitotoxicity of the neonatal brain may be related to the capacity of astrocytes for glutamate uptake. Furthermore, the neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance for limiting this kind of injury. Also, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend upon de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools during normal brain development. Several recent publications describing intermediary brain metabolism following neonatal HI have yielded interesting results: (1) Following HI there is a prolonged depression of mitochondrial metabolism in agreement with emerging evidence of mitochondria as vulnerable targets in the delayed injury cascade. (2) Astrocytes, like neurons, are metabolically impaired following HI, and the degree of astrocytic malfunction may be an indicator of the outcome following hypoxic and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. (3) Glutamate transfer from neurons to astrocytes is not increased following neonatal HI, which may imply that astrocytes fail to upregulate glutamate uptake in response to the massive glutamate release during HI, thus contributing to excitotoxicity. (4) In the neonatal brain, the activity of the PPP is reduced following HI, which may add to the susceptibility of the neonatal brain to oxidative stress. The present review aims to discuss the metabolic temporal alterations observed in the neonatal brain following HI.

  19. Plasticity of neonatal neuronal networks in very premature infants: Source localization of temporal theta activity, the first endogenous neural biomarker, in temporoparietal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routier, L; Mahmoudzadeh, M; Panzani, M; Azizollahi, H; Goudjil, S; Kongolo, G; Wallois, F

    2017-01-23

    Temporal theta slow-wave activity (TTA-SW) in premature infants is a specific signature of the early development of temporal networks, as it is observed at the turning point between non-sensory driven spontaneous local processing and cortical network functioning. The role in development and the precise location of TTA-SW remain unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that preterms from 28 weeks of gestational age (wGA) are able to discriminate phonemes and voice, supporting the idea of a prior genetic structural or activity-dependent fingerprint that would prepare the auditory network to compute auditory information at the onset of thalamocortical connectivity. They recorded TTA-SW in 26-32 wGA preterms. The rate of TTA-SW in response to click stimuli was evaluated using low-density EEG in 30 preterms. The sources of TTA-SW were localized by high-density EEG using different tissues conductivities, head models and mathematical models. They observed that TTA-SW is not sensory driven. Regardless of age, conductivities, head models and mathematical models, sources of TTA-SW were located adjacent to auditory and temporal junction areas. These sources become situated closer to the surface during development. TTA-SW corresponds to spontaneous transient endogenous activities independent of sensory information at this period which might participate in the implementation of auditory, language, memory, attention and or social cognition convergent and does not simply represent a general interaction between the subplate and the cortical plate. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Influence of ERβ selective agonism during the neonatal period on the sexual differentiation of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patisaul Heather B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that sexual differentiation of the rodent hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is principally orchestrated by estrogen during the perinatal period. Here we sought to better characterize the mechanistic role the beta form of the estrogen receptor (ERβ plays in this process. Methods To achieve this, we exposed neonatal female rats to three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg of the ERβ selective agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN using estradiol benzoate (EB as a positive control. Measures included day of vaginal opening, estrous cycle quality, GnRH and Fos co-localization following ovariectomy and hormone priming, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH levels and quantification of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity. A second set of females was then neonatally exposed to DPN, the ERα agonist propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT, DPN+PPT, or EB to compare the impact of ERα and ERβ selective agonism on kisspeptin gene expression in pre- and post-pubescent females. Results All three DPN doses significantly advanced the day of vaginal opening and induced premature anestrus. GnRH and Fos co-labeling, a marker of GnRH activation, following ovariectomy and hormone priming was reduced by approximately half at all doses; the magnitude of which was not as large as with EB or what we have previously observed with the ERα agonist PPT. LH levels were also correspondingly lower, compared to control females. No impact of DPN was observed on the density of kisspeptin immunoreactive (-ir fibers or cell bodies in the arcuate (ARC nucleus, and kisspeptin-ir was only significantly reduced by the middle (1 mg/kg DPN dose in the preoptic region. The second experiment revealed that EB, PPT and the combination of DPN+PPT significantly abrogated preoptic Kiss1 expression at both ages but ARC expression was only reduced by EB. Conclusion Our results indicate that selective agonism of ERβ is not sufficient to completely achieve male

  1. Functional responses to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in neonatal rats of both genders: influence of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; de Ceballos, María L; Ramirez, Belén G; Marco, Eva Maria; Fernández, Beatriz; Rubio, Marina; Guaza, Carmen; Viveros, Ma-Paz

    2004-07-01

    We have studied behavioural, biochemical and endocrine responses to the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in neonatal rats, as well as the effects of weaning on such responses. We used preweanling rats (20 days of age), 25-day-old weaned rats (weaning at Day 22) and 25-day-old nonweaned rats of both sexes. The behavioural effects of WIN were assessed in the nociceptive tail immersion test and in the open field. We also analysed the effect of weaning on corticosterone responses to WIN (radioimmunoassay) as well as on WIN-stimulated [35S] GTPgammaS binding in periaqueductal grey (PAG) and striatum. The cannabinoid agonist induced a modest increase in pain thresholds, whereas the effect of the drug on open-field activity, particularly on vertical activity, was much more marked. The weaning process appeared to reduce the baseline nociceptive latencies of the female rats. No significant effect of weaning on the behavioural responses to WIN was found. However, the group of weaned females (but not males) showed a significantly reduced WIN-stimulated [35S] GTPgammaS binding in the striatum. The cannabinoid agonist significantly increased the corticosterone levels of 25-day-old rats with the effect being more marked in weaned than in nonweaned animals. The results suggest that the weaning process might produce some sexually dimorphic developmental changes in CB1 receptor function.

  2. Intact neurobehavioral development and dramatic impairments of procedural-like memory following neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourtier, L; Antal, M-C; Cosquer, B; Schumacher, A; Samama, B; Angst, M-J; Ferrandon, A; Koning, E; Cassel, J-C; Nehlig, A

    2012-04-05

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) in rats are considered a potent developmental model of schizophrenia. After NVHL, rats appear normal during their preadolescent time, whereas in early adulthood, they develop behavioral deficits paralleling symptomatic aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, hypersensitivity to amphetamine (AMPH), prepulse and latent inhibition deficits, reduced social interactions, and spatial working and reference memory alterations. Surprisingly, the question of the consequences of NVHL on postnatal neurobehavioral development has not been addressed. This is of particular importance, as a defective neurobehavioral development could contribute to impairments seen in adult rats. Therefore, at several time points of the early postsurgical life of NVHL rats, we assessed behaviors accounting for neurobehavioral development, including negative geotaxis and grip strength (PD11), locomotor coordination (PD21), and open-field (PD25). At adulthood, the rats were tested for anxiety levels, locomotor activity, as well as spatial reference memory performance. Using a novel task, we also investigated the consequences of the lesions on procedural-like memory, which had never been tested following NVHL. Our results point to preserved neurobehavioral development. They also confirm the already documented locomotor hyperactivity, spatial reference memory impairment, and hyperresponsiveness to AMPH. Finally, our rseults show for the first time that NVHL disabled the development of behavioral routines, suggesting dramatic procedural memory deficits. The presence of procedural memory deficits in adult rats subjected to NHVL suggests that the lesions lead to a wider range of cognitive deficits than previously shown. Interestingly, procedural or implicit memory impairments have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

  3. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. The effect of maternal caffeine ingestion on pancreatic function in the neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, M; Larkins, R G; Court, J M

    1982-10-01

    Pancreatic function was investigated in neonatal suckling offspring of caffeine-ingesting dams, with or without maternal sucrose supplementation, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In offspring of rats ingesting caffeine without sucrose supplementation, there was initial hyperinsulinaemia, followed by a progressive fall of plasma insulin to subnormal levels. This fall in plasma insulin coincided with depletion of pancreatic insulin stores. Both the fall in plasma insulin and depletion of pancreatic insulin stores were prevented by sucrose supplementation of caffeine-ingesting dams. Offspring of dams fed sucrose alone and control offspring also maintained pancreatic insulin stores and circulating insulin levels over the first 14 days of postnatal life. Pancreases from offspring of caffeine-exposed animals tested in vitro showed enhanced sensitivity of the insulin release process to glucose. This was reflected in the glucose concentration required to elicit half-maximal insulin release (2.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/l for caffeine offspring, 2.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/l for caffeine with sucrose, 3.8 +/- 0.3 mmol/l for sucrose and 4.1 +/- 0.3 mmol/l for control offspring, mean +/- SEM). In contrast, offspring of sucrose-supplemented (with or without caffeine) dams showed increased sensitivity of the proinsulin biosynthetic process to glucose, whereas offspring of dams ingesting caffeine alone showed no significant enhancement of the biosynthetic process compared with control offspring. Thus enhanced sensitivity of the insulin secretory process to glucose without a change in the sensitivity of the biosynthetic process in the offspring of the caffeine ingesting (non-sucrose supplemented) dams could explain the progressive depletion of pancreatic insulin stores and eventual hypoinsulinaemia seen in this group.

  5. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  6. Contribution of persistent sodium current to locomotor pattern generation in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazerart, Sabrina; Viemari, Jean-Charles; Darbon, Pascal; Vinay, Laurent; Brocard, Frédéric

    2007-08-01

    The persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) is known to play a role in rhythm generation in different systems. Here, we investigated its contribution to locomotor pattern generation in the neonatal rat spinal cord. The locomotor network is mainly located in the ventromedial gray matter of upper lumbar segments. By means of whole cell recordings in slices, we characterized membrane and I(NaP) biophysical properties of interneurons located in this area. Compared with motoneurons, interneurons were more excitable, because of higher input resistance and membrane time constant, and displayed lower firing frequency arising from broader spikes and longer AHPs. Ramp voltage-clamp protocols revealed a riluzole- or TTX-sensitive inward current, presumably I(NaP), three times smaller in interneurons than in motoneurons. However, in contrast to motoneurons, I(NaP) mediated a prolonged plateau potential in interneurons after reducing K(+) and Ca(2+) currents. We further used in vitro isolated spinal cord preparations to investigate the contribution of I(NaP) to locomotor pattern. Application of riluzole (10 muM) to the whole spinal cord or to the upper lumbar segments disturbed fictive locomotion, whereas application of riluzole over the caudal lumbar segments had no effect. The effects of riluzole appeared to arise from a specific blockade of I(NaP) because action potential waveform, dorsal root-evoked potentials, and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents were not affected. This study provides new functional features of ventromedial interneurons, with the first description of I(NaP)-mediated plateau potentials, and new insights into the operation of the locomotor network with a critical implication of I(NaP) in stabilizing the locomotor pattern.

  7. ROLE OF STEROIDS IN HYPEREXCITATORY ADVERSE AND ANESTHETIC EFFECTS OF SEVOFLURANE IN NEONATAL RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Changqing; Puentes, Dyanet L.; Seubert, Christoph N.; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Martynyuk, Anatoly E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that long-term developmental effects of neonatal anesthesia were more prominent in males. We tested whether steroids in general and sex steroids in particular, are involved in mediation of sevoflurane-caused paradoxical cortical seizures during the early postnatal period. Methods Cortical electroencephalograms, hippocampal synaptic activity, serum levels of steroids and the loss of the righting reflex (LORR), a marker of anesthetic effect, were measured in postnatal day 4–6 Sprague Dawley rats of both genders exposed to 2.1% sevoflurane. Results Episodes of seizures, persistent spikes in electroencephalograms and increases in serum corticosterone were similar in both genders. In order of increasing potency the corticosteroid receptor antagonist, RU28318, the estradiol receptor antagonist, ICI182780, and the estradiol synthesis inhibitor, formestane depressed sevoflurane-caused seizures. Exogenous estradiol increased sevoflurane-caused seizures, spikes and serum levels of corticosterone. These estradiol-enhanced seizures and spikes were depressed by ICI 182780 and the NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, while RU28318 depressed seizures only. In hippocampal CA1 neurons, estradiol increased the amplitude, rise time and area under curve of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR)-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. Exogenous estradiol shortened, while ICI 182780 and formestane, lengthened the time needed for sevoflurane to induce LORR. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for gender-independent acute electroencephalographic effects of sevoflurane at this age. Corticosterone and estradiol are involved in mediation of sevoflurane-caused seizures. Estradiol, but not corticosterone, also contributes to sevoflurane-caused spikes, by enhancing GABAAR-mediated excitation in the cortex. By enhancing GABAAR-mediated inhibition in more mature caudal regions of the brain, estradiol, contributes to sevoflurane-induced LORR. PMID:26159049

  8. Culturing Schwann Cells from Neonatal Rats by Improved Enzyme Digestion Combined with Explants-culture Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To develop an improved method for culturing Schwann cells(SCs) by using both enzyme digestion and explants-culture approaches and compared with traditional explants-culture method and general hemi-explants-culture method. Methods Bilaterally sciatic nerves and brachial plexus nerves were dissected from 3 to 5-day-old neonatal SD rats and explants-culture method,general hemi-explants-culture method,and improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method were adopted to culture SCs,respectively. SCs were digested and passaged after 7 days in culture and counted under the microscope. The purity of SCs was identified by S-100 immunofluorescence staining. Results The SCs of improved method group grew fastest and the total number of cells obtained was(1.85±0.13)×10(6);the SCs of the hemi-explants-culture method group grew slower than the improved method group and the total number of cells obtained was (1.10±0.10)×10(6);the SCs of the explants-culture method group grew slowest and the total number of cells obtained was (0.77±0.03)×10(6).The total number of cells obtained showed significant difference among the three groups(Pculture method group,and (74.50±4.23)% in the explants-culture method group(Pculture method can obtain sufficient amount of high-purity SCs in a short time and thus may be applied in further research on peripheral nerve regeneration.

  9. Vanadate induces necrotic death in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra Sofia; Henao, Fernando; Aureliano, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Merino, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Besides the well-known inotropic effects of vanadium in cardiac muscle, previous studies have shown that vanadate can stimulate cell growth or induce cell death. In this work, we studied the toxicity to neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (cardiomyocytes) of two vanadate solutions containing different oligovanadates distribution, decavanadate (containing decameric vanadate, V 10) and metavanadate (containing monomeric vanadate and also di-, tetra-, and pentavanadate). Incubation for 24 h with decavanadate or metavanadate induced necrotic cell death of cardiomyocytes, without significant caspase-3 activation. Only 10 microM total vanadium of either decavanadate (1 microM V 10) or metavanadate (10 microM total vanadium) was needed to produce 50% loss of cell viability after 24 h (assessed with MTT and propidium iodide assays). Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that vanadium accumulation in cardiomyocytes after 24 h was the same when incubation was done with decavanadate or metavanadate. A decrease of 75% of the rate of mitochondrial superoxide anion generation, monitored with dihydroethidium, and a sustained rise of cytosolic calcium (monitored with Fura-2-loaded cardiomyocytes) was observed after 24 h of incubation of cardiomyocytes with decavanadate or metavanadate concentrations close to those inducing 50% loss of cell viability produced. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization within cardiomyocytes, monitored with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl esther or with 3,3',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide, were observed after only 6 h of incubation with decavanadate or metavanadate. The concentration needed for 50% mitochondrial depolarization was 6.5 +/- 1 microM total vanadium for both decavanadate (0.65 microM V 10) and metavanadate. In conclusion, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was an early event in decavanadate- and monovanadate-induced necrotic cell death of cardiomyocytes.

  10. Recruitment of hypothalamic orexin neurons after formalin injections in adult male rats exposed to a neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jane Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life physiological stressors, such as infection, is thought to contribute to the onset of psychopathology in adulthood. In animal models, injections of the bacterial immune challenge, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during the neonatal period has been shown to alter both neuroendocrine function and behavioural pain responses in adulthood. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests a role for the lateral hypothalamic peptide orexin in stress and nociceptive processing. However, whether neonatal LPS exposure affects the reactivity of the orexin system to formalin-induced inflammatory pain in later life remains to be determined. Male Wistar rats (n=13 were exposed to either LPS or saline (0.05mg/kg, i.p on postnatal days (PND 3 and 5. On PND 80-97, all rats were exposed to a subcutaneous hindpaw injection of 2.25% formalin. Following behavioural testing, animals were perfused and brains processed for Fos-protein and orexin immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with LPS during the neonatal period exhibited decreased licking behaviours during the interphase of the formalin test, the period typically associated with the active inhibition of pain, and increased grooming responses to formalin in adulthood. Interestingly, these behavioural changes were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of Fos-positive orexin cells in the dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus in LPS-exposed animals. Similar increases in Fos-protein were also observed in stress and pain sensitive brain regions that receive orexinergic inputs. These findings highlight a potential role for orexin in the behavioural responses to pain and provide further evidence that early life stress can prime the circuitry responsible for these responses in adulthood.

  11. Eyeblink classical conditioning and interpositus nucleus activity are disrupted in adult rats exposed to ethanol as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John T; Johnson, Timothy B; Goodlett, Charles R; Steinmetz, Joseph E

    2002-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to ethanol in rats, during the period of brain development comparable to that of the human third trimester, produces significant, dose-dependent cell loss in the cerebellum and deficits in coordinated motor performance. These rats are also impaired in eyeblink conditioning as weanlings and as adults. The current study examined single-unit neural activity in the interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum in adults following neonatal binge ethanol exposure. Group Ethanol received alcohol doses of 5.25 g/kg/day on postnatal days 4-9. Group Sham Intubated underwent acute intragastric intubation on postnatal days 4-9 but did not receive any infusions. Group Unintubated Control (from separate litters) did not receive any intubations. When rats were 3-7 mo old, pairs of extracellular microelectrodes were implanted in the region of the interpositus nucleus. Beginning 1 wk later, the rats were given either 100 paired or 190 unpaired trials per day for 10 d followed by 4 d of 100 conditioned stimulus (CS)-alone trials per day. As in our previous study, conditioned response acquisition in Group Ethanol rats was impaired. In addition, by session 5 of paired acquisition, Group Sham Intubated and Group Unintubated Control showed significant increases in interpositus nucleus activity, relative to baseline, in the CS-unconditioned stimulus interval. In contrast, Group Ethanol failed to show significant changes in interpositus nucleus activity until later in training. These results indicate that the disruption in eyeblink conditioning after early exposure to ethanol is reflected in alterations in interpositus nucleus activity.

  12. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning and Interpositus Nucleus Activity Are Disrupted in Adult Rats Exposed to Ethanol as Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John T.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Goodlett, Charles R.; Steinmetz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to ethanol in rats, during the period of brain development comparable to that of the human third trimester, produces significant, dose-dependent cell loss in the cerebellum and deficits in coordinated motor performance. These rats are also impaired in eyeblink conditioning as weanlings and as adults. The current study examined single-unit neural activity in the interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum in adults following neonatal binge ethanol exposure. Group Ethanol received alcohol doses of 5.25 g/kg/day on postnatal days 4–9. Group Sham Intubated underwent acute intragastric intubation on postnatal days 4–9 but did not receive any infusions. Group Unintubated Control (from separate litters) did not receive any intubations. When rats were 3–7 mo old, pairs of extracellular microelectrodes were implanted in the region of the interpositus nucleus. Beginning 1 wk later, the rats were given either 100 paired or 190 unpaired trials per day for 10 d followed by 4 d of 100 conditioned stimulus (CS)-alone trials per day. As in our previous study, conditioned response acquisition in Group Ethanol rats was impaired. In addition, by session 5 of paired acquisition, Group Sham Intubated and Group Unintubated Control showed significant increases in interpositus nucleus activity, relative to baseline, in the CS–unconditioned stimulus interval. In contrast, Group Ethanol failed to show significant changes in interpositus nucleus activity until later in training. These results indicate that the disruption in eyeblink conditioning after early exposure to ethanol is reflected in alterations in interpositus nucleus activity. PMID:12359839

  13. Protective effects of aloperine on neonatal rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning-Tian; Zhou, Ru; Chang, Ren-Yuan; Hao, Yin-Ju; Ma, Lin; Jin, Shao-Ju; Du, Juan; Zheng, Jie; Zhao, Cheng-Jun; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Li, Yu-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Aloperine (ALO), one of the alkaloids isolated from Sophora alopecuroides L., is traditionally used for various diseases including neuronal disorders. This study investigated the protective effects of ALO on neonatal rat primary-cultured hippocampal neurons injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/RP). Treatment with ALO (25, 50, and 100 mg/l) attenuated neuronal damage (p oxygen species and malondialdehyde production and enhanced the antioxidant enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the total antioxidant capacity. The results suggested that ALO has significant neuroprotective effects that can be attributed to anti-oxidative stress.

  14. Growth factor protection against cytokine-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat islets of Langerhans: role of Fas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M; Dunger, A M; Berg, S; Mabley, J; John, N; Green, M H; Green, I C

    1998-09-18

    Treatment of neonatal rat islets of Langerhans with combined cytokines (interleukin-1beta 10(-10) M, tumour necrosis factor-alpha 10(-10) M, interferon-gamma 5 U/ml) led to extensive cell death, which was potentiated by Fas activation with the anti-Fas cytolytic antibody JO2. Pre-treatment with insulin (25 ng/ml) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (10(-8)M) gave only partial protection against cell killing, but prevented the Fas-mediated component. In the absence of cytokine treatment, Fas-mediated killing was not observed.

  15. Contents of myelin-basic protein and S-100 in serum and brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine infection-caused brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Li; Hongying Li; Zhihai Lu

    2006-01-01

    500 μg/kg per day at embryonic 18 days in following 2 days. As controls, 10 pregnant rats were intraperitoneally injected with the same dose of normal saline at the same time. ② After delivery, mother rats in both groups were sacrificed, and then the infection status of uterus and placenta was observed through haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. A great quantity of neutrophilic leukocytes infiltrated, which was the identification standard. Twenty control neonatal rats and 20 experimental neonatal rats (7 days) were selected randomly. The changes of ultrastructure in cortex, hippocamp, internal capsule and callus were detected under an electron microscope, and MBP and S-100 in serum and brain tissues were detected by ELISA method.③ t test was used for comparing the differences of measurement data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The content of MBP and S-100 in serum and brain tissue of neonatal rats be tween two groups. ② Pathological detection results of uterus and placenta of neonatal rats.③ Detection results of brain tissue under an electron microscope. RESULTS: Forty-seven pregnant rats and forty neonatal rats were involved in the result analysis. ① The content of MBP in serum and brain tissue of neonatal rats: MBP content in brain tissue of neonatal rats in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group [(5.898±1.050) μg/L vs. (7.006±1.071) μg/L, t =3.221, P < 0.01], while MBP content in the serum of neonatal rats in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group[(3.912±0.783) μg/L vs. (2.625±0.766) μg/L, t =5.120, P < 0.01]. ②The content of S-100 in serum and brain tissue of neonatal rats: The content of S-100 in brain tissue and serum of neonatal rats in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, respectively, [(6.412±0.820) μg/L vs. (5.377±0.712) μg/L; (3.393±0.550) μg/L vs. (2.298±0.614)μg/L,t =4.154, 5.791, P < 0.01].

  16. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  17. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Chronic cerebrolysin administration attenuates neuronal abnormalities in the basolateral amygdala induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ubhi, Kiren; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) has emerged as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior in the rat. Our previous report demonstrated that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair, promoted recovery of dendritic and neuronal damage of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens and behavioral improvements in postpubertal nVHL rats. We recently demonstrated that nVHL animals exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). This study aimed to determine whether Cbl treatment was capable of reducing BLA neuronal alterations observed in nVHL rats. The morphological evaluation included examination of dendrites using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in BLA. Golgi-Cox staining revealed that nVHL induced dendritic retraction and spine loss in BLA pyramidal neurons. Stereological analysis demonstrated nVHL also produced a reduction in cells in BLA. Interestingly, repeated Cbl treatment ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the BLA of the nVHL rats. Our data show that Cbl may foster recovery of BLA damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that the use of neurotrophic agents for the management of some schizophrenia-related symptoms may present an alternative therapeutic pathway in these disorders.

  19. Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel, P; Navarro, D; Ausó, E; Varea, E; Rodríguez, A E; Ballesta, J J; Salinas, M; Flores, E; Faura, C C; de Escobar, G Morreale

    2010-06-01

    Hypothyroxinemia affects 35-50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats. Pups born to LMH dams, thyroxine treated from E17 to postnatal day (P) 0, were also studied. In developing LMH pups, the cortical lamination was abnormal. At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus. The Zn-positive area of the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 was decreased by 41.5% showing altered mossy fibers' organization. LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus. Thyroxine treatment of LMH dams reverted abnormalities. In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function. Our data suggest that thyroxine treatment of premature neonates should be attempted to compensate for the interruption of the maternal supply.

  20. Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssane Zouikr

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis during postnatal day (PND 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG. Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb as compared to medial habenula (MHb, however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process.

  1. Neonatal handling prevents anxiety-like symptoms in rats exposed to chronic mild stress: behavioral and oxidative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufleur, Nardeli; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Pase, Camila S; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Dias, Verônica T; Segat, Hecson J; Roversi, Katiane; Roversi, Karine; Nora, Magali Dalla; Koakoskia, Gessi; Rosa, João G; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Bürger, M E

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of neonatal handling on behavioral and biochemical consequences of chronic mild stress (CMS) in adulthood. Male rat pups were submitted to daily tactile stimulation (TS) or maternal separation (MS), from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to postnatal day 21 (PND21), for 10 min/day. In adulthood, half the number of animals were exposed to CMS for 3 weeks and submitted to behavioral testing, including sucrose preference (SP), elevated plus maze (EPM), and defensive burying tasks (DBTs), followed by biochemical assessments. CMS reduced SP, increased anxiety in EPM and DBT, and increased adrenal weight. In addition, CMS decreased plasma vitamin C (VIT C) levels and increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, catalase (CAT) activity in hippocampus and cortex, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in cortex. In contrast, both forms of neonatal handling were able to prevent reduction in SP, anxiety behavior in DBT, and CMS-induced adrenal weight increase. Furthermore, they were also able to prevent plasma VIT C reduction, hippocampal PC levels increase, CAT activity increase in hippocampus and cortex, and SOD levels increase in cortex following CMS. Only TS was able to prevent CMS-induced anxiety symptoms in EPM and PC levels in cortex. Taken together, these findings show the protective role of neonatal handling, especially TS, which may enhance ability to cope with stressful situations in adulthood.

  2. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  3. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  4. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite th

  5. Influence of intracranial hemorrhage and neonatal seizures on the neurological and psychomotor development of premature infants at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil Influência da hemorragia intracraniana e crises neonatais sobre o desenvolvimento neurológico e psicomotor de recém-nascidos prematuros no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Ohlweiler

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the results of neurodevelopmental examination at 6 months' corrected age of premature infants with neonatal seizures and/or intracranial hemorrhage and normal premature infants. There was a statistically significant correlation (p=0.000007 between intracranial hemorrhage and seizures in the group of 68 premature infants seen in the neurodevelopmental outpatient service at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Intracranial hemorrhage was significantly associated with multiparity (p=0.02. The neurodevelopmental examination at 6 months' corrected age revealed that patients who suffered neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and/or seizures had inappropriate muscle tone, strength and reflexes, as well as delay in head control. Conclusion: we compared the results of neurodevelopmental examinations of two groups of premature infants at 6 months' corrected age. The difference in neurological development at 6 months' corrected age was statistically significant when comparison was corrected for premature infants who had neonatal seizures and periventricular hemorrhage.Este estudo comparou os resultados do exame do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor aos seis meses de idade corrigida de lactentes prematuros com crises neonatais e/ou hemorragia intracraniana com lactentes prematuros sem estas intercorrências. Houve uma correlação estatisticamente significativa (p=0.000007 entre hemorragia intracraniana e crises neonatais no grupo de 68 lactentes prematuros vistos no ambulatório de neurodesenvolvimento do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Hemorragia intracraniana foi significativamente associada com multiparidade (p=0.02. O exame do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor aos 6 meses de idade corrigida mostrou que pacientes que sofreram hemorragia intracraniana neonatal e/ou crises neonatais tiveram tônus, forças e reflexos inapropriados, bem como atraso no controle do sustento cefálico. Conclusões: Comparamos os resultados

  6. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  7. Maternal iron deficiency alters circulating thyroid hormone levels in developing neonatal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency and iron deficiency (FeD) during fetal and neonatal life are both similarly deleterious to mammalian development suggesting a possible linkage between iron and thyroid hormone insufficiencies. Recent published data from our laboratory demonstrate a r...

  8. Combustion derived ultrafine particles induce cytochrome P-450 expression in specific lung compartments in the developing neonatal and adult rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jackie K. W.; Vogel, Christoph F.; Baek, Jaeeun; Kodani, Sean D.; Uppal, Ravi S.; Bein, Keith J.; Anderson, Donald S.

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and can be a dominant contributor to ultrafine urban particulate matter (PM). Exposure to ultrafine PM is correlated with respiratory infections and asthmatic symptoms in young children. The lung undergoes substantial growth, alveolarization, and cellular maturation within the first years of life, which may be impacted by environmental pollutants such as PM. PAHs in PM can serve as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that induces expression of certain isozymes in the cytochrome P-450 superfamily, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, localized in specific lung cell types. Although AhR activation and induction has been widely studied, its context within PM exposure and impact on the developing lung is poorly understood. In response, we have developed a replicable ultrafine premixed flame particle (PFP) generating system and used in vitro and in vivo models to define PM effects on AhR activation in the developing lung. We exposed 7-day neonatal and adult rats to a single 6-h PFP exposure and determined that PFPs cause significant parenchymal toxicity in neonates. PFPs contain weak AhR agonists that upregulate AhR-xenobiotic response element activity and expression and are capable inducers of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in both ages with different spatial and temporal patterns. Neonatal CYP1A1 expression was muted and delayed compared with adults, possibly because of differences in the enzyme maturation. We conclude that the inability of neonates to sufficiently adapt in response to PFP exposure may, in part, explain their susceptibility to PFP and urban ultrafine PM. PMID:23502512

  9. Stroma cell-derived factor-1α signaling enhances calcium transients and beating frequency in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ielham Hadad

    Full Text Available Stroma cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is a cardioprotective chemokine, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4. In experimental acute myocardial infarction, administration of SDF-1α induces an early improvement of systolic function which is difficult to explain solely by an anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effect. We wondered whether SDF-1α signaling might have direct effects on calcium transients and beating frequency.Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were culture-expanded and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. Calcium sparks were studied by fluorescence microscopy after calcium loading with the Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester sensor. The cardiomyocyte enriched cellular suspension expressed troponin I and CXCR4 but was vimentin negative. Addition of SDF-1α in the medium increased cytoplasmic calcium release. The calcium response was completely abolished by using a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody and partially suppressed and delayed by preincubation with an inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R blocker, but not with a ryanodine receptor (RyR antagonist. Calcium fluxes induced by caffeine, a RyR agonist, were decreased by an IP3R blocker. Treatment with forskolin or SDF-1α increased cardiomyocyte beating frequency and their effects were additive. In vivo, treatment with SDF-1α increased left ventricular dP/dtmax.These results suggest that in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling increases calcium transients in an IP3-gated fashion leading to a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect.

  10. Intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreases brain inflammatory mediators and provides neuroprotection after brain hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-11-01

    Brain injury due to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disabilities in newborns. We determined whether intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) could provide neuroprotection in neonatal rats after brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Seven-day old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain HI. They were then treated with intranasal PDTC. Neurological outcomes were evaluated 7 or 30 days after the brain HI. Brain tissues were harvested 6 or 24 h after the brain HI for biochemical analysis. Here, PDTC dose-dependently reduced brain HI-induced brain tissue loss with an effective dose (ED)50 at 27 mg/kg. PDTC needed to be applied within 45 min after the brain HI for this neuroprotection. This treatment reduced brain tissue loss and improved neurological and cognitive functions assessed 30 days after the HI. PDTC attenuated brain HI-induced lipid oxidative stress, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and various inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase after brain HI reduced brain tissue loss. Our results suggest that intranasal PDTC provides neuroprotection possibly via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Intranasal PDTC may have a potential to provide neuroprotection to human neonates after birth asphyxia.

  11. Biosynthesis of vitamin C stabilized tin oxide nanoparticles and their effect on body weight loss in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Ke-Qing; Qiu, Li

    2017-09-01

    The green synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) using vitamin C (Vc) as a reducing agent via a biosynthetic approach is described. The effect of Vc-stabilized SnO2 NPs on the body weight of neonatal rats is also studied. The prepared SnO2NPs were characterized using spectroscopic and microscopic instrumental techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which confirmed the formation of NPs. TEM images confirmed the formation of spherical NPs with a mean particle size of around 30nm. The body weight studies showed that vitamin-C stabilized SnO2 NPs promote a higher body weight gain compared to raw SnO2 NPs. It was also shown that Vc can counteract the decreased body weight caused by SnO2 NPs in neonatal rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The insulin secretion of a minced neonatal rat pancreas cultured in a pancreatic chamber, in response to various insulin secretagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Y; Yoshioka, K; Inoue, Y; Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, N; Nakano, K; Yoshida, T; Kondo, M

    1981-02-01

    The minced pancreas of the neonatal rat was cultured for 35 days in a pancreatic chamber which was constructed of a plastic tube and an ultrafiltration membrane. Insulin and amylase secreted from this pancreatic chamber into the culture medium were measured. During the experiment, the concentration of glucose in the culture medium was changed between 5.5 and 16.5 mM at 2-3 day intervals in order to determine the insulin secretory response of the pancreatic tissue. Insulin secretion was markedly increased in response to 16.5 mM glucose. The ratio of insulin secretion to amylase secretion in the culture medium increased with the advance of culture days although secretions of both insulin and amylase decreased individually. On the 7th culture day, short term incubations were performed to test with various insulin secretagogues; obvious insulin release into the incubation medium was observed. These results show that the pancreatic chamber also in vitro secretes insulin rapidly and significantly in response to various stimuli; that by longer culture of a neonatal rat pancreas in this device, insulin secretory cells without exocrine tissue would be obtained without using digestive enzymes; that application of a pancreatic chamber for a pancreatic transplantation may be feasible.

  13. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  14. Phenotypic differentiation of neonatal rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons following trypsin dissociation and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingjun Zha; Li Qiao; Lianjun Lu; Xue Gao; Tao Xue; Wenjuan Mi; Shunli Liu; Jianhua Qiu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under laboratory conditions, cochlear spiral ganglion neurons are commonly isolated and cultured by mechanical dissociation. However, these neurons are extremely fragile and survive for only a short time.OBJECTIVE: To establish a trypsin dissociation and culture method for studying neonatal rat cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. DESIGN: A single sample study. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This study was performed at the central laboratory for Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from February to May 2006. A total of 40 neonatal Sprague Dawley rats of either gender, aged 2-5 days, were provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Trypsin and neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) monoclonal antibodies were purchased from Sigma Company, USA. Culture medium was synthesized using Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 (Gibco Company, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma Company, USA), 100 000 U/L penicillin, and 1 mol/L NaOH. The following protocol was performed in accordance with ethical guidelines for the use and care of animals.METHODS: After anesthesia, rats were sacrificed by neck dislocation. A complete cochlear axis with spiral ganglion tissue was removed. The cochlear axis was rinsed three times in a culture dish with a diameter of 35 mm using Hank's balanced solution. After washings, the tissue was cut into pieces, digested with 0.25% trypsin for about 20 minutes, and incubated in a 37 ℃ water bath. The tissue was centrifuged, then mixed with serum-containing culture medium. Using a transfer pipette, the cell suspension was transferred to polylysine (0.1%)-treated culture dishes with a diameter of 35 mm. The culture dish was incubated at 37 ℃, with a 5% CO2-air environment. Once

  15. Environmental neurotoxin interaction with proteins: Dose-dependent increase of free and protein-associated BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Jiang, Liying; Ersson, Lisa; Malmström, Tim; Ilag, Leopold L; Brittebo, Eva B

    2015-01-01

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Neonatal exposure to BMAA induces cognitive impairments and progressive neurodegenerative changes including intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rats. It is unclear why the neonatal hippocampus is especially vulnerable and the critical cellular perturbations preceding BMAA-induced toxicity remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the level of free and protein-associated BMAA in neonatal rat brain and peripheral tissues after different exposures to BMAA. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that BMAA passed the neonatal blood-brain barrier and was distributed to all studied brain areas. BMAA was also associated to proteins in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. The level in the brain was, however, considerably lower compared to the liver that is not a target organ for BMAA. In contrast to the liver there was a significantly increased level of protein-association of BMAA in the hippocampus and other brain areas following repeated administration suggesting that the degradation of BMAA-associated proteins may be lower in neonatal brain than in the liver. Additional evidence is needed in support of a role for protein misincorporation in the neonatal hippocampus for long-term effects of BMAA.

  16. The Effect of Neonatal Leptin Antagonism in Male Rat Offspring Is Dependent upon the Interaction between Prior Maternal Nutritional Status and Post-Weaning Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Beltrand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies report associations between overweight mothers and increased obesity risk in offspring. It is unclear whether neonatal leptin regulation mediates this association between overweight mothers and offspring obesity. We investigated the effect of neonatal treatment with a leptin antagonist (LA on growth and metabolism in offspring of mothers fed either a control or a high fat diet. Wistar rats were fed either a control (CON or a high fat diet (MHF during pregnancy and lactation. Male CON and MHF neonates received either saline (S or a rat-specific pegylated LA on days 3, 5, and 7. Offspring were weaned onto either a control or a high fat (hf diet. At day 100, body composition, blood glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma leptin and insulin were determined. In CON and MHF offspring, LA increased neonatal bodyweights compared to saline-treated offspring and was more pronounced in MHF offspring. In the post-weaning period, neonatal LA treatment decreased hf diet-induced weight gain but only in CON offspring. LA treatment induced changes in body length, fat mass, body temperature, and bone composition. Neonatal LA treatment can therefore exert effects on growth and metabolism in adulthood but is dependent upon interactions between maternal and post-weaning nutrition.

  17. Effects of acute changes in neonatal leptin levels on food intake and long-term metabolic profiles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, Miriam; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Díaz, Francisca; Mela, Virginia; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    In rodents there is a rise in serum leptin levels between postnatal days (PND) 5 and 14, with this neonatal leptin surge reported to modulate the maturation of hypothalamic circuits involved in appetite regulation. We hypothesized that acute changes in neonatal leptin levels have different long-term metabolic effects depending on how and when this surge is modified. To advance the timing of the normal leptin peak, male Wistar rats were injected with leptin (sc, 3 μg/g) on PND 2. To ablate the leptin peak on PND 10, a pegylated leptin antagonist (sc, 9 μg/g) was injected. Controls received vehicle. All rats were allowed to eat ad libitum until PND 150. Increased leptin on PND 2 reduced food intake (P<0.01) after 3 months of age with no effect on body weight. Levels of total ghrelin were reduced (P<0.001) and acylated ghrelin increased (P<0.05), with no other modifications in metabolic hormones. In contrast, treatment with the leptin antagonist on PND 9 did not affect food intake but reduced body weight beginning around PND 60 (P<0.02). This was associated with a reduction in fat mass, insulin (P<0.01), and leptin (P<0.007) levels and an increase in testosterone levels (P<0.01). Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) and leptin receptor (P<0.005) mRNA levels were reduced, whereas mRNA levels for uncoupling protein 2 (P<0.005) were increased in visceral fat, which may indicate an increase in energy expenditure. In conclusion, acute changes in neonatal leptin levels induce different metabolic profiles depending on how and when leptin levels are modified.

  18. Thyroid function and body weight programming by neonatal hyperthyroidism in rats - the role of leptin and deiodinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E G; Santos, R S; Lisboa, P C; Alves, S B; Bonomo, I T; Fagundes, A T S; Oliveira, E; Passos, M C F

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have shown that secondary hypothyroidism was programed by neonatal thyroxine (T4) treatment. However, the associated changes of body weight (BW) were less studied, especially those related to the body fat proportion. Here, we have evaluated the effect of neonatal thyroxine treatment on BW, fat proportion, serum leptin, and thyroid function of 60-day-old rats. Wistar rats were treated with thyroxine (50 microg/100 g BW, ip) (T) or saline (S), during the first 10 days of life. BW, nose-rump length (NRL), and food consumption were monitored for 60 days, when the animals were sacrificed. Thyroid function was evaluated by thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU), serum T3, T4, TSH, and liver mitochondrial alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) and type 1 and 2 deiodinases (D1 and D2) activities, which are thyroid hormone-dependent enzymes. T animals showed lower food intake, BW and NRL, but higher total fat mass (+33%) and serum leptin (+46%). They also showed lower serum T3 (-23%), T4 (-32%), TSH (-36%), RAIU (-29%) and mGPD activity (-22%). Hypothalamic and pituitary D2 activities were higher (+24% and 1.4 fold, respectively), while brown adipose tissue (BAT) D2 and skeletal muscle D1 activities were lower (-30% and -62%, respectively). Thus, neonatal hyperthyroidism programs for a higher fat proportion and hyperleptinemia, which can explain the lower food intake. The TH-dependent enzymes activities changed accordingly, except for the decrease in BAT D2, which may be due the role played by the hyperleptinemia. Finally, the decrease in peripheral deiodination may contribute to a lower me-tabolic rate that may increase the adiposity.

  19. The expression of HoxB5 and SPC in neonatal rat lung after exposure to fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Razieh; Taghipour, Zahra; Karimi, Akbar; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Shariati, Mahdi; Shabanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari Naveh, Hamid Reza; Bidaki, Reza; Aminzadeh, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy-associated depression. Fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is being employed as a therapy for depressive disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fluoxetine on neonatal lung development. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) were treated daily with 7 mg/kg fluoxetine from gestation day 0 to gestation day 21, via gavage. The control group received a similar volume of distilled water only. Following delivery, the newborns and their lungs were immediately weighed in both of the groups. The right lung was fixed for histological assessments while the left lung was used for evaluation of the expression of SPC and HoxB5 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results have indicated that even though the body weight and the number of neonatal rats in both groups were the same, the lung weight of neonates exposed to fluoxetine was significantly different compared to the control group (P<0.05). Expression of both genes was increased, nonetheless, only elevation of HoxB5 was significant (P<0.05). Histological studies demonstrated that lung tissue in the fluoxetine treatment group morphologically appears to be similar to the pseudoglandular phase, whereas the control group lungs experienced more development. According to the upregulated expression of HoxB5 concerning histological findings, results of the present study showed that fluoxetine can influence lung growth and may in turn lead to delay in lung development. So establishment of studies to identify the effects of antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is deserved.

  20. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    , and congenital malformations. Neonatal sepsis occurs in about 5% of live births following premature rupture, but the rate triples after 24 hours, especially in premature infants. The rate of neonatal asphyxia also increases considerable after 24 hours. Congenital malformations, prolapse of the cord, and pelvic presentation are positively associated with premature rupture of membranes. If the decision is made to interrupt the pregnancy, it should be done between 12-24 hours after rupture because the risks of infection and respiratory difficulty are most balanced at that point. Vaginal deliveries should be preferred only if conditions are favorable for a prompt delivery. The gestational age, presence of infection, obstetric condition of the mother, and indication for hysterectomy are the most important points to consider i management of premature rupture.

  1. Serotonin 2A receptor mRNA levels in the neonatal dopamine-depleted rat striatum remain upregulated following suppression of serotonin hyperinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, G J; Walker, P D

    1999-08-05

    Sixty days after bilateral dopamine (DA) depletion (>98%) with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in neonatal rats, serotonin (5-HT) content doubled and 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression rose 54% within the rostral striatum. To determine if striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA upregulation is dependent on increased 5-HT levels following DA depletion, neonatal rats received dual injections of 6-OHDA and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) which suppressed 5-HT content by approximately 90%. In these 6-OHDA/5,7-DHT-treated rats, striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor mRNA expression was still elevated (87% above vehicle controls). Comparative analysis of 5-HT(2C) receptor mRNA expression yielded no significant changes in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that upregulated 5-HT(2A) receptor biosynthesis in the DA-depleted rat is not dependent on subsequent 5-HT hyperinnervation.

  2. Adult Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1-Deficient Rats with Hyperoxia-Induced Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease Are Protected against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyu; Walther, Frans J.; Laghmani, El H.; Hoogeboom, Annemarie M.; Hogen-Esch, Anne C. B.; van Ark, Ingrid; Folkerts, Gert; Wagenaar, Gerry T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Survivors of neonatal chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) suffer from compromised lung function and are at high risk for developing lung injury by multiple insults later in life. Because neonatal lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 (LPAR1)-deficient rats are protected against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, we hypothesize that LPAR1-deficiency may protect adult survivors of BPD from a second hit response against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced lung injury. Methods: Directly after birth, Wistar control and LPAR1-deficient rat pups were exposed to hyperoxia (90%) for 8 days followed by recovery in room air. After 7 weeks, male rats received either LPS (2 mg kg−1) or 0.9% NaCl by intraperitoneal injection. Alveolar development and lung inflammation were investigated by morphometric analysis, IL-6 production, and mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, coagulation factors, and an indicator of oxidative stress. Results: LPAR1-deficient and control rats developed hyperoxia-induced neonatal emphysema, which persisted into adulthood, as demonstrated by alveolar enlargement and decreased vessel density. LPAR1-deficiency protected against LPS-induced lung injury. Adult controls with BPD exhibited an exacerbated response toward LPS with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory mRNAs, whereas LPAR1-deficient rats with BPD were less sensitive to this “second hit” with a decreased pulmonary influx of macrophages and neutrophils, interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, and mRNA expression of IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue factor. Conclusion: LPAR1-deficient rats have increased hyperoxia-induced BPD survival rates and, despite the presence of neonatal emphysema, are less sensitive to an aggravated “second hit” than Wistar controls with BPD. Intervening in LPA-LPAR1-dependent signaling may not only have therapeutic potential for neonatal chronic

  3. Neonatal DSP-4 treatment modifies antinociceptive effects of the CB1 receptor agonist methanandamide in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korossy-Mruk, Eva; Kuter, Katarzyna; Nowak, Przemysław; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Rykaczewska-Czerwinska, Monika; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence of the central noradrenergic system on antinociceptive effects mediated by the CB(1)-receptor agonist methanandamide, intact rats were contrasted with rats in which noradrenergic nerves were largely destroyed shortly after birth with the neurotoxin DSP-4 [N-(-2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (50 mg/kg sc × 2, P1 and P3); zimelidine (10 mg/kg sc, 30 min pretreatment, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). When rats attained 10 weeks of age, monoamine and their metabolite concentrations were determined in the frontal cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord by an HPLC/ED method. Antinociceptive effects after methanandamide (10 mg/kg ip) apply were evaluated by a battery of tests. In addition, immunohistochemistry and densitometric analysis of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor in the rat brain was performed. DSP-4 lesioning was associated with a reduction in norepinephrine content of the frontal cortex (>90 %) and spinal cord (>80 %) with no changes in the thalamus. Neonatal DSP-4 treatment produced a significant reduction in the antinociceptive effect of methanandamide in the tail-immersion test, hot-plate test and writhing tests. In the paw pressure and formalin hind paw tests results were ambiguous. These findings indicate that the noradrenergic system exerts a prominent influence on analgesia acting via the cannabinoid system in brain, without directly altering CB(1) receptor density in the brain.

  4. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Reduces Neonatal Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Long-Lasting Neurobehavioral Deficits and Dopaminergic Neuronal Injury in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Pang; Lu-Tai Tien; Hobart Zhu; Juying Shen; Wright, Camilla F.; Jones, Tembra K.; Mamoon, Samir A.; Bhatt, Abhay J; Zhengwei Cai; Lir-Wan Fan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment to neonatal rats could induce a long-lasting neuroinflammatory response and dopaminergic system injury late in life. This is evidenced by a sustained activation of microglia and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, as well as reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the substantia nigra (SN) of P70 rat brain. The object of the current study was to test whether co-administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (I...

  5. Transplantation of neonatal cardiomyocytes plus fibrin sealant restores myocardial function in a rat model of myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-shun; GAO Bing-ren

    2007-01-01

    Background Most cardiac regenerative approaches can restore injured heart muscles. In this study, we investigated if fibrin sealant could help neonatal cardiomyocytes restore myocardial function in a rat model of myocardial infarction.Methods The left anterior descending artery in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was ligated to make a myocardial infarction model. Neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes from one-day male SD rats were isolated, labeled and cultured. The cells were injected into the infarcted area three weeks later. The animals were randomized into four recipient groups: (1) cardiomyocytes plus fibrin sealant (group CF, n=10); (2) cardiomyocytes alone (group C, n=10); (3)fibrin sealant recipients alone (group F, n=10); (4) control group (n=10). Four weeks after transplantation,echocardiography and Langerdoff model were used to assess heart function. Immunohistochemical staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to track the implanted cardiomyocytes and detect the sex-determining region Y gene on Y chromosome.Results Echocardiography showed the fraction shortening (FS) in groups CF, C, F and control group was (27.80±6.32)%, (22.29±4.54)%, (19.24±6.29)% and (20.36±3.29)% respectively with statistically significant differences in group CF compared with the other groups (P<0.05). The Langendoff model revealed that the left ventricular development of peak pressure (LVDPmax, mmHg) in groups CF, C, F and control group was 104.81±17.05, 80.97±21.60, 72.07±26.17 and 71.42±17.55 respectively with statistically significant differences in group CF compared with the other groups (P<0.05). Pathological examination and PCR indicated that transplanted cardiomyocytes in group CF survived better than those in the other groups.Conclusion Transplanted neonatal cardiomyocytes plus fibrin sealant can survive in myocardial infarctioned area and improve heart function greatly in rat models.

  6. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) By Mayo Clinic Staff Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of your heart's two ...

  7. Neonatal stress-induced affective changes in adolescent Wistar rats: early signs of schizophrenia-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Neves Girardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are multifactorial diseases with etiology that may involve genetic factors, early life environment and stressful life events. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia is based on a wealth of data on increased vulnerability in individuals exposed to insults during the perinatal period. Maternal deprivation disinhibits the adrenocortical response to stress in neonatal rats and has been used as an animal model of schizophrenia. To test if long-term affective consequences of early life stress were influenced by maternal presence, we submitted 10-day old rats, either deprived (for 22 h or not from their dams, to a stress challenge (i.p. saline injection. Corticosterone plasma levels were measured 2 h after the challenge, whereas another subgroup was assessed for behavior in the open field, elevated plus maze, social investigation and the negative contrast sucrose consumption test in adolescence (postnatal day 45. Maternally deprived rats exhibited increased plasma corticosterone levels which were higher in maternally deprived and stress challenged pups. Social investigation was impaired in maternally deprived rats only, while saline injection, independently of maternal deprivation, was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and an impaired intake decrement in the negative sucrose contrast. In the open field, center exploration was reduced in all maternally-deprived adolescents and in control rats challenged with saline injection. The most striking finding was that exposure to a stressful stimulus per se, regardless of maternal deprivation, was linked to differential emotional consequences. We therefore propose that besides being a well-known and validated model of schizophrenia in adult rats, the maternal deprivation paradigm could be extended to model early signs of psychiatric dysfunction, and would particularly be a useful tool to detect early signs that resemble schizophrenia.

  8. Neonatal stress-induced affective changes in adolescent Wistar rats: early signs of schizophrenia-like behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Carlos Eduardo Neves; Zanta, Natália Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multifactorial diseases with etiology that may involve genetic factors, early life environment and stressful life events. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia is based on a wealth of data on increased vulnerability in individuals exposed to insults during the perinatal period. Maternal deprivation (MD) disinhibits the adrenocortical response to stress in neonatal rats and has been used as an animal model of schizophrenia. To test if long-term affective consequences of early life stress were influenced by maternal presence, we submitted 10-day old rats, either deprived (for 22 h) or not from their dams, to a stress challenge (i.p. saline injection). Corticosterone plasma levels were measured 2 h after the challenge, whereas another subgroup was assessed for behavior in the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), social investigation and the negative contrast sucrose consumption test in adolescence (postnatal day 45). Maternally deprived rats exhibited increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels which were higher in maternally deprived and stress challenged pups. Social investigation was impaired in maternally deprived rats only, while saline injection, independently of MD, was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and an impaired intake decrement in the negative sucrose contrast. In the open field, center exploration was reduced in all maternally-deprived adolescents and in control rats challenged with saline injection. The most striking finding was that exposure to a stressful stimulus per se, regardless of MD, was linked to differential emotional consequences. We therefore propose that besides being a well-known and validated model of schizophrenia in adult rats, the MD paradigm could be extended to model early signs of psychiatric dysfunction, and would particularly be a useful tool to detect early signs that resemble schizophrenia. PMID:25309370

  9. Systemic Injection of Low-Dose Lipopolysaccharide Fails to Break down the Blood–Brain Barrier or Activate the TLR4-MyD88 Pathway in Neonatal Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether peripheral low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB and/or the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in the neonatal rat brain. Neonatal rats received intraperitoneal injections of low-dose LPS (0.3 mg/kg∙bw, and the BBB compromise was detected by Evans Blue extravasation and electron microscopy. Meanwhile, TLR4, adaptin myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB p50 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα in the neonatal rat brain were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western Blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution and activation of microglia in the brain after LPS administration. It was demonstrated that Evans Blue extravasation was not observed in the brain parenchyma, and that tight junctions of cerebral endothelial cells remained intact after systemic injections of LPS in neonatal rats. Although intracerebroventricular injections of LPS activated microglia and up-regulated the expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p50 and TNFα in the neonatal rat brain, systemic LPS did not induce these responses. These findings indicate that while the neonatal rat brain responds to the direct intra-cerebral administration of LPS through robust TLR4 activation, systemic low-dose LPS does not induce the innate immune reaction or compromise the BBB in neonatal rats.

  10. Premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris G McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  11. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  12. Post-weaning isolation promotes food intake and body weight gain in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Vitaly; Yoo, Sang Bae; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2009-10-27

    Neonatal maternal separation (MS) in rats has been reported to result in permanent dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the development of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors later in life. In this study, we examined the effects of post-weaning social isolation stress on food intake and body weight gain of rats with MS experience. MS was performed daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of birth and nonhandled control (NH) pups were left undisturbed. Weanling male pups were caged either in a group of three or singly (social isolation), and then subjected to behavioral sessions for anxiety- or depression-like behaviors at 2 months of age. Social isolation following MS experience, but neither MS nor social isolation alone, significantly increased food intake and weight gain. MS pups showed increased immobility in forced swim test, compared to NH pups, regardless of their housing conditions. In elevated plus maze test, group-caged MS pups spent less time in the open arms and more time in the closed arms than group-caged NH pups, but social isolation did not further affect the arm stay of MS pups. However, statistical analyses revealed an interaction between MS and social isolation not only in the time spent in each arms, but also in defecation scores during the ambulatory activity test. These results suggest that post-weaning social isolation may promote hyperphagia and weight gain in young rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, perhaps, in relation with its impact on the psycho-emotional behaviors of MS pups.

  13. Neonatal septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, D; Seng, Q B; Malik, A S; Choo, K E

    1996-09-01

    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.

  14. Apnea of prematurity: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picone S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simonetta Picone, Roberto Aufieri, Piermichele PaolilloDivision of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Casilino General Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder that frequently affects preterm infants, especially those with lower gestational age. Even if apnea of prematurity is by definition a self-limiting condition, it can cause serious problems during the hospital stay and can potentially have long-term neurological and cognitive consequences depending on the severity and intensity of the episodes. The diagnosis of apnea of prematurity can be made only after excluding a number of diseases of the preterm infant in which apnea may be an epiphenomenon. Etiological diagnosis is essential for selection of appropriate treatment, which may be nonpharmacological or involve use of drugs.Keywords: apnea of prematurity, idiopathic and secondary apnea, caffeine

  15. Intrauterine infection and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís F; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is a major cause of premature labor with and without intact membranes. Intrauterine infection is present in approximately 25% of all preterm births and the earlier the gestational age at delivery, the higher the frequency of intra-amniotic infection. Microorganisms may also gain access to the fetus before delivery. A fetal inflammatory response syndrome elicited in response to microbial products is associated with the impending onset of preterm labor and also with multi-systemic organ involvement in the human fetus and a higher rate of perinatal morbidity. The most common microorganisms involved in intrauterine infections are Ureaplasma urealyticum, Fusobacterium species and Mycoplasma hominis. The role of Chlamydia trachomatis and viruses in preterm labor remain to be determined. Use of molecular microbiology techniques to diagnose intrauterine infection may uncover the role of fastidious microorganisms that have not yet been discovered. Antibiotic administration to patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth. However, such benefit has not been demonstrated for patients with bacterial vaginosis, or women who carry Streptococcus agalactia, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis. Antibiotic administration to patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes is associated with prolongation of pregnancy and a reduction in the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. The benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Major efforts are required to determine why some women develop an ascending intrauterine infection and others do not and also what interventions may reduce the deleterious effect of systemic fetal inflammation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The expression of HoxB5 and SPC in neonatal rat lung at exposure to fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Razieh Taghizadeh,1 Zahra Taghipour,2 Akbar Karimi,1 Ali Shamsizadeh,3 Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi,2 Mahdi Shariati,2 Ahmad Shabanizadeh,2 Hamid Reza Jafari Naveh,2 Reza Bidaki,4 Fariba Aminzadeh51Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Anatomy, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; 3Department of Physiology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; 4Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 5Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IranObjective: Approximately 10% of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy-associated depression. Fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is being employed as a therapy for depressive disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fluoxetine on neonatal lung development.Methods: Thirty pregnant Wistar rats (weighing 200–250 g were treated daily with 7 mg/kg fluoxetine from gestation day 0 to gestation day 21, via gavage. The control group received a similar volume of distilled water only. Following delivery, the newborns and their lungs were immediately weighed in both of the groups. The right lung was fixed for histological assessments while the left lung was used for evaluation of the expression of SPC and HoxB5 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method.Results: Results have indicated that even though the body weight and the number of neonatal rats in both groups were the same, the lung weight of neonates exposed to fluoxetine was significantly different compared to the control group (P<0.05. Expression of both genes was increased, nonetheless, only elevation of HoxB5 was significant (P<0.05. Histological studies demonstrated that lung tissue in the fluoxetine treatment group morphologically appears to be similar to the pseudoglandular phase, whereas the control group lungs experienced more development.Conclusion: According to the upregulated expression of HoxB5 concerning

  17. Effects of exogenous ganglioside-1 on learning and memory in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shizhi Li; Nong Xiao; Xiaoping Zhang; Ling Liu; Liyun Lin; Siyuan Chen; Yuxia Chen; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exogenous ganglioside-1 (GM1) can cross the blood-brain barrier and play a protective role against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage. OBJECTIVE: To examine the possible mechanisms of exogenous GM1 protection in hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage in a neonatal rat model by measuring changes in brain mass, pathological morphology, growth-associated protein-43 expression, and neurobehavioral manifestations. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized block-design study was performed at the lmmunohistochemistry Laboratory of the Pediatric Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from August 2005 to August 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 36 neonatal, 7-day-old, Sprague Dawley rats were used in this experiment. The hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage model was established by permanently occluding the right carotid artery, followed by oxygen inhalation at a low concentration (8% O2, 92% N2) for 2 hours. METHODS: All rats were randomly divided into the following groups: GM1, model, and sham operation, with 12 rats each group. Rats in the GM1 and model groups received hypoxic/ischemic-induced brain damage. Rats in the GM1 group received injections ofGM1 (i.p., 20 mg/kg) at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours following models established, and rats in the model group were administered (i.p.) the same amount of saline. The right carotid artery was separated, but not ligated, in the sham operation group rats. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 1 week after surgery, expression of growth-associated protein-43, a marker of neural development and plasticity, was detected in the hippocampal CA3 region by immunohistochemistry. Brain mass was measured, and the pathological morphology was observed. At 4 weeks after surgery, behavioral changes in the remaining rats were tested by Morris water maze, and growth-associated protein-43 expression was measured. RESULTS: (1) In the GM 1 and sham operation groups, growth-associated protein-43 expression was

  18. Effect of delivery time of primiparous women after term premature rupture of membrane on mothers and their neonates%初产妇足月胎膜早破后分娩时间对母儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敏泓; 陈晨

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effects of the interval time between premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and delivery and antibiotics on prognosis of neonates and their mothers. Methods: A total of 452 primiparous women with PROM were analyzed retrospectively , and then they were divided into group A, group B, group C, and group D according to the interval time; the cesarean section rates, the amounts of postpartum hemorrhage, the incidences of chorioamnionitis, and the incidences of fetal distress in the four groups were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who gave birth to their babies within 12 hours after PROM were divided into group one and group two, the patients in group one were treated with antibiotics to prevent infection, while the patients in group two were not treated with antibiotics. Results: The infection rates of mothers and their neonates in group A, group B, group C, and group D increased gradually, the incidences of fetal distress, the rates of cesarean section, and the incidences of chorioamnionitis increased gradually; there was no statistically significant difference in infection rate between group one and group two (P > 0. 05) . Conclusion: Delivery after PROM as early as possible can effectively reduce various complications, the patients expected to delivery within 12 hours after PROM dont need antibiotics to prevent infection.%目的:探讨胎膜早破~分娩的时间间隔以及抗生素对新生儿和母亲预后的影响.方法:对初产胎膜早破患者452例进行回顾性分析,按胎膜早破~临产时间间隔分为A、B、C、D组,统计并分析各组产妇剖宫产率、产后出血量、绒毛膜羊膜炎发生率、胎儿窘迫发生率.胎膜早破后在12 h内分娩者进一步分为甲乙两组,甲组应用抗生素预防感染,乙组不用抗生素.结果:A、B、C、D各组母婴感染率逐渐升高,胎儿窘迫、手术产率及胎盘胎膜发生重度羊膜炎逐渐增加;甲乙两亚组间感染率

  19. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  20. Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment increase the expression of GAP-43 in the hippocampus and promote cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hua; Du, Baoling; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-26

    Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment have been used to aid the treatment and recovery of a diverse variety of brain dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects on cognitive function following neonatal handling and environmental enrichment are still unclear. In this study, we investigated GAP-43 protein levels in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed rat pups by Western blot on postnatal day (P) 10, P20 and P45. The cognitive ability of prenatally stressed rat pups was tested by using the Morris water maze on P45. GAP-43 protein levels were upregulated on P10 in the prenatal restraint stress (RS) group and the prenatal restraint stress plus neonatal handling and environmental enrichment (RE) group compared to the negative control (NC) group. However, the expression of GAP-43 in RS pups was lower on P20 and P45 than that in NC and RE pups. Exposure to prenatal stress prolonged average latency and total swim distance, but neonatal handling and environmental enrichment could reverse the change. Differences were also observed in the selection of search strategies. These results indicate that neonatal handling and environmental enrichment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring, and the possible mechanism is the upregulation of GAP-43. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.